WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitrified high-level radioactive

  1. Inventory evaluation of high level radioactive vitrified waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Makino, Hitoshi; Ohi, Takao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyahara, Kaname; Umeki, Hiroyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Akasaka, Hidenari; Fujihara, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electirc Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Hashi, Yasuyuki [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Spent fuel removed from nuclear power plants in Japan is reprocessed at home and abroad (Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited [JNFL] reprocessing plant, Tokai Vitrification Facility [TVF] of JNC, COGEMA in France and BNFL in England) and then vitrified. The properties of vitrified waste change depending on the fuel type, fuel burn-up in the reactor, and operating conditions at the reprocessing plants. However, properties of vitrified waste, such as heat generation and nuclide inventories, are important information for the design study of repository and the performance assessment in the geological disposal system. For the objectives of repository design and safety assessment, it is necessary that the model-vitrified waste is determined from the four types of waste. In this study, for supporting the determination of the model vitrified waste in the Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Project), the calculation and comparison of inventories for the four types of waste were performed. As results, it is found that there are no significant differences in the properties (i.e., radioactivity, heat generation, hazard index and nuclide inventories per one package) of the four types of vitrified waste from JNFL, COGEMA, BNFL and TVF. (author)

  2. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  3. Shielding calculations with SCALE/MAVRIC and comparison with measurements for the TN85 cask with vitrified high level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Holger; Börst, Frank-Michael

    2017-09-01

    A series of dose rate/spectra measurements in the German interim storage facility Gorleben was carried out at a TN85 cask in April 2009. This type of cask is used for the transport and interim storage of vitrified high level radioactive waste (HAW) from reprocessing. The aim of this work is to assess the shielding component MAVRIC of the SCALE code system with these measurements for the use in the German Bundesamt für Kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BfE).

  4. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  5. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  6. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  7. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  8. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  9. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  10. Evaluation of long-term irradiation field in geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Neyama, A. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Shinjyuku, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M.; Ohi, T.; Ishihara, Y. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is subject to alpha, beta, gamma and neutron irradiation as a result of radionuclide-decay. Radiation can cause chemical and physical effects on HLW geological disposal system, in particular, engineered barrier system (EBS) which consists of vitrified waste, overpack container and surrounded buffer material. Alpha and beta radiation can be shielded completely by the overpack as long as it retains its containment function. Gamma and neutron radiation, on the other hand, will penetrate the overpack, and then enter the buffer material and the host rock. To assess radiation effects within the EBS for long time, it is essential to evaluate the evolution of irradiation field, quantitatively. Thus, radiation transport calculations were done to obtain dose rate, irradiation dose and absorbed dose in the irradiation field. In these calculations, vitrified waste, overpack, buffer and host rock were modeled with a same concentric cylinder. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  12. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  13. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  14. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project); Gutachten zum Entsorgungsnachweis der Nagra fuer abgebrannte Brennelemente, verglaste hochaktive sowie langlebige mittelaktive Abfaelle (Projekt Opalinuston)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    spent fuel assemblies (FA) and the high-level waste (HAA) barrels are packed into containers which guarantee absolute enclosure for at least 10,000 years; 3) the FA and HAA containers are stored in a tight Bentonite filling (cement for the low- and intermediate-level wastes, LMA) which at first slows down the access of corrosive substances to the containers and then diminishes the release of wastes; 4) the water- tightness of the surrounding Opalinus clay prevents any contact with water; 5) the rock layers above and below the Opalinus clay protect the host rock and the repository against natural or human influences; 6) the choice of a stable and settled tectonic site guarantees suitable conditions for at last 1 million years. With these characteristics for the repository, the safety analyses show that even for the most conservative conditions the calculated radioactive dose mostly remains below the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a

  15. CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH/GNB, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be

  16. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  17. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  18. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  19. Development of pyrometallurgical partitioning technology for TRU in high level radioactive wastes. Vitrification process for salt wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Tadashi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Kuniaki

    1997-12-31

    A vitrification process for chloride wastes generated in the pyrometallurgical partitioning of TRUs from high level radioactive wastes is being developed. In the process, chlorides are reduced to metals by molten salt electrolysis. The metals are oxidized by air and then vitrified. Lithium metal and chlorine gas are recycled. The behaviors of lithium, sodium and fission products during molten salt electrolysis were studied by using various compositions of salts and cathode materials. It was shown that every metal can be recovered into a liquid lead cathode, and that a liquid cadmium cathode and a solid cathode are suitable for recovering lithium and sodium metal, respectively. Based on the experimental results the process flow sheet was discussed. (author)

  20. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  1. Analysis of Surface Leaching Processes in Vitrified High-Level Nuclear Wastes Using In-Situ Raman Imaging and Atomistic Modeling - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph H.

    2001-04-24

    The in situ analysis of surface conditions of vitrified nuclear wastes can provide an important check of the burial status of radioactive objects without risk of radiation exposure. Raman spectroscopy was initially chosen as the most promising method for testing the surface conditions of glasses undergoing chemical corrosion, and was used extensively during the first year. However, it was determined that infrared reflection spectroscopy was better suited to this particular need and was used for the remaining two years to investigate the surface corrosion behavior of model silicate glasses for extension to nuclear waste glasses. The developed methodology is consistent with the known theory of optical propagation of dielectric media and uses the Kramers-Kronig formalism. The results show that it is possible to study the corrosion of glass by analyzing the glass surface using reflection fast Fourier infrared measurements and the newly developed ''dispersion analysis method.'' The data show how this analysis can be used to monitor the corrosion behavior of vitrified waste glasses over extended periods of storage.

  2. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  3. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute

  4. Research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; First progress report

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The "first progress report of research and development ongeological disposal of high level radioactive waste", h3 in short, isintended for the japanese authorities. In accordance with the "overallprogram for high level radioactive waste management" set forth byatomic energy commission, h3 is designed to clarify the current status ofthe research and development work performed by power reactor and nuclearfuel development corporation(pnc) up to the year 1991. H3 presents the updated knowledge on...

  5. H-3 Summary report research and development on geolgical disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The "First progress report of research and development ongeological disposal of high level radioactive waste",H3 in short,is intended for the Japanese authorities. In accordance with the "Overall program for high level radioactive waste management" set forth by atomic energy commission, H3 is designed to clarify the current status of the research and development work performed by power reactor and nuclear fuel development corporation (PNC) up to the year 1991. H3 presents the updated knowledg...

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  7. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  8. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  9. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states` routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  10. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  11. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  12. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  13. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  14. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  15. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  16. Sample performance assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository: sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is the USA's first attempt at long-term storage of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW). In theory, the reasoning for such a repository seems sound. In practice, there are many scenarios and cases to be considered while putting such a project into effect. Since a goal of YMP is to minimize dangers associated with long-term storage of HLW, it is important to estimate the dose rate to which current and future generations will be subjected. The lifetime of the repository is simulated to indicate the radiation dose rate to the maximally exposed individual; it is assumed that if the maximally exposed individual would not be harmed by the annual dose, the remaining population will be at even smaller risk. The determination of what levels of exposure can be deemed harmless is a concern, and the results from the simulations as compared against various regulations are discussed. (author)

  17. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  18. Characterization and Delivery of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Michael G.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Lee, K. P.

    2014-11-15

    Two primary challenges to characterizing Hanford’s high-level radioactive waste slurry prior to transfer to a treatment facility are the ability to representatively sample million-gallon tanks and to estimate the critical velocity of the complex slurry. Washington River Protection Solutions has successfully demonstrated a sampling concept that minimizes sample errors by collecting multiple sample increments from a sample loop where the mixed tank contents are recirculated. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed and demonstrated an ultrasonic-based Pulse-Echo detection device that is capable of detecting a stationary settled bed of solids in a pipe with flowing slurry. These two concepts are essential elements of a feed delivery strategy that drives the Hanford clean-up mission.

  19. SPRAYED CLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEEP REPOSITORY OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hausmannová

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sealing barrier will play very important role in the Czech disposal concept of high level radioactive waste. It follows Swedish SKB3 design where granitic rock environment will host the repository. Swelling clay based materials as the most favorable for sealing purposes were selected. Such clays must fulfill certain requirements (e.g. on swelling properties, hydraulic conductivity or plasticity and must be stable for thousands of years. Better sealing behavior is obtained when the clay is compacted. Technology of the seal construction can vary according to its target dry density. Very high dry density is needed for buffer (sealing around entire canister with radioactive waste. Less strict requirements are on material backfilling the access galleries. It allows compaction to lower dry density than in case of buffer. One of potential technology for backfilling is to compact clay layers in most of the gallery profile by common compaction machines (rollers etc. and to spray clay into the uppermost part afterwards. The paper introduces the research works on sprayed clay technology performed at the Centre of Experimental Geotechnics of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Large scale in situ demonstration of filling of short drift in the Josef Gallery is also mentioned.

  20. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-05

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  1. Policy Requirements and Factors of High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Myoung; Jeong, J. Y.; Ha, K. M. [Korea Energy Technology and Emergency Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Recently, the need of high-level radioactive waste policy including spent fuel management becomes serious due to the rapid increase in oil price, the nationalism of natural resources, and the environmental issues such as Tokyo protocol. Also, the policy should be established urgently to prepare the saturation of on-site storage capacity of spent fuel, the revision of 'Agreement for Cooperation-Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy' between Korea and US, the anxiety for nuclear weapon proliferation, and R and D to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed. In this study, we performed case study of US, Japan, Canada and Finland, which have special laws and plans/roadmaps for high-level waste management, to draw the policy requirements to be considered in HLW management. Also, we reviewed social conflict issues experienced in our society, and summarized the factors affecting the political and social environment. These policy requirements and factors summarized in this study should be considered seriously in the process for public consensus and the policy making regarding HLW management. Finally, the following 4 action items were drawn to manage HLW successfully : - Continuous and systematic R and D activities to obtain reliable management technology - Promoting companies having specialty in HLW management - Nurturing experts and workforce - Drive the public consensus process

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Thermal effects on clay rocks for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal effects on the Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus clay rocks for hosting high-level radioactive waste were comprehensively investigated with laboratory and in situ experiments under repository relevant conditions: (1 stresses covering the range from the initial lithostatic state to redistributed levels after excavation, (2 hydraulic drained and undrained boundaries, and (3 heating from ambient temperature up to 90 °C–120 °C and a subsequent cooling phase. The laboratory experiments were performed on normal-sized and large hollow cylindrical samples in various respects of thermal expansion and contraction, thermally-induced pore water pressure, temperature influences on deformation and strength, thermal impacts on swelling, fracture sealing and permeability. The laboratory results obtained from the samples are consistent with the in situ observations during heating experiments in the underground research laboratories at Bure and Mont-Terri. Even though the claystones showed significant responses to thermal loading, no negative effects on their favorable barrier properties were observed.

  6. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  7. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sanders, Daniel; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2015-03-21

    Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na-bentonites compared to the Ca-bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe-silicate. Up to now it is not clear why and how the patina formed. It, however, may be relevant as a corrosion inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion of container materials for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Park, H.S.; Yeon, J.W.; Ha, Y.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    In the corrosion aspect of container for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, disposal concepts and the related container materials, which have been developed by advanced countries, have been reviewed. The disposal circumstances could be divided into the saturated and the unsaturated zones. The candidate materials in the countries, which consider the disposal in the unsaturated zone, are the corrosion resistant materials such as supper alloys and stainless steels, but those in the saturated zone is cupper, one of the corrosion allowable materials. By the results of the pitting corrosion test of sensitized stainless steels (such as 304, 304L, 316 and 316L), pitting potential is decreased with the degree of sensitization and the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L is higher than others. And so, the long-term corrosion experiment with 316L stainless steel specimens, sebsitized and non-sensitized, under the compacted bentonite and synthetic granitic groundwater has been being carried out. The results from the experiment for 12 months indicate that no evidence of pitting corrosion of the specimens has been observed but the crevice corrosion has occurred on the sensitized specimens even for 3 months. (author). 33 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Iron Phosphate Glass as Potential Waste Matrix for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, T.; Ishinomori, T.; Endo, Y.; Sazarashi, M.; Ono, S.; Suzuki, K.

    2003-02-25

    Recently, Iron Phosphate Glass (IPG) is investigated as the alternative final waste form for High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in U.S. This study is aimed to investigate feasibility of IPG to HLW arising from commercial reprocessing in Japan. In order to evaluate favorable preparation conditions, maximum waste loading and property of IPG, the melting tests were carried. From the results of melting tests, the favorable preparation conditions was with matrix of Fe/P 0.43 (mole ratio in products) and melting at 1200{sup o} for 4h. The products of 10-20mass% waste loading of simulated HLW were glassy and had no crystal peaks, however the product of 30mass% waste loading showed some crystal peaks by XRD analysis. IPG and Borosilicate glass (BG) had about the same thermal properties. As a result, IPG had enough potential for high waste loading and the extremely good chemical durability for consideration as a waste form for Japanese HLW.

  10. Characteristics of high-level radioactive waste forms for their disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2000-12-01

    In order to develop a deep geological repository for a high-level radioactive waste coming from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels discharged from our domestic nuclear power plants, the the required characteristics of waste form are dependent upon a solidifying medium and the amount of waste loading in the medium. And so, by the comparative analysis of the characteristics of various waste forms developed up to the present, a suitable medium is recommended.The overall characteristics of the latter is much better than those of the former, but the change of the properties due to an amorphysation by radiation exposure and its thermal expansion has not been clearly identified yet. And its process has not been commercialized. However, the overall properties of the borosilicate glass waste forms are acceptable for their disposal, their production cost is reasonable and their processes have already been commercialized. And plenty informations of their characteristics and operational experiences have been accumulated. Consequently, it is recommended that a suitable medium solidifying the HLW is a borosilicate glass and its composition for the identification of a reference waste form would be based on the glass frit of R7T7.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

    2008-05-05

    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  12. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  13. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  14. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation. The...

  15. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within

  16. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  19. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  20. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  1. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  2. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, Stephan, E-mail: s.kaufhold@bgr.de [BGR, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Hassel, Achim Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Sanders, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Dohrmann, Reiner [BGR, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); LBEG, Landesamt für Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion at the bentonite iron interface proceeds unaerobically with formation of an 1:1 Fe silicate mineral. A series of exposure tests with different types of bentonites showed that Na–bentonites are slightly less corrosive than Ca–bentonites and highly charges smectites are less corrosive compared to low charged ones. The formation of a patina was observed in some cases and has to be investigated further. - Highlights: • At the iron bentonite interface a 1:1 Fe layer silicate forms upon corrosion. • A series of iron–bentonite corrosion products showed slightly less corrosion for Na-rich and high-charged bentonites. • In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe–silicate, which has to be investigated further. - Abstract: Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na–bentonites compared to the Ca–bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe

  3. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  4. ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals; ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum zur Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Walther, Clemens; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Niedersaechsische Technische Hochschule, Braunschweig, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-04-30

    The memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals covers the following issues: description of the problem: a ''wicked problem'', risks and NIMBY, the site selection law, international boundary conditions; disposal strategy and types of facilities: safety and reversibility, long-term surface storage, deep storage; risk and safety; procedural justice and the site selection process; social innovations and the requirement of long-term institutions; conclusion - central stress fields.

  5. Numerical simulation of high-level radioactive nuclear waste glass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ungan, A. [Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1991-12-31

    Vitrification of radioactive waste has become an international approach for converting highly radioactive wastes into a durable solid prior to placing them in a permanent disposal repository. The technology for the process is not new. The conversion melter is a direct descendant of all electric melters used for manufacturing of some commercial glass types. Therefore, the vitrification process of radioactive wastes inherits typical problems of all electric furnaces and creates some other specific problems such as noble metal sedimentation. The noble metals and nickel sulfides in the melter are heavier than molten glass and have a low solubility. In a reducing condition, these metals amalgamate and tend to settle on the melter floor. The metal deposit resulting from this settling has a potential to short circuit the melter. The objective of this paper is to identify the typical problems that have been encountered in the waste melter operations and to address how these problems can be tackled using state-of-the-art numerical simulation techniques. It is believed that the large amount of pilot-scale melter experience throughout the world, combined with the knowledge gained from state-of-the-art computer modeling techniques would give assurance that the existing and future radioactive wastes can be effectively converted into a durable glass material and safely placed in a permanent repository.

  6. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly — due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . ‘Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien’ (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials – particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on

  7. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-05-01

    In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program.

  8. Analogues to features and processes of a high-level radioactive waste repository proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Stuckless, John S.; with a Foreword by Abraham Van Luik, U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01

    Natural analogues are defined for this report as naturally occurring or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have taken place over time periods of decades to millennia and on spatial scales as much as tens of kilometers. Analogues provide an important temporal and spatial dimension that cannot be tested by laboratory or field-scale experiments. Analogues provide one of the multiple lines of evidence intended to increase confidence in the safe geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Although the work in this report was completed specifically for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste under the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the applicability of the science, analyses, and interpretations is not limited to a specific site. Natural and anthropogenic analogues have provided and can continue to provide value in understanding features and processes of importance across a wide variety of topics in addressing the challenges of geologic isolation of radioactive waste and also as a contribution to scientific investigations unrelated to waste disposal. Isolation of radioactive waste at a mined geologic repository would be through a combination of natural features and engineered barriers. In this report we examine analogues to many of the various components of the Yucca Mountain system, including the preservation of materials in unsaturated environments, flow of water through unsaturated volcanic tuff, seepage into repository drifts, repository drift stability, stability and alteration of waste forms and components of the engineered barrier system, and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated rock zones.

  9. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  10. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  11. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  14. Vapor Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel Exposed to Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2006-01-26

    A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion in the Type III high level waste tanks is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) corrosion to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate corrosion evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. The results of the FY05 experiments are presented here. The experiments are an extension of the previous research on the corrosion of tank steel exposed to simple solutions to corrosion of the steel when exposed to complex high level waste simulants. The testing suggested that decanting and the consequent residual species on the tank wall is the predominant source of surface chemistry on the tank wall. The laboratory testing has shown that at the boundary conditions of the chemistry control program for solutions greater than 1M NaNO{sub 3}{sup -}. Minor and isolated pitting is possible within crevices in the vapor space of the tanks that contain stagnant dilute solution for an extended period of time, specifically when residues are left on the tank wall during decanting. Liquid/air interfacial corrosion is possible in dilute stagnant solutions, particularly with high concentrations of chloride. The experimental results indicate that Tank 50 would be most susceptible to the potential for liquid/air interfacial corrosion or vapor space corrosion, with Tank 49 and 41 following, since these tanks are nearest to the chemistry control boundary conditions. The testing continues to show that the combination of well-inhibited solutions and mill-scale sufficiently protect against pitting in the Type III tanks.

  15. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the 226Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of 226Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg-1 wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg-1 for tea dry leaves. The 226Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary 226Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  18. Properties of the platinoid fission products during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Matlack, K. S.; Pegg, I. L.

    2006-05-01

    Platinoid fission products present in high-level nuclear wastes present particular challenges to their treatment by vitrification. The platinoid metals Ru, Rh, Pd, and their compounds are sparingly soluble in borosilicate glass melts. During glass melting under oxidizing conditions, the platinoids form small crystals of highly dense solid intermetallic phases and oxides. Under reducing conditions, the platinoids form only intermetallic phases. A fraction of these crystals settles to the bottom of the melting furnace, forming an immobile sludge. The fraction settling reported in the literature is highly variable. In the present work, the fraction settling was found to be >90% under reducing conditions but only 10 to 20% under oxidizing conditions. The thickness of the sludge layer depends on the volume fraction of platinoid crystals in the sludge, which is poorly known (typically ~0.06 under oxidizing conditions). Since the electrical conductivity of the sludge can be >10X that of the melt, in joule-heated melters the presence of such a layer can lead to diversion of the electric current, thereby compromising melter operability. The time to failure by this mechanism is clearly of practical importance. A variety of data are required in order to estimate the time to failure due to this mechanism and such data must be obtained under conditions representative of those in a full-size melting furnace. We have acquired such data using a melting furnace installed in our laboratory. This furnace is a one-third scale prototype of the system to be used for the vitrification of defense HLW at Hanford, WA. In the present work, simulated Hanford HLW material was combined with glass formers to produce a melter feed slurry that was then spiked with the platinoids. Over one thousand chemical and optical analyses were performed on hundreds of samples taken from the feed, various locations inside the furnace, the glass melt during pouring, the solid glass, and various locations along

  19. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ENGINEERED BARRIERS IN A HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KWON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  1. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  2. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada--hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  3. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  4. Preparation of in-house reference soil sample containing high levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials from the oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Aba, A; Al-Hamwi, A; Shakhashiro, A

    2004-12-01

    An in-house reference soil sample containing high levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials collected from contaminated areas in the Syrian oilfields has been prepared as a part of the quality assurance program in AECS. Homogeneity of the sample has been examined using three methods, viz. particle size distribution of the sample matrix, total alpha/beta counting and gamma spectrometry. In conjunction with Dixon and Grubb tests as statistical tools, ten random samples from the original sample were used for this investigation. Reference values for the three radium isotopes (224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) were determined using gamma spectrometry equipped with HPGe detectors having high relative efficiencies of 80%, while the reference value of 210Pb in the sample was determined using radiochemical separation and counting of its daughter 210Po by alpha spectrometry. ANOVA analysis was used to estimate the uncertainties due to measurement and inhomogeneity of the sample; uncertainty due to inhomogeneity was found to be around 2.6 times the measurement uncertainty.

  5. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  6. The Role of Temperature in the Safety Case for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Comparison of Design Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Heierli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep underground facilities requires a sparing use of spatial resources on the one side and favorable temperature conditions over the project lifetime on the other side. Under heat-sensitive conditions, these goals run in opposite directions and therefore a balance of some kind must be found. Often the elected strategy is to determine the size of the repository by capping the temperatures in the near-field, thus setting an upper limit to the deterioration of barrier materials. Alternatively, the spatial resources available in the siting area can be used to further reduce temperatures as long as supplementary benefits are returned from doing so. Using analytical modeling of the heat flow in the circumambient rock of a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel, this contribution examines possible obstacles in substantiating the safety case, namely the retrievability of waste during the operational lifetime of the facility, the representativeness of pilot disposal areas for monitoring, and the effect of thermal anomalies underground. The results indicate that there are, amongst the visited criteria, several benefits to the temperature-optimizing strategy over the prevailing space-optimizing concepts. The right balance between saving spatial resources and obtaining optimal temperature conditions is yet to be found.

  7. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  8. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  9. Corrosion of iron steel under sulphate reducing conditions: application to deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, H.; Abdelouas, A.; Grambow, B. [Nantes Univ., SUBATECH, UMR 6457 IN2P3/CNRS-Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: We investigated the corrosion of the steel P235 under disposal conditions of high-level radioactive waste in argillite. The objective was to study the role of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) indigenous to argillite that may develop under excess of hydrogen produced by steel corrosion in groundwater flowing through argillite. Batch and column experiments were conducted in serum bottles/diffusion cells with coupons of P235 steel, argillite and synthetic argillite water. This system provided enough nutrients to grow SRB's within two weeks with corrosion of the steel and formation of iron sulphides as corrosion products. The results of the weight loss method showed that the steel corrosion seems to be faster in the presence of SRB's in comparison to sterilized runs. The mineralogical identification of iron sulphides, observed and analysed with the scanning electron microscope, will be conducted with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion mechanism will be determined by studying steel cross sections and surface observations after removal of corrosion layer. Experiments with diffusion cells are under way and the collected outlet solutions show a decrease of sulphate concentration with production of sulphide ions. The results to be obtained with the steel corroded in the cell will be presented at the end of the run planned for few months.

  10. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    and americium it contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated {sup 241}Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx).

  11. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  12. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

  13. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  14. Regulatory perspectives on model validation in high-level radioactive waste management programs: A joint NRC/SKI white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingefors, S.; Andersson, J.; Norrby, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power lnspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden). Office of Nuclear Waste Safety; Eisenberg, N.A.; Lee, M.P.; Federline, M.V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards; Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Validation (or confidence building) should be an important aspect of the regulatory uses of mathematical models in the safety assessments of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which scientific validation of models is usually pursued. Because models for a geologic repository performance assessment cannot be tested over the spatial scales of interest and long time periods for which the models will make estimates of performance, the usual avenue for model validation- that is, comparison of model estimates with actual data at the space-time scales of interest- is precluded. Further complicating the model validation process in HLW programs are the uncertainties inherent in describing the geologic complexities of potential disposal sites, and their interactions with the engineered system, with a limited set of generally imprecise data, making it difficult to discriminate between model discrepancy and inadequacy of input data. A successful strategy for model validation, therefore, should attempt to recognize these difficulties, address their resolution, and document the resolution in a careful manner. The end result of validation efforts should be a documented enhancement of confidence in the model to an extent that the model's results can aid in regulatory decision-making. The level of validation needed should be determined by the intended uses of these models, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. This white Paper presents a model validation strategy that can be implemented in a regulatory environment. It was prepared jointly by staff members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate-SKI. This document should not be viewed as, and is not intended to be formal guidance or as a staff position on this matter. Rather, based on a review of the literature and previous

  15. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  16. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes; Modellierung zur Speziation von Radionukliden in Abfallgebinden mit hoch radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-15

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  17. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  18. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  20. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  1. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in the mined geologic disposal system as developed under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose.

  2. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  3. Some technical and legal problems relating to the storage of high-level radioactive waste and the use of nuclear power sources on space satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1985-04-01

    A brief survey is presented summarizing the main characteristics of radioactive wastes and the various waste management strategies. Subsequently, the technical and legal problems encountered with the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and with the use of nuclear power sources on space satellites are reviewed. It is shown that both in terms of technology and law, a sound basis is already available upon which the problem of HAW disposal in space can be tackled. On the legal level, however, existing norms and regulations need to be supplemented and improved by more concrete provisions, and this task should be started now. An international agreement concerning HAW management in space is said to be indispensable.

  4. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  5. Cement-based radioactive waste hosts formed under elevated temperatures and pressures (FUETAP concretes) for Savannah River Plant high-level defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Rogers, G.C.; Morgan, M.T.; Stinton, D.P.; Kessler, J.H.; Robinson, S.M.; Moore, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    Concretes that are formed under elevated temperatures and pressures (called FUETAP) are effective hosts for high-level radioactive defense wastes. Tailored concretes developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been prepared from common Portland cements, fly ash, sand, clays, and waste products. These concretes are produced by accelerated curing under mild autoclave conditions (85 to 200/sup 0/C, 0.1 to 1.5 MPa) for 24 h. The solids are subsequently dewatered (to remove unbound water) at 250/sup 0/C for 24 h. The resulting products are strong (compressive strength, 40 to 100 MPa), leach resistant (plutonium leaches at the rate of 10 pg/(cm/sup 2/.d)), and radiolytically stable, monolithic waste forms (total gas value = 0.005 molecule/100 eV). This report summarizes the results of a 4-year FUETAP development program for Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level defense wastes. It addresses the major questions concerning the performance of concretes as radioactive waste forms. These include leachability, radiation stability, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, impact strength, permeability, phase complexity, and effect of waste composition.

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  7. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes; Conceptos de diseno de disposicion definitiva para desechos radioactivos de alto nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N (Km. 36.5) La Marquesa, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vbadillo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  8. Development of several chromatography extraction separations for the measurement of minority elements present in high level radioactive solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, Christophe; Esbelin, Eric; Dautheriebes, Jean-Luc [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Analysis and Materials Metrology Lab.

    2016-05-01

    Five chromatography extraction separation methods using Triskem columns were developed for the measurement of minority elements present in high level activity solutions produced by various programs (processes of hydrometallurgical extraction, dissolution of hulls and spent fuels) implemented in the Atalante facility at CEA Marcoule. The first three concern the Purex process, for which it is necessary to quantify Np + Pu traces in the main raffinate, Np traces in the ''U-Pu production'' step, and Tc traces in the ''U production'' to qualify its performances. Total recovery of these traces was obtained with a good macro-element decontamination factor, thus permitting their determination by L-line X-ray fluorescence or by ICP-QMS. The fourth separation focussed on the total recovery of U and Pu traces from a hull dissolution solution. The decontamination and recovery performances were very good and enabled the determination of U and Pu by L-line X-ray fluorescence. The last method concerns the separation of Zr from an irradiated fuel dissolution solution, for its isotopic composition determination by ICP-QMS. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental measurements and computer code estimates.

  9. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 4, Preliminary analysis of DWPF process laboratory capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  10. 226Ra concentration in the teeth of habitants of areas with high level of natural radioactivity in Ramsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamiri, S Mahmoud Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Darafsheh, Arash; Torabzadeh, Hasan; Fathivand, Ali Asghar; Minuchehr, Abdulhamid; Jalinoos, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    The level of natural radiation in some regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, is known to be among the highest levels of natural radiation in the world. 226Ra existing in high concentrations in the soil of this region is washed by underground water and transferred to the surface. In this way, 226Ra enters the food chain of residents and substitutes within the hard body tissues of humans. 226Ra is one of the so-called bone seekers as its metabolic processes in the human body are similar to calcium and remains in hard tissues of body because of its long half-life, and being an alpha emitter causes dangerous effects on human health. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of 226Ra in the teeth of residents of these high-level natural radiation areas, compared with a control group. Thirteen teeth in five groups were studied as the case group and thirteen teeth in five corresponding control groups were inspected. The mean values of the activity of 226Ra in the case group and in the control group were 0.32 and 0.18mBqg(-1), respectively.

  11. {sup 226}Ra concentration in the teeth of habitants of areas with high level of natural radioactivity in Ramsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamiri, S. Mahmoud Reza [Department of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Zahra [Iranian Center of Dental Research, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darafsheh, Arash [Department of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ardaraf@gmail.com; Torabzadeh, Hasan [Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathivand, Ali Asghar [National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD), Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minuchehr, Abdulhamid [Department of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalinoos, Alireza [Nuclear Immunity and Protection Center, Iranian Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The level of natural radiation in some regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, is known to be among the highest levels of natural radiation in the world. {sup 226}Ra existing in high concentrations in the soil of this region is washed by underground water and transferred to the surface. In this way, {sup 226}Ra enters the food chain of residents and substitutes within the hard body tissues of humans. {sup 226}Ra is one of the so-called bone seekers as its metabolic processes in the human body are similar to calcium and remains in hard tissues of body because of its long half-life, and being an {alpha} emitter causes dangerous effects on human health. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra in the teeth of residents of these high-level natural radiation areas, compared with a control group. Thirteen teeth in five groups were studied as the case group and thirteen teeth in five corresponding control groups were inspected. The mean values of the activity of {sup 226}Ra in the case group and in the control group were 0.32 and 0.18 mBq g{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  13. Thermo-Hydro Mechanical Characteristics and Processes in the Clay Barrier of a High Level Radioactive Waste Repository. State of the Art Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-07-01

    This document is a summary of the available information on the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the bentonite barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository and of the processes taking place in it during the successive repository operation phases. Mainly the thermal properties, the volume change processes (swelling and consolidation), the permeability and the water retention capacity are analysed. A review is made of the existing experimental knowledge on the modification of the these properties by the effect of temperature, water salinity, humidity and density of the bentonite, and their foreseen evolution as a consequence of the processes expected in the repository. The compiled evolution refers mostly to the FEBEX (Spain), the MX-80 (US) and the FoCa (France) bentonite, considered as reference barrier materials in several European disposal concepts. (Author) 102 refs.

  14. Polysomatism and structural complexity. Structure model for murataite-8C, a complex crystalline matrix for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakhomova, Anna S. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Bayerisches Geoinstitut; Krivovichev, Sergey V. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography; Yudintsev, Sergey V. [Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stefanovsky, Sergey V. [RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2016-03-15

    Murataite-8C, a prospective synthetic material for the long-term immobilization of high-level radioactive waste and a member of the pyrochlore-murataite polysomatic series, was investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure (cubic, F-43m, a = 39.105(12) Aa, V = 59799(32) Aa{sup 3}, Z = 4) is of outstanding complexity and contains forty symmetrically independent cation sites. Its crystal-chemical formula determined on the basis of the crystal-structure refinement, Al{sub 25.44}Ca{sub 55.96}Ti{sub 282.20}Mn{sub 53.72}Fe{sub 17.24}Zr{sub 15.00}Ho{sub 36} {sub .64}O{sub 823}, is in good agreement with the empirical formula calculated from electronmicroprobe data, Al{sub 23.02}Ca{sub 52.85}Ti{sub 284.10}Mn{sub 54.31}Fe{sub 17.59}Zr{sub 14.83}Ho{sub 38} {sub .04}O{sub 823}. The crystal structure is based upon a three-dimensional octahedral framework that can be described as an alternation of murataite and pyrochlore modules immersed into a transitional substructure that combine elements of the crystal structures of murataite-3C and pyrochlore. The obtained structural model confirms the polysomatic nature of the pyrochlore-murataite series and illuminates the chemical and structural peculiarities of crystallization of the murataite-type titanate ceramic matrices. The high chemical and structural complexity of the members of the pyrochlore-murataite series is unparalleled in the world of crystalline materials proposed for the high-level radioactive waste immobilization, which makes it unique and promising for further technological and scientific exploration.

  15. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  16. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2014-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2008 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment-specific laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site-specific characterization. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project, the tabulation also shows the interaction between four broad categories of political bodies and government agencies/institutions: (a) technical milestones of the implementing institutions, (b) development of the regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives and decisions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste.

  17. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part II, Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) Average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground -water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes.Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province.Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho.he arid to semiarid climate of the Province results in few perennial streams and lakes. A large part of the surface drainage is interior and the many closed basins commonly are occupied by playas or dry lake

  18. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries.

  19. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parotte, C. [Spiral Research Center, Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Law, University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  20. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  1. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  3. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  4. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  5. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  7. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part I, Introduction and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    used in characterizing the Province.The current (1983) needs for a high-level radioactive waste repository include: (1) Disposal in a mined repository; (2) retrievability of the waste for as much as 50 years; and (3) confidence of isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. Isolation of the waste needs to be assured using geologic and hydrologic conditions that: (1) Minimize risk of inadvertent future intrusions by man; (2) minimize the possibility of disturbance by processes that would expose the waste or increase its mobility; and (3) provide a system of natural barriers to the migration of waste by ground water. The guidelines adopted by the Province Working Group are designed to provide a standard with which these conditions can be compared.The guidelines can be grouped into four principal categories: (1) Potential host media, (2) ground-water conditions, (3) tectonic conditions, and. (4) occurrence of natural resources. Ideally the host medium constitutes the first natural barrier to migration of radionculides. The host medium ideally should be a rock type that prevents or retards dissolution and transport of radionuclides. Rocks in both the saturated and unsaturated zones may have desirable characteristics for host media. Rocks-other than the host-in the ground-water flow path from the repository ideally should be major barriers to radionuclide migration. Confining beds of low permeability might be present to retard the rate of flow between more permeable beds. Additionally, sorption of radionuclides by materials such as clays and zeolites in the flow path can further retard the flow of radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. Tectonic conditions in an area should not present a probable cause for exhumation or increased mobility of radioactive waste. Natural resources are a factor for consideration because of the problem of future human intrusion and exposure to radioactivity in the quest for minerals, oil, gas, water, and geothermal resources

  8. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2009 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high - level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment - specific laboratory experiments, in - situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site - specific characterization . The current sixth period beyond 2010 represents a new effort to set waste management policy in the United States. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project , the tabulation also shows the interaction between the policy realm and technical realm using four broad categories of events : (a) Regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives, (c) technical milestones of implementing institutions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste. Preface The historical progression of technical milestones for the Yucca Mountain Project was originally developed for 10 journal articles in a special issue of Reliability Engineering System Safety on the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain license

  9. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  10. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  11. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  12. Third international seabed high-level waste disposal assessment workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 6--7, 1978: a report to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R. (ed.)

    1978-10-01

    The task groups of the Third International Workshop were staffed by scientists from the attending countries. Reviews of the progress of programs within each nation were given and plans for cooperative task group workshops, data interchanges, newsletters, ocean cruises, sample exchanges, and critical laboratory and field measurements were coordinated. Although a considerable amount of work remains to be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical or environmental reasons were identified that would preclude the disposal of radioactive wastes beneeath the ocean floor.

  13. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  14. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  15. German Spent Nuclear Fuel Legacy: Characteristics and High-Level Waste Management Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany is phasing-out the utilization of nuclear energy until 2022. Currently, nine light water reactors of originally nineteen are still connected to the grid. All power plants generate high-level nuclear waste like spent uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel which has to be properly managed. Moreover, vitrified high-level waste containing minor actinides, fission products, and traces of plutonium reprocessing loses produced by reprocessing facilities has to be disposed of. In the paper, the assessments of German spent fuel legacy (heavy metal content and the nuclide composition of this inventory have been done. The methodology used applies advanced nuclear fuel cycle simulation techniques in order to reproduce the operation of the German nuclear power plants from 1969 till 2022. NFCSim code developed by LANL was adopted for this purpose. It was estimated that ~10,300 tonnes of unreprocessed nuclear spent fuel will be generated until the shut-down of the ultimate German reactor. This inventory will contain ~131 tonnes of plutonium, ~21 tonnes of minor actinides, and 440 tonnes of fission products. Apart from this, ca.215 tonnes of vitrified HLW will be present. As fission products and transuranium elements remain radioactive from 104 to 106 years, the characteristics of spent fuel legacy over this period are estimated, and their impacts on decay storage and final repository are discussed.

  16. Epidemiologic studies in the areas with a high level of natural radioactivity; Etudes epidemiologiques dans des zones a haut niveau de radioactivite naturelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph

    2000-10-01

    Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)

  17. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to the determination of actinides and fission products in high level radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinard, W.F. [College of Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bibler, N.E.; Coleman, C.J.; Dewberry, R.A.; Boyce, W.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Wyrick, S.B. [Science Applications International, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Four years of experience in applying inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the analysis of actinides and fission products in high level waste (HLW) samples at the Savannah River Site has led to the development of a number of techniques to aid in the interpretation of the mass spectral data. The goal has been to develop rapid and reliable analytical procedures that provide the necessary chemical and isotopic information to answer the process needs of the customers. Techniques that have been developed include the writing of computer software to strip the experimental data from the instrumental data files into spreadsheets or into a spectral data processing package so that the raw mass spectra can be overlain for comparison or plotted with higher output resolution. These procedures have been applied to problems ranging from the analysis of the high level waste tanks to reactor moderator water as well as environmental samples. Criticality safety analyses in some HLW waste treatment processes depend upon actinide concentration and isotopic information generated by ICP-MS, particularly in tanks with high concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Experimental results for a number of these applications will be presented. These procedures represent a considerable saving in time and expense as compared to conventional chemical separation followed by radiochemical analyses, as well as decreased radiation exposure for the analysts.

  18. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  1. Japan-Australia co-operative program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes. Final report 1985 to 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.; Vance, E.; Lumpkin, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mitamura, H.; Banba, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The overall aim of the Co-operative Program has been to promote the exchange of information on technology for the management of High-Level Wastes (HLW) and to encourage research and development relevant to such technology. During the 13 years that the Program has been carried out, HLW management strategies have matured and developed internationally, and Japan has commenced construction of a domestic reprocessing and vitrification facility for HLW. The HLW management strategy preferred is a national decision. Many countries are using vitrification, direct disposal of spent fuel or a combination of both to handle their existing wastes whereas others have deferred the decision. The work carried out in the Co-operative Program provides strong scientific evidence that the durability of ceramic waste forms is not significantly affected by radiation damage and that high loadings of actinide elements can be incorporated into specially designed ceramic waste forms. Moreover, natural minerals have been shown to remain as closed systems for U and Th for up to 2.5 b y. All of these results give confidence in the ability of second generation waste forms, such as Synroc, to handle future waste arisings that may not be suitable for vitrification 87 refs., 15 tabs., 22 figs.

  2. France’s State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo’s severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution. PMID:28608831

  3. Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification as a waste stabilization technology has often been considered applicable only to high-level radioactive waste for which, with the use of suitable additives, it yields a vitreous material with excellent chemical durability. It has become apparent in recent years that some waste forms-notably domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues--contain most of the ingredients of a vitrified material, although their composition variations are difficult to control. It is thus important to ensure not only that the materials are suitable for vitrification, but also that the resulting product exhibits acceptable long-term behavior under all circumstances. An initial study showed that, allowing for the compensation changes inherent in the melting process builtby EDF**, the residue collected by a single fly-ash dust separation defines a composition range within which the suitability of the vitrified material can be verified. "Vitrified material" refers to a melted material that contains no unmelted inclusions after cooling, but that may contain a variable fraction of crystallized phases. Five composition parameters were identified for the long-term behavior assessment: the concentrations of the three major elements (silicon, aluminum and calcium), the total alkali metal (sodium and potassium) concentration, and the sum of the concentrations of two toxic elements (zinc and lead). The other elements were assumed constant at molar ratios representative of industrial wastes. The experimentation plan methodology applied to the composition range identified fourteen materials suilable for developing and validating first-order models of the material components. The fly-ash composition had a very significant effect on the degree and kinetics and crystallization in the vitrified material within the experimental composition range; the cooling rate was the determining factor for some of the fourteen materials studied. Two crystailine phases predominated: spinels

  4. The siting record: An account of the programs of federal agencies and events that have led to the selection of a potential site for a geologic respository for high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    This record of siting a geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and spent fuel describes the many investigations that culminated on December 22, 1987 in the designation of Yucca Mountain (YM), as the site to undergo detailed geologic characterization. It recounts the important issues and events that have been instrumental in shaping the course of siting over the last three and one half decades. In this long task, which was initiated in 1954, more than 60 regions, areas, or sites involving nine different rock types have been investigated. This effort became sharply focused in 1983 with the identification of nine potentially suitable sites for the first repository. From these nine sites, five were subsequently nominated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as suitable for characterization and then, in 1986, as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), three of these five were recommended to the President as candidates for site characterization. President Reagan approved the recommendation on May 28, 1986. DOE was preparing site characterization plans for the three candidate sites, namely Deaf Smith County, Texas; Hanford Site, Washington; and YM. As a consequence of the 1987 Amendment to the NWPA, only the latter was authorized to undergo detailed characterization. A final Site Characterization Plan for Yucca Mountain was published in 1988. Prior to 1954, there was no program for the siting of disposal facilities for high-level waste (HLW). In the 1940s and 1950s, the volume of waste, which was small and which resulted entirely from military weapons and research programs, was stored as a liquid in large steel tanks buried at geographically remote government installations principally in Washington and Tennessee.

  5. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  6. 10 years of transport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW) from COGEMA La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, J.; Martinotti, B. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Tourneux, F. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    COGEMA has been using, for decades, its large experience of Reprocessing in both Gas Cooled reactors (GCR) and LWR fuels with the following facilities: Marcoule UP1 plant started up in late 50's: La Hague UP2 plant started up in 1966 first with GCR fuels and from 1976 with LWR Fuel (including foreign fuels): La Hague UP3 plant started up in 1990 Foreign Utilities signed Reprocessing Contracts with COGEMA from 1970's, providing returns of residues to the country of origin where they will be managed in a safe storage facility. Therefore, for nearly 30 years Spent Fuel coming from Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands are processed on La Hague site.

  7. Calves born after direct transfer of vitrified bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts derived from vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2008-06-01

    Vitrification has been the method of choice for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes, as rapid cooling decreases chilling sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo survival and the viability of immature oocytes vitrified using super-cooled liquid nitrogen. Immature oocytes were randomly allocated to three groups: (i) non-vitrified control group, (ii) vitrified in normal (-196 degrees C) liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and (iii) vitrified in super-cooled LN(2) (vitrification containers. Immature oocytes were in vitro-matured, fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. In vitro viability was assessed by cleavage and blastocyst rates on days 2 and 7 of culture respectively. Vitrified blastocysts derived from the immature vitrified oocytes were directly transferred to synchronous recipients. The in vitro embryo development of vitrified immature oocytes was not influenced by the LN(2) state. After direct transfer (one embryo per recipient) of 16 embryos obtained from immature vitrified oocytes (eight from each vitrified group), two healthy calves were born in each group. These results indicated that vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using glass micropipettes under normal or super-cooled LN(2), resulted in viable blastocysts and live calves following in vitro embryo production.

  8. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  10. Geologyy of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (> 10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (< 5% crystal fragments) member, and an intervening thin transition zone. Rocks within the crystal-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, lying some 280 m below the crest of Yucca Mountain, constitute the proposed host rock to be excavated for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Separation of the tuffaceous rock formations into subunits that allow for detailed mapping and structural interpretations is based on macroscopic features, most importantly the relative abundance of lithophysae and the degree of welding. The latter feature, varying from nonwelded through partly and moderately welded to densely welded, exerts a strong control on matrix porosities and other rock properties that provide essential criteria for distinguishing hydrogeologic and thermal-mechanical units, which are of major interest in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain to host a safe and permanent geologic repository for waste storage. A thick and varied sequence of surficial deposits mantle large parts of the Yucca Mountain site area. Mapping of these deposits and associated soils in exposures and in the walls of trenches excavated across buried faults provides evidence for multiple surface-rupturing events along all of the major faults during

  11. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  12. Advanced separation and transmutation, long dated behavior of vitrified wastes: 15 years of scientific researches; Separation poussee et transmutation, comportement a long terme des dechets vitrifies: 15 ans d'avancees scientifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the results after 15 years of researches at the Cea, concerning the separation and transmutation of radioactive wastes and the conditioning and the long time storage of wastes at the surface. These researches were asked in the framework of the Bataille law. The first part devoted to the transmutation and separation of ling life radioactive elements presents the challenges, the advanced separation, the transmutation and the evaluation of the researches. The second part devoted to the long dated storage discusses the high activity wastes vitrification, the behavior of the vitrified wastes packages after thousand years, the international researches and the evaluation of the researches. (A.L.B.)

  13. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors; La gestion des dechets nucleaires a haute activite et a vie longue en France: enquete aupres des acteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rapid immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste by microwave sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Shu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Shunzhang; Yang, Huimin; Hou, Chenxi; Mao, Xueli; Chi, Fangting; Song, Mianxin; Lu, Xirui

    2017-09-05

    A rapid and efficient method is particularly necessary in the timely disposal of seriously radioactive contaminated soil. In this paper, a series of simulated radioactive soil waste containing different contents of neodymium oxide (3-25wt.%) has been successfully vitrified by microwave sintering at 1300°C for 30min. The microstructures, morphology, element distribution, density and chemical durability of as obtained vitrified forms have been analyzed. The results show that the amorphous structure, homogeneous element distribution, and regular density improvement are well kept, except slight cracks emerge on the magnified surface for the 25wt.% Nd2O3-containing sample. Moreover, all the vitrified forms exhibit excellent chemical durability, and the leaching rates of Nd are kept as ∼10-4-10-6g/(m2day) within 42days. This demonstrates a potential application of microwave sintering in radioactive contaminated soil disposal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  16. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes; Les demonstrateurs technologiques. Recherches et etudes sur le stockage et l'entreposage des dechets de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  17. Return of the vitrified residues of France to Germany; Retour des residus vitrifies de France en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The return of the vitrified residues from France to Germany fits into framework of the spent fuels reprocessing contracts, signed between COGEMA and german electric power companies. These contracts preconize the return in the origin country of the ultimate wastes after their processing and conditioning. This document proposes nine information cards on this topic: why France returns vitrified residues in Germany; what is a vitrified residues container; the quality and the safety control; the containers transportation; the regulatory framework applied to these transports; the interim storage before and after the transport; the final disposal of vitrified residues in Germany; concerned societies, experts and authorities; the risks bound to the radiation exposure during the transport. (A.L.B.)

  18. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  19. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  20. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development.

  1. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  2. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  3. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  4. Early age behaviour of concrete supercontainers for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craeye, Bart [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Bart.Craeye@UGent.be; Schutter, Geert de [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Humbeeck, Hughes van [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Belgium); Cotthem, Alain van [Tractebel Development Engineering, Consulting Company (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Various types of radioactive waste were and are produced in Belgium. This waste originates from different producers: nuclear power plants, medical applications, industry, research centre, etc. During the past 25 years several preliminary repository designs were proposed. Today, the cylindrical supercontainer is considered to be the most promising Belgian design on the matter of enclosing the vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW) and the spent fuel assemblies and is based on the use of an integrated waste package composed of a carbon steel overpack surrounded by an Ordinary Portland Cement buffer. For the choice of this cementious buffer two compositions, a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a traditional vibrated concrete (TVC), are being considered, tested and compared by means of an intensive laboratory characterization program. Through-going cracks in the concrete buffer should, at all times, be avoided because they will considerably ease the transport mechanisms inside the supercontainer. Therefore, finite element simulations are performed, using a 2.5-D thermal and crack modelling program, to predict the mechanical and thermal behaviour of the concrete buffer at any time during hardening. Looking at the finite element simulation results of the first stage of manufacturing of the supercontainer (cast in one), and the emplacement of the heat-emitting waste canister (second stage), we experience no early age cracking of the concrete buffer. The impact of environmental conditions and shrinkage and creep behaviour on the simulation results are noticeable.

  5. Confinement matrices for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    Mining of uranium for nuclear fuel production inevitably leads to the exhaustion of natural uranium resources and an increase in market price of uranium. As an alternative, it is possible to provide nuclear power plants with reprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF), which retains 90% of its energy resource. The main obstacle to this solution is related to the formation in the course of the reprocessing of SNF of a large volume of liquid waste, and the necessity to concentrate, solidify, and dispose of this waste. Radioactive waste is classified into three categories: low-, intermediate-, and high-level (LLW, ILW, and HLW); 95, 4.4, and 0.6% of the total waste are LLW, ILW, and HLW, respectively. Despite its small relative volume, the radioactivity of HLW is approximately equal to the combined radioactivity of LLW + ILW (LILW). The main hazard of HLW is related to its extremely high radioactivity, the occurrence of long-living radionuclides, heat release, and the necessity to confine HLW for an effectively unlimited time period. The problems of handling LILW are caused by the enormous volume of such waste. The available technology for LILW confinement is considered, and conclusion is drawn that its concentration, vitrification, and disposal in shallow-seated repositories is a necessary condition of large-scale reprocessing of SNF derived from VVER-1000 reactors. The significantly reduced volume of the vitrified LILW and its very low dissolution rate at low temperatures makes borosilicate glass an ideal confinement matrix for immobilization of LILW. At the same time, the high corrosion rate of the glass matrix at elevated temperatures casts doubt on its efficient use for immobilization of heat-releasing HLW. The higher cost of LILW vitrification compared to cementation and bitumen impregnation is compensated for by reduced expenditure for construction of additional engineering barriers, as well as by substantial decrease in LLW and ILW volume, localization of shallow

  6. HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) VITRIFICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE US: APPLICATION OF GLASS PRODUCT/PROCESS CONTROL TO OTHERHLW AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; James Marra, J

    2007-09-17

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) actual HLW tank waste has successfully been processed to stringent product and process constraints without any rework into a stable borosilicate glass waste since 1996. A unique 'feed forward' statistical process control (SPC) has been used rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product is sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property models form the basis for the 'feed forward' SPC. The property models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition. The property models are mechanistic and depend on glass bonding/structure, thermodynamics, quasicrystalline melt species, and/or electron transfers. The mechanistic models have been validated over composition regions well outside of the regions for which they were developed because they are mechanistic. Mechanistic models allow accurate extension to radioactive and hazardous waste melts well outside the composition boundaries for which they were developed.

  7. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  8. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  9. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  10. Cryotop and development of vitrified immature bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hajarian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of different cryodevices (open-pulled straw (OPS, electron microscopy grid (EMG, and Cryotop was evaluated for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes. Polar body, metaphase II stage (MII, survivability, and subsequent developmental rates were determined. Only oocytes with four or five layers of cumulus cells were used. Oocytes were equilibrated in two vitrification solutions - 1: 10% DMSO + 10% ethylene glycol (EG for 30-45sec and 2: 20% DMSO + 20% EG +0.5M sucrose for 25sec -, mounted on one of the cryodevices and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for 10 days. Immature vitrified oocytes using Cryotop showed the highest rates of polar body extrusion (PB and nuclear maturity (MII; 41 and 58% respectively. Vitrified oocytes using OPS and EMG showed 26 and 32%; and 35 and 46% of PB and MII rates, respectively. The highest survivability resulted from Cryotop and EMG groups and no significant difference was found between them. Vitrified oocytes using Cryotop had the highest cleavage and blastocyst rates. All of the mean rates for vitrified immature oocytes were significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05. The results of this study showed the superiority of Cryotop device for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes

  11. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters.

  12. In vitro blastocyst development of post-thaw vitrified bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Dutta,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the developmental competence of post-thaw vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs in vitro.Materials and Methods: A total of 129 COCs were cryopreserved using vitrification solution comprising of 15% ethylene glycol (EG + 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose in medium TCM-199 with 10% FBS. Immediately, within a minute they are plunged into liquid nitrogen using 0.25 ml straws. Thawing was made with a step wise dilution method. Post-thaw normal vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization.Results: Post-thaw survival percentage of vitrified oocytes was 88.37% and maturation performance of vitrified oocytes on the basis of cumulus expansion was 81.58% as compared to non-vitrified control 93.85%. The in vitro fertilization performance of vitrified oocytes was 49.46% as compared to the non-vitrified ones (63.11%. Similarly, blastocyst formation of vitrified oocytes was 21.74% as compared to 32.47% in non-vitrified oocytes.Conclusion: Vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using 7.5% EG + 7.5% DMSO for equilibration and 15% EG +15% DMSO + 0.6 M sucrose as vitrification solution yielded better in vitro fertilization and blastocyst formation rate.

  13. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  14. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  15. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  16. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Preantral Follicles Isolated from Vitrified and Non-vitrified Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mazoochi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: This study was designed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and maturation of mouse prenatal follicles isolated from vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries. Methods: In this study one ovary from each forty female mouse was vitrified. Preantral follicles were mechanically isolated from vitrified and non- vitrified ovaries and cultured in α-MEM in vitro for 10 days in four groups non-vitrified and non-ascorbic acid (NVNA, non-vitrified and ascorbic acid (NVA, vitrified and non-ascorbic acid (VNA, vitrified and ascorbic acid (VA. Expression of Bax and Bcl-2, survival rate, diameter of follicle and number of antral follicles were compared in four groups. Results: In all groups, the diameter of preantral follicles was increased during in vitro culture. The mean diameter of follicles on day 2 of culture in NVNA, NVA, VNA, and VA groups were 158.5±7.2, 161.9±9.6, 151.7±6.4, and 156.9±7.6 respectively and at day 4 of culture were 213.1±11.8, 218±8.5, 202.9±6.2, and 215.9±9.2 respectively. There were significant differences between the mean diameter of follicles in non-vitrified groups and VNA group at day 2 and 4 of culture (p=0.011 and p=0.001 respectively. The addition of ascorbic acid increased follicular diameter on day 4 of culture in vitrified group (p=0.001. The level of Bax mRNA in NVA group was significantly lower than that other groups (p=o.oo1. Conclusion: Although the addition of ascorbic acid to the media had no effect on growth, survival rate and antrum formation of follicles in vitro, but this reduced the level of the Bax proapoptotic gene in non-vitrified group and improved the growth of preantral follicles after ovarian vitrification.

  17. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Bazelaire, Eve [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Ditto, Mary E [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Gorbunova, Maryna [ORNL; Haverlock, Tamara [ORNL; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bartsch, Richard A. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Surowiec, Malgorzata A. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Marquez, Manuel [University of Texas; Zhou, Hui [Texas Tech University, Lubbock

    2006-01-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste. Disposal of high-level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in underground waste tanks at various USDOE sites has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. To vitrify the entire mass of the high-level waste would be prohibitively expensive. Accordingly, an urgent need has arisen for technologies to remove radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs from the high-level waste so that the bulk of it may be diverted to cheaper low-level waste forms and cheaper storage. To address this need in part, chemical research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on calixcrown extractants, molecules that combine a crown ether with a calixarene. This hybrid possesses a cavity that is highly complementary for the Cs{sup +} ion vs. the Na+ ion, making it possible to cleanly separate cesium from wastes that contain 10,000- to 1,000,000-fold higher concentrations of sodium. Previous EMSP results in Project 55087 elucidated the underlying extraction

  18. Determination of the Structure of Vitrified Hydroceramic/CBC Waste Form Glasses Manufactured from DOE Reprocessing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheetz, B.E.; White, W. B.; Chesleigh, M.; Portanova, A.; Olanrewaju, J.

    2005-05-31

    The selection of a glass-making option for the solidification of nuclear waste has dominated DOE waste form programs since the early 1980's. Both West Valley and Savannah River are routinely manufacturing glass logs from the high level waste inventory in tank sludges. However, for some wastes, direct conversion to glass is clearly not the optimum strategy for immobilization. INEEL, for example, has approximately 4400 m{sup 3} of calcined high level waste with an activity that produces approximately 45 watts/m{sup 3}, a rather low concentration of radioactive constituents. For these wastes, there is value in seeking alternatives to glass. An alternative approach has been developed and the efficacy of the process demonstrated that offers a significant savings in both human health and safety exposures and also a lower cost relative to the vitrification option. The alternative approach utilizes the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the highly alkaline waste with the addition of aluminosilicate admixtures in the appropriate proportions to form zeolites. The process is one in which a chemically bonded ceramic is produced. The driving force for reaction is derived from the chemical system itself at very modest temperatures and yet forms predominantly crystalline phases. Because the chemically bonded ceramic requires an aqueous medium to serve as a vehicle for the chemical reaction, the proposed zeolite-containing waste form can more adequately be described as a hydroceramic. The hydrated crystalline materials are then subject to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which partially melts the material to form a glass ceramic. The scientific advantages of the hydroceramic/CBC approach are: (1) Low temperature processing; (2) High waste loading and thus only modest volumetric bulking from the addition of admixtures; (3) Ability to immobilize sodium; (4) Ability to handle low levels of nitrate (2-3% NO{sub 3}{sup -}); (5) The flexibility of a vitrifiable waste; and (6) A process

  19. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  20. Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  1. Decree no. 2001-1199 of the 10 december 2001 publishing the resolution MSC. 88 (71) notifying adoption of the international compilation of safety rules for the spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport in casks on ships (compilation INF) (annexes), adopted at London the 27 may 1999; Decret no. 2001-1199 du 10 decembre 2001 portant publication de la resolution MSC.88 (71) portant adoption du recueil international de regles de securite pour le transport de combustible nucleaire irradie, de plutonium et de dechets hautement radioactifs en colis a bord de navires (recueil INF) (ensemble une annexe), adoptee a Londres le 27 mai 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This legislative text concerns the safety rules of spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport, in casks on ships. Rules, fire prevention, temperature control of casks, electric supply, radioprotection, management and emergency plans are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  3. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  4. High level controls at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.; Saltmarsh, C.; Satogata, T.; Fryer, M.

    1994-12-01

    We report on the software tools and techniques in development to ensure that the commissioning and operations teams for RHIC have access to high level analysis, diagnosis, modelling and control functions early in the start up of the machine. The first tests will be for the sextant test in mid-1995.

  5. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, S.S.; Gibby, R.D.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-10-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  7. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  8. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  9. Standard test methods for vitrified ceramic materials for electrical applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 These test methods outline procedures for testing samples of vitrified ceramic materials that are to be used as electrical insulation. Where specified limits are mentioned herein, they shall not be interpreted as specification limits for completed insulators. 1.2 These test methods are intended to apply to unglazed specimens, but they may be equally suited for testing glazed specimens. The report section shall indicate whether glazed or unglazed specimens were tested. 1.3 The test methods appear as follows: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precaution statements are given in 11.3, 13.5, and 15.3.

  10. Glasses for immobilization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for recovery of fissionable elements is a precondition of long-term development of nuclear energetics. Solution of this problem is hindered by the production of a great amount of liquid waste; 99% of its volume is low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW). The volume of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is characterized by high heat release, does not exceed a fraction of a percent. Solubility of glasses at an elevated temperature makes them unfit for immobilization of HLW, the insulation of which is ensured only by mineral-like matrices. At the same time, glasses are a perfect matrix for LILW, which are distinguished by low heat release. The solubility of borosilicate glass at a low temperature is so low that even a glass with relatively low resistance enables them to retain safety of under-ground LILW depositories without additional engineering barriers. The optimal technology of liquid confinement is their concentration and immobilization in borosilicate glasses, which are disposed in shallow-seated geological repositories. The vitrification of 1 m3 liquid LILW with a salt concentration of ˜300 kg/m3 leaves behind only 0.2 m3 waste, that is, 4-6 times less than by bitumen impregnation and 10 times less than by cementation. Environmental and economic advantages of LILW vitrification result from (1) low solubility of the vitrified LILW in natural water; (2) significant reduction of LILW volume; (3) possibility to dispose the vitrified waste without additional engineering barriers under shallow conditions and in diverse geological media; (4) the strength of glass makes its transportation and storage possible; and finally (5) reliable longterm safety of repositories. When the composition of the glass matrix for LILW is being chosen, attention should be paid to the factors that ensure high technological and economic efficiency of vitrification. The study of vitrified LILW from the Kursk nuclear power plant

  11. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  12. Improved parthenogenetic development of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes activated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y -p; Liu, Ying; Dai, Y -p

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare various activation protocols on developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes matured in vitro for 23 h were vitrified with EDFSF30 in open pulled straws. After warming, they were cultured in vitro for 1 h, followed by parthenogenetic activation...... evaluating other activation protocols with 9% ethanol, calcium ionophore A23187, or ionomycin alone, or in combination with DMAP or cycloheximide (CHX). In conclusion, the oocyte activation protocol affected developmental capacity of vitrified bovine oocytes; 9% ethanol (5 min) followed by 6-DMAP (4 h...

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  15. 2002 summary of the report on studies and activities. Research on the Disposal of High-level Long-lived Radioactive Wastes; 2002 synthese du bilan des etudes et travaux. Recherches pour le stockage des dechets radioactifs haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis presents the studies underway and the major results obtained in the framework of the second research area prescribed by the Law of 1991 (the feasibility study of a deep geological repository). It also clarifies the French and international contexts of that research, namely with regard to the development of scientific partnerships. Content: 1 - scientific knowledge gained in 2002: packages, materials evolution, works about the clayey environment, works about the granitic environment, modeling approach; 2 - the 2002 granite dossier: context and goals, content; 3 - the 2002 concept choices for the clayey environment: overall architecture, packages and storage cells for B-type wastes, packages and storage cells for C-type vitrified wastes, packages and storage cells for spent fuels; 4 - international context: IAEA, OECD/NEA, integrated group for the safety case (IGSC), forum for stakeholders confidence (FSC), working party on decommissioning and dismantling (WPDD), general direction of energy transport, general direction of research, status of partnerships and bilateral agreements, advance of research cooperations, European Union; 5 - ANDRA's participations to international meetings; 6 - scientific partnerships: Ecole des Mines, BRGM, GdR FORPRO, MoMas, CEA, IFP, PRACTIS, PARIS, 7 - information and evaluation: national commission of evaluation (CNE), scientific committee, permanent group, orientation and follow-up committee; 8 - ANDRA's theses; 9 - ANDRA's publications. (J.S.)

  16. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  17. Melatonin inhibits apoptosis and improves the developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Ming; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Du, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Shan-Jiang; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wang, Na; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yan; Qin, Tong; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Vitrification of oocytes has been shown to be closely associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic events. However, little information is available the effect of melatonin on the ROS levels and apoptotic events in vitrified oocytes. Therefore, we studied the effect of melatonin on ROS and apoptotic events in vitrified bovine oocytes by supplementing vitrification solution or in vitro maturation (IVM) and vitrification solution with 10(-9) m melatonin. We analyzed the ROS, mitochondrial Ca(2+) (mCa(2+) ) and membrane potential (ΔΨm), externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression levels of Bax and Bcl2 l1, and developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Vitrified bovine oocytes exhibited increased levels of ROS, mCa(2+) , Bax mRNA, and caspase-3 protein and higher rates of PS externalization and DNA fragmentation, and decreased ΔΨm and Bcl2 l1 mRNA expression level. However, melatonin supplementation in vitrification solution or IVM and vitrification solution significantly decreased the levels of ROS, mCa(2+) , Bax mRNA expression, and caspase-3 protein, and PS externalization and DNA fragmentation rates, and increased the ΔΨm and Bcl2 l1 mRNA expression level in vitrified oocytes, resulting in an increased developmental ability of vitrified bovine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The developmental ability of vitrified oocytes with melatonin supplementation in IVM and vitrification solution was similar to that of fresh ones. This study showed that supplementing the IVM and vitrification medium or vitrification medium with 10(-9) m melatonin significantly decreased the ROS level and inhibited apoptotic events of vitrified bovine oocytes, consequently increasing their developmental potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ultrastructure and Development of Vitrified/Warmed Bovine Oocytes Matured with 9-cis Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Aida; Gómez, Enrique; Antolín, Isaac; Duque, Paloma; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Alonso, Cristina; Tamargo, Carolina; Fernández, Lina; Carbajo, Maite; Facal, Nieves; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Díez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA). Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a basic medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 9-cis-RA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Mature oocytes were vitrified using the Open Pulled Straw method with minor modifications. A group of fresh and vitrified/warmed COCs was fixed for ultrastructural analysis, wh...

  19. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  20. High level and long life radioactive wastes. Todays situation and future evolutions. Framework and process of the Granite collegial mission of dialogue. FAQ about the Granite collegial mission of dialogue; Dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Situation actuelle et evolutions futures. Cadre et demarche de la mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Foire aux questions sur la mission collegiale de concertation Granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    On December 9, 1998, the French government decided the construction of two underground laboratories for the study of the disposal of radioactive wastes in the deep underground. One site will be located in a granitic massif which remains to be determined. This document presents the framework and the different steps of the 'Granite' mission: the situation of radioactive wastes in France, some data about the conditioning, storage and reprocessing of high activity and long life radioactive wastes, the legal framework of the management of radioactive wastes and the related warranties, the disposal in deep underground and the realization of underground research laboratories, the government decision of December 9, 1998, the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue and the different steps of the geological surveys about granites. A second part answers some frequently asked questions about the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue: decision procedure, planning of the mission, consultation of the geologic survey, role of the mission, public information etc.. (J.S.)

  1. High-level waste canister storage final design, installation, and testing. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, B.J.; Meigs, R.A.; Pezzimenti, D.M.; Vlad, P.M.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s radioactive waste storage facility, the Chemical Process Cell (CPC). This facility is currently being used to temporarily store vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters. These canisters are stacked two-high in a seismically designed rack system within the cell. Approximately 300 canisters will be produced during the Project`s vitrification campaign which began in June 1996. Following the completion of waste vitrification and solidification, these canisters will be transferred via rail or truck to a federal repository (when available) for permanent storage. All operations in the CPC are conducted remotely using various handling systems and equipment. Areas adjacent to or surrounding the cell provide capabilities for viewing, ventilation, and equipment/component access.

  2. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  3. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  4. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  5. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  6. Morphological and Molecular Aspects of In Vitro Culture of Preantral Follicles Derived from Vitrified Ovarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoushahi, Mahboobeh; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the genes related to folliculogenesis after vitrification of mouse ovarian tissues using a two-step in vitro culture. In this experimental study, vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries from 7- day old (neonate) female mice were cultured using alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 7 days. Morphology, surface area of ovaries and percentage of normal follicles were evaluated and compared in both groups. After one-week culture, in non-vitrified group, preantral follicles of cultured ovaries were isolated and cultured in a three-dimensional alginate culture system for 12 days. Then, the collected metaphase (M) II oocytes were inseminated with capacitated spermatozoa derived from 7-8-week old (adult) male NMRI mice. Follicular diameter, oocyte maturation, fertilization, embryo development and the expression of genes related to follicular development (Pcna, Fshr and Cyp17a1,) using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were assessed at the end of last culture period in both groups. The ovarian area in vitrified group (162468.20 703.78) was less than non-vitrified group (297211.40 6671.71), while the percentage of preantral follicles in vitrified group (18.40%) was significantly lower than those of non-vitrified group (24.50%) on day 7 of culture (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of follicular diameter, expression of genes related to development of follicles, oocyte maturation, fertilization, as well as embryo development (P>0.05). The results of this study showed that vitrification of ovarian tissue following in vitro culture had negative impact on the survival and development of follicles within the tissue. However, no significant alterations were observed in development, gene expression and hormonal production of in vitro culture of isolated follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissues as compared

  7. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  8. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  9. ALPHN: A computer program for calculating ({alpha}, n) neutron production in canisters of high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Hermann, O.W.

    1992-10-01

    The rate of neutron production from ({alpha}, n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the ({alpha}, n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the ({alpha}, n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The ({alpha}, n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown.

  10. ALPHN: A computer program for calculating ([alpha], n) neutron production in canisters of high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Hermann, O.W.

    1992-10-01

    The rate of neutron production from ([alpha], n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the ([alpha], n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the ([alpha], n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The ([alpha], n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown.

  11. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  12. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  13. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  14. Expertise concerning the request by the ZWILAG Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG for granting of a licence for the building and operation of the Central Intermediate Storage Facility for radioactive wastes; Gutachten zum Gesuch der ZWILAG Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG um Erteilung der Bewilligung fuer Bau und Betrieb des Zentralen Zwischenlagers fuer radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    On July 15, 1993, the Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) submitted a request to the Swiss Federal Council for granting of a license for the construction and operation of a central intermediate storage facility for radioactive wastes. The project foresees intermediate storage halls as well as conditioning and incineration installations. The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the project from the point of view of nuclear safety. The present report presents the results of this examination. Different waste types have to be treated in ZWILAG: spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants (KKWs); vitrified, highly radioactive wastes from reprocessing; intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes from KKWs and from reprocessing; wastes from the dismantling of nuclear installations; wastes from medicine, industry and research. The wastes are partitioned into three categories: high-level (HAA) radioactive wastes containing, amongst others, {alpha}-active nuclides, intermediate-level (MAA) radioactive wastes and low-level (SAA) radioactive wastes. The projected installation consists of three repository halls for each waste category, a hot cell, a conditioning plant and an incineration and melting installation. The HAA repository can accept 200 transport and storage containers with vitrified high-level wastes or spent fuel assemblies. The expected radioactivity amounts to 10{sup 20} Bq, including 10{sup 18} Bq of {alpha}-active nuclides. The thermal power produced by decay is released to the environment by natural circulation of air. The ventilation system is designed for a maximum power of 5.8 MW. Severe conditions are imposed to the containers as far as tightness and shielding against radiation is concerned. In the repository for MAA wastes the maximum radioactivity is 10{sup 18} Bq with 10{sup 15} Bq of {alpha}-active nuclides. The maximum thermal power of 250 kW is removed by forced air cooling. Because

  15. NET.EXCEL thematic network: networking for research on radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svemar, Christer [Svensk Karnbranslemantering AB, SKB, Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory, PL 300, S-57295 Figeholm (Sweden); Vira, Juhani [Posiva Oy, FIN-27160 Olkiluoto (Finland); Astudillo, Julio [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA, ENRESA, Emilio Vargas 7, E-Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    The NET.EXCEL project concerns the forming of a network of European end users for analysing the present status and future needs in Research, Technical development and Demonstration (RTD) for the disposal of highly radioactive waste in the three classical rock media: salt, clay/clay sediments and crystalline rock. The aim is to generate value additional to that gained by the individual participants: Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden), Posiva Oy (Finland), Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (Spain), Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Germany), Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (France), Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (Switzerland), Organisme National des Dechets Radioactifs et des Matieres Fissiles Enrichies (Belgium) and United Kingdom Nirex Limited (UK). The work performed in various research institutes as well as in large-scale underground rock laboratories in European countries to develop techniques for the safe handling and disposal of highly radioactive waste has led to a substantial build-up of experience. The experience covers both the practical areas of repository design and construction, waste encapsulation/conditioning (as over-packing) and disposal, as well as the theoretical evaluation of long term safety. In general, there are differences in the type of high level and long lived radioactive waste (for instance, either spent fuel or vitrified waste if the reprocessing option is considered by utilities) that the participating organisations have responsibilities for, and the time-schedules for their work. The national regulatory framework may also induce some differences. One of the initial issues in the project is to shed light on the rationale for these observed differences. In contrast, the practical way to carry out the needed RTD-activities and the principles behind the process to establish priorities for the necessary RTD-work is quite similar. Common ground

  16. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  17. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution of IVP bovine blastocysts vitrified in hand-pulled glass micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two ethylene glycol-based vitrification solutions on in vitro and in vivo survival after in-straw cryoprotectant dilution of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Day-7 expanded blastocysts were selected according to diameter (> or = 180 microm) and osmotic characteristics and randomly assigned to one of three groups (i) VSa: vitrification in 40% EG+17.1% SUC+0.1% PVA; (ii) VSb: vitrification in 20% EG+20% DMSO; (iii) control: non-vitrified embryos. Vitrification was performed in hand-pulled glass micropipettes (GMP) and cryoprotectant dilution in 0.25 ml straws after warming in a plastic tube. Embryo viability was assessed by re-expansion and hatching rates after 72 h of IVC and by pregnancy rates after direct transfer of vitrified embryos. No differences in re-expansion rates were observed between vitrified groups after 24 h in culture (VSa=84.5%; VSb=94.8%). However, fewer VSa embryos (55.2%, Pstraw cryoprotectant dilution and direct embryo transfer.

  18. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  19. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    volume of 100-150 liters/MT of fuel reprocessed); 3) set it aside in air-cooled storage for 30-50 years; and 4} provide for its final disposal in a deep geologic repository. High-level waste solidification research started in the 1950s, and a pilot vitrification facility has operated for 10 years at Kyshtym. A fully radioactive unit also operated there for about two years until 1988 and produced 160 MT of HLW phosphate glass, containing 3.9 x 106 curies of radioactivity. [This corresponds to radioactivity in about 10 MT of 10-year-old power reactor fuel.] Problems with the glass melter electrodes have caused this latter plant to shut down, but a new design and plant are being developed. A site near Krasnoyarsk has also recently been referred to as a disposal site for low- and intermediate-level waste streams and possibly for vitrified wastes from Kyshtym. Deep geologic disposal of vitrified high-level waste has been studied, at a modest level of effort, over the last decade in the Soviet Union. Key disposal concepts under consideration include mining shafts, deep drill holes, and underground excavations. Although a variety of host rock types have been addressed, the emphasis appears to be on salt, clay, and granite. The Soviet Union appears to require the use of man-made barriers and waste packages in permanent disposal, but the geologic formation will be relied upon as the primary protective barrier. The construction schedule for a Soviet repository has not been stated. Meanwhile, a decision on the first repository site may be made in 1990, with a candidate site being at Chelyabinsk.

  20. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  1. Predictive value of serum HCG concentrations in pregnancies achieved after single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Galia; Shavit, Tal; Esh-Broder, Efrat; Weon-Young, Son; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2017-09-01

    Possible differences between serum HCG levels in pregnancies achieved after transfer of a single fresh or a vitrified-warmed blastocyst were evaluated. Out of 1130 single blastocyst transfers resulting in positive HCG results, 789 were single fresh blastocyst transfers and 341 single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers. The initial serum HCG levels of 869 clinical intrauterine pregnancies were evaluated, 638 after the transfer of a single fresh blastocysts and 231 after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The HCG levels from cycles resulting in a clinical intrauterine pregnancy were significantly higher after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocyst (383 ± 230 IU/l) versus a fresh transfer (334 ± 192 IU/l; P = 0.01). Threshold values for predicting a clinical pregnancy for a fresh blastocyst were 111 IU/l and for a vitrified-warmed blastocyst 137 IU/l. Our study shows that the overall beta-HCG levels are comparable after the transfer of a fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst, suggesting that vitrification most probably does not affect the ability of the embryos to produce beta-HCG. This study further shows that when clinicians counsel patients, they should take into account that higher HCG levels are needed after a vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer to predict a clinical intrauterine pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The present study also pays specific attention to the uncertainties of evaluated maximum concentrations and represents them as lower- and upper limits. The conceptual steps for deriving uncertainties are briefly outlined in section 3. Mainly due to lack of data/knowledge, it was not always possible to assess uncertainties in a manner consistent with that used to assess maximum concentrations. In a number of cases it was necessary to rely on less well traceable information or even on estimates and/or 'expert judgement' to provide uncertainties. This less rigorous approach is justified by the fact that uncertainties (particularly the upper limits) are deemed as important as the maximum concentrations themselves. Although (upper) limits are specified wherever adequate information was available, no uncertainties at all could be derived for a few elements. A specific class of variabilities arises from major uncertainties in the underlying chemical system, particularly from lack of knowledge of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2}. This class of uncertainties is visualised as 'solubility' vs. 'pCO{sub 2}' diagrams when appropriate. Limits were derived either from maximum values of thermodynamic uncertainties or from chemical system variabilities. Another major uncertainty concerns the definition of redox conditions in the underlying chemical system. Although not really expected to occur, an oxidising environment instead of reducing conditions could establish in the vicinity of the disposed of wastes. In the sense of a 'what-if' study, section 5 provides model calculations for the redox sensitive elements Pu, Np, U, Tc, Se and Sb, performed under oxidising conditions. (author)

  3. Egg donation of vitrified oocytes bank produces similar pregnancy rates by blastocyst transfer when compared to fresh cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Thais S; Aquino, Ana Paula; Barros, Bruna; Mazetto, Raquel; Nicolielo, Mariana; Kimati, Carolina M; Devecchi, Talita; Bonetti, Tatiana C S; Serafini, Paulo C; Motta, Eduardo L A

    2017-08-16

    Advances in reproductive techniques, mainly the introduction of oocyte vitrification, have provided the opportunity to conceive from oocyte banks. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of fresh and vitrified oocytes in an egg donation program following blastocyst transfer. This retrospective observational study included 504 oocyte donation cycles. All donor women were younger than 30 years of age. The recipient cycles were divided into two groups: fresh oocytes (n = 78) or vitrified oocytes (n = 426). All oocytes were fertilized by ICSI using ejaculated sperm, followed by blastocyst transfer. Endometrium preparation was performed with estradiol valerate plus micronized progesterone according to standard protocols. Recipients were of similar age (fresh 42.0 ± 4.5 years vs vitrified 41.8 ± 4.8 years; p = 0.790). The fresh group received more mature oocytes for injection compared to the vitrified group (10.1 ± 2.8 vs 9.2 ± 2.2; p = 0.005). The two pronuclei (2PN) rate (74.5 vs 77.4%; p = 0.195) and blastocyst rate (48.8 vs 51.6%; 0.329) were similar between the fresh and vitrified groups, respectively. The rates of clinical pregnancy were 60.9% in the fresh and 59.0% in the vitrified groups (p = 0.771). Our findings suggest that vitrified oocytes result in similar pregnancy rates when compared to fresh oocytes with blastocyst transfer in an egg donation program. Moreover, vitrified oocytes may allow for a better cycle schedule, starting with a lower number of oocytes to be fertilized. Therefore, we hypothesize that egg banks with vitrified oocytes could be safely utilized in an egg donation program.

  4. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO{sub 2}, hollandite, glass SON68); Effet de l'irradiation (alpha, gamma) sur l'alteration des matrices de dechets nucleaires de hautes activites (UO{sub 2}, hollandite, verre SON68)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO{sub 2} to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO{sub 2} colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO{sub 2} matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  5. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  6. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  7. Overview of high level synthesis tools

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J

    2011-01-01

    High Level Synthesis takes an abstract behavioural or algorithmic description of a digital system and creates a register transfer level structure that realises the described behaviour. Various methodologies have been developed to perform such synthesis tasks. This paper presents the different HLS concepts used in the current leading tools. It makes a comparison between the different approaches and highlights their advantages and limitations. We also present a high level synthesis example.

  8. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  9. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  10. Contribution to selection and behaviour of filling of the container of high-level radioactive wastes. Final report. Phase I; Contribucion a la seleccion y evaluacion del comportamiento del material de relleno interno del contenedor de residuos de alta actividad Informe final. Fase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dies, J.; Puig, F.; Sevilla, M.; Pablo, J. de; Pueyo, J. J.; Miralles, L.; Martinez-Esparza, A.

    2006-07-01

    This work has been carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste container for deep geological repository. Its preliminary design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, steel corrosion controlled outer wall and glass bed filling of the container. This filling is as relevant as its main role, which is to prevent repository criticality under any foreseen conditions. The present report covers, in first place, the most relevant advances on deep geological storage all around the world, paying special attention on container design solutions. Secondly, having studied carefully the general features of ENRESA preliminary design, the waste forms and all other disposal requirements, a complete and detailed objectives definition is carried out as a selection criterion for candidate materials evaluation and selection. It should be noted that this compilation of demands is significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other that had been found in literature, including over 20 requirements additionally to another dozen general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Afterwards, eight materials or materials families had been chosen for their potentially interesting properties for geologic disposal. These materials are cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine. Each one of these candidates (under their possible physical forms) had been examined in detail, using available literature and group experience, and evaluated under each of the previously defined objectives. Finally, some relevant conclusions about candidates suitability are extracted from the previous analysis and all the objectives evaluations for each material are summarized in the form of a few matrices to help in decision making. Some other important aspects related to performance improvement, costs, logistics and

  11. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution for bovine embryos vitrified using Cryotop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Hirai, Tomokazu; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Misumi, Koji; Ohtake, Masaki; Somfai, Tamas; Kobayashi, Shuji; Saito, Norio; Matoba, Satoko; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in-straw dilution method suitable for 1-step bovine embryo transfer of vitrified embryos using the Cryotop vitrification-straw dilution (CVSD) method. The development of embryos vitrified using the CVSD method was compared with those of embryos cryopreserved using in-straw vitrification-dilution (ISVD) and conventional slow freezing, outside dilution of straw (SFODS) methods. In Experiment 1, in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos cryopreserved using the CVSD method were diluted, warmed and exposed to the dilution solution at various times. When vitrified IVP embryos were exposed to the dilution solution for 30 min after warming, the rates of embryos developing to the hatched blastocyst stage after 72 h of culture (62.0-72.5%) were significantly lower (Pembryos exposed to the solution for 5 and 10 min (82.4-94.3%), irrespective of supplementation with 0.3 M sucrose in the dilution solution. In Experiment 2, the rate of embryos developing to the hatching blastocyst stage after 48 h of culture in IVP embryos cryopreserved using the SFODS method (75.0%) was significantly (Pembryos cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods (93.2 and 97.3%, respectively). In Experiment 3, when in vivo-produced embryos that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD, ISVD and SFODS methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception and delivery rates among groups. In Experiment 4, when IVP embryos derived from oocytes collected by ovum pick-up that had been cryopreserved using the CVSD and ISVD methods and fresh embryos were transferred to recipient animals, no significant differences were observed in the conception rates among groups. Our results indicate that this simplified regimen of warming and diluting Cryotop-vitrified embryos may enable 1-step bovine embryo transfer without the requirement of a microscope or other laboratory equipment.

  12. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow...

  13. Rescue of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes with rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Hara, Hiromasa; Chung, Hak-Jae; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2013-08-01

    Cryotolerance of matured bovine oocytes is not fully practical even though a promising vitrification procedure with a ultrarapid cooling rate was applied. The present study was conducted to investigate whether recovery culture of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes with an inhibitor (Y-27632) of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) can improve the developmental potential after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture. Immediately after warming, almost all oocytes appeared to be morphological normal. Treatment of the postwarming oocytes with 10 μM Y-27632 for 2 h resulted in the significantly higher oocyte survival rate before IVF as well as higher cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate. Quality analysis of the resultant blastocysts in terms of total cell number and apoptotic cell ratio also showed the positive effect of the Y-27632 treatment. Time-dependent change in mitochondrial activity of the vitrified-warmed oocytes was not influenced by ROCK inhibition during the period of recovery culture. However, the ability of ooplasm to support single-aster formation was improved by the ROCK inhibition. Thus, inhibition of ROCK activity in vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes during a short-term recovery culture can lead to higher developmental competence, probably due to decreased apoptosis and normalized function of the microtubule-organizing center.

  14. Crucial surviving aspects for vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus José; Paschoal, Daniela Martins; da Silva Rascado, Tatiana; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Junior, Alício Martins; Machado, Rui; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to correlate some parameters (cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score, total cell number, fresh apoptosis and lipid content) with embryo survival after cryopreservation. A total of 1727 in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were used to establish the parameters (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) for cleavage (85.6 ± 0.8), blastocyst production (39.9 ± 1.4), quality degree score (1.6 ± 0.1), total cell number (140.1 ± 2.9), fresh apoptosis (20.8 ± 1.1) and lipid content (21.3 ± 0.8 droplets). On the same way 1316 blastocysts were vitrified for the determination of post-cryopreservation embryo survival (49.4 ± 1.9). Fresh apoptosis rate and total lipid droplets value were correlated (P embryo survival after cryopreservation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.59; respectively). However, cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score and total cell number were not correlated (P > 0.05) with embryo cryotolerance (r = 0.23, r = 0.38, r = 0.22 and r = 0.28; respectively). Therefore, the increased lipid content was moderately correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts. On the other hand, increased apoptosis in fresh blastocysts was strongly correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts, which indicated that the apoptosis rate in fresh embryos was a better parameter than the lipid content to predict post-vitrification embryo survival.

  15. Gene expression profiles of vitrified in vitro- and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Digdem Aktoprakligil; Agca, Cansu; Aksu, Soner; Bagis, Haydar; Akkoc, Tolga; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Arat, Sezen; Taskin, Ali Cihan; Kizil, Sedat H; Karasahin, Tahir; Akyol, Numan; Satilmis, Muharrem; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Ustuner, Burcu; Nur, Zekeriya; Agca, Yuksel

    2012-09-01

    Vitrification is becoming a preferred method for pre-implantation embryo cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to determine the differentially expressed genes of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos after vitrification. In vitro- (IVF) and in vivo-derived (IVV) bovine blastocysts were identified as follows: in vitro-produced fresh (IVF-F), in vitro-produced vitrified (IVF-V), in vivo-derived fresh (IVV-F), in vivo-derived vitrified (IVV-V). The microarray results showed that 53 genes were differentially regulated between IVF and IVV, and 121 genes were differentially regulated between fresh and vitrified blastocysts (P vitro bovine blastocyst production protocols used in this study caused no major gene expression differences compared to those of in vivo-produced blastocysts. After vitrification, however, in vitro-produced blastocysts showed major gene expression differences compared to in vivo blastocysts. This study suggests that in vitro-produced embryos are of comparable quality to their in vivo counterparts. Vitrification of in vitro blastocysts, on the other hand, causes significant up-regulation of genes that are involved in stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of vitrified and nonvitrified sugars on phosphatidylcholine fluid-to-gel phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, K L; Lei, Y P; Anderson, M; Martin, S; Bryant, G

    2000-04-01

    DSC was used to study the ability of glass-forming sugars to affect the gel-to-fluid phase transition temperature, T(m), of several phosphatidylcholines during dehydration. In the absence of sugars, T(m) increased as the lipid dried. Sugars diminished this increase, an effect we explain using the osmotic and volumetric properties of sugars. Sugars vitrifying around fluid phase lipids lowered T(m) below the transition temperature of the fully hydrated lipid, T(o). The extent to which T(m) was lowered below T(o) ranged from 12 degrees to 57 degrees, depending on the lipids' acyl chain composition. Sugars vitrifying around gel phase lipids raised T(m) during the first heating scan in the calorimeter, then lowered it below T(o) in subsequent scans of the sample. Ultrasound measurements of the mechanical properties of a typical sugar-glass indicate that it is sufficiently rigid to hinder the lipid gel-to-fluid transition. The effects of vitrification on T(m) are explained using the two-dimensional Clausius-Clapeyron equation to model the mechanical stress in the lipid bilayer imposed by the glassy matrix. Dextran and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) also vitrified but did not depress T(m) during drying. Hydration data suggest that the large molecular volumes of these polymers caused their exclusion from the interbilayer space during drying.

  17. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  18. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  20. The Effects of High Level Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is...8217Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism?’. It would be comforting to know that

  1. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  2. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  3. Comparison of ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tong; Chen, Hong; Fu, Rong; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Yun; Mol, Ben W; Kuang, Yanping; Lyu, Qifeng

    2017-07-01

    To compare ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Retrospective cohort study. Academic tertiary-care medical center. A total of 10,736 pregnancies after 23,730 frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection from March 2003 to May 2015. The ectopic pregnancy rate was compared among pregnancies resulting from transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Generalized estimation equation regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient and treatment characteristics. We studied this association in both the group that achieved pregnancy and the group that underwent an FET cycle. Odds of ectopic pregnancy. The overall rate of ectopic pregnancy was 2.8% (304/10,736). Ectopic pregnancy rates after day-3, day-5, and day-6 vitrified embryo transfers were 3.1% (287/9,224), 2.0% (11/562), and 0.6% (6/950), respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the risks of ectopic pregnancy in day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers were both significantly higher than in day-6 vitrified embryo transfers. The associations were similar when we did calculations per cycle. In women undergoing FET, day-6 vitrified embryo transfer is associated with a significantly lower risk of ectopic pregnancy than both day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-level Synthesis Integrated Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dossis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known in the engineering community that more than 60% of the IC design project time is spent on verification. For the very complex contemporary chips, this may prove prohibitive for the IC to arrive at the correct time in the market and therefore, valuable sales share may be lost by the developing industry. This problem is deteriorated by the fact that most of conventional verification flows are highly repetitive and a great proportion of the project time is spent on last-moment simulations. In this paper we present an integrated approach to rapid, high-level verification, exploiting the advantages of a formal High-level Synthesis tool, developed by the author. Verification in this work is supported at 3 levels: high-level program code, RTL simulation and rapid, generated C testbench execution. This paper is supported by strong experimental work with 3-4 popular design synthesis and verification that proves the principles of our methodology.

  5. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made.

  6. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of HLW vitrification is limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layer, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 µm/h determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  7. A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  9. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    A compilation of the origin and composition of organic material possibly left in a repository is made. Recommendations of precautions and actions for the different material are listed as well. As a brief summary, the different categories of organic material of relevance for the repository are: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would be mainly a reduction of the redox potential in the initial stages after the repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped due to the repository construction. This effect would not jeopardize the stability of the repository. If the dominating microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to formation of HS{sup -}. The produced sulphide can corrode copper under anaerobic conditions, if it reaches the canisters. Another effect of microorganisms would be the increase of the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the low amounts of the excreted substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be a contribution to the maintenance of reducing conditions in the area, although it is likely that this effect will be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among them we can highlight organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite and wood. The most important compounds from the repository safety perspective will be those hydrocarbons from asphalt that may contribute to decreasing the redox potential around the repository, and the products of degradation of cellulose. This last category of compounds may contribute to enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository and it is recommended to minimize the amount of cellulose left in the repository. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects from these organics in the repository are expected, although the presence of aromatic compounds and PAHs in groundwater is not desirable by itself, they are of no consequence for the long-term performance of the repository. 5. Detergents and lubricants. The same reasoning as for fuels and engine emissions can be applied in this case. The amount of detergents should be minimized, although in the amounts that they are expected to occur, no important impact is foreseen. 6. Materials from human activities. Among them, the ones having potentially a more important effect are fibres from clothes, due to the presence of cellulose, and therefore it is recommended to minimise human-related wastes, although no large amounts of these materials are expected to be present after the repository closure. The effects that organic substances can have in the repository will always depend on the amounts present in the repository after closure. The estimated average concentrations are below 1.7x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.17 mg/L) of hydrocarbons in the deposition tunnels and less than 8.4x10{sup -4} kg/m{sup 3} (0.84 mg/L) of carbohydrates, assuming a total saturation in the pore water and an even distribution of the organic materials. This should be compared to the organic material found in groundwater at natural circumstances. At 500 m depth the DOC (dissolved organic carbon) content usually are approximately 0.5.2 mg/L. Three processes are deemed to have the largest possible impact on the performance of the repository: i) Increase of the reducing capacity and decrease of the redox potential in the short-term, and increased rate of depletion of the oxygen trapped during the repository operation stage. ii) Increase in the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to the presence of organic complexants, which is expected to be a process of more relevance in the long-term. Many organic molecules with complexing capacity, such as short organic acids like acetate are, however, oxidised as a consequence of microbial metabolism. The acetate concentration in ground water is below detection limit of methods available. The amount of organic material in ground water is usually a few mg/L. Between 25 and 75% of this material is non-humic material, i.e. short chained acids. iii) Production of HS{sup -} from oxidation of short organic acids by sulphate reducing bacteria using sulphate as electron acceptor. The produced sulphide can corrode copper canisters if the sulphide can come in contact. The concentrations of sulphide are in the same range as those found in natural groundwaters at the sites. By and large, the decrease of the O{sub 2} concentration is positive and, therefore, no specific measures need to be taken against substances only having this effect. The increase of the complexing capacity, though, can be relevant if the products of degradation of the organic matter coexist with radionuclides in the long-term or if they can have influence in decreasing the performance of the engineering barriers. Since the addition of organic material to the groundwater from stray materials left in the repository is small compared to the organic content in natural groundwater the results from all three of the processes induced by the additional organic material above are of minor importance for a repository.

  10. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  11. Comparison of concomitant outcome achieved with fresh and cryopreserved donor oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Kuwayama, Masashigue; Pérez, Sonia; Ruiz, Amparo; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of oocyte vitrification using the Cryotop method, observed in an egg donation program by simultaneously evaluating embryos derived from vitrified and fresh oocytes coming from the same stimulated cycle. Cohort prospective randomized study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Valencia, Spain. Thirty oocyte donors and 30 recipients with informed consents. Vitrification by the Cryotop method. Warming 1 hour after vitrification. Microinjection of surviving MII and fresh oocytes, evaluation of fertilization, embryo development, and clinical results. Survival, fertilization, and cleavage rate. Embryo quality, pregnancy rate (PR), and implantation rate. Survival rate observed was 96.7%. There was no difference in fertilization rates (76.3% and 82.2%), day 2 cleavage (94.2% and 97.8%), day 3 cleavage (80.8% and 80.5%), and blastocyst formation (48.7% and 47.5%) for vitrified and fresh oocytes, respectively. Embryo quality on day 3 and on day 5-6 were similar for vitrification and fresh oocyte group (80.8% vs. 80.5% and 81.1% vs. 70%, respectively). A total of 23 embryo transfers were carried out in the vitrification group. Pregnancy rates, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, and ongoing PR were 65.2%, 40.8%, 20%, and 47.8%, respectively. The Cryotop method preserves the potential of vitrified oocytes to fertilize and further develop, which is similar, when evaluated simultaneously, to fresh counterparts. Excellent clinical outcome indicates the possible use of this technology for egg donation programs, as well as a high potential for establishing oocyte banking.

  12. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  13. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  14. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  15. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to detect glass or ice formation in the vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes and morulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzar, Muhammad; Grochulski, Pawel; Bonnet, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is not as successful as bovine embryos, due to oocyte's complex structure and chilling sensitivity. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), a powerful method to study crystal structure and phase changes, was used to detect the glass or ice formation in water, tissue culture medium (TCM)-199, vitrification solution 2 (VS2), and vitrified bovine COCs and morulae. Data revealed Debye's rings and peaks associated with the hexagonal ice crystals at 3.897, 3.635, 3.427, 2.610, 2.241, 1.912 and 1.878 Å in both water and TCM-199, whereas VS2 showed amorphous (glassy) appearance, at 102K (-171°C). An additional peak of sodium phosphate monobasic hydrate (NaH2PO4.H2O) crystals was observed at 2.064 Å in TCM-199 only. All ice and NaH2PO4.H2O peaks were detected in the non-vitrified (control) and vitrified COCs, except two ice peaks (3.145 and 2.655 Å) were absent in the vitrified COCs. The intensities of majority of ice peaks did not differ between the non-vitrified and vitrified COCs. The non-vitrified bovine morulae in TCM-199 demonstrated all ice- and NaH2PO4.H2O-associated Debye's rings and peaks, found in TCM-199 alone. There was no Debye's ring present in the vitrified morulae. In conclusion, SXRD is a powerful method to confirm the vitrifiability of a solution and to detect the glass or ice formation in vitrified cells and tissues. The vitrified bovine COCs exhibited the hexagonal ice crystals instead of glass formation whereas the bovine morulae underwent a typical vitrification.

  17. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to detect glass or ice formation in the vitrified bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes and morulae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anzar

    Full Text Available Vitrification of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs is not as successful as bovine embryos, due to oocyte's complex structure and chilling sensitivity. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD, a powerful method to study crystal structure and phase changes, was used to detect the glass or ice formation in water, tissue culture medium (TCM-199, vitrification solution 2 (VS2, and vitrified bovine COCs and morulae. Data revealed Debye's rings and peaks associated with the hexagonal ice crystals at 3.897, 3.635, 3.427, 2.610, 2.241, 1.912 and 1.878 Å in both water and TCM-199, whereas VS2 showed amorphous (glassy appearance, at 102K (-171°C. An additional peak of sodium phosphate monobasic hydrate (NaH2PO4.H2O crystals was observed at 2.064 Å in TCM-199 only. All ice and NaH2PO4.H2O peaks were detected in the non-vitrified (control and vitrified COCs, except two ice peaks (3.145 and 2.655 Å were absent in the vitrified COCs. The intensities of majority of ice peaks did not differ between the non-vitrified and vitrified COCs. The non-vitrified bovine morulae in TCM-199 demonstrated all ice- and NaH2PO4.H2O-associated Debye's rings and peaks, found in TCM-199 alone. There was no Debye's ring present in the vitrified morulae. In conclusion, SXRD is a powerful method to confirm the vitrifiability of a solution and to detect the glass or ice formation in vitrified cells and tissues. The vitrified bovine COCs exhibited the hexagonal ice crystals instead of glass formation whereas the bovine morulae underwent a typical vitrification.

  18. Environment and oxidation state of molybdenum in simulated high level nuclear waste glass compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R. J.; Hand, R. J.; Hyatt, N. C.; Möbus, G.

    2005-04-01

    Alkali borosilicate glasses containing between 20 and 35 wt% of a simulated high level nuclear waste stream with varying Li2O contents were melted under neutral (air) and reducing (nitrogen/hydrogen) conditions. XRD analysis of the as-cast glasses showed a tendency for the products to remain amorphous when melted under neutral conditions and for metallic silver to develop in the reduced melts. EXAFS analysis revealed (MoO4)2- tetrahedra in all glasses regardless of the sparge applied during melting. The glasses were heat treated to simulate an interruption to the cooling system used to prevent heat build-up in the vitrified product store. Powellite-type molybdate phases were found to develop in the heat treated samples and formed at lower waste loadings in glasses sparged with a reducing gas. A reduction in the quantity of Li2O lead to a reduction in the quantity of powellite-type molybdate phases. EDS showed the primary molybdate phase to be high in Sr and rare earth elements and TEM indicated that the presence of silver metal encouraged molybdate formation.

  19. Expression of Folliculogenesis-Related Genes in Vitrified Human Ovarian Tissue after Two Weeks In Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitrification and in vitro culture of human ovarian tissue on the expression of oocytic and follicular cell-related genes. In this experimental study, ovarian tissue samples were obtained from eight transsexual women. Samples were cut into small fragments and were then assigned to vitrified and non-vitrified groups. In each group, some tissue fragments were divided into un-cultured and cultured (in α-MEM medium for 2 weeks) subgroups. The normality of follicles was assessed by morphological observation under a light microscope using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Expression levels of factor in the germ line alpha (FIGLA), KIT ligand (KL), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes were quantified in both groups by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the beginning and the end of culture. The percentage of normal follicles was similar between non-cultured vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P>0.05), however, cultured tissues had significantly fewer normal follicles than non-cultured tissues in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (Pcultured groups the rate of primary and secondary follicles was significantly higher than non-cultured tissues (Pcultured groups. Whiles, in comparison with cultured tissues non-cultured tissues, the expression of FIGLA gene was significantly decreased, KL gene was not changed, GDF-9 and FSHR genes was significantly increased (Pculture has no impairing effects on follicle normality and development and expression of related-genes. However, in vitro culture condition has deleterious effects on normality of follicles.

  20. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  1. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  2. Crystal-chemistry of alteration products of vitrified wastes: implications on the retention of polluting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Alteration products of vitrified wastes coming from the incineration of household refuse (MSW) are described. Two vitrified wastes containing 50% and 70% of fly ash and a synthetic stained-glass with a composition close to that of an ancient glass (medieval stained-glass) were altered under different pH conditions (1, 5.5 corresponding to demineralized water and 10) during 181 days. Under acidic condition, the alteration layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel impoverished in most of the initial elements. A minor phase MPO(4)*nH(2)O, where M represents Fe, Ti, Al, Ca and K cations, also constitutes the altered layer of the synthetic stained-glass. Under neutral and basic conditions, the altered layer is made of an amorphous hydrated silica gel and a crystallized calcium phosphate phase. The silica gel is depleted in alkalis and alkali-earth elements but contains significant amounts of aluminium, magnesium and transition elements, whereas the calcium phosphate is a hydroxylapatite-like phase with P-Si substitutions and a Ca/P ratio depending on the pH of the solution. This study shows: (i) the strong influence of pH conditions on the crystal-chemistry of alteration products and thus on the mechanisms of weathering resulting in different trapping of polluting elements, and (ii) that glass alteration does not necessary produce thermodynamically stable phases which has to be taken into account for the prediction of the long-term behavior.

  3. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 µl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7% with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%, cleavage (47.6% and buffalo embryo development (15.4% produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05.

  4. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Saber Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 microl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7%) with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%), cleavage (47.6%) and buffalo embryo development (15.4%) produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05).

  5. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Through Focused ION Beam (FIB from Vitrified Chromium Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros-Elizondo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows how the Focused Ion Beam (FIB has been applied to vitrified materials obtained from chromiumwastes. Due to the issues arising during conventional Ar+ ion milling, it was necessary to thin these samples usingFIB. Difficulties came from the heterogeneous size between chromium spinels and the residual glass phase. The FIBwas applied to obtain thin foils from vitrified materials. These brittle and heterogeneous samples result in specimenswith many perforations and chipping when using conventional thinning below 100 nanometers. Alternatively, FIBallowed thinning in the range of 60 - 80 nanometers from specifically selected areas such as the areas containingspinel crystals Mg(Al,Cr2O4 in order to facilitate the final Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM observations. Inthis paper, FIB is shown to be a very powerful microtool as a brittle samples preparation method as well as providingan alternative way for performing conventional ceramography and Ar+ ion milling. FIB is a much less destructivemethod with greater observed capacity in the quantity and analysis of microcrystalline phases.

  6. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  7. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

  8. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  9. The ATLAS high level trigger steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N.; Bold, T.; Eifert, T.; Fischer, G.; George, S.; Haller, J.; Hoecker, A.; Masik, J.; Nedden, M. Z.; Reale, V. P.; Risler, C.; Schiavi, C.; Stelzer, J.; Wu, X.

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.

  10. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton isolation. Reconstructed tracks are also used to distinguish the primary vertex, which identifies the hard interaction process, from the pileup ones. This task is particularly important in the LHC environment given the large number of interactions per bunch crossing: on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II. We will present the performance of HLT tracking algorithms, discussing its impact on CMS physics program, as well as new developments done towards the next data taking in 2015.

  11. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  13. Piglets produced by transfer of vitrified porcine embryos after stepwise dilution of cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Takei, M; Kano, M; Tomita, M; Leibo, S P

    1998-02-01

    A total of 498 porcine embryos at various stages of development collected from superovulated gilts was used to investigate cryopreservation. First, blastocysts (BL), expanded blastocysts (ExB), and hatched blastocysts (HB) were used to determine the effect of exposure to concentrated solutions of ethylene glycol as cryoprotective additives (CPAs) on embryo survival. Then, survival of other embryos after vitrification by rapid cooling was determined. Based on their development after 48 h in culture, embryos were not injured by being exposed to 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) for 15 min or to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then to a solution of 8.0 M EG in 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min. The CPAs were removed from the embryos by diluting them with 1.7 M galactose. To vitrify the embryos, they were exposed to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then were pipetted directly into short columns of 8.0 M EG-PVP contained within (1.25-ml plastic straws and separated from long columns of 1.7 M galactose by an air bubble. The straws were plunged directly into LN2. After the straws were warmed rapidly in a 25 degrees C water bath, the embryos were immediately mixed with galactose within the straws by shaking them vigorously to mix the contents. In sequential experiments, three methods were used to dilute the CPA solutions. Method 1: Embryos in the EG-PVP-galactose mixture were expelled from the straws and rinsed and cultured in modified CZB medium (mCZB). Method II: Embryos in the mixture were placed briefly into 1.5 M EG and then rinsed and cultured in mCZB. Method III: Embryos in the mixture were rinsed in 1.0 M EG and then in 0.5 M EG and finally rinsed with mCZB and cultured. After 48 h in culture, the respective percentages of survival of embryos vitrified as BL, ExB, or HB were: Method I, 21, 32, and 13%; Method II, 9, 40, and 24%; Method III, 35, 85, and 71%. Of 20 additional ExB vitrified embryos diluted by Method III and transferred into a recipient, four developed into live piglets

  14. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  15. In Vitro Growth and Maturation of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes Collected from Early Antral Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAO, Yuji; SOMFAI, Tamás; NARUSE, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cryopreservation of growing oocytes enriches the choice of timing and location of artificial embryo production. However, completion of oocyte growth after warming is crucial when using such cryopreserved oocytes. Our research objective was to develop a sequential system that incorporates cryopreservation of growing bovine oocytes and their subsequent in vitro growth. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes with a mean oocyte diameter of approximately 100 µm were vitrified-warmed and then cultured for 14 days. The percentage of surviving oocytes following cryopreservation and 14-day culture was approximately 80%. More than half of the surviving oocytes were capable of maturing to metaphase II after in vitro maturation; the rate was comparable to that of control oocytes grown in vitro without cryopreservation. Taken together, the combined protocols for vitrification-warming of growing oocytes and subsequent in vitro growth can produce oocytes capable of undergoing meiotic maturation. PMID:24126072

  16. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell...... division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd...

  17. The Effect of Media Supplementation with Angiotensin on Developmental Competence of Ovine Embryos Derived from Vitrified-warmed Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Borjian Boroujeni, Sara; Sarvari, Ali; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to assess the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) supplementation to the In Vitro Maturation (IVM) and In Vitro Culture (IVC) media of vitrified-warmed ovine oocytes on their developmental competence and expression of Na+/K+/ATPase in resulting embryos. Methods: The slaughterhouse-derived immature oocytes (n=1069) were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: groups I and II) IVM/IVF and IVC of fresh and vitrified oocytes without angiotensin supplementation (Control-Fresh and Control-Vit groups, respectively); group III) IVM of vitrified oocytes in the presence of Ang II followed by IVF/IVC (Vit-IVM group); and group IV) IVM/IVF of vitrified oocytes followed by IVC wherein the embryos were exposed to Ang II on day 4 of IVC (Vit-D4 group). The embryos were immunostained with primary antibodies against Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits. Results: In Vit-IVM and Vit-D4 groups, the rates of expanded and total blastocysts on day 7 as well as the proportion of blastocysts on day 8 were increased. The expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits were positively influenced by the addition of Ang II on day 4 (Vit-D4 group). Conclusion: The addition of Ang II to the IVM and IVC media could improve blastocysts formation in vitrified sheep oocytes. This improvement might be related to the greater expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits when Ang II was added during IVC. PMID:27563427

  18. Developmental potential of vitrified holstein cattle embryos fertilized in vitro with sex-sorted sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, Z; Su, L; Nedambale, T L; Zhang, J; Schenk, J; Moreno, J F; Dinnyés, A; Ji, W; Tian, X C; Yang, X; Du, F

    2006-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a feasible way to utilize sex-sorted sperm to produce offspring of a predetermined sex in the livestock industry. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of various factors on bovine IVF and to systematically improve the efficiency of IVF production using sex-sorted sperm. Both bulls and sorting contributed to the variability among differential development rates of embryos fertilized by sexed sperm. Increased sorting pressures (275.8 to 344.75 kPa) did not have a significant effect on the in vitro fertility of the sorted sperm; neither did an extended period of 9 to 14 h from semen collection to sorting. As few as 600 sorted sperm were used to fertilize an oocyte, resulting in blastocyst development of 33.2%. Postwarming of vitrified sexed IVF embryos resulted in high morphological survival (96.3%) and hatching (84.4%) rates, similar to those fertilized by nonsexed sperm (93.1 and 80.6%, respectively). A 40.9% pregnancy rate was established following the transfer of 3,627 vitrified, sexed embryos into synchronized recipients. This was not different from the rates with nonsexed IVF (41.9%, n = 481), or in vivo-produced (53.1%, n = 192) embryos. Of 458 calves born, 442 (96.5%) were female and 99.6% appeared normal. These technologies (sperm sexing-IVF-vitrification-embryo transfer) provide farmers, as well as the livestock industry, with a valuable option for herd expansion and heifer replacement programs. In summary, calves were produced using embryos fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in vitro and cryopreserved by rapid cooling vitrification.

  19. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  20. Comparison of the developmental potential of 2-week-old preantral follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissue slices, vitrified whole ovaries and vitrified/transplanted newborn mouse ovaries using the metal surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Kung-Hao

    2008-04-01

    comparing 14-day old ovarian tissue (ovarian tissue slices and whole ovaries and whole newborn ovaries vitrified in 6 μl droplet, lower success rates of antral-like cavity formation and COCs collection were found in the whole ovaries group. Conclusion Our results suggest that the metal plate surface vitrification method is an appropriate and convenient method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries and preantral follicles. The droplet volume of vitrification solution in 2 μl and 6 μl can be an option.

  1. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Startup of Savannah River`s Defense Waste Processing Facility to produce radioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-08-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) began production of radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) in 1996 following an extensive test program discussed earlier. Currently DWPF is operating in a `sludge only` mode to produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge and glass frit. Future operations will produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of processing activities to date, operational problems encountered since entering radioactive operations, and the programs underway to solve them.

  3. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  4. Industrial radioactive wastes: what are we talking about?; Les dechets radioactifs industriels: de quoi s'agit-il?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bars, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2001-07-01

    The subject of radioactive wastes is developed through their origin, their classification, their scale of size. The different storage centers are given and the new channels of radioactive wastes management are tackled. The particular case of high level and long term radioactive wastes is detailed. (N.C.)

  5. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  6. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  7. Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-09-01

    The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  8. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  9. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  10. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  11. Research strategy and programs about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (by right of the article L542 of the environment law and belonging to the December 30, 1991 law); Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991) 2002-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document has been prepared by the French public organizations on charge of the researches about the management of radioactive wastes in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991. It was presented at the national commission of evaluation on March 6, 2002. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1 - the methodology, structuration and implementation of researches: main goals; products of the back-end of the fuel cycle and evaluation of fluxes; technical structuration of programs; researches consistency, complementarity and priority; criteria of appreciation of researches relevance; 2 - the main results after 10 years of researches in the framework of the 1991 law: abatement of wastes noxiousness; wastes conditioning; long-term storage; studies on geological disposal; 3 - the main steps towards 2006: separation and transmutation; underground disposal; conditioning and long-term behaviour; 4 - presentation and analysis of research programs: separation-transmutation; feasibility of a deep geologic disposal (clay, granite); conditioning and storage (containers, storage and long-term behaviour); 5 - coordination: authorities, share of data, research programs; 6 - international collaborations; appendixes. (J.S.)

  12. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  13. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  14. Short Term Culture of Vitrified Human Ovarian Cortical Tissue to Assess the Cryopreservation Outcome: Molecular and Morphological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mehdi; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Jafarabadi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of human ovarian vitrification protocol followed with in vitro culture at the morphological and molecular levels. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 10 normal transsexual women and cut into small pieces and were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups and some of the tissues fragments in both groups were randomly cultured for two weeks. The morphological study using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining was done. The analysis of mean follicular density, 17-β estradiol (E2) and anti mullerian hormone (AMH), and real-time RT-PCR was down for the evaluation of expression of genes related to folliculogenesis. Data were compared by paired-samples and independent-samples T test. Values of pculture but these rates and the mean follicle density significantly decreased in both cultured tissues (pcultured tissues the expression of GDF9 and FSHR genes increased and the expression of FIGLA and KIT-L genes decreased (pculture in both groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the follicular development and gene expression in vitrified ovarian tissue was not altered before and after in vitro culture, thus this method could be useful for fertility preservation; however, additional studies are needed to improve the culture condition.

  15. Oocyte maturation and expression pattern of follicular genes during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalzaei, Parisa; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Farrokhi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the oocyte maturation rate and follicular genes expression pattern during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles. Middle sized pre-antral follicles were isolated mechanically from the ovaries of pre-pubertal mice and distributed in vitrification and control groups. In the vitrification group, follicles were washed in equilibration and vitrification solutions and then were immersed in liquid nitrogen after loading on cryotop tips. After warming in descending concentrations of sucrose solutions, fresh and vitrified-warmed follicles were cultured for 13 days. Follicles survival rate and follicular genes expression were assessed during in vitro culture. Finally, at the end of the culture period oocytes maturation rate were compared in both groups. In the vitrification group, follicles survival rate was lower significantly comparing to the control group (P culture period, expression of some genes such as Gdf9, Bmp15, Tgfβ1 and BmprII were higher in the vitrification group (P culture period expression pattern of all follicular genes were similar in both groups. In conclusion, survival rate of cryotop vitrified pre-antral follicles reduced during culture period while oocytes maturation and follicular genes expression did not show any noticeable alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Number of supernumerary vitrified blastocysts is positively correlated with implantation and live birth in single-blastocyst embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; Richter, Kevin S; Heitmann, Ryan J; Lewis, Terrance D; DeCherney, Alan H; Graham, James R; Widra, Eric; Levy, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    To estimate whether live birth in single-blastocyst transfers is correlated with the number of sibling supernumerary vitrified blastocysts (embryos not transferred) generated from that same cycle. Retrospective cohort study. A large academic assisted reproduction clinic. All single-blastocyst transfers in 2010 graded as "good" embryos by Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SART) criteria. None. Implantation and live birth. Of the 655 single-blastocyst transfers that met inclusion criteria, implantation occurred in 65% and live birth in 54% of cycles. In chi-square analysis, patients with supernumerary vitrified blastocysts had a statistically higher implantation rate (65% versus 50%) and live-birth rate (56% versus 41%) when compared with patients without supernumerary blastocysts. Univariate logistic regression demonstrated an increase in implantation (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15) and live birth (OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) with increasing number of supernumerary blastocysts. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patient age and the number of supernumerary blastocysts were statistically significantly associated with implantation and live birth. The number of supernumerary vitrified blastocysts correlated positively with the odds of implantation and live birth in good quality single-blastocyst transfers. Patients with supernumerary blastocysts are good candidates for single-embryo transfer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  18. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2016-02-17

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes.

  19. Increased live births after day 5 versus day 6 transfers of vitrified-warmed blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, Alice; Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Ameye, Lieveke; Colin, Jérôme; Rozenberg, Serge; Autin, Candice

    2017-12-04

    An investigation into the clinical implications of delayed blastulation (day 5 versus day 6) was carried out for cryo cycles, as heterogeneous results persist in the current literature. We performed a retrospective study comparing clinical pregnancies and live births between 178 blastocysts vitrified and warmed on day 5 versus 149 on day 6. The stage of blastocyst development was taken into account and adjustment for confounding factors was performed. Our results demonstrate a significant difference in clinical pregnancy (43 versus 23% p value day of vitrification, in favour of day 5. This difference persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratio for clinical pregnancies and deliveries for the day 5 group compared to that of the day 6 group was 2.83 (95%CI, 1.48 to 5.41) and 2.94 (95%CI, 1.39 to 6.22), respectively. When the stage of development of the blastocyst was taken into consideration, we still observed a significant advantage of day 5 versus day 6 vitrification. Day of vitrification (day 5 versus day 6) appears to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes. Stratification of our cohort was carried out according to the developmental stage, and significant differences persisted. Although the transfer of day 6 cryopreserved embryos remains a viable option, giving priority to a day 5 embryo would reduce the time to pregnancy.

  20. Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo-STEM annular dark-field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Rez, Peter; Elbaum, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial cells often contain dense granules. Among these, polyphosphate bodies (PPBs) store inorganic phosphate for a variety of essential functions. Identification of PPBs has until now been accomplished by analytical methods that required drying or chemically fixing the cells. These methods entail large electron doses that are incompatible with low-dose imaging of cryogenic specimens. We show here that Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) of fully hydrated, intact, vitrified bacteria provides a simple means for mapping of phosphorus-containing dense granules based on quantitative sensitivity of the electron scattering to atomic number. A coarse resolution of the scattering angles distinguishes phosphorus from the abundant lighter atoms: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical basis is similar to Z contrast of materials science. EDX provides a positive identification of phosphorus, but importantly, the method need not involve a more severe electron dose than that required for imaging. The approach should prove useful in general for mapping of heavy elements in cryopreserved specimens when the element identity is known from the biological context. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L.; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes. PMID:26883277

  2. Beam-induced motion of vitrified specimen on holey carbon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilot, Axel F; Chen, James Z; Cheng, Anchi; Pan, Junhua; Harrison, Stephen C; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Henderson, Richard; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-03-01

    The contrast observed in images of frozen-hydrated biological specimens prepared for electron cryo-microscopy falls significantly short of theoretical predictions. In addition to limits imposed by the current instrumentation, it is widely acknowledged that motion of the specimen during its exposure to the electron beam leads to significant blurring in the recorded images. We have studied the amount and direction of motion of virus particles suspended in thin vitrified ice layers across holes in perforated carbon films using exposure series. Our data show that the particle motion is correlated within patches of 0.3-0.5 μm, indicating that the whole ice layer is moving in a drum-like motion, with accompanying particle rotations of up to a few degrees. Support films with smaller holes, as well as lower electron dose rates tend to reduce beam-induced specimen motion, consistent with a mechanical effect. Finally, analysis of movies showing changes in the specimen during beam exposure show that the specimen moves significantly more at the start of an exposure than towards its end. We show how alignment and averaging of movie frames can be used to restore high-resolution detail in images affected by beam-induced motion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensuring Longevity: Ancient Glasses Help Predict Durability of Vitrified Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jamie L.; McCloy, John S.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2016-05-01

    How does glass alter with time? For the last hundred years this has been an important question to the fields of object conservation and archeology to ensure the preservation of glass artifacts. This same question is part of the development and assessment of durable glass waste forms for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Researchers have developed experiments ranging from simple to highly sophisticated to answer this question, and, as a result, have gained significant insight into the mechanisms that drive glass alteration. However, the gathered data have been predominately applicable to only short-term alteration times, i.e. over the course of decades. What has remained elusive is the long-term mechanisms of glass alteration[1]. These mechanisms are of particular interest to the international nuclear waste glass community as they strive to ensure that vitrified products will be durable for thousands to tens of thousands of years. For the last thirty years this community has been working to fill this research gap by partnering with archeologists, museum curators, and geologists to identify hundred to million-year old glass analogues that have altered in environments representative of those expected at potential nuclear waste disposal sites. The process of identifying a waste glass relevant analogue is challenging as it requires scientists to relate data collected from short-term laboratory experiments to observations made from long-term analogues and extensive geochemical modeling.

  4. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  5. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  6. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  7. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    Trpimir Kujundžić; Tomislav Korman; Marija Macenić

    2012-01-01

    Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter...

  8. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  9. Report on the long-term interim storage of spent fuels and vitrified wastes; Gutachten zur Langzeitzwischenlagerung abgebrannter Brennelemente und verglaster Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-03

    Long-term interim storage for several hundred years is an option on the management of high-level radioactive wastes. The decision on final disposal is postponed. Worldwide the long-term interim storage is not part of the disposal concept - a geologic final repository is the ultimate aim. Using today's technology the interim storage over several hundred years is supposed to be uncritical. Aging management is the most important challenge - the renewal of the facilities would have to be expected. Possible social change and their impact on the interim storage problem has not been considered.

  10. Practical Use of High-level Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The aim of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners with interests in the use of high-level nets and their tools for practical applications. A typical paper is expected to report on a case study where high-level Petri nets and their tools have been used in practice. We also...... welcome papers describing a tool, a methodology, or other developments that have proved successful to make high-level Petri nets more applicable in practice....

  11. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  12. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  13. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  14. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  15. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  16. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal.

  17. Different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs from vitrified ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Dattena, M; Mayorga Muñoz, I M

    2015-02-01

    It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05).

  18. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2017-06-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes. This supports the transfer of blastocysts instead of cleavage stage embryos, giving first priority to blastocyst showing solely regular cell divisions, and giving second priority to blastocysts presenting ACDs at any cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Alkali Resistant (Ar) Fibreglass in Porcelain Clay for Manufacturing Vitrified Clay Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal Hanapi, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sufizar; Taib, Hariati; Ismail, Al Emran; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Salleh, Salihatun Md; Sadikin, Azmahani; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of porcelain ceramic with influence of milled Alkali Resistant (AR) fiberglass for manufacturing vitrified clay pipes. In this study, raw materials consist of porcelain clay and AR fiberglass were refined into powders less than 90μm. Subsequently, these samples were compacted into cylindrical pellet for chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The ceramic sample was produced by mixing different weight percentage of AR glass to porcelain ceramic with 3 wt%, 6 wt%, 9 wt% and 12 wt%. Subsequently, the sample was compacted with 3 ton of pressure load and sintered at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. The phase identification by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and microstructural analysis were performed for the sintered sample. Chemical analysis revealed that the significant element for all raw material are SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O. Phase identification analysis shown that sample sintered at 1000 °C produces quartz (SiO2), berlinite (AlPO4), albite (NaAlSi3O8) and calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CaMgAlSiO). The formation of primary mullite was observed in sample sintered at 1100 °C. The image of microstructural morphology denoted that the formation of glassy phase with decreasing amount of void when sintering temperature and addition of AR glass were increased, which correspond well to phase identification analysis.

  20. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  1. Complex geological investigations to select a site for high-level waste disposal in the Krasnoyarsk region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Savonenkov, V.G.; Shabalev, S.I.; Rogozin, Yu.M. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lyubtseva, E.F. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Revenko, Yu.A.; Sabaev, Yu.I.; Nosukhin, A.V. [Chemical Mining Company, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Milovidov, V.L. [VNIPI Promtechnologii, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukina, N.V. [GIN RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopatin, A.P. [State Centre ' Priroda' , Krasnoyarsk branch, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Datsenko, V.M. [KNIIGiMS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovsky, V.A. [' Krasnoyarskgeolsyomka' , Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in deep geological formations is now considered by the international community as the ultimate stage in the optimum solution to the general problem of radioactive waste management, although other, more hypothetical, possibilities, (e.g. transmutation, space disposal) have been considered. lt is no exaggeration to state that the creation of an underground HLW repository in the Krasnoyarsk region is the greatest of the key environmental and economic problems governing the very existence of the large nuclear company, the Mining and Chemical Company (MCC), which generates considerable quantities of radioactive wastes, including HLW. On the other hand, radioactive waste disposal is not merely a problem for the Krasnoyarsk region, but is one of the key problems determining the future development of the Russian nuclear power industry in general, particularly if the nuclear fuel cycle includes the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel which is planned for the RT-2 plant currently under construction in the Krasnoyarsk region. lt is no accident, therefore, that the Russian Federal programme on radioactive waste management includes a special topic devoted to characterisation work in the Krasnoyarsk region with a view to selecting a site for the construction of a repository. The results of a number of international scientific research programmes have demonstrated that in the case of long-term storage of HLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) in the earth's surface, the risk to the population and to the biosphere in general is too great and, consequently, unacceptable. Thus, the concept of an underground radioactive waste repository has wide support among the leading nuclear countries, including the U.K., France, U.S.A., Sweden, Finland and Germany. In these countries, projects to construct repositories for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are either underway or are planned. 1 ref.

  2. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  3. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  4. Cosmetic micromanipulation of vitrified-warmed cleavage stage embryos does not improve ART outcomes: An ultrastructural study of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Barekati, Zeinab; Halvaei, Iman; Anvari, Morteza; Nottola, Stefania A

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group. Fragmented embryo was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant improvement was observed in the morphological parameters, such as fragmentation degrees, evenness of the blastomeres and embryo grade during the subsequent development, after applying cosmetic micromanipulation, when compared to sham or control groups (P=0.00001). However, there were no differences in the clinical outcomes amongst the three studied groups e.g. the rates of clinical, ongoing and multiple pregnancies, implantation, delivery and live birth. In fine structure view, fragments exhibited uniform cytoplasmic texture containing majority of organelles that were observed in normal blastomeres including mitochondria. In conclusion, application of cosmetic micromanipulation in low-grade vitrified-warmed embryos showed significant improvement on embryo morphology parameters; however, did not result in noticeable improvements in clinical outcomes of the patients undergoing ART program. In addition, embryo vitrification had no adverse effects on fine structure of the fragments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  6. High-Level Multi-Threading in hProlog

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overveldt, Timon; Demoen, Bart

    2011-01-01

    A new high-level interface to multi-threading in Prolog, implemented in hProlog, is described. Modern CPUs often contain multiple cores and through high-level multi-threading a programmer can leverage this power without having to worry about low-level details. Two common types of high-level explicit parallelism are discussed: independent and-parallelism and competitive or-parallelism. A new type of explicit parallelism, pipeline parallelism, is proposed. This new type can be used in certain c...

  7. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    High-level Petri nets have been introduced as a powerful net type by which it is possible to handle rather complex systems in a succinct and manageable way. The success of high-level Petri nets is undebatable when we speak about description, but there is still much work to be done to establish...... the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  8. Effect of Zn- and Ca-oxides on the structure and chemical durability of simulant alkali borosilicate glasses for immobilisation of UK high level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua, E-mail: nzhangh@aliyun.com [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-93, 102413 Beijing (China); Corkhill, Claire L.; Heath, Paul G.; Hand, Russell J.; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Spinel crystallization incorporates ZnO from base glass, displacing Mg and Ni. • Raman spectroscopy demonstrates significant impact on glass structure by addition of ZnO to base glass. • Addition of ZnO reduces glass dissolution rate at early time periods (up to 28 days). - Abstract: Compositional modification of United Kingdom high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses was investigated with the aim of understanding the impact of adopting a ZnO/CaO modified base glass on the vitrified product phase assemblage, glass structure, processing characteristics and dissolution kinetics. Crystalline spinel phases were identified in the vitrified products derived from the Na{sub 2}O/Li{sub 2}O and the ZnO/CaO modified base glass compositions; the volume fraction of the spinel crystallites increased with increasing waste loading from 15 to 20 wt%. The spinel composition was influenced by the base glass components; in the vitrified product obtained with the ZnO/CaO modified base glass, the spinel phase contained a greater proportion of Zn, with a nominal composition of (Zn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.20}Mg{sub 0.20})(Cr{sub 1.37}Fe{sub 0.63})O{sub 4}. The addition of ZnO and CaO to the base glass was also found to significantly alter the glass structure, with changes identified in both borate and silicate glass networks using Raman spectroscopy. In particular, these glasses were characterised by a significantly higher Q{sup 3} species, which we attribute to Si–O–Zn linkages; addition of ZnO and CaO to the glass composition therefore enhanced glass network polymerisation. The increase in network polymerisation, and the presence of spinel crystallites, were found to increase the glass viscosity of the ZnO/CaO modified base glass; however, the viscosities were within the accepted range for nuclear waste glass processing. The ZnO/CaO modified glass compositions were observed to be significantly more durable than the Na{sub 2}O/Li{sub 2}O base glass up to 28 days, due to

  9. Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2013-04-01

    Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (pvitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  11. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  12. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  13. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  14. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  15. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. (ed.)

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. ITP. FOR: A code to calculate thermal transients in High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-10-01

    A variety of processing operations for high level radioactive waste occur in the High Level Waste Tanks in the H-Area of the Savannah River Site. Thermal design constraints exist on these processes, principally to limit the amount of corrosion inhibitor which must be added to protect the tank and cooling coil materials. The required amount of corrosion inhibitor, which must subsequently be removed prior to trapping the waste in borosilicate glass, increases exponentially with temperature over a fairly narrow range (some tens of degrees Celsius). For this reason, there is a need to model the thermal-hydraulic processes occurring in the waste tanks. A FORTRAN computer code, called ITP.FOR, was written to provide a simple but reasonably accurate analysis tool for plant operation design. The code was specifically written to model Tank 48, in which the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process of precipitating radioactive cesium will be initiated. Although the ITP.FOR code was written as personal-use software for scoping design calculations for Tank 48, the current intent is to extend the code's applicability to other H-Area waste tanks, and to certify the code in accordance with the NRTSC Quality Assurance requirements for critical-use software (1Q-34, 1991). Since the code's capabilities have generated some interest to date, the present report is presented as interim documentation of the code's mathematical models. This documentation will eventually be supplanted by the formal documentation of the expanded and benchmarked code.

  17. ITP.FOR: A code to calculate thermal transients in High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-10-01

    A variety of processing operations for high level radioactive waste occur in the High Level Waste Tanks in the H-Area of the Savannah River Site. Thermal design constraints exist on these processes, principally to limit the amount of corrosion inhibitor which must be added to protect the tank and cooling coil materials. The required amount of corrosion inhibitor, which must subsequently be removed prior to trapping the waste in borosilicate glass, increases exponentially with temperature over a fairly narrow range (some tens of degrees Celsius). For this reason, there is a need to model the thermal-hydraulic processes occurring in the waste tanks. A FORTRAN computer code, called ITP.FOR, was written to provide a simple but reasonably accurate analysis tool for plant operation design. The code was specifically written to model Tank 48, in which the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process of precipitating radioactive cesium will be initiated. Although the ITP.FOR code was written as personal-use software for scoping design calculations for Tank 48, the current intent is to extend the code`s applicability to other H-Area waste tanks, and to certify the code in accordance with the NRTSC Quality Assurance requirements for critical-use software (1Q-34, 1991). Since the code`s capabilities have generated some interest to date, the present report is presented as interim documentation of the code`s mathematical models. This documentation will eventually be supplanted by the formal documentation of the expanded and benchmarked code.

  18. Geomicrobiology of High Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David W.; Li, Shu-Mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-07-07

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to {approx}104 7 CFU g-1 but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., > 10 ?Ci/g 137Cs). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples but other high G+C phyla were also represented including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second most radioactive sample (>20 ?Ci 137Cs g-1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20kGy. Many of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that Gram-positive bacteria, predominantly high G+C phyla, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste.

  19. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Lawrence A. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  20. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  1. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  2. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  3. Radioactive waste study released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.

  4. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  5. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  6. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  7. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  8. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  9. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  10. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  11. No peri- and postnatal effects on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced embryos vitrified by the open pulled straw (OPS) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Helene; Holm, Peter; Schmidt, Mette

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) em- bryos vitrified by the ’Open Pulled Straw’ (OPS) method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer...... of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long- term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mor- tality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive...

  12. No Peri- and Postnatal Effects on Calves Born After Transfer of in Vitro Produced Embryos Vitrified by the Open Pulled Straw (OPS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance.

  13. No peri- and postnatal effects on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced embryos vitrified by the open pulled straw (OPS) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, P.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to perform follow-up studies including selected peri- and postnatal characteristics on calves born after transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos vitrified by the 'Open Pulled Straw' (OPS) method. An overall pregnancy rate of 16% after transfer of the OPS......-vitrified IVP embryos was achieved and resulted in birth of 9 calves, with 11 AI calves serving as controls. There were no immediate or long-term effects on these calves with respect to birth weight, gestation length, perinatal mortality, growth rate, disease susceptibility and reproductive performance....

  14. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  15. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  16. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  17. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  18. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out.

  19. The challenge of long-term participatory repository governance. Lessons learned for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Catharina [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Barbier, Jan-Willem [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Voluntaristic siting procedures for deep geological repositories are becoming increasingly common; they reconfigure the relationship of repositories and society in ways that have implications for the long-term governance of these facilities. This paper identifies three challenges emerging in relation to this question: principles of monitoring, repository content, and facility closure. This paper discusses them in a comparison with similar challenges being addressed in Belgian partnerships founded to facilitate the siting and design of a low- and intermediate level short lived waste repository. The empirical exploration confirms the importance of securing stakeholder engagement throughout the repository lifecycle, for which there is a need to develop knowledge about how to encourage long-term democratic governance systems.

  20. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to continual surveillance and be protected by an active intrusion alarm system which is capable of... termination of the license. (11) All detection systems and supporting subsystems must be tamper indicating... protection system with the objective of providing high assurance that activities involving spent nuclear fuel...

  1. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  2. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  3. Geotechnical aspects of subsurface seabed disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Annual progress report, January--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.J.; Calnan, D,I.

    1978-05-01

    The status of the following major studies is reported: geotechnical properties of deep sea clays; experimental water migration studies;laboratory hole closure experiments; and in-site heat transfer experiments. (LK)

  4. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  5. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  6. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  7. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  8. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  9. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  10. Radioactive Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequenc...

  11. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  12. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-02-03

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site`s 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  13. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  14. Vitrified bottom ash slag from municipal solid waste incinerators - Phase relations of CaO-SiO2-Na20 oxide system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Boom, R.; Voncken, J.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Vitrification is considered to be an attractive technology for bottom ash treatment because it destroys the hazardous organics, contributes to immobilization of the heavy metals, and additionally it reduces drastically the volume. The main components of the vitrified bottom ash slag are SiO2 , CaO,

  15. Effects of Feeding High Level of Cowpea Husk on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to find out the effect of feeding high levels of cowpea husk on the haematological parameters and Blood urea nitrogen of Uda lambs. Fifteen (15) weeks feeding trial (including three (3) weeks digestibility trial) was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda ...

  16. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  17. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  18. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  19. High Level Trigger Performance Plots for ICHEP2016

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the High Level Trigger (HLT) with the first data collected in 2016 is presented. Preliminary results are shown on the performance of tau objects, b-tagging, SUSY and Exotics multijet triggers. Simulation on jet reconstruction at the HLT is also shown.

  20. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  1. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reagents in next three days. Repeated estimations by Roche reagents showed falsely very high level of total bilirubin. However, estimation by DiaSys and Randox reagents showed acceptable normal levels as per visual estimation. There was interference, most probably due to paraprotein in the estimation of total bilirubin ...

  2. Incidence of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enterococcaJ isolates. Results. The incidence of HLGR was 26.5% of. Enterococcus faecaJis isolates and 20% of E. faecium isolates grown during the study period. Conclusions. High-level gentamicin resistance is common among enterococci isolated at Johannesburg. Hospital, and this observation must be considered in.

  3. Incidence of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of HLGR was 26.5% of Enterococcus faecaJis isolates and 20% of E. faecium isolates grown during the study period. Conclusions. High-level gentamicin resistance is common among enterococci isolated at Johannesburg Hospital, and this observation must be considered in defining strategies for the ...

  4. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The staphylokinase (Sak) is emerging as an important thrombolytic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular disease. Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of the Sak variant SakøC from Staphylococcus aureus QT08 in Escherichia coli ...

  5. High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... High-level expression of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in Escherichia coli presents research opportunities such as analysis ... The general agreement from the published data on heterologous gene ..... for protein expression (Casimiro et al., 1997; Gold et al.,. 1981; Hamdan et al., 2002; ...

  6. High levels of genetic change in rodents of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R J; Van Den Bussche, R A; Wright, A J; Wiggins, L E; Hamilton, M J; Reat, E P; Smith, M H; Lomakin, M D; Chesser, R K

    1996-04-25

    Base-pair substitution rates for the mitochondrial cytochrome beta gene of free-living, native populations of voles collected next to reactor 4 at Chernobyl, Ukraine, were estimated by two independent methods to be in excess of 10(-4) nucleotides per site per generation. These estimates are hundreds of times greater than those typically found in mitochondria of vertebrates, suggesting that the environment resulting from this nuclear power plant disaster is having a measurable genetic impact on the organisms of that region. Despite these DNA changes, vole populations thrive and reproduce in the radioactive regions around the Chernobyl reactor.

  7. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  8. Long-term immune and cytogenetic effects of high level natural radiation on Ramsar inhabitants in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Zakeri, F; Assaei, R Gh; Kariminia, A

    2004-01-01

    Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, overlooking the Caspian Sea, has some high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) as well as over 50 hot springs with low and high radium contents used as spas by the public and vacationers. The average whole body dose received by population in these areas is about 5 times higher than the normal background radiation level. Studies on the long-term effects of high level natural radioactivity on some immunological and cytogenetical parameters, in the Ramsar inhabitants are summarized in this paper. Our results showed a significant increase of CD69 expression on TCD4+ stimulated cells (P < 0.004) and a significant increase of total serum IgE (P < 0.05), and also higher incidence of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations in the HLNRA group compared to the control group with normal background radiation (P < 0.05).Other humoral immune parameters, did not show significant differences between the two groups.

  9. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Andra organised an International Symposium on the use of Natural and Engineered Clay-based Barriers for the Containment of Radioactive Waste hold at the Congress Centre of Tours, France, in March 2005. The symposium provided an opportunity to take stock of the potential properties of the clay-based materials present in engineered or natural barriers in order to meet the containment specifications of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. It was intended for specialists working in the various disciplines involved with clays and clay based minerals, as well as scientists from agencies and organisations dealing with investigations on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The themes of the Symposium included geology, geochemistry, transfers of materials, alteration processes, geomechanics, as well as the recent developments regarding the characterisation of clays, as well as experiments in surface and underground laboratories. The symposium consisted of plenary sessions, parallel specialized sessions and poster sessions. (author)

  10. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  11. Successful pregnancies from vitrified embryos in the dromedary camel: Avoidance of a possible toxic effect of sucrose on embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrid, M; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A

    2017-12-01

    Successful embryo cryopreservation facilitates the wider application of assisted reproduction technologies and also provides a useful method for gene banking of valuable genetics. Unfortunately attempts to establish an effective cryopreservation protocol for camelid embryos have been unsuccessful. In the current study, a modified vitrification protocol with three steps was investigated, whereby embryos were exposed to solutions containing increasing amounts of glycerol and ethylene glycol for fixed time periods. Embryos were then loaded into an Open Pull Straw (OPS) and plunged directly into liquid nitrogen for storage. Three experiments were designed to investigate the effect of 1) artificial shrinkage (AS) of embryos, 2) the addition of sucrose to the vitrification solutions, and 3) the replacement of sucrose by galactose in the warming solution, on the outcome of vitrification. The results showed that neither AS of hatched embryos prior to vitrification, nor the addition of sucrose into vitrification solutions improves the outcome of vitrification, while replacement of sucrose with galactose in warming solution increases the survival and developmental rates of vitrified embryos in culture. Transfer of vitrified embryos that were warmed in galactose resulted in a pregnancy rate of 42.8% per embryo or 46.1% per recipient. Collectively, these results suggest a possible species-specific toxic effect of sucrose on camel embryos, and that avoiding its use either in vitrification or warming solution is critical for establishing an effective protocol. This study may also be applicable to the vitrification of embryos of other camelid species including alpaca and llamas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistics on the traffic of radioactive material, and the resulting radiation exposures, in the European Union and applicant countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.S. [NRPB, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lizot, M.T. [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Trivelloni, S. [APAT, Rome (Italy); Schwarz, G. [GRS, Cologne (Germany); Hienen, J.F.A. van [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive materials of natural or artificial origin are of widespread use across the world and are transported within and between countries. A wide range of materials are transported, from small quantities of radiopharmaceuticals for medical use to highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel and vitrified wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle. The handling and transport of these radioactive materials can give rise to radiation exposure of workers, and of members of the public. Statistical information on the transport of radioactive material and the radiation doses arising from these operations are important to: demonstrate the efficacy of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide support for the continuous review and revision process of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide guidance and support to national, regional and international transport regulatory activities, support and guide compliance assurance, provide data for assessing and evaluating the doses and risks to workers and to members of the public, identify needs and trends in national and international transport activities, and provide factual information to assist in addressing public concern on these issues. A study has been carried out on behalf of the European Commission in 2001/ 2002 by expert organisations in five EU Member States with two main objectives: To collect and compile information on the type, volume and radiological characteristic of, and the doses from radioactive material shipments in the European Union (EU) and in the countries applying for accession to the EU, and To perform statistical analyses on the traffic of radioactive material shipments in EU Member States and in the applicant countries, where possible, by: type of package, type of transport, radiation exposures of workers and members of the public, and, use of radioactive material. This paper summarises the methods and principal findings of that study.

  13. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Belle-II High Level Trigger at SuperKEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Itoh, R.; Higuchi, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Won, E.

    2012-12-01

    A next generation B-factory experiment, Belle II, is now being constructed at KEK in Japan. The upgraded accelerator SuperKEKB is designed to have the maximum luminosity of 8 × 1035 cm-2s-1 that is a factor 40 higher than the current world record. As a consequence, the Belle II detector yields a data stream of the event size ~1 MB at a Level 1 rate of 30 kHz. The Belle II High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to reduce the Level 1 rate to 1/5 by performing the real time full event reconstruction and by applying the physics level event selection as the software trigger. In this paper, the development of the high level trigger system for Belle II and its performance is discussed.

  15. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  16. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  17. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  18. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Benmohammed, M.; S. Merniz

    2005-01-01

    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  19. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Benmohammed, M.; M. Bourahla; S. Merniz

    2003-01-01

    Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable contr...

  20. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  1. The epistemological chain in high-level adventure sports coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L.; Collins, D; Grecic, D.,

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the personal epistemology of adventure sports coaches, the existence of the epistemological chain and its impact on professional judgment and decision-making. The epistemological chain’s role and operationalization in other fields is considered, offering clues to how it may manifest itself in the adventure sports coach context. High-level adventure sports coaches were interviewed and an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was adopted for the interview transcri...

  2. Femoroacetabular impingement in former high-level youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam C; Shaman, Mark A; Ryan, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be a source of hip pain in young adults. Repetitive kicking associated with youth soccer may lead to morphologic changes of the proximal femur that predispose a person to the development of FAI. Young adults who participated in high-level soccer competition as youths are more likely to demonstrate radiographic changes consistent with FAI and to have increased alpha angles as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Pelvic radiographs (anteroposterior and frog-lateral) were obtained on 50 individuals who participated in high-level soccer during skeletal immaturity and 50 controls who did not participate in high-level soccer. There were 25 men and 25 women in each group. All subjects were between 18 and 30 years of age, had a body mass index of less than 30, and had not sought or received treatment for hip disorders. Radiographs were analyzed independently for the presence of FAI, and alpha angles were measured. Hips with alpha angles that measured greater than or equal to 55° were deemed to have cam deformity. Fifteen of the 25 male subjects had evidence of cam deformity, compared with 14 male controls. Nine of the 25 female subjects had evidence of cam deformity, compared with 8 female controls. Neither of these differences was statistically significant. There was a significantly higher prevalence of cam deformity in men as compared with women (29 vs 17, P = .016). Participation in high-level soccer during skeletal immaturity is not associated with a higher risk of development of cam deformity in the young adult years. There is a high prevalence of cam deformity in the young adult population. Males demonstrate a higher prevalence of cam deformity than do females.

  3. Yucca Mountain or: How we learn to stop worrying and love the Department of Energy`s high-level waste disposal guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.

    1993-12-31

    Having inherited the transgressions of our forebears, we face a growing problem: the safe disposal of high-level waste, an intensely radioactive byproduct of the production of nuclear weapons and the operation of nuclear power generators. Roughly 20,000 metric tons of spent fuel (a subset of high-level waste, as the term is used in this Note) are currently stored in canisters in cooling pools beside American power plants. Authorities claim that this amount will double by the year 2000, triple by 2010 and quadruple by 2020. Current storage practice is now recognized as a go-between; the necessarily prolific nature of past and future high-level waste production (both public and private) demands that a permanent disposal solution be found. High-level waste remains hazardously toxic for at least 10,000 years.

  4. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  5. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  6. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  7. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  8. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  9. 1989 OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] Bulletin compilation and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-01

    The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1989 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information contained in this year`s Bulletins. The pages have been numbered consecutively at the bottom for easy reference. 7 figs.

  10. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  11. Survival of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos after a one-step warming in-straw cryoprotectant dilution procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Gómez, E; Trigal, B; Muñoz, M; Carrocera, S; Martín, D; Díez, C

    2015-03-15

    Vitrification is an alternative to slow-rate freezing for cryopreserving bovine embryos. However, this technology requires simplification if it is to be used under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to develop a new system for the direct transfer of vitrified embryos to be used under farm conditions. For this, three objectives were set: (1) to compare the effect of vitrification, using the cryologic vitrification method (CVM), and slow-rate freezing on bovine embryo development and quality; (2) to develop a one-step warming procedure for bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) vitrified (by CVM) embryos; and (3) to assess the effects on embryo survival of a new method for the direct transfer of vitrified IVP bovine blastocysts. In vitro-produced blastocysts were initially either vitrified by CVM or subjected to slow freezing to compare embryo survival and quality (experiment 1). No differences were detected between these cryopreservation techniques in terms of the survival and quality variables at 24 hours or in terms of the proteins expressed. However, at 48 hours the vitrified embryos showed higher hatching rates, greater total cell numbers, and lower apoptotic indices (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, CVM-vitrified IVP blastocysts were warmed by the conventional two-step or one-step warming procedure by incubating them at 41 °C in 0.25 M sucrose for 10 minutes, 0.15 M sucrose for 10 minutes, or 0.25 M sucrose for 5 minutes. In addition, embryo transfer (ET) was performed using vitrified embryos warmed by the one-step procedure in 0.25 M sucrose solution for 5 minutes. As a control group, IVP fresh embryos were transferred to recipient females. No differences were observed in embryo survival or total cell number between any of the warming procedures. Moreover, no significant differences for pregnancy at 60 days were found between the ET groups. In experiment 3, expanded IVP blastocysts were then either vitrified using a conventional or a

  12. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of

  13. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  14. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  16. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  17. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  18. ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, ROI Collection and Event Building

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, K; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bogaerts, A; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Comune, G; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Ellis, Nick; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hauser, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kugel, A; Lankford, A; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Petersen, J; Portes de Albuquerque, M; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Segura, E; Seixas, M; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vandelli, W; Van Wasen, J; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zobernig, H

    2006-01-01

    We describe the base-line design and implementation of the Data Flow and High Level Trigger (HLT) part of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system. We then discuss improvements and generalization of the system design to allow the handling of events in parallel data streams and we present the possibility for event duplication, partial Event Building and data stripping. We then present tests on the deployment and integration of the TDAQ infrastructure and algorithms at the TDAQ â€?pre-series” cluster (~10% of full ATLAS TDAQ). Finally, we tackle two HLT performance issues.

  19. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...... development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile time verify for a given program that no runtime errors can occur while building documents or receiving form input, and that all documents being shown are valid according to the document type definition for XHTML 1.0.We compare JWIG...

  20. Deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Burckhart, Doris; Caprini, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Conde, P; Corso-Radu, A; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gruwé, M; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Joos, M; Kabana, S; Kazarov, A; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kolos, S; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A; Lehmann, G; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meirosu, C; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sloper, J; Sobreira, A; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R A; Stancu, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Vandelli, Wainer R; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiesmann, M; Yasu, Y; Zobernig, G; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS combined test beam in the second half of 2004 saw the first deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers (HLT). The next steps are deployment on the pre-series farms in the experimental area during 2005, commissioning and cosmics tests in 2006 and collisions in 2007. This paper reviews the experience gained in the test beam, describes the current status and discusses the further enhancements to be made. We address issues related to the dataflow, selection algorithms, testing, software distribution, installation and improvements.

  1. BEAM SCRAPING FOR LHC INJECTION: HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

    CERN Document Server

    LETNES, P A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) will be the world's most powerful accelerator when it is commissioned during 2008. To operate the LHC, injection of very high intensity beams from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) pre-accelerator is required. With intensities of more than 3 _ 1013 p=cycle, it is essential that there is virtually no beam halo present. Such particles can hit the LHC beam pipe, and may cause magnet quenches due to heating. Fast scrapers have been installed in the SPS to measure and remove any halo before the beam is extracted towards the LHC. Fast scrapers have been chosen because there is too little time available for beam cleaning with large collimators. The scraper hardware has been in place in the SPS ring for several years. A low level computer for controlling the scrapers is also in place. A high level control application was, however, not written at the time. The development of the missing high level control application is the subject o...

  2. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  4. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  5. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  6. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  8. Cell apoptosis and lipid content of in vitro-produced, vitrified bovine embryos treated with forskolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Daniela Martins; Sudano, Mateus José; Schwarz, Kátia Regina Lancellotti; Maziero, Rosiára Rosário Dias; Guastali, Midyan Daroz; Crocomo, Letícia Ferrari; Magalhães, Luis Carlos Oña; Martins, Alício; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fetal calf serum in culture medium influences embryo quality, causing a reduction in postcryopreservation survival. Forskolin has been used to induce lipolysis and increase cryotolerance, functioning as an activator of adenylate cyclase and elevating cAMP levels. In the present experiment, bovine zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with amino acid plus 2.5% fetal calf serum for 6 days, when forskolin was added in three concentrations: 2.5, 5, and 10 μM. Treatment with forskolin lasted for 24 hours. Blastocyst formation rate, quantification of lipid granules, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were evaluated. In a second assessment, embryos were vitrified, and warming, re-expansion rate, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were also evaluated. There was no difference due to forskolin in blastocyst formation or re-expansion rates after vitrification. However, lipid measurements were lower (control: 136.8 and F 2.5 μM: 128.5; P < 0.05), and number of cells per embryo higher (control: 140.1 and F 2.5 μM: 173.5; P < 0.05) than controls for 2.5 μM forskolin but not for higher forskolin concentrations. The number of intact cells per embryo was higher, and the rate of apoptosis was lower in fresh than in vitrified embryos (number of cells of warmed embryos, control: 104.1, F 2.5 μM: 101.3, F 5 μM: 115.4, F 10 μM: 95.1; apoptotic of fresh cells, control: 12.1%, F 2.5 μM: 16.7%, F 5 μM: 11.1%, F 10 μM: 14.2%; and apoptotic warmed embryos, control: 22.3%, F 2.5 μM: 37.3%, F 5 μM: 33.2%, F 10 μM: 30.3%; P < 0.05). It was concluded that forskolin is an effective lipolytic agent even at low concentrations, leading to formation of blastocysts with a comparatively larger number of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How does vitrification affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles? A prospective study to compare outcomes achieved with fresh versus vitrified sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Santaló, J; Boada, M; Clua, E; Rodríguez, I; Martínez, F; Coroleu, B; Barri, P N; Veiga, A

    2013-08-01

    How does vitrification affect oocyte viability? Vitrification does not affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles. Oocyte vitrification is performed routinely and successfully in IVF and oocyte donation programs. This is a prospective study performed between June 2009 and February 2012 to compare ongoing pregnancy rates and other indices of viability between fresh and vitrified oocytes. A total of 99 donations with more than 16 oocytes (MII) in which oocytes were allocated both to a synchronous recipient (fresh oocytes) and to an asynchronous recipient (vitrified oocytes) were included. The participants were consenting couples (donors and recipients) from the oocyte donation program. On the day of retrieval, the oocytes allocated to the synchronous recipient were inseminated and those allocated for banking were denuded of cumulus and vitrified. Vitrified oocytes were microinjected with spermatozoa 2 h after warming. Embryo transfer was performed on Day 2 of development in both groups, and the remaining embryos were cryopreserved on Day 3. Clinical pregnancy was defined by a positive fetal heartbeat at 6 weeks. A total of 989 oocytes were warmed and 85.6% survived. No significant differences were observed between fresh and vitrified oocytes: fertilization rate (80.7 versus 78.2%), ongoing embryo rate (71.0 versus 68.2%) or good-quality embryo rate (54.1 versus 49.8%). The mean number of embryos transferred was similar in both groups (1.82 ± 0.44 versus 1.90 ± 0.34). The implantation rate (33.3 versus 34.0%) and the multiple pregnancy rate (27.7 versus 20.8) were also similar between both groups (P > 0.05). The live birth rate per cycle was 38.4% in the recipients of fresh oocytes and 43.4% in the recipients of vitrified oocytes (P > 0.05). Eighty five frozen embryo transfers were also evaluated. Comparing embryos from fresh and vitrified oocytes there were no significant differences in the embryo survival rate (70.1 versus 65.8%), clinical pregnancy rate

  10. Etude d'une méthode de caractérisation des laitiers vitrifiés par l'Analyse Thermique Différentielle

    OpenAIRE

    TAMMA, S; PLATRET, Gérard; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2003-01-01

    De par ses propriétés hydrauliques, le laitier vitrifié (granulé ou bouleté) intéresse particulièrement les cimentiers car il peut être utilisé comme liant dans le ciment.L'objectif de ce stage au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées a été de mettre au point une méthode de caractérisation des laitiers vitrifiés moins contraignante et plus rapide que l'analyse quantitative de diffraction des rayons X utilisée actuellement. Le travail a consisté à réaliser des essais en analyse thermique ...

  11. Comparison of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody tissues by TMAH thermochemolysis – implications for the early stages of the formation of vitrinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggett William W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody plant tissues collected from the Fossil Forest site, Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg Island, have been characterized by TMAH thermochemolysis. All samples are gymnosperm-derived, are of very low maturity and all share the same post-depositional geologic history. Differences in the distributions of products observed from vitrified and unvitrified samples suggest that vitrification of woody tissue is associated with modification of the lignin C3 side chain, following loss of all or most of the carbohydrate present in the precursor woody tissues. The key driver of vitrification appears to be physical compression of the tissue following biological removal of cellulosic materials.

  12. High-level waste borosilicate glass a compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Current plans call for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to start up facilities for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, in 1995; West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, in 1996; and at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, after the year 2000. The product from these facilities will be canistered HLW borosilicate glass, which will be stored, transported, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. The behavior of this glass waste product, under the range of likely service conditions, is the subject of considerable scientific and public interest. Over the past few decades, a large body of scientific information on borosilicate waste glass has been generated worldwide. The intent of this document is to consolidate information pertaining to our current understanding of waste glass corrosion behavior and radionuclide release. The objective, scope, and organization of the document are discussed in Section 1.1, and an overview of borosilicate glass corrosion is provided in Section 1.2. The history of glass as a waste form and the international experience with waste glass are summarized in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.

  13. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  14. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis on the characteristics and roles of colloids in the high-level radwaste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Pil Soon; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan

    1997-09-01

    This study suggested models to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the characteristics of colloidal behaviors in the high level radioactive waste repository. Especially, sorption properties of colloids i.e., pseudo-colloid formation was simulated by model calculations, and the effects of environmental variables were also investigated by experiments and pseudo-colloid formation constants was determined. Firstly, characteristics of colloids in the near of HLW repository such as concentration, composition, size, and sorption were widely investigated and analyzed. Also the roles of colloids in the near of HLW repository were analyzed. Particularly modeling and experimental studies were performed to simulate and analyze the sorption properties of colloids i.e., pseudo-colloid formation properties. Simple K{sub d} and SCM sorption models were proposed and sorption phenomena of uranium onto goethite colloids were simulated by calculations using MINTEQA2 code. Besides, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of environmental variables on the sorption of uranium onto silica colloids and to determine the uranium-silica pseudo-colloid formation constants (author). 72 refs., 16 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. A risk governance approach for high-level waste in Belgium: A process appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Erik (Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (VITO)/Univ. of Antwerp, Div. Transition Energy and Environment, Mol (Belgium)), e-mail: erik.laes@vito.be; Eggermont, Gilbert (Free Univ. of Brussels (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)); Bombaerts, Gunter ((Belgium))

    2010-09-15

    The Belgian nuclear waste management organisation (NIRAS-ONDRAF) has recently started up a public debate on the strategic waste management options for the intermediate- and high-level radioactive waste (cat. B and C waste). This public debate takes place in the context of a (mandatory) strategic environmental impact assessment (SEA) procedure. The paper proposes a critical investigation of four interrelated aspects of this procedure from the point of view of 'good governance': assessment of the remaining uncertainties, guardianship of the democratic process, the organisation of expertise and the interpretation of transgenerational ethics and distributive justice in the new crisis context of globalization and failure of electricity liberalisation. We argue that - in spite of the overall soundness of the geological disposal option - many uncertainties remain: a new technical concept needs to be demonstrated and international financial management needs to be organised. On the process side we argue that although NIRAS-ONDRAF can take up a role as initiator of a public participation process, it can hardly act as a guardian of this process. The debate must be lifted above the local level, opened up to new actors with an active role of the safety authorities and guarded by a non-involved organisation. A condition for success is the creation of critical awareness and the capacity to manage controversy in future with critical expertise. Referring to the RISCOM model for transparent risk communication, we suggest some improvements to the process that is currently taking place

  17. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  18. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  19. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  20. Yield Stress Reduction of Radioactive Waste Slurries by Addition of Surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2005-02-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the design/construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and melter feed processes. The use of a surface active agent, or surfactant, to increase the solids loading that can be fed to the melters would increase melt rate by reducing the heat load on the melter required to evaporate the water in the feed. The waste slurries are non-Newtonian fluids with rheological properties that were modeled using the Bingham Plastic mod el (this model is typically used by SRNL when studying the DWPF process1).The results illustrate that altering the surface chemistry of the particulates in the waste slurries can lead to a reduction in the yield stress. Dolapix CE64 is an effective surfactant over a wide range of pH values and was effective for all simulants tested. The effectiveness of the additive increased in DWPF simulants as the concentration of the additive was increased. No maxi main effectiveness was observed. Particle size measurements indicate that the additive acted as a flocculant in the DWPF samples and as a dispersant in the RPP samples.

  1. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  2. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  3. The High Level Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xuyang

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger, a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In this poster we will present the performance with the specific algorithms developed to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up and bunch crossing rate using 13 TeV data during 2015, and prospects for improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet the new challenges for 2016 scenarios with a peak instantaneous luminosity of $1.2 \\times 10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 30 pileup events.

  4. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  5. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  6. High Level Control Applications for SOLEIL Commissioning and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolski, Laurent S; Ho, Katy; Leclercq, Nicolas; Ounsy, Majid; Petit, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    The SOLEIL control system, namely TANGO developed in collaboration with ESRF, is now mature and stable. TANGO has also been chosen now by several other laboratories. High-level control applications implemented in the control room for the storage ring, the two transfer lines, and the booster will be described in this paper. Three kinds of tools for commissioning are used. First the generic TANGO tools (alarms, simple graphical control applications), which allow us to control in a simple way any TANGO Device Server. Secondly a Matlab Middle Layer (adapted from ALS and SPEAR3): Matlab is fully interconnected with TANGO; it is used primarily for writing Physics control applications. Finally Globalscreen, a commercial SCADA software devoted for building operation applications has been selected (panels for controlling or displaying setpoint, readback values, status of equipments). In addition an overview of the historical and short-term databases for the accelerators will be given. They have been developed in house...

  7. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  8. Supervision of the ATLAS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S.; Meessen, C.; Qian, Z.; Touchard, F.; Negri, France A.; Zobernig, H.; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Negri, France A.

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system provides software-based event selection after the initial LVL1 hardware trigger. It is composed of two stages, the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter. The HLT is implemented as software tasks running on large processor farms. An essential part of the HLT is the supervision system, which is responsible for configuring, coordinating, controlling and monitoring the many hundreds of processes running in the HLT. A prototype implementation of the supervision system, using tools from the ATLAS Online Software system is presented. Results from scalability tests are also presented where the supervision system was shown to be capable of controlling over 1000 HLT processes running on 230 nodes.

  9. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  10. Mammut: High-level management of system knobs and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sensi, Daniele; Torquati, Massimo; Danelutto, Marco

    Managing low-level architectural features for controlling performance and power consumption is a growing demand in the parallel computing community. Such features include, but are not limited to: energy profiling, platform topology analysis, CPU cores disabling and frequency scaling. However, these low-level mechanisms are usually managed by specific tools, without any interaction between each other, thus hampering their usability. More important, most existing tools can only be used through a command line interface and they do not provide any API. Moreover, in most cases, they only allow monitoring and managing the same machine on which the tools are used. MAMMUT provides and integrates architectural management utilities through a high-level and easy-to-use object-oriented interface. By using MAMMUT, is possible to link together different collected information and to exploit them on both local and remote systems, to build architecture-aware applications.

  11. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  12. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  13. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  14. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kenji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Tani, Tetsuya; Mori, Chiemi; Miki, Tetsuya; Takayama, Yuko; Beyhan, Zeki; Kato, Yoko; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV) oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming. PMID:25965267

  15. Reduced competence of immature and mature oocytes vitrified by Cryotop method: assessment by in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation in a bovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Daiane L; Vireque, Alessandra A; Pitangui-Molina, Caroline P; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos F; de Sá Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. In Experiment 3, MII oocytes matured before or after vitrification were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) in order to evaluate embryo development. No difference was found for the nuclear maturation rate in the GV group (50%) and the GV control group (67%; P = 0.23) and for viability rate (56%; 77%; P = 0.055, respectively). However, in the MII group (27%) viability was significantly lower than that of the MII control group (84%; P vitrification by the Cryotop method reduced the capacity for embryo development. Vitrification of GV oocytes, however, did not influence the capacity of meiotic nuclear maturation and they exhibited higher viability following vitrification at the MII stage.

  16. The influence of female age on the cumulative live-birth rate of fresh cycles and subsequent frozen cycles using vitrified blastocysts in hyper-responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Chung-I; Huang, Chun-Chia; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of female age on the cumulative live-birth rate of fresh and subsequent frozen cycles using vitrified blastocysts of the same cohort in hyper-responders. This was a retrospective study of 1137 infertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization treatment between 2006 and 2013. The main outcome measure was cumulative live births among the fresh and all vitrified blastocyst transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. The results were also analyzed according to age (i.e., live-birth rate was 73.3%. The cumulative live-birth rate declined from 73.9% for women younger than 35 years old to 67.3% for women 35-39 years old to 57.9% for women 40 years or older. Combined fresh and vitrified blastocyst transfer cycles can result in a high cumulative live-birth rate. The cumulative live-birth rates among older women are lower than the rates among younger women when autologous oocytes are used. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Addition of L-ascorbic acid to culture and vitrification media of IVF porcine blastocysts improves survival and reduces HSPA1A levels of vitrified embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martín, Miriam; Yeste, Marc; Soler, Albert; Morató, Roser; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid on embryo quality and gene expression of porcine blastocysts after supplementations of in vitro culture medium and/or vitrification-warming media. Embryo quality, in terms of total cell number (TCN), DNA fragmentation and peroxide levels, together with the relative transcript abundance of BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX), BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1), POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A), was analysed. In Experiment 1, gene expression and embryo quality of fresh blastocysts were evaluated after culture with or without L-ascorbic acid; no significant differences were observed between the groups. In Experiment 2, blastocysts cultured with or without L-ascorbic acid were vitrified using two different vitrification solutions, supplemented or not with L-ascorbic acid. Supplementation of culture and vitrification media significantly enhanced survival rates and reduced peroxide levels. No significant differences in TCN, DNA fragmentation and BAX, BCL2L1 and POU5F1 expression were found in vitrified blastocysts among experimental groups. Vitrification procedures increase HSPA1A transcript abundance, but this increase was significantly lower in embryos cultured and/or vitrified with L-ascorbic acid. Thus, supplementing culture and/or vitrification media with L-ascorbic acid enhances survival rates of porcine blastocysts, suggesting a relationship with HSPA1A expression.

  18. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High level of burnout in intensivists: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embriaco, Nathalie; Azoulay, Elie; Barrau, Karine; Kentish, Nancy; Pochard, Frédéric; Loundou, Anderson; Papazian, Laurent

    2007-04-01

    Professional burnout is a psychological syndrome arising in response to chronic interpersonal stressors on the job. There is the perception that intensivists are particularly exposed to stress because lives are literally in their hands. To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors (patients or organization) of burnout among physicians working in intensive care units (ICUs) (including interns, residents, fellows, and attending physicians). A 1-day national survey was conducted in adult ICUs in French public hospitals. The level of burnout was evaluated on the basis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). A total of 189 ICUs participated and 978 surveys were returned (82.3% response rate). A high level of burnout was identified in 46.5% of the respondents. Ordinal logistic regression showed that female sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 2.30) was independently associated with a higher MBI score. Whereas no factor related to the severity of illness of patients was retained by the model, organizational factors were strongly associated with a higher MBI score. Workload (the number of night shifts per month, a long period of time from the last nonworking week, night shift the day before the survey) and impaired relationships (such as conflict with another colleague intensivist, and/or with a nurse) were the variables independently associated with a higher MBI score. In contrast, the quality of the relationships with chief nurses and nurses was associated with a lower MBI score. Approximately one-half of the intensivists presented a high level of burnout. Organizational factors, but not factors related to the patients, appeared to be associated with burnout.

  20. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  1. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  2. A prospective randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of artificial shrinkage (collapse) on the implantation potential of vitrified blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, L; Polyzos, N P; De Munck, N; Blockeel, C; Van de Velde, H; Verheyen, G

    2015-11-01

    What is the effect of artificial shrinkage by laser-induced collapse before vitrification on the implantation potential after transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts? The artificial shrinkage by laser-induced collapse did not significantly increase the implantation rate per transferred collapsed blastocyst (37.6%) compared with non-collapsed blastocysts (28.9%) [odds ratio (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-2.83]. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that artificial shrinkage of the blastocyst prior to vitrification can have a positive effect on blastocyst survival after warming. A recent study found a similar survival rate but higher implantation rate for collapsed blastocysts. So far, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the implantation potential of collapsed blastocysts. Prospective randomized trial. Patients were recruited from December 2011 until April 2014 and warming cycles were included until July 2014. Patients were randomized in the fresh cycle if blastocysts were available for vitrification and were allocated to the study or control arm according to a computer-generated list. In the study group, blastocysts underwent laser-induced collapse before vitrification. In the control group, blastocysts were vitrified without collapsing. In total, 443 patients signed informed consent and 270 patients had blastocysts vitrified. One-hundred and thirty-five patients were allocated to the study group and 135 to the control group. Sixty-nine patients from the study group and 69 from the control group returned for at least one warming cycle in which 85 and 93 blastocysts were warmed in the first cycle, respectively. Primary outcome was implantation rate per embryo transferred in the first warming cycle. Secondary outcomes were survival and transfer rates, blastocyst quality after warming, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate per warmed blastocyst. Blastocysts were vitrified-warmed one by one using closed

  3. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  4. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  5. Reusable temperature-sensitive luminescent material based on vitrified film of europium(III) β-diketonate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, Dmitry V.; Nikiforov, Victor G.; Lobkov, Vladimir S.; Knyazev, Andrey A.; Galyametdinov, Yury G.

    2018-01-01

    We have proposed a novel temperature-sensitive luminescent material which is a 20 μm thick vitrified film (sandwiched between two quartz plates) fabricated from an amorphous powder of a mesogenic europium(III) β-diketonate complex through a melt-processing technique. The film photoexcited by a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser displays a typical Eu3+ ion luminescence bands with the strongest peak at 612 nm and with the decay time of 537 μs at 298 K. It is obtained that both the mean luminescence intensity and the luminescence decay time at 612 nm decrease significantly with temperature increasing from 298 to 348 K; the average values of the relative and absolute temperature sensitivities of the luminescence decay time in the range of 298-348 K are -1.2%·K-1 and -6.5 μs·K-1, respectively. The thermal quenching mechanism of the luminescent properties was analyzed and discussed. The experiments showed that, the luminescent properties of the film is insensitive to oxygen, the film is photostable under UV light, there is full reversibility of the temperature-dependent luminescence intensity and the decay time, and the high luminescence brightness of the film can be observed with violet light excitation. These factors indicated that the film is promising material for reusable luminescent thermometers, suitable for long-term monitoring in the range of 298-348 K.

  6. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  7. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  8. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  10. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  11. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  12. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  14. Muons in the CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072218

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of LHC detectors play a fundamental role in defining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude in the rate of collected events, with respect to the proton-proton bunch crossing rate generated by the LHC, is mandatory to cope with the limits imposed by the readout and storage system. An accurate and efficient online selection mechanism is thus required to fulfill the task keeping maximal the acceptance to physics signals. The CMS experiment operates using a two-level trigger system. Firstly a Level-1 Trigger (L1T) system, implemented using custom-designed electronics, is designed to reduce the event rate to a limit compatible to the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) capabilities. A High Level Trigger System (HLT) follows, aimed at further reducing the rate of collected events finally stored for analysis purposes. The latter consists of a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software and operates on a computer farm. It runs algorithms o...

  15. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  16. B-tagging at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabert, Eric Christian

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The Level 1 Trigger is implemented on custom-designed electronics. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. Using b-tagging at trigger level will play a crucial role during the Run II data taking to ensure the Top quark, beyond the Standard Model and Higgs boson physics programme of the experiment. It will help to significantly reduce the trigger output rate which will increase due to the higher instantaneous luminosity and higher cross sections at 13 TeV. B-tagging algorithms based on the identification of tracks displaced from the primary proton-proton collision or on the reconstruction of secondary vertices have been successfully used during Run I. We will present their design and performance with an emphasis on the dedicated aspects of track and primary vertex reconstruction, as well as the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data ta...

  17. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger Pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level Triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5 Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows studying how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by Fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Finally, we list the benefits and the limi...

  18. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  19. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-threading in the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Over the next decade of LHC data-taking the instantaneous luminosity will reach up 7.5 times the design value with over 200 interactions per bunch-crossing and will pose unprecedented challenges for the ATLAS trigger system. With the evolution of the CPU market to many-core systems, both the ATLAS offline reconstruction and High-Level Trigger (HLT) software will have to transition from a multi-process to a multithreaded processing paradigm in order not to exhaust the available physical memory of a typical compute node. The new multithreaded ATLAS software framework, AthenaMT, has been designed from the ground up to support both the offline and online use-cases with the aim to further harmonize the offline and trigger algorithms. The latter is crucial both in terms of maintenance effort and to guarantee the high trigger efficiency and rejection factors needed for the next two decades of data-taking. We report on an HLT prototype in which the need for HLT­specific components has been reduced to a minimum while...

  1. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  2. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and future development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  3. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  4. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  5. Evaluation of the bone status in high-level cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Gérard; Chappard, Daniel; Audran, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone status in highly trained professional cyclists subjected to regular training and tough competitions. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at different regions of interest by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and main biological parameters related to bone metabolism were obtained in 29 cyclists. Lumbar BMD was 0.94 ± 0.01g/cm(2) (Z-score=-1.28 ± 0.07), and 1 cyclist out of 4 had an abnormally low value (Z-score cyclists (15%) had Z-scores cyclists had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Blood testosterone and thyroid stimulating hormone were in the normal range. Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were in the normal range; however, a significant inverse correlation was found with lumbar BMD (r=0.495; p=0.003). We confirm that cycling has no positive effect on BMD, BMD being often lower than in normal controls at the lumbar site; femoral BMD is less concerned. The absence of beneficial changes at the spine can be explained by biomechanical conditions related to the cyclists' position, reducing loading strains. It is necessary to pay greater attention to the bone status of high-level athletes to prevent an increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  7. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  8. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  9. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  10. The Software Architecture of the LHCb High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a spectrometer dedicated to the study of heavy flavor at the LHC. The rate of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is 15 MHz, but disk space limitations mean that only 3 kHz can be written to tape for offline processing. For this reason the LHCb data acquisition system -- trigger -- plays a key role in selecting signal events and rejecting background. In contrast to previous experiments at hadron colliders like for example CDF or D0, the bulk of the LHCb trigger is implemented in software and deployed on a farm of 20k parallel processing nodes. This system, called the High Level Trigger (HLT) is responsible for reducing the rate from the maximum at which the detector can be read out, 1.1 MHz, to the 3 kHz which can be processed offline,and has 20 ms in which to process and accept/reject each event. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, the HLT was designed from the outset to reuse the offline reconstruction and selection code, and is based around multiple independent and redunda...

  11. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  12. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  13. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  14. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  15. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  16. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation`s spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste.

  17. Radioactive Material Transportation Requirements for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Mark Earl; Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Bolander, Thane Weston

    2000-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) created the National Transportation Program (NTP) whose goal is to ensure the availability of safe, efficient, and timely transportation of DOE materials. The Integration and Planning Group of the NTP, assisted by Global Technologies Incorporated (GTI), was tasked to identify requirements associated with the transport of DOE Environmental Management (EM) radiological waste/material. A systems engineering approach was used to identify source documents, extract requirements, perform a functional analysis, and set up a transportation requirements management database in RDD-100. Functions and requirements for transporting the following DOE radioactive waste/material are contained in the database: high level radioactive waste (HLW), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), nuclear materials (NM), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and transuranic waste (TRU waste). The requirements will be used in the development of standard transportation protocols for DOE shipping. The protocols will then be combined into a DOE Transportation Program Management Guide, which will be used to standardize DOE transportation processes.

  18. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  19. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  20. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.