WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitis austraalia imeautode

  1. 3 meie meest Austraalias, kuningannast rääkimata

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Väliseestlased Austraalias: metallikunstnik, Austraalia ordeni kavandaja V. Veinberg, Austraalia transpordiameti Catering-teenistuse juht ja riiklike vastuvõttude korraldaja H. Lomp, mäeinseneri, finantsgrupi The Broken Hill tegevdirektor A. Parbo

  2. Eestlastest Austraalias / Peep Pillak ; foto: Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2009-01-01

    eestlaste saabumisest Austraaliasse XVII saj. lõpus, XIX ja XX sajandil, Sydney Eesti Majast, pagulaste saabumisest pärast II maailmasõda, Sydney Jaani kogudusest, eestlaste kalmistust Rookwoodis, ajaleht "Meie Kodu" asutamisest, Eesti konsulaadist Sydneys, Eesti Arhiivist Austraalias, eestlastest Thirlmeres ja mujal, seltsielust, kirjasõna Austraalia eestlastest

  3. Austraalia söeküsimus / Robert Milliken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milliken, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Austraalia väikelinn Innamincka pakub uusi võimalusi alternatiivenergias. Ettevõte Geodynamics on uurinud viis aastat iidseid graniidist "kuumi kive" 4,5 km suurusel alal Innamincka punase kõrbe all. 2008. aasta alguseks selgub, kas kuumad kivid on realistlik geotermilise energia allikas Austraalia elektivõrkudele

  4. Kirg prantsuse, sakslased austraalia ja huumor briti moodi / Tiit Merisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merisalu, Tiit

    1997-01-01

    Seriaalid "Punane ja must" ("Le rouge et le noir"), režissöör Jean-Daniel Verhaeghe : Prantsusmaa 1997; "Päike kõrrepõllu kohal" ("The Valley Between"), režissöör Robert Marchand : Austraalia 1996 ja "Smith ja Jones" ("Smith and Jones"), režissöörid John Kilby jt. : Inglismaa

  5. Austraalia peaminister jagas eelarve ülejäägid rahvale / Airi Ilisson-Cruz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Austraalia peaminister Kevin Rudd'i majanduskriisiga võitlemise plaanist, mis nägi ette 2008. aasta detsembris ühiskonna vaesemate kihtide, pensionäride, noorte ja lastega perede rahalist toetamist riigi eelarveülejäägist, ka 2009. aastal jätkub toetuste jagamine. Graafik: Töötus Austraalias viimastel aastatel

  6. Austraalia ilusaim rannikutee sõjaohvrite mälestuseks / Eneli Ivask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ivask, Eneli

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Delovõje Vedomosti : Vkuss Zhizni 13. sept., lk. 4-5. Austraalia lõunarannikul, mitte kaugel Melbourneist on maailma kauneimaks peetav 400 km pikkune hingematvalt lummavate ja erinäoliste vaadetega rannikutee - Great Ocean Road

  7. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  8. VitisCyc: a metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Sushma; Raja, Rajani; Waddell, Elijah N.; Elser, Justin; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera “Pinot Noir” cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu. PMID:25538713

  9. VitisCyc: A metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma eNaithani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to i search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, ii compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and iii upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot Noir’ cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2,024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant’s immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.

  10. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  11. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  12. Regeneration and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus = [Regeneratie en genetische transformatie in het genus Vitis =

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, L.

    1997-01-01


    This work is a contribution to the development of regeneration systems and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus and opens interesting perspectives to the application of molecular techniques for study interesting traits, as well as for genetic improvement of

  13. Nutritional Potential of Citrus Sinensis and Vitis Vinifera Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Uraku, A. J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional potential of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera was assessed by determining proximate and mineral composition. Results indicate carbohydeate content of the peels of Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera as 61.07% and 71.77% respectively. Other findings are crude fibre, 13.51% and 4.96%, proten, 3.73% and 11.35%, fats, 10.34% and 1.16%, moisture, 9.78% and 6.52% and ash 1.57% and 4.24%, for the Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera respectively. Mineral analysis revealed...

  14. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in response to cold stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Xin

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT and cold treatment (CT cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024 annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique

  15. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  16. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingzhen; Labate, Joanne A; Liang, Zhenchang; Cousins, Peter; Prins, Bernard; Preece, John E; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Zhong, Gan-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Wild and loss-of-function alleles of the 5 - O - glucosyltransferase gene responsible for synthesis of diglucoside anthocyanins in Vitis were characterized. The information aids marker development for tracking this gene in grape breeding. Anthocyanins in red grapes are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigmented grapes, diglucoside anthocyanins are rarely found in the cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera. Biochemically 3-O-glucoside anthocyanins can be converted into 3,5-di-O-glucoside anthocyanins by a 5-O-glucosyltransferase. In this study, we surveyed allelic variation of the 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene (5GT) in 70 V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars, 52 V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris accessions, 23 Vitis hybrid grapes, and 22 accessions of seven other Vitis species. Eighteen 5GT alleles with apparent loss-of-function mutations, including seven premature stop codon mutations and six frameshift indel mutations, were discovered in V. vinifera, but not in the other Vitis species. A total of 36 5GT alleles without apparent loss-of-function mutations (W-type) were identified. These W-type alleles were predominantly present in wild Vitis species, although a few of them were also found in some V. vinifera accessions. We further evaluated some of these 5GT alleles in producing diglucoside anthocyanins by analyzing the content of diglucoside anthocyanins in a set of representative V. vinifera cultivars. Through haplotype network analysis we revealed that V. vinifera ssp. vinifera and its wild progenitor V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris shared many loss-of-function 5GT alleles and extensive divergence of the 5GT alleles was evident within V. vinifera. This work advances our understanding of the genetic diversity of 5GT and provides a molecular basis for future marker-assisted selection for improving this important wine quality trait.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Full Length Research Paper. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) .... washed by using PBS (phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.0), and the test bacterial solution was prepared with PBS .... Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected coffee chemical compounds against enterobacteria. J. Agric.

  19. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  20. Bioactive stilbenes from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaher, Nassima; Arraki, Kamel; Dillinseger, Elsa; Temsamani, Hamza; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Izard, Jean-Claude; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2014-03-30

    Viticultural residues from commercial viticultural activities represent a potentially important source of bioactive stilbenes such as resveratrol. The main aim of the present study was therefore to isolate, identify and perform biological assays against amyloid-β peptide aggregation of original stilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots. A new resveratrol oligomer, (Z)-cis-miyabenol C (3), was isolated from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots together with two newly reported oligostilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots, vitisinol C (1) and (E)-cis-miyabenol C (2), and six known compounds: piceatannol, resveratrol, (E)-ε-viniferin (trans-ε-viniferin), ω-viniferin, vitisinol C and (E)-miyabenol C. The structures of these resveratrol derivatives were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. All the newly reported compounds were tested for their anti-aggregative activity against amyloid-β fibril formation. Vitisinol C was found to exert a significant activity against amyloid-β aggregation. Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots are potentially interesting as a source of new bioactive stilbenes, such as vitisinol C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla = Vääna-Viti community setting group home / Tõnu Laigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla Harku vallas Aiba tee 8/7, valminud 2013. Hoonete arhitektid Tõnu Laigu, Koit Ojaliiv, Mari Rass (QP Arhitektid OÜ), sisearhitektid Andres Labi, Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  2. Secreted proteins produced by fungi associated with Botryosphaeria dieback trigger distinct defense responses in Vitis vinifera and Vitis rupestris cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, E; Goddard, M-L; Leva, Y; Bénard-Gellon, M; Laloue, H; Farine, S; Kieffer-Mazet, F; Tarnus, C; Bertsch, C; Chong, J

    2017-10-17

    Grapevine trunk diseases (Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback) are caused by a complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, which severely reduce yields in vineyards. Botryosphaeria dieback is associated with Botryosphaeriaceae. In order to develop effective strategies against Botryosphaeria dieback, we investigated the molecular basis of grapevine interactions with a virulent species, Neofusicoccum parvum, and a weak pathogen, Diplodia seriata. We investigated defenses induced by purified secreted fungal proteins within suspension cells of Vitis (Vitis rupestris and Vitis vinifera cv. Gewurztraminer) with putative different susceptibility to Botryosphaeria dieback. Our results show that Vitis cells are able to detect secreted proteins produced by Botryosphaeriaceae, resulting in a rapid alkalinization of the extracellular medium and the production of reactive oxygen species. Concerning early defense responses, N. parvum proteins induced a more intense response compared to D. seriata. Early and late defense responses, i.e., extracellular medium alkalinization, cell death, and expression of PR defense genes were stronger in V. rupestris compared to V. vinifera, except for stilbene production. Secreted Botryosphaeriaceae proteins triggered a high accumulation of δ-viniferin in V. vinifera suspension cells. Artificial inoculation assays on detached canes with N. parvum and D. seriata showed that the development of necrosis is reduced in V. rupestris compared to V. vinifera cv. Gewurztraminer. This may be related to a more efficient induction of defense responses in V. rupestris, although not sufficient to completely inhibit fungal colonization. Overall, our work shows a specific signature of defense responses depending on the grapevine genotype and the fungal species.

  3. Eesti keel ja meel Austraalias / Sirje Madisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Madisson, Sirje

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi Sõprade Selts sai Sydney Eesti Seltsi Kunsti- ja Käsitööringilt DVD oma viimase aja ettevõtmistega, rahvakunstinäitusest Sydney Eesti Majas ja üritusest Eesti käsitöö ja disain elab edasi

  4. Läbipaistva saunaga Austraalias / Sandra Jõgeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgeva, Sandra, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Kunstnike grupp Art Container osales Brisbane'i teatrifestivalil (4.-25. sept. 2010) interaktiivse etenduse ja saunainstallatsiooniga "Kümblejad" (autorid Tanel Saar, Erik Alalooga, Sandra Jõgeva, Janno Bergmann, Hans-Gunter Lock)

  5. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  6. A SNP transferability survey within the genus Vitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Silvia; Micheletti, Diego; Riaz, Summaira; Pindo, Massimo; Viola, Roberto; This, Patrice; Walker, M Andrew; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts to sequence the genomes of different organisms continue to increase. The DNA sequence is usually decoded for one individual and its application is for the whole species. The recent sequencing of the highly heterozygous Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Pinot Noir (clone ENTAV 115) genome gave rise to several thousand polymorphisms and offers a good model to study the transferability of its degree of polymorphism to other individuals of the same species and within the genus. Results This study was performed by genotyping 137 SNPs through the SNPlex™ Genotyping System (Applied Biosystems Inc.) and by comparing the SNPlex sequencing results across 35 (of the 137) regions from 69 grape accessions. A heterozygous state transferability of 31.5% across the unrelated cultivars of V. vinifera, of 18.8% across the wild forms of V. vinifera, of 2.3% among non-vinifera Vitis species, and of 0% with Muscadinia rotundifolia was found. In addition, mean allele frequencies were used to evaluate SNP informativeness and develop useful subsets of markers. Conclusion Using SNPlex application and corroboration from the sequencing analysis, the informativeness of SNP markers from the heterozygous grape cultivar Pinot Noir was validated in V. vinifera (including cultivars and wild forms), but had a limited application for non-vinifera Vitis species where a resequencing strategy may be preferred, knowing that homology at priming sites is sufficient. This work will allow future applications such as mapping and diversity studies, accession identification and genomic-research assisted breeding within V. vinifera. PMID:19087337

  7. Influences of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, plant genotypes, and tissue types on the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated induction of transgenic hairy roots was previously demonstrated in Vitis vinifera L. and a few other Vitis species. In this study, 13 Vitis species, including V. aestivalis, V. afghanistan, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. flexuosa, V. labrusca, V. nesbittiana, V. pal...

  8. Function of VtPGIP in pathogenic fungus resistance of Vitis thunbergii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In plants, polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) are very important to inactivate polygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (VtPGIP) was first isolated from the wild grape Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc., which exhibits high resistance to disease. VtPGIP ...

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Xylella fastidiosa within a Vitis rupestris x Vitis arizonica hybrid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Famula, T R; Tenscher, A; Walker, M A

    2005-06-01

    The inheritance of resistance to Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the bacterium which causes Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevines, was evaluated within a factorial mating design consisting of 16 full-sib families with resistance derived from Vitis arizonica interspecific hybrids. Measurements of disease progression under greenhouse conditions were based on quantitative assessment of Xf populations in stem tissues and on three phenotypic scores: leaf scorch, a cane maturation index (CMI) and an index that incorporated shoot stunting into the cane maturation index (CMSSI). Measurement of bacterial populations yielded the highest broad-sense heritability for resistance on a genotype mean basis (0.97), indicating that this measure of resistance was the least effected by environmental variation. Narrow-sense heritability of PD resistance was moderately high and measured 0.52, 0.60, 0.63 and 0.37 for Xf populations, CMI scores, CMSSI scores and leaf scorch values, respectively. Complex segregation analysis using the computer program Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology (SAGE: ) strongly indicated the existence of a major gene for PD resistance, which accounted for 91% of the total genetic variance. Conversion of the quantitative data into qualitative resistance levels and evaluation via a chi-square analysis showed that 15 of the 16 families segregated in accordance with a single gene hypothesis with a dominant allele controlling PD resistance. These data indicate that the trait should be relatively easy to pass on from parents to progeny in a breeding program for the development of PD-resistant grape cultivars, particularly when selection is based on cane maturation scores or stem Xf populations.

  10. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing to construct the high-density genetic map for Vitis ( Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis amurensis Rupr.

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    yinshan eGuo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 149 F1 plants from the interspecific cross between ‘Red Globe’ (Vitis vinifera L. and ‘Shuangyou’ (Vitis amurensis Rupr. and the parent were used to construct a molecular genetic linkage map by using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing technique. DNA sequencing generated 41.282 Gb data consisting of 206,411,693 paired-end reads. The average sequencing depths were 68.35 for ‘Red Globe,’ 63.65 for ‘Shuangyou,’ and 8.01 for each progeny. In all, 115,629 high-quality specific length amplified fragments were detected, of which 42,279 were polymorphic. The genetic map was constructed using 7,199 of these polymorphic markers. These polymorphic markers were assigned to 19 linkage groups; the total length of the map was 1929.13 cM, with an average distance of 0.28 cM between each maker. To our knowledge, the genetic maps constructed in this study contain the largest number of molecular markers. These high-density genetic maps might form the basis for the fine quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular-assisted breeding of grape.

  11. A SNP transferability survey within the genus Vitis

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    Walker M Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to sequence the genomes of different organisms continue to increase. The DNA sequence is usually decoded for one individual and its application is for the whole species. The recent sequencing of the highly heterozygous Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Pinot Noir (clone ENTAV 115 genome gave rise to several thousand polymorphisms and offers a good model to study the transferability of its degree of polymorphism to other individuals of the same species and within the genus. Results This study was performed by genotyping 137 SNPs through the SNPlex™ Genotyping System (Applied Biosystems Inc. and by comparing the SNPlex sequencing results across 35 (of the 137 regions from 69 grape accessions. A heterozygous state transferability of 31.5% across the unrelated cultivars of V. vinifera, of 18.8% across the wild forms of V. vinifera, of 2.3% among non-vinifera Vitis species, and of 0% with Muscadinia rotundifolia was found. In addition, mean allele frequencies were used to evaluate SNP informativeness and develop useful subsets of markers. Conclusion Using SNPlex application and corroboration from the sequencing analysis, the informativeness of SNP markers from the heterozygous grape cultivar Pinot Noir was validated in V. vinifera (including cultivars and wild forms, but had a limited application for non-vinifera Vitis species where a resequencing strategy may be preferred, knowing that homology at priming sites is sufficient. This work will allow future applications such as mapping and diversity studies, accession identification and genomic-research assisted breeding within V. vinifera.

  12. Activity of Vitis vinifera Tendrils Extract Against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; Ricci, Donata; Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Stocchia, Vilberto; Sestili, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity was determined of an ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L. tendrils (TVV) against ten plant pathogenic fungi, using the agar dilution method; activity was shown against all tested fungi. Fusarium species were the most sensitive with MIC values ranging from 250 to 300 ppm, while the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani was the most resistant, with a MIC value of 500 ppm. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was used to obtain qualitative information on the main components of TVV. The high amount of polyphenolic compounds contained in TVV is likely to contribute significantly to its antifungal activity.

  13. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota.

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    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute; Deeken, Rosalia

    2016-09-15

    Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All other Agrobacterium

  14. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera.

  16. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

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    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  17. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

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    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  19. Characterization of Transcriptional Complexity during Berry Development in Vitis vinifera Using RNA-Seq1[W

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara Zenoni; Alberto Ferrarini; Enrico Giacomelli; Luciano Xumerle; Marianna Fasoli; Giovanni Malerba; Diana Bellin; Mario Pezzotti; Massimo Delledonne

    2010-01-01

    ... of transcriptomes can be studied. Here we report on the first use of RNA-Seq to gain insight into the wide range of transcriptional responses that are associated with berry development in Vitis vinifera 'Corvina...

  20. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  1. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  2. In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig Robert Brodersen; Andrew Joseph McElrone; Brendan Choat; Eric Franklin Lee; Kenneth Andrew Shackel; Mark Allen Matthews

    2013-01-01

    .... Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera...

  3. Characterization of Transcriptional Complexity during Berry Development in Vitis vinifera Using RNA-Seq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara Zenoni; Alberto Ferrarini; Enrico Giacomelli; Luciano Xumerle; Marianna Fasoli; Giovanni Malerba; Diana Bellin; Mario Pezzotti; Massimo Delledonne

    2010-01-01

    ... of transcriptomes can be studied. Here we report on the first use of RNA-Seq to gain insight into the wide range of transcriptional responses that are associated with berry development in Vitis vinifera 'Corvina...

  4. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico M; Zenoni, Sara; Osti, Fabio; Pezzotti, Mario; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2010-01-01

    The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera...

  5. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

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    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  6. Enzymes of Krebs-Henseleit Cycle in Vitis vinifera L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubelakis, Kalliopi A.; Kliewer, W. Mark

    1978-01-01

    Arginosuccinate (ASA) synthetase and lyase activities were detected in extracts from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chenin blanc mature leaves and seedlings. Optimum reaction conditions for ASA synthetase were 10 millimolar l-citrulline, 7.5 millimolar l-aspartate, 3 to 4 millimolar ATP, 12 millimolar Mg2+ (pH 7.5 to 8.0), enzyme extract up to equivalent of about 200 milligrams of fresh tissue, and incubation temperature of 38 to 40 C. Optimum reaction conditions for ASA lyase were 4 millimolar ASA-K salt (pH 7.3 to 7.8), amount of extract up to equivalent of about 180 milligrams of fresh tissue, and incubation temperature of 38 to 40 C. PMID:16660513

  7. Densitometric determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves (Vaccinium vitis idaeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Alina; Bober, Katarzyna; Stolarczyk, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Densitometry was used for quantitative determination of arbutin (Vaccinium vitis idaeae) in leaves of cowberry collected from region of Suwalszczyzna, Poland. Arbutin was extracted using methanol. Chromatography was performed on glass TLC plates with layers of silica gel. The quantitative densitometric analysis was performed using internal standard solution method. On the base of densitometric analysis it was shown that the band characteristic for absorption maximum of arbutin is placed at lambda(max) = 285 nm. The second absorption band is at lambda = 225 nm. It was stated that contents of arbutin are ca. 35 mg and 47 mg in 1 g of herbs, in cowberry leaves coming from collections in 2005 and 2006 year, respectively. The presented method is accurate, selective, and precise, and can be used for routine quality control analysis and quantitative determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves.

  8. Quantitative anatomy of grapevine (Vitis L. leaf blade

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    Valentine S. Codreanu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations were conducted to clarify the features of grapevine which are adaptive to drought and can be used in selection and introduction of VitisL. There are determined biometric values of 21 morpho-anatomic characters of leaf blade for 10 species of grapevine, 10 cultivars of V. viniferaL. and 10 distant hybrids V. vinifera× Muscadinia rotundifoliaMichx. As a result of this study 6 leaf blade quantitative characters which determine relative grapevine drought resistance were described. The most drought resistant species, sorts and hybrids of grapevine are that which have: a greater average thickness of leaf blade; b smaller surface (average area of leaf blade; c less ratio between average area and average volume of dried leaf blade; d greater mass of dried leaf blade; e higher degrees of the leaf succulence and sclerophylly.

  9. VvWRKY13 enhances ABA biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera

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    JIe Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays critical roles in plant growth and development as well as in plants’ responses to abiotic stresses. We previously isolated VvWRKY13, a novel transcription factor, from Vitis vinifera (grapevine, and here we present evidence that VvWRKY13 may regulate ABA biosynthesis in plants. When VvWRKY13 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines showed delayed seed germination, smaller stomatal aperture size, and several other phenotypic changes, indicating elevated ABA levels in these plants. Sequence analysis of several genes that are involved in grapevine ABA synthetic pathway identified WRKY-specific binding elements (W-box or W-like box in the promoter regions. Indeed, transient overexpression of VvWRKY13 in grapevine leaves significantly increased the transcript levels of ABA synthetic pathway genes. Taken together, we conclude that VvWRKY13 may promote ABA production by activating genes in the ABA synthetic pathway.

  10. Lesão renal aguda por glicerol: efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera L Acute kidney injury by glycerol: antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L

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    Elisabete Cristina de Oliveira Martim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão renal aguda (LRA é a complicação mais grave da rabdomiólise. Nessa síndrome, a liberação do pigmento heme desencadeia uma lesão que se caracteriza por vasoconstrição glomerular e toxicidade celular direta com provável componente oxidante. A renoproteção com antioxidantes tem demonstrado efeito satisfatório. As proantocianidinas são antioxidantes naturais encontradas no extrato da semente da uva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera sobre a função renal de ratos submetidos à lesão induzida por rabdomiólise. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos e adultos pesando entre 250 e 300 g. A LRA foi induzida pela administração de glicerol 50% por via muscular. Os animais foram distribuídos em 4 grupos: grupo Salina (6 mL/kg de NaCl a 0,9%, por via intraperitoneal (dose única, Glicerol (6 mL/kg por via muscular metade da dose em cada região femoral, em dose única, grupo Vitis vinifera (3 mg/kg/dia, por via oral durante cinco dias e grupo Glicerol + Vitis vinifera que recebeu Vitis vinifera por cinco dias antes do glicerol. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados a função renal (FR e o perfil oxidativo (peróxidos urinários FOX-2 e MDA-TBARS. O grupo glicerol de animais tratado com Vitis vinifera apresentou melhora da FR e redução dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados deste estudo confirmaram a ação antioxidante da Vitis vinifera na LRA induzida por glicerol.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is the most serious complication of rhabdomyolysis. In this syndrome, the delivery of heme pigment induces an injury that distinguishes itself by glomerular vasoconstriction and direct cellular toxicity with oxidative component. The renoprotection with antioxidants has demonstrated satisfactory effect. The proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants found in the grape seed extract. The aim of this study was to

  11. High-throughput sequencing data clarify evolutionary relationships among North American Vitis species and improve identification in USDA Vitis germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapes are one of the most economically important berry crops worldwide, with the vast majority of production derived from the domesticated Eurasian species Vitis vinifera. Expansion of production into new areas, development of new cultivars, and concerns about adapting grapevines for changing clima...

  12. ANATOMIA CANTITATIVĂ A EPIDERMEI LAMINEI FRUNZEI LA VIŢA DE VIE (VITIS L.

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    Valentin CODREANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentru a evidenţia caracterele adaptive ale rezistenţei la secetă a viţei de vie, sunt calculate valorile biometrice a 11 caractere anatomice ale epidermei laminei frunzei la 15 specii ale genului Vitis L. şi la 15 soiuri de viţă de vie locale ale speciei Vitis vinifera L.Tipul morfologic actinocit al aparatelor (complexelor stomatice este caracteristic pentru epiderma abaxială a laminei frunzei la viţa de vie (Vitis L..Speciile genului Vitis L. – Vitis californica, V. sylvestris – şi soiurile viţei de vie locale – Coarna neagră, Copciac, Plavae – s-au dovedit a fi mai adaptate la condiţiile concrete de viaţă, deoarece ele nu şi-au schimbat semnificativ den­sitatea stomatelor în anul 2008, an ce a urmat după anul secetos 2007.Mai adaptabile la noile condiţii de viaţă sunt speciile V. monticola, V. rupestris, V.solonis şi soiurile de viţă de vie locale Feteasca neagră şi Rara neagră, la care densitatea stomatelor s-au schimbat destul de mult în anul 2008.Este elaborată metoda de determinare a ariei medii a stomatelor şi a celulelor bazale ale epidermei abaxiale a laminei frunzei la viţa de vie (Vitis L..  THE QUANTITATIVE ANATOMY OF LEAF BLADE EPIDERMIS OF GRAPEVINE (VITIS L.In order to revial adaptable characters of drought resistance of grapevine, are calculated the biometric values of 11 anatomic characters of leaf blade epidermis at 15 species of genus Vitis L. and 15 local cultivars of species Vitis vinifera L.The stomatal density per 1 mm2 of foliar area is specific and sortspecific and varies from 101,14 stomata/mm2, at local sort Rara neagră to 225,50 stomata/mm2, at Vitis silvestris.The stomatal complex of leaf blade abaxial epidermis of studied species and cultivars of grapevine is of actinocytic type and it is characteristic for the genus Vitis L.The species of genus Vitis L. – V. californica, V. sylvestris – and local cultivars – Coarna neagră, Copciac and Plavae – are more adaptable

  13. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera

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    Goertzen Leslie R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and

  14. Structure and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins having putative Rubisco activase function from Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency.

  15. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  16. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  17. Overexpression of a thaumatin-like protein gene from Vitis amurensis improves downy mildew resistance in Vitis vinifera grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongrong; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Yali; Agüero, Cecilia B; Li, Xinlong; Liu, Shaoli; Wang, Chaoxia; Walker, M Andrew; Lu, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Downy mildew is a highly destructive disease in grapevine production. A gene encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin-like protein was isolated from the downy mildew-resistant grapevine "Zuoshan-1," a clonal selection from wild Vitis amurensis Rupr. The predicted thaumatin-like protein (VaTLP) has 225 amino acids and it is acidic, with a calculated isoelectric point of 4.8. The full length of the VaTLP gene was transformed into somatic embryogenic calli of V. vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed that the VaTLP gene was expressed at a high level in the transgenic grapevines. Improved resistance of the transgenic lines against downy mildew was evaluated using leaf disks and whole plants inoculated with Plasmopara viticola, the pathogen causing grapevine downy mildew disease. Bioassay of the pathogen showed that both hyphae growth and asexual reproduction were inhibited significantly among the transgenic plants. Histological analysis also confirmed this disease resistance by demonstrating the inhibition and malformation of hyphae development in leaf tissue of the transgenic plants. These results indicated that the accumulation of VaTLP could enhance resistance to P. viticola in transgenic 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines.

  18. Dissecting the transcriptional response to elicitors in Vitis vinifera cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Almagro

    Full Text Available The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production.

  19. Evolutionary genomics of grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongfeng; Massonnet, Mélanie; Sanjak, Jaleal S; Cantu, Dario; Gaut, Brandon S

    2017-10-31

    We gathered genomic data from grapes (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera), a clonally propagated perennial crop, to address three ongoing mysteries about plant domestication. The first is the duration of domestication; archaeological evidence suggests that domestication occurs over millennia, but genetic evidence indicates that it can occur rapidly. We estimated that our wild and cultivated grape samples diverged ∼22,000 years ago and that the cultivated lineage experienced a steady decline in population size (Ne ) thereafter. The long decline may reflect low-intensity management by humans before domestication. The second mystery is the identification of genes that contribute to domestication phenotypes. In cultivated grapes, we identified candidate-selected genes that function in sugar metabolism, flower development, and stress responses. In contrast, candidate-selected genes in the wild sample were limited to abiotic and biotic stress responses. A genomic region of high divergence corresponded to the sex determination region and included a candidate male sterility factor and additional genes with sex-specific expression. The third mystery concerns the cost of domestication. Annual crops accumulate putatively deleterious variants, in part due to strong domestication bottlenecks. The domestication of perennial crops differs from that of annuals in several ways, including the intensity of bottlenecks, and it is not yet clear if they accumulate deleterious variants. We found that grape accessions contained 5.2% more deleterious variants than wild individuals, and these were more often in a heterozygous state. Using forward simulations, we confirm that clonal propagation leads to the accumulation of recessive deleterious mutations but without decreasing fitness. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Characterisation of the Vitis vinifera PR10 multigene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Genes belonging to the pathogenesis related 10 (PR10) group have been studied in several plant species, where they form multigene families. Until now, such an analysis has not been performed in Vitis vinifera, although three different PR10 genes were found to be expressed under pathogen attack or abiotic stress, and during somatic embryogenesis induction. We used the complete genome sequence for characterising the whole V. vinifera PR10 gene family. The expression of candidate genes was studied in various non-treated tissues and following somatic embryogenesis induction by the auxin 2,4-D. Results In addition to the three V. vinifera PR10 genes already described, namely VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3, fourteen different PR10 related sequences were identified. Showing high similarity, they form a single cluster on the chromosome 5 comprising three pseudogenes. The expression of nine different genes was detected in various tissues. Although differentially expressed in non-treated plant organs, several genes were up-regulated in tissues treated with 2,4-D, as expected for PR genes. Conclusions PR10 genes form a multigene family in V. vinifera, as found in birch, apple or peach. Seventeen closely related PR10 sequences are arranged in a tandem array on the chromosome 5, probably reflecting small-scale duplications during evolution. Various expression patterns were found for nine studied genes, highlighting functional diversification. A phylogenetic comparison of deduced proteins with PR10 proteins of other plants showed a characteristic low intraspecific variability. Particularly, a group of seven close tandem duplicates including VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3 showed a very high similarity, suggesting concerted evolution or/and recent duplications. PMID:20727162

  1. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C; Rosa, Alberto L

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities.

  2. The comparative analysis of the potential relationship between resveratrol and stilbene synthase gene family in the development stages of grapes (Vitis quinquangularis and Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiangli; He, Mingyang; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Huan; Ding, Jiahua; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; He, Jing; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is positively correlated with grapevine disease resistance and its consumption is also highly beneficial to human health. HPLC analyses showed that resveratrol content was significantly higher in most wild Chinese grapevines than in most European Vitis vinifera grapevine cvs. Fruit of the wild Chinese genotype Vitis quinquangularis Danfeng-2 contains much higher levels of resveratrol than some others. Because stilbene synthase is responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, 41 full-length stilbene synthase genes were isolated from Danfeng-2 using the RACE method. A neighbor-joining tree of the STS family displayed high similarity between Danfeng-2 and V. vinifera cv. Pinot Noir. The content of the endogenous stilbene synthase family in tissues and the expression levels induced by powdery mildew were both higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Moreover, expression in the berry was significantly higher than in the leaves. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol accumulation was consistent with endogenous STS gene expressions, and that both were higher in Danfeng-2 than in Pinot Noir. Therefore, STS genes and producing resveratrol from V. quinquangularis played more important role in Vitis resistance. Otherwise, the gene VqSTS6 was markedly higher than the other VqSTS genes in the six tissues/organs assayed by Real-time PCR, which will offer a useful basis for commercial application of resveratrol from Chinese wild grapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. germplasm by high-throughput Vitis18kSNP array: the case of Georgian genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Chipashvili, Ramaz; Failla, Osvaldo; Maghradze, David

    2015-06-23

    Georgia, in the Caucasian region, is considered the first domestication centre of grapevine. This country is characterized by high morphological variability of cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa (DC.) Hegi) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi) compartments. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of genetic diversity obtained by the novel custom Vitis18kSNP array, in order to analyse 71 grapevine accessions representative of wild and cultivated Georgian germplasms. The number of loci successfully amplified was 15,317 out of 18,775 SNP and 79 % of loci resulted polymorphic. Sixty-eight unique profiles were identified, 42 for the sativa and 26 for the sylvestris compartment. Cluster analysis highlighted two main groups, one for cultivars and another for wild individuals, while a genetic structure according to accession taxonomic status and cultivar geographical origin was revealed by multivariate analysis, differentiating clearly the genotypes into 3 main groups, two groups including cultivars and one for wild individuals, even though a considerable overlapping area was observed. Pattern of genetic diversity structure presented an additional proof that grapevine domestication events took place in the Caucasian region contributing to the crop evolution. Our results demonstrated a moderate differentiation between sativa and sylvestris compartments, even though a connection between several samples of both subspecies may be assumed for the occurrence of cross hybridization events among native wild populations and the cultivated accessions. Nevertheless, first degree relationships have not been discovered between wild and cultivated individuals.

  4. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  5. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Heene, Ernst; Qiao, Fei; Nick, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy) transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5) transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  6. A novel emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel arabinogalactan polysaccharide (FGP) is described that is produced in large quantities from the cut stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11....

  7. Influence of shoot topping on yield and quality of Vitis vinifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Key words: Vitis vinifera L., shoot topping, yield, quality, canopy management, shoot topping, fruit set, yield components, fruit composition. ... vineyard productivity, including fruit composition and disease incidence has ..... topping and ethephon effects on White Riesling grapes and grapevines. Am. J. Enol.

  8. In vivo analgesic activities and safety assessment of Vitis vinifera L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the analgesic properties of hydro-alcohol fruit extracts of Vitis vinifera (grape) and Punica granatum (pomegranate) in albino male mice. Methods: The analgesic activity of the fruit extracts was examined in vivo using thermal stimulus assays (tail immersion and hot plate) and chemically-induced ...

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Rhizobium vitis strains from vineyards in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem CANIK OREL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown gall-affected grapevine samples were collected during 2009–2010 from major vineyards, located in different Turkish provinces. One hundred and three bacterial strains were obtained from 88 vineyards and 18 grapevine varieties; they were tumorigenic when inoculated in tobacco, sunflower and Datura stramonium plants and were identified as Rhizobium vitis using biochemical and physiological tests as well as PCR and specific primers. Nineteen R. vitis strains presented a number of anomalous biochemical and physiological characters. PCR and opine-specific primers revealed the presence of octopine/cucumopine-type plasmid in 82 R. vitis strains, nopaline-type plasmids in 18 strains and vitopine-type plasmids in three strains. Clonal relationship of strains was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis following digestion of genomic DNA with the restriction endonuclease PmeI. The greatest genetic diversity was found for the strains from Denizli, Ankara and Nevşehir provinces. Nopaline and vitopine-types of Rhizobium vitis were detected for the first time in Turkey.

  10. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  11. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR, while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5 transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  12. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  13. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  14. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  15. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essent...

  16. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pastore, Chiara; Zenoni, Sara; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Allegro, Gianluca; Dal Santo, Silvia; Valentini, Gabriele; Intrieri, Cesare; Pezzotti, Mario; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    .... We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction...

  17. 3Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pastore, Chiara; Zenoni, Sara; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Allegro, Gianluca; Dal Santo, Silvia; Valentini, Gabriele; Intrieri, Cesare; Pezzotti, Mario; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    .... We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction...

  18. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  19. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  20. Stilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. Waste: A Sustainable Tool for Controlling Plasmopara Viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Biais, Benoît; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Renouf, Elodie; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-05

    Stilbene-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera waste (cane, wood, and root) were characterized by UHPLC-MS. Eleven stilbenes were identified and quantified as follows: ampelopsin A, (E)-piceatannol, pallidol, (E)-resveratrol, hopeaphenol, isohopeaphenol, (E)-ε-viniferin, (E)-miyabenol C, (E)-ω-viniferin, r2-viniferin, and r-viniferin. The fungicide concentration inhibiting 50% of growth of Plasmopara viticola sporulation (IC50) was determined for the extracts and also for the main compounds isolated. r-Viniferin followed by hopeaphenol and r2-viniferin showed low IC50 and thus high efficacy against Plasmopara viticola. Regarding stilbene extracts, wood extract followed by root extract showed the highest antifungal activities. These data suggest that stilbene complex mixtures from Vitis vinifera waste could be used as a cheap source of bioactive stilbenes for the development of natural fungicides.

  1. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

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    Brewer Marin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated. Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern

  2. Flower abscission and fruit set on table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.): unraveling physiological and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Sara Nobre Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia - UL Despite the importance of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as one of the most cultivated species, the molecular events occurring during the critical period of fruit set, are far from elucidated. Aiming at providing a new insight on flower-to-fruit transition and flower abscission regulation, transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and metabolomic analyzes were performed in the inflorescences and vine physiological alterations were ...

  3. Copper impacts in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): molecular, biochemical and biotechnological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Viviana Maria Varajão

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Programa Doutoral em Biologia de Plantas Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800’s, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture. Although they initially seemed to improve plant growth in unproductive lands, their intensive use has raised concerns regarding toxicity to plants and soil contamination, and research has emerged to characterize coppe...

  4. Molekulare Charakterisierung von Glykosyltransferasen in Vitis vinifera

    OpenAIRE

    Frotscher, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoide spielen eine wichtige Rolle für das Aroma von Weinbeeren (Vitis vinifera). Glykosyltransferasen katalysieren die Übertragung von Zuckerresten auf Terpenoide, was diese geruchlos werden lässt. Um die verantwortlichen Enzyme zu identifizieren wurde deren Genfamilie in silico untersucht, 15 Kandidatengene ausgewählt, deren Transkription analysiert und die Ergebnisse mit Terpenoidprofilen verglichen. Dadurch konnten fünf Gene ausgewählt werden, deren offener Leserahmen sequenziert wurd...

  5. Isolation of Resveratrol from Vitis Viniferae Caulis and Its Potent Inhibition of Human Tyrosinase

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    Jiaa Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR catalyzes rate-limiting reactions of cellular melanin synthesis, and its inhibitors are of commercial interest as potential skin whitening agents. However, the limited availability of human TYR makes the screening of TYR inhibitors difficult. To overcome this hurdle, we transformed nonmelanocytic human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells to express human TYR constitutively. Using these cells as a source of human TYR, the ethanolic extracts of 52 medicinal plants grown in Korea were tested for human TYR activity, and the extract of Vitis Viniferae Caulis (dried stems of the grape tree, Vitis vinifera L. was found to inhibit human TYR activity potently. An active compound was isolated from this extract by solvent fractionation followed by liquid column chromatography and identified as resveratrol by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. Resveratrol was determined to be a highly potent inhibitor of human TYR (IC50=0.39 μg mL−1 as compared with p-coumaric acid (IC50=0.66 μg mL−1 and arbutin (IC50>100 μg mL−1 and inhibited melanin synthesis by human epidermal melanocytes at subtoxic concentrations. This study suggests that resveratrol and resveratrol-containing extracts of Vitis Viniferae Caulis have a potential use as skin whitening agents.

  6. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

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    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  7. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Min; Hur, Youn-Young; Preece, John E; Fiehn, Oliver; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS) evaluated by gall incidence (GI) and gall diameter (GD), which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD), SR (high GI and small GD), and SS (high GI and large GD), corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites) at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites) than RR (3 metabolites) or SR (one metabolite). This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  8. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS evaluated by gall incidence (GI and gall diameter (GD, which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD, SR (high GI and small GD, and SS (high GI and large GD, corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites than RR (3 metabolites or SR (one metabolite. This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  9. Decreased frost hardiness of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in reponse to UV-A radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulavuori, Kari; Keränen, Johanna; Suokanerva, Hanne; Lakkala, Kaisa; Huttunen, Satu; Laine, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate plant frost hardiness responses to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, since the few results reported are largely contradictory. It was hypothesized that functional adaptation of life forms could explain these contradictions. Dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings, representing both evergreen and deciduous forms, were tested (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens and its red form f. rubra). The research was performed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland (67°N), with enhanced UV-B- and UV-A-radiation treatments between 2002 and 2009. Plant frost hardiness was determined using the freeze-induced electrolyte leakage method in early autumn, during the onset of the frost hardening process. Additional physiological variables (malondialdehyde, glutathione, total phenols, C and N contents) were analyzed in V. vitis-idaea to explain the possible responses. These variables did not respond significantly to UV-radiation treatments, but explained the frost hardiness well (r² = 0.678). The main finding was that frost hardiness decreased in the evergreen shrub V. vitis-idaea, particularly with enhanced UV-A radiation. No significant responses were observed with the other plants. Therefore, this study does not support the idea that enhanced UV radiation could increase plant frost hardiness. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  10. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  11. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  12. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  13. Austraalia eestlaste põgenemislood : arvustus / Anne Valmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valmas, Anne, 1941-2017

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Across lands and oceans ... to freedom : stories and photographs from the Estonian journey to Australia & New Zealand. Compiled by Vasilios Vasilas ; introduction by Terry Kass. Vasilios Vasilas, c2013

  14. Kolm huvitavat Eesti pioneeri Austraalias / Väino Jaaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaaniste, Väino

    2003-01-01

    19. mail 2003 toimunud Thirlmere Huviringi kokkutulekust, kus arhivaar Maie Barrow rääkis kolmest eesti mehest: Evan Lumme, Gustav Einsaar ja Jakob Lukats, selles artiklis on juttu Evan Anton Johann Lummest

  15. Identification of transcripts involved in digestion, detoxification and immune response from transcriptome of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, En-Si; Lin, Gui-Fang; Liu, Sijun; Ma, Xiao-Li; Chen, Ming-Feng; Lin, Li; Wu, Song-Qing; Sha, Li; Liu, Zhao-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Hua; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Ling-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Tea production has been significantly impacted by the false-eye leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Göthe), around Asia. To identify the key genes which are responsible for nutrition absorption, xenobiotic metabolism and immune response, the transcriptome of either alimentary tracts or bodies minus alimentary tract of E. vitis was sequenced and analyzed. Over 31 million reads were obtained from Illumina sequencing. De novo sequence assembly resulted in 52,182 unigenes with a mean size of 848nt. The assembled unigenes were then annotated using various databases. Transcripts of at least 566 digestion-, 224 detoxification-, and 288 immune-related putative genes in E. vitis were identified. In addition, relative expression of highly abundant transcripts was verified through quantitative real-time PCR. Results from this investigation provide genomic information about E. vitis, which will be helpful in further study of E. vitis biology and in the development of novel strategies to control this devastating pest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Agrobacterium species from vineyards allows identification of typical Agrobacterium vitis and atypical biovar 1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genov, N; Llop, P; López, M M; Bobev, S G; Álvarez, B

    2015-06-01

    To molecularly and phenotypically characterize a selection of Agrobacterium-like isolates from grapevine canes, crowns, soil and tumours in plants grown under cold conditions. Most of the strains were biovar 3 (Agrobacterium vitis), and the remaining were atypical biovar 1 (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). All of them were tumourigenic on grapevine plants but differences in other hosts were observed. Chromosomal and plasmid-borne traits were analysed by gene amplification with four primer sets. Detection of the pectin enzyme hydrolase gene clearly distinguished A. vitis from the atypical A. tumefaciens. Regarding the virulence sensor gene, limited host range tumour-inducing plasmids were found in the atypical isolates. About opine utilization, most A. vitis and some A. tumefaciens contained octopine/cucumopine plasmids, but the nopaline-type was only detected in one A. tumefaciens. The A. vitis strains were molecularly and phenotypically more homogeneous than those of A. tumefaciens, the latter displaying some typical A. vitis characteristics, suggesting an adaptation to life in grapevine. The findings of this work will help to improve detection procedures of the pathogen, and demonstrate the pathogen diversity in cold vineyards, laying the groundwork for epidemiological studies and development of control strategies of the crown and cane gall disease. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants by detecting the emission level of (3Z)-hexenyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Z-J; Li, X-W; Bian, L; Sun, X-L

    2017-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) have been reported to play an important role in the host-locating behavior of several folivores that feed on angiosperms. However, next to nothing is known about how the green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis, chooses suitable host plants and whether it detects differing emission levels of GLV components among genetically different tea varieties. Here we found that the constitutive transcript level of the tea hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) gene CsiHPL1, and the amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and of total GLV components are significantly higher in tea varieties that are susceptible to E. vitis (Enbiao (EB) and Banzhuyuan (BZY)) than in varieties that are resistant to E. vitis (Changxingzisun (CX) and Juyan (JY)). Moreover, the results of a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay and an oviposition preference assay suggest that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenol offer host and oviposition cues for E. vitis female adults. Taken together, the two GLV components, (Z)-3-hexenol and especially (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, provide a plausible mechanism by which tea green leafhoppers distinguish among resistant and susceptible varieties. Future research should be carried out to obtain the threshold of the above indices and then assess their reasonableness. The development of practical detection indices would greatly improve our ability to screen and develop tea varieties that are resistant to E. vitis.

  18. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth.

  19. Comparative antistress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pal Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human society has become complex. However, our physiological responses designed to cope with the ever-increasing adverse situations have not evolved appreciably during the past thousand years. The failure of successful adaptation during stressful situations has resulted in stress-related illnesses. Methods: The objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative assessment of anti-stress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats. Long-term exposure to multiple stressors can cause depression. The unpredictable chronic administration of various mild stresses, a procedure known as “unpredictable chronic mild stress”, is one of the best-validated rodent models to study stress in animals, for its good etiological and predictive validity. Result: Diazepam, Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera administration dose dependently reversed the increase in immobility period in stressed rats. In the study of locomotion activity of rats in elevated plus maze apparatus, Stress treated control group rats showed less no of entries in open arm and also less time spent in open arm. Vitis vinifera treated (p<0.0001, Withania somnifera treated (p<0.0001 and Diazepam treated group showed (p<0.0001 no. of entries in open arms which were more than control group and stressed groups. Stressed group produce less average time spent in open arm as compared to treatment groups as Withania somnifera (p<0.05, Vitis vinifera and diazepam. Withania somnifera group showed significant antistress locomotry behaviour in rats. Administration of Vitis vinifera, Withania somnifera and diazepam during stress period restored the ambulatory behaviour of the rats which can be correlated with restoration of plasma corticosterone level. Finally, the results of the present study justified that Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera and diazepam exhibited significant antistress activity in rats.

  20. Recombinant expression, purification, and characterization of polyphenol oxidase 2 (VvPPO2) from "Shine Muscat" (Vitis labruscana Bailey × Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Suehiro, Yuka; Katayama, Takane; Jindo, Kazushi; Itamura, Hiroyuki; Esumi, Tomoya

    2017-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) catalyze browning reactions in various plant organs, therefore controlling the reactions is important for the food industry. PPOs have been assumed to be involved in skin browning of white grape cultivars; however, the molecular mechanism underlying PPO-mediated browning process remains elusive. We have recently identified a new PPO gene named VvPPO2 from "Shine Muscat" (Vitis labruscana Bailey × V. vinifera L.), and have shown that the gene is transcribed at a higher level than the previously identified VvPPO1 in browning, physiologically disordered berry skins at the maturation stage. In this study, we expressed VvPPO2 in Escherichia coli and, using the purified preparation, revealed unique physicochemical characteristics of the enzyme. Our study opens up a way to not only understand the berry skin browning process but also to elucidate the enzymatic maturation process of grape PPOs.

  1. The novel gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata increases powdery mildew resistance in transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingmin eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. The PR-4 gene was overexpressed in regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and also repressed the growth of powdery mildew. The PR gene responds differently to different stresses in the PR-4 transformants. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  2. The synthesis and accumulation of resveratrol are associated with veraison and abscisic acid concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis, i.e. 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity. Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 d pre-veraison,veraison or 7 d post-veraison, thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 d pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  3. Vitis vinifera Extract Ameliorate Hepatic and Renal Dysfunction Induced by Dexamethasone in Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasona, Nabil A; Alrashidi, Ahmed A; Aldugieman, Thamer Z; Alshdokhi, Ali M; Ahmed, Mohammed Q

    2017-04-11

    This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical effects of grape seed extract against dexamethasone-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction in a female albino rat. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided randomly into four equal groups: Group 1: animals were injected subcutaneously with saline and consider as normal control one. Group 2: animals were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Group 3: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Group 4: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. After 4 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose levels were assayed. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content, and catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were also assayed. Dexamethasone administration caused elevation of serum levels of glucose, uric acid, creatinine, ALT, AST activities, and a decrease in other parameters such as hepatic glutathione, total protein levels, and catalase enzyme activity. Treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract showed a significant increase in the body weight of rats in the group treated with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract orally compared with the dexamethasone control group. An increase in GSH and catalase activity in response to oral treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract was observed after treatment. Grape seed extract positively affects glucocorticoid-induced hepatic and renal alteration in albino rats.

  4. Identification and Expression Profiles of Six Transcripts Encoding Carboxylesterase Protein in Vitis flexuosa Infected with Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaherul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants protect themselves from pathogen attacks via several mechanisms, including hypersensitive cell death. Recognition of pathogen attack by the plant resistance gene triggers expression of carboxylesterase genes associated with hypersensitive response. We identified six transcripts of carboxylesterase genes, Vitis flexuosa carboxylesterase 5585 (VfCXE5585, VfCXE12827, VfCXE13132, VfCXE17159, VfCXE18231, and VfCXE47674, which showed different expression patterns upon transcriptome analysis of V. flexuosa inoculated with Elsinoe ampelina. The lengths of genes ranged from 1,098 to 1,629 bp, and their encoded proteins consisted of 309 to 335 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed hydrolase like domains in all six transcripts and contained two conserved motifs, GXSXG of serine hydrolase characteristics and HGGGF related to the carboxylesterase family. The deduced amino acid sequence also contained a potential catalytic triad consisted of serine, aspartic acid and histidine. Of the six transcripts, VfCXE12827 showed upregulated expression against E. ampelina at all time points. Three genes (VfCXE5585, VfCXE12827, and VfCXE13132 showed upregulation, while others (VfCXE17159, VfCXE18231, and VfCXE47674 were down regulated in grapevines infected with Botrytis cinerea. All transcripts showed upregulated expression against Rhizobium vitis at early and later time points except VfCXE12827, and were downregulated for up to 48 hours post inoculation (hpi after upregulation at 1 hpi in response to R. vitis infection. All tested genes showed high and differential expression in response to pathogens, indicating that they all may play a role in defense pathways during pathogen infection in grapevines.

  5. Copper homeostasis in grapevine: functional characterization of the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Bassil, Elias; Hanana, Mohsen; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-07-01

    The Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 is capable of self-interaction and mediates intracellular copper transport. An understanding of copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is particularly relevant to viticulture in which copper-based fungicides are intensively used. In the present study, the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 (VvCTr1), belonging to the Ctr family of copper transporters, was cloned and functionally characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that VvCTr1 monomers are small peptides composed of 148 amino acids with 3 transmembrane domains and several amino acid residues typical of Ctr transporters. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that Ctr monomers are self-interacting and subcellular localization studies revealed that VvCTr1 is mobilized via the trans-Golgi network, through the pre-vacuolar compartment and located to the vacuolar membrane. The heterologous expression of VvCTr1 in a yeast strain lacking all Ctr transporters fully rescued the phenotype, while a deficient complementation was observed in a strain lacking only plasma membrane-bound Ctrs. Given the common subcellular localization of VvCTr1 and AtCOPT5 and the highest amino acid sequence similarity in comparison to the remaining AtCOPT proteins, Arabidopsis copt5 plants were stably transformed with VvCTr1. The impairment in root growth observed in copt5 seedlings in copper-deficient conditions was fully rescued by VvCTr1, further supporting its involvement in intracellular copper transport. Expression studies in V. vinifera showed that VvCTr1 is mostly expressed in the root system, but transcripts were also present in leaves and stems. The functional characterization of VvCTr-mediated copper transport provides the first step towards understanding the physiological and molecular responses of grapevines to copper-based fungicides.

  6. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  7. Antilisterial activity of grape juice and grape extracts derived from Vitis vinifera variety Ribier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P L; Mitchell, J W; Wilson, M W; Melton, L D

    2006-04-01

    Grape juice and skin and seed extracts of Vitis vinifera var. Ribier black table grapes were found to be highly inhibitory towards Listeria monocytogenes. This grape juice was also active against all other Listeria species tested but not against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Menston, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia enterocolitica. Fractionation of the extracts showed that the antilisterial activity was strongest in the polymeric phenolic fractions. Two different types of active compounds were identified: the red-pigmented polymeric phenolics from juice and skin showed pH-dependent antilisterial activity, while the unpigmented polymeric phenolics from the seed showed antilisterial activity which was independent of pH.

  8. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Dennis H.

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared wit...

  9. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Dennis H.; Weedon, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40°C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared wi...

  10. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Chemical constituents of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C. E. C. Fischer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao-My; Le, Xuan-Tien; Nguyen, Minh-Tam K.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C. E. C. Fischer leaves extracts using in vitro assays; and isolated bioactive compounds from the fractioned extract which showed the best properties by column chromatography. All extracts showed significant radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Ethyl acetate extracts and their isolated compounds showed the highest free biocapacities. In addition, from ethyl acetate extracts, two pure compounds were elucidated as 6-O-benzoylarbutin (1) and Breynioside B (2); another compound, 6-O-benzoyl-α-D-glucose (3) was also isolated and elucidated from n-butanol extracts.

  13. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  15. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  16. Monoterpenyl Glycosyltransferases Differentially Contribute to Production of Monoterpenyl Glycosides in Two Aromatic Vitis vinifera Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Wen, Ya-Qin; Meng, Nan; Qian, Xu; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera "Muscat blanc à Petit" between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734.2) transcript abundance. However, it has not been determined yet whether this correlation also exists in other Vitis vinifera varieties. This study investigated the evolution of free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in two Vitis vinifera variety "Muscat blanc à Petit" and "Gewurztraminer" under two vintages, and further assessed the relation between the accumulation of bound monoterpenes and two monoterpenyl glycosyltransferase transcript levels. Results showed that free monoterpenes exhibited three evolution patterns in both varieties during berry development of two vintages, whereas glycosidically bound monoterpenes showed a concentration elevation with berry maturation. The Cis-rose oxide and geraniol were major components contributing to the aroma odors of "Gewürztraminer" grapes while linalool was major aroma contributor to the "Muscat blanc à Petit grain" grapes. The accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes in both varieties was accompanied with the high expression of VvGT7 (XM_002276510.2) and VvGT14. Only one allele of VvGT7 was found in the variety "Gewürztraminer" and no mutation was observed in its enzyme active sites. XB-VvGT7-4 and XB-VvGT7-5 were two alleles of VvGT7 detected in "Muscat blanc à Petit grain." The mutation on its enzyme active site inhibited

  17. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Tang

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD, which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177, Cys (219] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112, Arg (389, Ser (395], except that Ser (395 in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF, close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  18. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for the noninvasive assessment of anthocyanins in whole grape (Vitis vinifera L.) bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Traversi, Maria Laura; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) bunches from the Sangiovese cultivar was measured nondestructively by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging using two excitation light bands at 550 and 650 nm in sequence. The pixel intensity in the derived logarithm of the fluorescence excitation ratio image was directly related, by an exponential function (r2 = 0.93), to the anthocyanin concentration of berry extracts. The method will be useful for the assessment of the heterogeneity of anthocyanin accumulation in berries that is known to depend on physiologic and climatic factors. It can also represent a new, rapid and noninvasive technique for the assessment of grape ripening and the appropriate time of harvest.

  19. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  20. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  1. Biological control for grapevine crown gall using nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Inoue, Koji; Tanina, Koji; Nita, Mizuho

    2017-01-01

    Crown gall of grapevine, which is caused by tumorigenic Rhizobium vitis, is the most important bacterial disease of grapevine throughout the world. Screening tests of biological control agents resulted in the discovery of a nonpathogenic R. vitis strain ARK-1. By soaking grapevine roots with a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 prior to planting in the field, ARK-1 treatment significantly reduced the number of plants with crown gall symptoms. Several field trials result indicated that ARK-1 was very useful in the field, not only for grapevine but also for various other plant species. In experiments where a mixture of ARK-1 and a tumorigenic strain at a 1 : 1 cell ratio was examined in vitro and in planta, expression levels of the virulence genes virD2 and virE2 of the tumorigenic strain were significantly lower. The suppression of virulence genes, which can result in a reduction of gall formation and the pathogen population, seems to be a unique mechanism of ARK-1. These results indicated that ARK-1 is a promising new agent to control grapevine crown gall.

  2. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents.

  3. Comparison of the clinical effects of white brand toothbrushes versus Vitis Suave®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Vidal, Marta; Lucas-Alcahuz, Eduardo; López-Roldán, Andrés; Gil-Loscos, Francisco; Alpiste-Illueca, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of white label manual toothbrushes and a greater increase in inquiries for discomfort of the gingiva and mucosa. Material and Methods A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial was made of four white brand toothbrushes versus a control brush (Vitis Suave®), with the recording of plaque index, bleeding upon probing, and gingival abrasions following utilization of the different brushes. Results All the brushes except Deliplus® were equally effective in terms of plaque removal (p<0.05). Vitis Suave® and Veckia® were the brushes associated to the greatest increase in minor abrasions (p<0.01), while Veckia®, Carrefour® and Deluxe® significantly increased the number of medium intensity abrasions (p<0.05). These brushes also increased the number of large abrasions, though statistical significance was not reached in this case. Conclusions The white brand brushes proved effective in controlling bacterial plaque, but were associated to more intense soft tissue abrasion. Key words:Gingival abrasions, manual tooth brushing, white brand, clinical effects. PMID:26535095

  4. An efficient method for transgenic callus induction from Vitis amurensis petiole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhao

    Full Text Available Transformation is the main platform for genetic improvement and gene function studies in plants. However, the established somatic embryo transformation system for grapevines is time-consuming and has low efficiency, which limits its utilization in functional genomics research. Vitis amurensis is a wild Vitis species with remarkable cold tolerance. The lack of an efficient genetic transformation system for it has significantly hindered the functional identification of cold stress related genes in the species. Herein, an efficient method was established to produce transformed calli of V. amurensis. Segments of petioles from micropropagated plantlets of V. amurensis exhibited better capacity to differentiate calli than leaf-discs and stem segments, and thus was chosen as target tissue for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP genes were used for simultaneous selection of transgenic calli based on kanamycin resistance and eGFP fluorescence. Several parameters affecting the transformation efficiency were optimized including the concentration of kanamycin, Agrobacterium stains, bacterial densities, infection treatments and co-cultivation time. The transgenic callus lines were verified by checking the integration of NPTII gene into calli genomes, the expression of eGFP gene and the fluorescence of eGFP. Up to 20% of the petiole segments produced transformed calli after 2 months of cultivation. This efficient transformation system will facilitate the functional analysis of agronomic characteristics and related genes not only in V. amurensis but also in other grapevine species.

  5. Chemopreventive effects of the juice of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat on two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Yuhara, Yuta; Kamiya, Tomonori; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Goro

    2013-01-01

    Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, known as Yamabudo in Japan, at the stages of multi-step carcinogenesis. The juice of Vitis coignetiae (Y-grape juice) was antimutagenic toward dimethylbenzo[a]anthracene (DMBA), aflatoxin B1, and benzo[a]pyrene in the Ames test. The Y-grape juice was also antigenotoxic in the micronucleus test using HepG2 cells toward DMBA and aflatoxin B1. Topical and oral administration of the Y-grape juice to mice inhibited the induction of inflammation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Topical and oral administration of the Y-grape juice significantly decreased the incidence and mean number of tumors in mice skin with the 2-stage tumorigenesis protocol. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiinflammatory and antitumor promotion activity of the Y-grape juice, the effect of Y-grape juice on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in mouse ear treated with TPA was studied. Both topical and oral application of the Y-grape juice inhibited the TPA-induced increase in COX-2 activity. Caftaric acid, isolated and identified from the Y-grape juice, was antimutagenic toward DMBA and prevented TPA-induced inflammation in mice, suggesting caftaric acid participates in chemopreventive effect/activities of Y-grape juice.

  6. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  7. Novel species of Cylindrocarpon (Neonectria) and Campylocarpon gen. nov. associated with black foot disease of grapevines (Vitis spp.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halleen, F.; Schroers, H.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Four Cylindrocarpon or Cylindrocarpon-like taxa isolated from asymptomatic or diseased Vitis vinifera plants in nurseries and vineyards of South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, and France were morphologically and phylogenetically compared with other Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon taxa. Sequences of the

  8. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  9. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  10. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  11. Phenolic compounds involved in grafting incompatibility of Vitis spp: development and validation of an analytical method for their quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Sara; Assunção, Maria; Brazão, João; Zanol, Geni; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Graft incompatibility of Vitis spp is an unresolved worldwide problem with important economic consequences. Grafting comprises a complex set of morphological and physiological alterations, in which the phenolic compounds seem to be strongly involved. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural phenolic compounds diversity in the two partners of a Vitis graft is of great importance to evaluate their role as markers of graft establishment. To optimise a sample extraction method, and to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonols in the graft union so as to understand their behaviour in the metabolism of the scion-rootstock system, using compatible and incompatible combinations of a Syrah cultivar and two rootstocks (R110 and SO4). Sixty extracts of Vitis grafting tissues were prepared and analysed by HPLC for the qualitative and quantitative determination of their phenolic profile. Among the phenolic compounds identified in the samples, one benzoic acid (gallic acid), three cinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) and two flavonols (catechin and epicatechin) are potentially suitable as markers of graft incompatibility. The method developed presents good performance and lends itself readily for application in routine analysis of the phenolic composition of Vitis grafting tissues to distinguish compatible and incompatible combinations in the graft callusing stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á.; Castagna, A.; Csepregi, K.; Hideg, É.; Jakab, G.; Jansen, M. A. K.; Jug, T.; Llorens, L.; Mátai, A.; Martínez-Lüscher, J.; Monforte, L.; Neugart, S.; Olejníčková, Julie; Ranieri, A.; Schödl-Hummel, K.; Schreiner, M.; Soriano, G.; Teszlák, P.; Tittmann, S.; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, D.; Zipoli, G.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Núñez-Olivera, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 46 (2016), s. 8722-8734 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : berry skins * Europe * hydroxylation ratios * latitudinal gradient * phenolic composition * solar radiation * ultraviolet radiation * Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.154, year: 2016

  13. Genome analysis methods: Vitis vinifera [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e ... 19,577 Exofish, Genewise, Geneid and SNAP 26,346 (Mar2010) Genoscope; http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/externe/GenomeBrowser/Vitis/ Nov2010 Mar2010 10.1038/nature06148 17721507 ...

  14. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    .... Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency...

  15. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanassova Rossitza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters, has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3, one polyol (VvPMT5 and one sucrose (VvSUC27 transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2 and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2 genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5, in roots (VvHT2 or in mature leaves (VvHT5. Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and

  16. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  17. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar

  18. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  19. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  20. Compositional investigation of phenolic polymers isolated from Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Patricia M; Kennedy, James A

    2007-07-11

    Phenolic polymer material extracted during commercial red wine fermentations (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) was isolated and analyzed to characterize its chemical composition. Phenolic polymer isolates were prepared from samples taken throughout fermentation and isolated by adsorption chromatography. Isolates were subjected to phloroglucinolysis to analyze the proanthocyanidin amount as well as the subunit composition. Results of phloroglucinolysis revealed that the proanthocyanidin content of individual phenolic polymer isolates varied from 27 to 54%. Subsequent analyses were done in an attempt to quantify materials other than known proanthocyanidin subunits. Results of all experiments indicate that up to 82% of the phenolic polymer isolates could be accounted for by mass. While this figure accounts for a significant portion of the polymeric phenolic material, further investigation will be needed to qualify the remaining 18%.

  1. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán; Andrea Johana Reyes-M.; Marco Luis Ayala; William Balaguera-L.; Pablo Antonio Serrano-Cely

    2015-01-01

    El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.), su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da orige...

  2. Genetic transformation of major wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iocco, P; Franks, T; Thomas, M R

    2001-04-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for a number of important grapevine cultivars used in wine production. Transgenic plants were obtained for the seven cultivars: Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc and Muscat Gordo Blanco. Embryogenic callus was initiated from anther filaments and genotypic differences were observed for initiation and subsequent proliferation with Chardonnay responding most favourably to culture conditions. The transformation system allowed the recovery of germinating transgenic embryos 10-12 weeks after Agrobacterium inoculation and plants within 18 weeks. Examination of the expression patterns of the green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the CAMV35S promoter in leaf tissue of transgenic plants showed that for up to 35% of plants the pattern was not uniform. The successful transformation of a genetically diverse group of wine grape cultivars indicates that the transformation system may have general application to an even wider range of Vitis vinifera cultivars.

  3. Enzymes of Krebs-Henseleit Cycle in Vitis vinifera L: II. Arginosuccinate Synthetase and Lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubelakis, K A; Kliewer, W M

    1978-09-01

    Arginosuccinate (ASA) synthetase and lyase activities were detected in extracts from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chenin blanc mature leaves and seedlings. Optimum reaction conditions for ASA synthetase were 10 millimolar l-citrulline, 7.5 millimolar l-aspartate, 3 to 4 millimolar ATP, 12 millimolar Mg(2+) (pH 7.5 to 8.0), enzyme extract up to equivalent of about 200 milligrams of fresh tissue, and incubation temperature of 38 to 40 C. Optimum reaction conditions for ASA lyase were 4 millimolar ASA-K salt (pH 7.3 to 7.8), amount of extract up to equivalent of about 180 milligrams of fresh tissue, and incubation temperature of 38 to 40 C.

  4. Ecophysiological and phytochemical response to ozone of wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Alessio; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Rita Santamaria, Anna; Nicoletti, Marcello; Toniolo, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Bernardini, Alessandra; Pasqua, Gabriella; Manes, Fausto

    2015-12-18

    Vitis vinifera sensitivity to tropospheric ozone (O3) has been evidenced in several studies. In this work, physiological and metabolic effects of O3 on two wine cultivars of V. vinifera (i.e. Maturano and San Giuseppe) have been studied. Moreover, chlorogenic acid (CGA) production, in consideration of its importance in the biosynthetic pathway of polyphenols and as antioxidant, has been investigated. Maturano cultivar resulted more sensitive to O3, as evidenced by the gas exchange reduction at the early stage of treatment, and by the increase in Ci/Ca and the decoupling of net photosynthesis and the stomatal conductance at the end of the treatment. Unexpectedly, O3 did not activate stilbene production. Ozone induced an early CGA decrease, significantly more consistent in cv. Maturano, and an increase after 8 days, more consistent in cv. S. Giuseppe. These results suggest that CGA could be considered a biochemical marker of O3-induced stress in V. vinifera.

  5. Plantas medicinales españolas. Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera (Vitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Bobillo, María Teresa; Alonso Beato, María Teresa; Ladero Santos, Ignacio; Martín Rodríguez, María Asunción

    2005-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio monográfico de Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera, que comprende: la descripción botánica de la especie, el hábitat y el cultivo; la recolección y la conservación de la droga; el estudio y descripción de las características morfológicas y anatómico-microscópicas de los órganos oficinales, que permiten identificar la droga en trociscos. Se incluye la composición química y la acción farmacológica, y se indican las aplicaciones terapéuticas. Finalmente, se citan algunos tipo...

  6. Quantitating Organoleptic Volatile Phenols in Smoke-Exposed Vitis vinifera Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Thiessen, Katelyn; Dennis, Eric G; Tiet, Ben; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2017-09-27

    Accurate methods for quantitating volatile phenols (i.e., guaiacol, syringol, 4-ethylphenol, etc.) in smoke-exposed Vitis vinifera berries prior to fermentation are needed to predict the likelihood of perceptible smoke taint following vinification. Reported here is a complete, cross-validated analytical workflow to accurately quantitate free and glycosidically bound volatile phenols in smoke-exposed berries using liquid-liquid extraction, acid-mediated hydrolysis, and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reported workflow addresses critical gaps in existing methods for volatile phenols that impact quantitative accuracy, most notably the effect of injection port temperature and the variability in acid-mediated hydrolytic procedures currently used. Addressing these deficiencies will help the wine industry make accurate, informed decisions when producing wines from smoke-exposed berries.

  7. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  8. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzotti Mario

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process.

  9. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico M; Zenoni, Sara; Osti, Fabio; Pezzotti, Mario; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2010-12-20

    The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages.One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process.

  10. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process. PMID:21171999

  11. Wineries Evaluation of Costs and Benefits of Sustainability Certification Program: The Case of Terra Vitis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjon, Frederique; Chou, Hsia-Chi; Gezart, Anna; Kadison, Amy E; Martinat, Lea; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The current paper analyses the evaluation of the costs and benefits of French wineries (N=69) participating in the sustainability program Terra Vitis, a widespread environmental certification scheme within the French wine industry. An online questionnaire was sent to all Terra Vitis participants, in order to analyse the evaluation of economic costs and benefits (together with environmental benefits) as perceived by wineries. Our findings reveal that older participants in the scheme (over 5 years), firms with higher export share (>40% of annual turnover) and cooperative wineries tend to be keener to assign a positive evaluation to the benefits/costs ratio in both the vineyard and the winery. In the context of increasing concerns regarding the economic and environmental performance of the French agricultural sector, such findings and also the patent research could be useful for policy makers and entrepreneurs in defining mainstream normative and corporate strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Effect of Partial Grapevine Defoliation (Vitis vinifera on Wine Quality / Efecto de la Defoliación Parcial en Uva (Vitis vinifera sobre la Calidad del Vino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine quality was determined for partially-defoliatedgrapevines grown in Villa de Leyva, Colombia at an elevation of2,143 masl. The experimental design was totally randomized,with two treatments (50% defoliation and 0% defoliation andthree repetitions per treatment. The planting material consistedof five-year-old vines of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay, trainedto trellises, with a spacing of 2.1 m x 1 m. Every fifteen days,the plants in the defoliation treatment underwent the removalof half of the newly-emerged leaves. Before undertaking themicro-vinification process, the total soluble solids (TSS weremeasured in the grape must, and after a fermentation of 100days, wine quality parameters were measured, namely: residual sugars (TSS of the wine, pH, total titratable acid (TTA, and potential alcohol content of the wine. In the plants undergoing partial defoliation, the total soluble solids in the grape must increased, as well as the wine pH and potential alcohol content. At the same time, total titratable acid decreased in the wine of partially-defoliated plants. These results demonstrate that the wine quality was greatly improved by the reduction of leaf area in Chardonnay variety grape plants. / Con el uso de un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y sin defoliación parcial y tres repeticiones por tratamiento, se determinó la calidad del vino en plantas de uva sometidas a defoliación parcial temprana en Villa de Leyva – Colombia a una altitud de 2.143 msnm. Como material vegetal se utilizaron plantas de Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay de cinco años de edad, sembradas en un sistema de espalderas a 2,1 x 1 m. Quincenalmente, se realizó la defoliación parcial a las plantas, la cual consistió en retirar una de cada doshojas recién emergidas en cada una de las plantas sometidas al tratamiento de defoliación. Antes de iniciar el proceso de microvinificación se determinaron los sólidos solubles

  13. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Meitha, K; Konnerup, D; Colmer, TD; Considine, JA; Foyer, CH; Considine, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/ oxidation (redox) state to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete, and particularly lacks spatial resolution. Methods: The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) bu...

  14. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira,Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as sh...

  15. Shared and divergent pathways for flower abscission are triggered by gibberellic acid and carbon starvation in seedless Vitis vinifera L

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Cardoso, Vânia; Sánchez, Claudia; Ramalho, José C.; Larcher, Roberto; Paulo, Octávio S.; Oliveira,Cristina M.; Goulão, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Abscission is a highly coordinated developmental process by which plants control vegetative and reproductive organs load. Aiming at get new insights on flower abscission regulation, changes in the global transcriptome, metabolome and physiology were analyzed in ?Thompson Seedless? grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences, using gibberellic acid (GAc) spraying and shading as abscission stimuli, applied at bloom. Results Natural flower drop rates increased from 63.1?% in non-trea...

  16. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  17. DISTANT HYBRIDS IN F4 (VITIS VINIFERA L. X MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA MICHX. AND OF CULTIVARS OF VITIS VINIFERA L. AND OF CONCERNING THE CONTENT OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

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    Eugeniu ALEXANDROV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of obtaining distant hybrids, as well as any crossing of cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. with representatives of species possessing the necessary qualities (resistance to diseases and pests, low temperature, etc. may change the spectrum of chemical and biochemical compounds responsible for flavour, colour and taste of grapes, obtained juice and wine. Botanical description of distant hybrids was performed during all phases of the vegetative stages; the organs of the plants were studied from spring, at bud unfolding, until early autumn, at the fall of the leaves. For the determination of diglucoside-3,5-malvidin, the fluorimetric method, for determining the methyl anthranilate, the gas chromatographic method was applied. Based on the analyzes of biochemical constituents of grapes of the distant hybrids: DRX-M4-578; -502; -571; -660; -609; -580; etc., compared to the traditional cultivars „Feteasca albă” and „Rară neagră”, it has been found that these varieties are similar. So, the distant hybrids of grapevine haven’t inherited unwanted characters for vines, some of them are strictly limited (diglucoside-3,5-malvidol. These hybrids don’t have the specific characteristics of direct production hybrids, characterised by the foxat taste of the grape berries, caused by the presence of the methyl anthranilate. The distant hybrids studied according to the classical uvologic and technological principles can be classified as follows: 5 distant hybrids are attributed to the table vine species and 2 distant hybrids have mixed properties. According to the physical and biochemical indices of the grapes of the studied distant hybrids, their characteristics are similar to European vine species.

  18. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is Present in Free-Living Vitis spp. Proximal to Cultivated Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Keith L; McLane, Heather; Hyder, Muhammad Z; Dangl, Gerald S; Thompson, Jeremy R; Fuchs, Marc F

    2016-06-01

    Red blotch is an emerging disease of grapevine associated with grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV). The virus spreads with infected planting stocks but no vector of epidemiological significance has been conclusively identified. A vineyard block of red-blotch-affected Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet franc' clone 214 was observed in California, with a clustering of infected, symptomatic vines focused along one edge of the field proximal to a riparian habitat with free-living Vitis spp. No genetic heterogeneity was observed in a 587-nucleotide region of the GRBaV genome in a population of 44 Cabernet franc clone 214 isolates. By contrast, genetic differences were observed in isolates from other cultivars and clones growing in adjacent blocks. GRBaV was confirmed infecting four free-living vines, two of which were shown to be V. californica × V. vinifera hybrids. The genomes of three free-living GRBaV vine isolates and seven from V. vinifera cultivars were compared; free-living vine isolates were shown to be more similar to each other and a 'Merlot' isolate than to the other cultivated vine isolates. The finding that GRBaV is present in free-living Vitis spp. indicates the virus can be spread by natural (nonhuman-mediated) means, and we hypothesize that in-field spread of GRBaV is occurring.

  19. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Fruit and Leave Extracts from Virus Infected and Healthy Cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

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    Esfahanian, Zahra; Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsaz, Mehrnaz; Hessami, Mohammad Javad; Nejatian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Grape virus diseases are a serious problem in Iran. Leaves and fruits of grape have been used for different purposes like cooking in Iran. The present investigation was carried out to study on the cytotoxic-activities of extracts of fruits and leaves of Vitis vinifera from both virus-free and virus-infected grape cultivars against breast cancer cell line (MDAMB- 231) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK 293). IN THIS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, THE CONSIDERED GRAPE CULTIVARS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Rish Baba Sefid, Shahani Ghasre Shirin, Rotabi Zarghan, Asgari Najaf Abad, Fars, Kaj Angor Bojnord, Sarkesh Shiraz and Siahe Zarqan. A real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (real-time Multiplex PCR) assay was applied to detect virus infected cultivars. The cytotoxic effect of the methanol extracts of different Vitis vinifera varieties on cultured cells was monitored using (3- (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 μg mL(-1)). Among these cultivars, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) along with related symptoms was detected in Siahe Zarqan and Fars. Methanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Vitis vinifera from both virus free and virus infected cultivars showed a range of limited to moderate cytotoxic activity. However, methanol extract of leaves belonged to virus infected cultivars was found to have strong cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 at different concentrations. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) can potentially increase the cytotoxicity of grape cultivars.

  20. Dwarf shrub hydraulics: two Vaccinium species (Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea) of the European Alps compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganthaler, Andrea; Mayr, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are two dwarf shrubs widespread in the European Alps. We studied the hydraulics of these species hypothesizing that (1) the hydraulic architecture of dwarf shrubs differs from trees, (2) hydraulic properties reflect the species' ecological amplitude and (3) hydraulic properties vary spatially and seasonally. Key hydraulic parameters (osmotic potential, turgor loss point, xylem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced embolism, stomata closure, drought-induced cell damage and embolism repair) and related wood anatomical traits (conduit diameter and conduit wall reinforcement) were analyzed at four sites in Tyrol, Austria. Both species exhibited low hydraulic safety as well as low hydraulic efficiency. Fifty percentage embolism accumulated at -2.08 (V. myrtillus) and -1.97 MPa (V. vitis-idaea), 88% stomata closure was at -2.19 and -2.35 MPa, respectively. After drought, both species showed embolism repair on re-watering. Site-specific variation within species was low, while seasonal changes in embolism resistance and turgor loss point were observed. Results indicate that studied Vaccinium species have a high risk for embolism formation. This is balanced by refilling capacities, which are probably based on the small growth height of dwarf shrubs. V. vitis-idaea, which occurs on drier sites, showed more efficient repair and a lower turgor loss point than V. myrtillus. © 2015 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  2. Anatomía de leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae

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    Ana María Giménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Es objetivo del trabajo describir el leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. y M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae y determinar rasgos ecoanatómicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas del bosque natural en la localidad Guampacha, Sierras de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (distrito chaqueño serrano. Cinco individuos de cada especie fueron seleccionados al azar, obteniéndose una rodaja a 0.3 m. En las descripciones del leño se usó la terminología del Comité de Nomenclatura de IAWA. Los rasgos fundamentales del leño de Maytenus se resumen en: poros pequeños, numerosos, vasos pequeños, miembros de vasos cortos y anillos de crecimiento angostos. El leño de las dos especies estudiadas se caracteriza por presentar porosidad difusa a semicircular, anillos de crecimiento tipo 5b; poros numerosos y pequeños, parénquima axial de distribución apotraqueal en bandas discontinuas de una sola hilera de células, con tendencia a reticulado; escaso paratraqueal unilateral y difuso en agregados, radios heterogéneos; presencia de fibrotraqueidas. Las principales diferencias anatómicas radican en el tipo de poros, fundamentalmente solitarios en M. vitis-idaea y la presencia de radios de mayor longitud en M. viscifolia. Ambas maderas presentan rasgos xerofiticos notorios.Wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea. y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae. Is objective of this study to describe the wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. and M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae and to determine ecoanatomy features. The samples were collected from natural forest in Guampacha, Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Chaco Serrano district. Five individuals were randomly selected; being obtained a track to 0.3 m. IAWA Committee on Nomenclature terminology was used in wood descriptions. Xylem features of Maytenus be summarized as: numerous small pores, short vessel members and growth rings narrow. The wood of the two species were characterized by diffuse to

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

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    Huifen Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape Genome Array (15,700 transcripts. A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58% probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87% probe sets and 1242 (23.55% probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have

  4. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the vitiligo-specific health-related quality of life instrument (VitiQoL) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Kundu, Roopal V; Fabbrin, Amanda; Horn, Roberta; Giongo, Natalia; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo, although asymptomatic, highly compromises patients' quality of life (QoL). Therefore, an adequate evaluation of QoL is essential. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of VitiQol (Vitiligo-specific health-related quality of life instrument) into Brazilian Portuguese. The study was conducted in two stages; the first stage was the translation and cultural/linguistic adaptation of the instrument; the second stage was the instrument's validation. The translated VitiQol showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.944) and high test-retest reliability and intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95 (CI 95% 0.86 - 0.98), p<0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the means of the first completion of the VitiQoL questionnaire and the retest, p = 0.661. There was a significant correlation between VitiQoL and DLQI (r = 0.776, p <0.001) and also between VitiQoL-PB and subjects' assessment of the severity of their disease (r = 0.702, p <0.001). The impact of vitiligo on the QoL of Brazilian patients can be assessed by a specific questionnaire.

  5. Characterization of Erysiphe necator-Responsive Genes in Chinese Wild Vitis quinquangularis

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    Min Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by fungus Erysiphe necator, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library was constructed from E. necator-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive V. pseudoreticulata clone “Hunan-1” by E. necator infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate E. necator-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.

  6. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

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    Giorgia Novello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  7. Stable MSAP markers for the distinction of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction.

  8. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  9. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  10. Vitis vinifera secondary metabolism as affected by sulfate depletion: diagnosis through phenylpropanoid pathway genes and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Vesentini, Damiano; Fernandes, João Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Laureano, Olga; Ricardo-Da-Silva, Jorge M; Amâncio, Sara

    2013-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is rich in phenylpropanoid compounds, namely flavonoids and stilbenes which, present in most tissues, are described as antioxidants and known to accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Grapevine is then a choice model for studying the interplay between the phenylpropanoid pathway and nutrient deficiency. Here we report the response to sulfur deficiency (-S) of flavonoids and stilbenes biosynthetic pathways in chlorophyll tissues (plantlets) and cell culture. Anthocyanins and trans-resveratrol accumulated in plantlets and trans-resveratrol glucoside in cell cultures in response to sulfur deficiency, while a significant decrease in chlorophyll was observed in -S plantlets. The up-regulation of chalcone synthase gene and the downstream flavonoid biosynthesis genes dihydroflavonol reductase and anthocyanidin synthase matched the accumulation of anthocyanins in -S V. vinifera plantlets. The mRNA level of stilbene synthase gene(s) was correlated tightly with the increase in trans-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol glucoside levels, respectively in -S plantlets and cell cultures. As a whole, the present study unveil that V. vinifera under sulfur deficiency allocates resources to the phenylpropanoid pathway, probably consecutive to inhibition of protein synthesis, which can be advantageous to resist against oxidative stress symptoms evoked by -S conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

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    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  12. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40(°)C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  13. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

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    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  14. Stress reactions in Vitis vinifera L. following soil application of the herbicide flumioxazin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress manifestations including a decrease of the dry weight percentage and the soluble carbohydrate content during the first week after treatment. Thereafter, a decrease of the osmotic potential was observed, as well as a decrease of total protein content and a parallel accumulation of free amino acids, including proline. Altogether, these results suggest that soil-applied fmx induced a stress in grapevines, leading to leaf proteolysis. However, this stress was partially recovered 3 weeks after herbicide application, suggesting that the cuttings were capable to adapt to the fmx exposure. In the vineyard, the flumioxazin effects were still significant 5 months after the treatment, particularly in the CH cv. They included a decrease of the leaf dry weight percentage and soluble carbohydrate content, as well as an increase of the osmotic potential. The decrease of leaf soluble carbohydrates may have dramatic consequences for the berry growth and the reserve constitution. Moreover, treated plants were characterized by a decrease of the free amino acid content and an accumulation of ammonium, while the protein level did not significantly increase, suggesting a degradation of amino acids. The alteration of carbon and nitrogen status after herbicide treatment may affect the grapevine vigour in a long term.

  15. The herbicide flumioxazin stimulates pathogenesis-related gene expression and enzyme activities in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio Jesús; Saladin, Gäelle; Bézier, Annie; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in grapevine defence against pathogens. Thus, all transcripts accumulated in grapevine tissues to reach maximum values after 24-72 h of herbicide exposure, except for VvPR10.3 gene expression, which was induced in roots and stems but not in leaves. Induction of PR genes was observed to a greater extent in roots and leaves, and its intensity diminished in the stems although still remained noteworthy. The activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase enzymes significantly increased in the whole plant after herbicide exposure and were still stimulated 21 days after the beginning of treatments. Similarly, the most remarkable effect occurred in roots. However, all enzyme activities tested were stimulated in the upper aerial tissues as well, indicating that fmx or a derived product acts systemically, likely via root uptake.

  16. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  17. Transcriptional Analysis of Tendril and Inflorescence Development in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Riquelme, José; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Carmona, María J.

    2014-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), the lateral meristem can give rise to either tendrils or inflorescences which are determined organs. To get insights into the processes of tendril and inflorescence development, we characterized the transcriptional variation taking place in both organs. The results of the global transcriptional analyses along tendril and inflorescence development suggested that these two homologous organs initially share a common transcriptional program related to cell proliferation and growth functions. In later developmental stages they showed organ specific gene expression programs related to the particular differentiation processes taking place in each organ. In this way, tendrils showed higher transcription of genes related to photosynthesis, hormone signaling and secondary metabolism than inflorescences, while inflorescences displayed higher transcriptional activity for genes encoding transcription factors, mainly those belonging to the MADS-box gene family. The expression profiles of selected transcription factors related with inflorescence and flower meristem identity and with flower organogenesis were generally conserved with respect to their homologs in model species. Regarding tendrils, it was interesting to find that genes related with reproductive development in other species were also recruited for grapevine tendril development. These results suggest a role for those genes in the regulation of basic cellular mechanisms common to both developmental processes. PMID:24637773

  18. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

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    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  20. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  1. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

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    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  3. Characterization of iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine (Vitis spp.) leaves by reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2017-09-01

    The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects. Iron deficient plants had lower chlorophyll concentrations in young and apical leaves. In the apical zone, also the relative composition of pigments appeared to be modified, explaining the reddish-yellowish apex appearance of iron deficient vines. Finally, the pigment distribution along the shoot characterized the symptoms, as well as the spectral variations among veins and interveinal areas. These results could support future applications in vineyard management (e.g.: symptom identification and detection; precision fertilization) as well as breeding programs for new rootstock selections (e.g.: fast screenings of seedlings). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  5. A Concise Review on Multi-Omics Data Integration for Terroir Analysis in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Pastor Jullian; Collins, Cassandra; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is one of the most important fruit crops, both for fresh consumption and wine and spirit production. The term terroir is frequently used in viticulture and the wine industry to relate wine sensory attributes to its geographic origin. Although, it can be cultivated in a wide range of environments, differences in growing conditions have a significant impact on fruit traits that ultimately affect wine quality. Understanding how fruit quality and yield are controlled at a molecular level in grapevine in response to environmental cues has been a major driver of research. Advances in the area of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have significantly increased our knowledge on the abiotic regulation of yield and quality in many crop species, including V. vinifera. The integrated analysis of multiple 'omics' can give us the opportunity to better understand how plants modulate their response to different environments. However, 'omics' technologies provide a large amount of biological data and its interpretation is not always straightforward, especially when different 'omic' results are combined. Here we examine the current strategies used to integrate multi-omics, and how these have been used in V. vinifera. In addition, we also discuss the importance of including epigenomics data when integrating omics data as epigenetic mechanisms could play a major role as an intermediary between the environment and the genome.

  6. In vivo visualization of the final stages of xylem vessel refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig R; Knipfer, Thorsten; McElrone, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Embolism removal is critical for restoring hydraulic pathways in some plants, as residual gas bubbles should expand when vessels are reconnected to the transpiration stream. Much of our understanding of embolism removal remains theoretical as a consequence of the lack of in vivo images of the process at high magnification. Here, we used in vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to visualize the final stages of xylem refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) paired with scanning electron microscopy. Before refilling, vessel walls were covered with a surface film, but vessel perforation plate openings and intervessel pits were filled with air. Bubbles were removed from intervessel pits first, followed by bubbles within perforation plates, which hold the last volumes of air which eventually dissolve. Perforation plates were dimorphic, with more steeply angled scalariform plates in narrow diameter vessels, compared with the simple perforation plates in older secondary xylem, which may favor rapid refilling and compartmentalization of embolisms that occur in small vessels, while promoting high hydraulic conductivity in large vessels. Our study provides direct visual evidence of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the final stages of embolism removal. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (pvinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety.

  8. Sequence Polymorphisms and Structural Variations among Four Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars Representing Sardinian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercenaro, Luca; Nieddu, Giovanni; Porceddu, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Camiolo, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity among grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars that underlies differences in agronomic performance and wine quality reflects the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels as well as larger genomic variations. A combination of high throughput sequencing and mapping against the grapevine reference genome allows the creation of comprehensive sequence variation maps. We used next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to generate an inventory of SNPs and small indels in four widely cultivated Sardinian grape cultivars (Bovale sardo, Cannonau, Carignano and Vermentino). More than 3,200,000 SNPs were identified with high statistical confidence. Some of the SNPs caused the appearance of premature stop codons and thus identified putative pseudogenes. The analysis of SNP distribution along chromosomes led to the identification of large genomic regions with uninterrupted series of homozygous SNPs. We used a digital comparative genomic hybridization approach to identify 6526 genomic regions with significant differences in copy number among the four cultivars compared to the reference sequence, including 81 regions shared between all four cultivars and 4953 specific to single cultivars (representing 1.2 and 75.9% of total copy number variation, respectively). Reads mapping at a distance that was not compatible with the insert size were used to identify a dataset of putative large deletions with cultivar Cannonau revealing the highest number. The analysis of genes mapping to these regions provided a list of candidates that may explain some of the phenotypic differences among the Bovale sardo, Cannonau, Carignano and Vermentino cultivars.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards.

  10. Treatment strategies for high resveratrol induction in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture

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    Thu V. Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses capable of producing large scales of resveratrol at nutraceutical grade are in demand. This study herein investigated treatment strategies to induce the production of resveratrol in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures. Among seven investigated elicitors, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid, β-glucan (GLU, and chitosan enhanced the production of intracellular resveratrol manyfold. The combined treatment of JA and GLU increased extracellular resveratrol production by up to tenfold. The application of Amberlite XAD-7 resin for in situ removal and artificial storage of secreted resveratrol further increased resveratrol production by up to four orders of magnitude. The level of resveratrol produced in response to the combined treatment with 200 g/L XAD-7, 10 μM JA and 1 mg/mL GLU was approximately 2400 mg/L, allowing the production of resveratrol at an industrial scale. The high yield of resveratrol is due to the involvement of a number of mechanisms working in concert.

  11. Vitis International Variety Catalogue (VIVC: A cultivar database referenced by genetic profiles and morphology

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    Maul Erika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Vitis International Variety Catalogue (VIVC dates back to 1984. The idea was to virtually assemble all accessions maintained in the worldwide existing collections to face genetic erosion. In many cases synonymy, homonymy and misnaming hampered the clear assignment of cultivars/accessions to prime names. In the past 15 years nuclear microsatellites, in particular the nine SSR-markers VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD27, VVMD28, VVMD32, VrZAG62 and VrZAG79 were extensively applied for cultivar recognition in combination with ampelography. Genetic fin- gerprints of more than 15,000 cultivars/accessions were collected. They were taken from more than 300 articles and from microsatellite databases on the web. Allele sizes were adapted according to own internal reference varieties. Comparison of profiles revealed new identities like: “Corbeau” = “Sevilhao”, “Gragnelut” = “Fer”, “Beretinjak” = “Bianco d’Alessano”. The activities aim to equip the prime names of VIVC with reliable genetic profiles combined with the validation of their identity by ampelography. Fingerprints from 1,500 cultivars were already uploaded in VIVC. Two distinct search modules were imple- mented: “Microsatellites by varieties” and “Microsatellites by profiles”. The implementation assists the management of grape- vine genetic resources, e.g. trueness to type assessment in grapevine collections and serves research and breeding.

  12. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

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    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  13. Vitis vinifera juice ameliorates depression-like behavior in mice by modulating biogenic amine neurotransmitters

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    Muhammad Aslam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantageous effects of Vitis vinifera juice on depressive model mice were examined utilizing a blend of behavioral evaluations and biogenic amine neurotransmitter estimations. During the behavioral evaluations, immobility time on the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were measured in unstressed and immobilization-induced stressed mice. V. vinifera juice (4 mL/kg and 8 mL/kg and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in immobility time of both unstressed and stressed mice when compared with their respective saline-treated control groups in both paradigms. Neurotransmitters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. V. vinifera juice raised the levels of both serotonin (p<0.001 and noradrenalin (p<0.001 in brain tissue. These outcomes give significant mechanistic insights into the protective effect of V. vinifera juice against depressive disorders. Our results showed that V. vinifera juice could relieve depressive manifestations in the rodent model of depression.

  14. Impact of wine technology on the variability of resveratrol and piceids in Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.

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    M.A. Surguladze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active stilbenoids-resveratrol and its glucosides were identified in the dry bulk wines of different types made with red-grape vintage variety of Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.: cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid. Red and pink wines were made by different technology: I – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora; II – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with dry yeast “B2000”. III – red, dry; alcoholic fermentation with no-stem pomace and aging on it for 5 months; IV – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type; alcoholic fermentation with stem pomace with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months; V – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type, with preliminary fermentation of cluster stems, then, alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months. The impact of the wine-making technology on the variability of the concentrations of these substances is proved. Kakhetian bulk wines (IV and V also differ from one another. Bulk wine-V made by the fermentation of grappa fermented in advance contains little concentration of study stilbenoids as a result of the oxidation transformations caused by the preliminary treatment. The role of grape juice, stem and seed in the localization of resveratrols and piceids in the bulk wines is identified.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from international Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Jovančićević, Branimir S; Radovanović, Blaga C; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zvezdanović, Jelena B

    2012-08-15

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from different international Vitis vinifera grape varieties and their correlation with contents of phenolic compounds were studied by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The antioxidant activity of red wines was estimated through their ability to scavenge 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•) ). The red wines, gallic acid, (+)-catechin and quercetin were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains using microdilution and disc diffusion techniques. Excellent correlations between the contents of quercetin-3-glucoside (R(2) = 0.9463) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.9337) and DPPH(•) -scavenging ability of the red wines were found. Serbian red wines exhibited significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella sonnei strains, which was in correlation with their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The compounds gallic acid, quercetin and (+)-catechin showed high activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. lutea and M. flavus Gram-positive and S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa Gram-negative strains. The results show that quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin concentrations can be used as markers for the determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of red wines. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil.

  18. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  3. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Alessio [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy); Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: cleofe.palocci@uniroma1.it [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Baldan, Barbara [University of Padua, Department of Biology (Italy); Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  5. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  6. Changes in the proteome of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) during long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Angelika; Weidner, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings in response to prolonged drought. Isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE), and the proteins whose level of accumulation changed significantly due to the applied stress factors were identified with tandem mass spectrometry MALDI TOF/TOF type. Analysis of the proteome of grapevine leaves led to the detection of many proteins whose synthesis changed in response to the applied stressor. Drought caused the most numerous changes in the accumulation of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, mostly connected with the pathways of glycolysis and photosystem II protein components. The biological function of the identified proteins is discussed with reference to the stress of drought. Some of the identified proteins, especially the ones whose accumulation increased during drought stress, may be responsible for the adaptation of grapevine to drought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolics and antioxidant capacity of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Mariane; Jorquera, Katterin; Cancino, Beatriz; Ruby, Rene; Henriquez, Carolina

    2011-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Juice and skin fractions of 4 varieties of table grapes: Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Autumn Royal, and Ribier were prepared to determine and compare their total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC), anthocyanins, and specific phenolics (caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and catechin) content, since a series of positive health benefits are expected from the intake of any of these fractions. Higher amounts of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were observed in the skin fractions (P phenolics content and antioxidant capacity (P phenolic compound observed was catechin (P phenolics were observed in grape juice and skin fractions. Autumn Royal juice provides a very high amount of phenolics, anthocyanins, and exhibits the highest antioxidant capacity, offering the best health promoting properties compared with the other grape varieties studied. Grapes possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Grape juice made with blue grapes (Autumn Royal, Ribier) exhibit higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity than juice elaborated with red grapes (Red Globe, Crimson Seedless). The skin is a good source of phenolics and has a high antioxidant capacity. Specific health-promoting phenolics are more abundant in blue grapes, mainly in their skin fraction, which should not be discarded. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed.

  10. Stilbene polyphenols in the brown red wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by "esca proper"*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine AMALFITANO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of stilbene polyphenols, dimers, trimers and tetramers of resveratrol (viniferins, which are typical Vitaceae metabolites, were extracted from asymptomatic wood (AW and symptomatic brown-reddiscoloured wood (BRW of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by “esca proper”, the trunk disease caused by the fungal complex Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Fomitiporia mediterranea. Resveratrol and the same types of viniferins were found in both AW and BRW, with the exception of α-viniferin, which was only detected in AW, and ampelopsin B, only in BRW. The total concentration of stilbene polyphenols was higher in symptomatic wood (3.7% in BRW vs 1.2% in AW. The absolute variationsin molar concentrations of each stilbene polyphenol (i between BRW and AW (Δi = CiBRW - CiAW, were higherfor ε-viniferin and resveratrol than the other compounds, while the relative variations (Δi/CiAW, were lower for ampelopsin H and isohopeaphenol, and higher for ampelopsin B, hopeaphenol, ampelopsin A, leachianol F and G, pallidol and ε-viniferin (in descending order, than the relative variation for resveratrol. Aspects relating to the biosynthesis of stilbene polyphenols and their role in the host-esca pathogen interaction are discussed.

  11. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H.; Weedon, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40°C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality. PMID:24348494

  12. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  13. Evaluating the Polyphenol Profile in Three Segregating Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández-Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the characteristics of the anthocyanin and flavonol composition and content in grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera varieties Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, Monastrell × Syrah, and Monastrell × Barbera, in order to acquire information for future breeding programs. The anthocyanin and flavonol compositions of twenty-seven hybrids bearing red grapes and 15 hybrids bearing white grapes from Monastrell × Syrah, 32 red and 6 white from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, and 13 red from Monastrell × Barbera have been studied. Among the intraspecific crosses, plants with grapes presenting very high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols were found, indicating a transgressive segregation for this character, and this could lead to highly colored wines with an increased benefits for human health. As regards the qualitative composition of anthocyanins and flavonols, the hydroxylation pattern of the hybrids that also may influence wine color hue and stability presented intermediate values to those of the parentals, indicating that values higher than that showed by the best parental in this respect will be difficult to obtain. The results presented here can be helpful to acquire information for future breeding efforts, aimed at improving fruit quality through the effects of flavonoids.

  14. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Defoliadas Parcialmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control, each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content was carried out on six leaves per plant using a CCM-200 Plus chlorophyll meter, while chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were taken with one darkadapted leaf per plant using a Junior-PAM fluorometer. Initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, terminal fluorescence (Ft, variable fluorescence (Fv, electron transport rate (ETR, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/ Fm, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qP, two non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ,quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (Y(NPQ, and quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching (Y(NO were measured. The chlorophyll concentration index showed higher values in the defoliated plants. There were no significant differences for the values of Fm, Ft and Fv. Fo was higher in the defoliated plants, while ETR, Fv/Fm and Y(II showed higher values in the control plants. It is evident that a reduction in leaf area modifies thepartitioning of excitation energy destined for photochemicaland non-photochemical processes, thus directly influencing the photosynthetic process of the plants evaluated. / Utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado,con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y control y cuatrorepeticiones de 35 plantas cada una, se determinó el contenido y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de uva, sometidas a defoliación parcial

  15. Defence signalling triggered by Flg22 and Harpin is integrated into a different stilbene output in Vitis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Plants can activate defence to pathogen attack by two layers of innate immunity: basal immunity triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) linked with programmed cell death. Flg22 and Harpin are evolutionary distinct bacterial PAMPs. We have previously shown that Harpin triggers hypersensitive cell death mimicking ETI in Vitis rupestris, but not in the Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast, the bacterial PAMP flg22 activating PTI does not trigger cell death. To get insight into the defence signalling triggered by flg22 and Harpin, we compared cellular responses upon flg22 and Harpin treatment in the two Vitis cell lines. We found that extracellular alkalinisation was blocked by inhibition of calcium influx, and modulated by pharmacological manipulation of the cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity with quantitative differences between cell lines and type of PAMPs. In addition, an oxidative burst was detected that was much stronger and faster in response to Harpin as compared to flg22. In V. rupestris, both flg22 and Harpin induced transcripts of defence-related genes including stilbene synthase, microtubule disintegration and actin bundling in a similar way, whereas they differed in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast to Harpin, flg22 failed to trigger significant levels of the stilbene trans-resveratrol, and did not induce hypersensitive cell death even in the highly responsive V. rupestris. We discuss these data in a model, where flg22- and Harpin-triggered defence shares a part of early signal components, but differs in perception, oxidative burst, and integration into a qualitatively different stilbene output, such that for flg22 a basal PTI is elicited in both cell lines, while Harpin induces cell death mimicking an ETI-like pattern of defence.

  16. Defence signalling triggered by Flg22 and Harpin is integrated into a different stilbene output in Vitis cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Plants can activate defence to pathogen attack by two layers of innate immunity: basal immunity triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity (ETI linked with programmed cell death. Flg22 and Harpin are evolutionary distinct bacterial PAMPs. We have previously shown that Harpin triggers hypersensitive cell death mimicking ETI in Vitis rupestris, but not in the Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast, the bacterial PAMP flg22 activating PTI does not trigger cell death. To get insight into the defence signalling triggered by flg22 and Harpin, we compared cellular responses upon flg22 and Harpin treatment in the two Vitis cell lines. We found that extracellular alkalinisation was blocked by inhibition of calcium influx, and modulated by pharmacological manipulation of the cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity with quantitative differences between cell lines and type of PAMPs. In addition, an oxidative burst was detected that was much stronger and faster in response to Harpin as compared to flg22. In V. rupestris, both flg22 and Harpin induced transcripts of defence-related genes including stilbene synthase, microtubule disintegration and actin bundling in a similar way, whereas they differed in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast to Harpin, flg22 failed to trigger significant levels of the stilbene trans-resveratrol, and did not induce hypersensitive cell death even in the highly responsive V. rupestris. We discuss these data in a model, where flg22- and Harpin-triggered defence shares a part of early signal components, but differs in perception, oxidative burst, and integration into a qualitatively different stilbene output, such that for flg22 a basal PTI is elicited in both cell lines, while Harpin induces cell death mimicking an ETI-like pattern of defence.

  17. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangl, Gerald S; Mendum, Mary Lou; Yang, Judy; Walker, M Andrew; Preece, John E

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization of introduced domesticates and closely related natives is well documented in annual crops. The widespread introduction of the domesticated grapevine, Vitis vinifera, into California where it overlaps with two native congenerics, with which it is interfertile, provides opportunity to investigate hybridization between woody perennials. Although geographically widespread, the introduction over the past two centuries has been limited to a few elite clonal cultivars, providing a unique opportunity to study the effects of hybridization on the native species. The amount of hybridization with V. vinifera and the genetic diversity of wild-growing Vitis californica and Vitis girdiana were examined using nineteen microsatellite markers. STRUCTURE analysis was used to define hybrid and introgressed individuals and to analyze genetic structure of the native species. FAMOZ software was used to identify which V. vinifera cultivars served as parents of F 1 hybrids. The three species were clearly distinguished by STRUCTURE analysis. Thirty percent of 119 V. californica vines were hybrids. The domesticated parent was identified for 16 F 1 hybrid vines; the original California cultivar, 'Mission', was the parent of eight. Backcrosses were also found, showing introgression into subsequent generations. Similar results were obtained for a small sample of V. girdiana. Removing hybrids greatly reduced the genetic variation of the presumed pure species, among which there was essentially no genetic structure. Limited genetic variability indicates the California natives may be threatened by genetic erosion. The discovery of F 1 hybrids of 'Mission', a cultivar not grown in the areas for ~100 years, suggests long generation times for wild vines that, often, grow into expansive liana and propagate by layering, all factors that limit recruitment in populations already disjunct by habitat lose. Hermaphroditic flowers and fruit that is more attractive to birds may favor the

  18. Sequencing and assembly of highly heterozygous genome of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkikh, Andrey; Troggio, Michela; Pruss, Dmitry; Cestaro, Alessandro; Eldrdge, Glenn; Pindo, Massimo; Mitchell, Jeff T; Vezzulli, Silvia; Bhatnagar, Satish; Fontana, Paolo; Viola, Roberto; Gutin, Alexander; Salamini, Francesco; Skolnick, Mark; Velasco, Riccardo

    2008-08-31

    A new approach to sequencing and assembling a highly heterozygous genome, that of grape, species Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir, is described. The combining of genome shotgun of paired reads produced by Sanger sequencing and sequencing by synthesis of unpaired reads was shown to be an efficient procedure for decoding a complex genome. About 2 million SNPs and more than a million heterozygous gaps have been identified in the 500 Mb genome of grape. More than 91% of the sequence assembled into 58,611 contigs is now anchored to the 19 linkage groups of V. vinifera.

  19. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-08

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  20. Characterization of Vitis vinifera NPR1 homologs involved in the regulation of Pathogenesis-Related gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Henanff, Gaëlle; Heitz, Thierry; Mestre, Pere; Mutterer, Jerôme; Walter, Bernard; Chong, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background Grapevine protection against diseases needs alternative strategies to the use of phytochemicals, implying a thorough knowledge of innate defense mechanisms. However, signalling pathways and regulatory elements leading to induction of defense responses have yet to be characterized in this species. In order to study defense response signalling to pathogens in Vitis vinifera, we took advantage of its recently completed genome sequence to characterize two putative orthologs of NPR1, a key player in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance to biotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Two cDNAs named VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 were isolated from Vitis vinifera cv Chardonnay, encoding proteins showing 55% and 40% identity to Arabidopsis NPR1 respectively. Constitutive expression of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 monitored in leaves of V. vinifera cv Chardonnay was found to be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole, a SA analog. In contrast, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 transcript levels were not affected during infection of resistant Vitis riparia or susceptible V. vinifera with Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew, suggesting regulation of VvNPR1 activity at the protein level. VvNPR1.1-GFP and VvNPR1.2-GFP fusion proteins were transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, where they localized predominantly to the nucleus. In this system, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 expression was sufficient to trigger the accumulation of acidic SA-dependent Pathogenesis-Related proteins PR1 and PR2, but not of basic chitinases (PR3) in the absence of pathogen infection. Interestingly, when VvNPR1.1 or AtNPR1 were transiently overexpressed in Vitis vinifera leaves, the induction of grapevine PR1 was significantly enhanced in response to P. viticola. Conclusion In conclusion, our data identified grapevine homologs of NPR1, and their functional analysis showed that VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 likely control the expression of SA-dependent defense genes

  1. Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation

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    Martinez-Zapater Jose M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1 administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ≅ 8.25 μW cm-2, 4 h at ≅ 33 μW cm-2 using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell

  2. Diversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on the surface of Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Silva, Josué José da; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie

    2018-03-02

    This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B 2 (FB 2 ) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A. section Nigri occurred on the grapes from Pernambuco (66.3%). A total of 2042 A. section Nigri isolates was analyzed and clustered in three groups according to morphology characterization: A. section Nigri uniseriate (79.3%), A. niger "aggregate" (18.3%) and A. carbonarius (2.4%). In order to precisely identify the Aspergillus species, two hundred and forty-eight strains were subjected to DNA sequencing. Among the A. section Nigri uniseriate group, the following species were found: A. japonicus, A. uvarum, A. brunneoviolaceus, A. aculeatus and A. labruscus. Within the A. niger "aggregate", the following species were found: A.niger sensu stricto, A. welwitschiae and A. vadensis. Regarding mycotoxin-production capacity, 3.2% of the total A. section Nigri isolates (2042) were positive for OTA production and from A. niger "aggregate" (373) tested, 42.1% were FB 2 producers. However, none of the 88 grape samples were contaminated with these mycotoxins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Immunolocalization of cell wall polymers in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) internodes under nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J C; Goulao, L F; Amâncio, S

    2016-11-01

    The impact on cell wall (CW) of the deficiency in nitrogen (-N), phosphorus (-P) or sulphur (-S), known to impair essential metabolic pathways, was investigated in the economically important fruit species Vitis vinifera L. Using cuttings as an experimental model a reduction in total internode number and altered xylem shape was observed. Under -N an increased internode length was also seen. CW composition, visualised after staining with calcofluor white, Toluidine blue and ruthenium red, showed decreased cellulose in all stresses and increased pectin content in recently formed internodes under -N compared to the control. Using CW-epitope specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), lower amounts of extensins incorporated in the wall were also observed under -N and -P conditions. Conversely, increased pectins with a low degree of methyl-esterification and richer in long linear 1,5-arabinan rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) side chains were observed under -N and -P in mature internodes which, in the former condition, were able to form dimeric association through calcium ions. -N was the only condition in which 1,5-arabinan branched RG-I content was not altered, as -P and -S older internodes showed, respectively, lower and higher amounts of this polymer. Higher xyloglucan content in older internodes was also observed under -N. The results suggest that impairments of specific CW components led to changes in the deposition of other polymers to promote stiffening of the CW. The unchanged extensin amount observed under -S may contribute to attenuating the effects on the CW integrity caused by this stress. Our work showed that, in organized V. vinifera tissues, modifications in a given CW component can be compensated by synthesis of different polymers and/or alternative linking between polymers. The results also pinpoint different strategies at the CW level to overcome mineral stress depending on how essential they are to cell growth and plant development.

  4. How the Depletion in Mineral Major Elements Affects Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. Primary Cell Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Goulao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species’ CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant’s development. Mineral deficiency, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur, strongly affects plant metabolism, reducing both growth and crop yield. Despite the importance of mineral nutrition in development, its influence on CW synthesis and modifications is still insufficiently documented. Addressing this knowledge gap, V. vinifera experimental models were used to study CW responses to imposed mineral depletion in unorganized (callus and organized (shoots tissues. The discussion of the obtained results is the main focus of this review. Callus and shoots submitted to mineral restriction are impaired in specific CW components, predominantly cellulose. Reorganization on structure and deposition of several other polymers, in particular the degree and pattern of pectin methyl-esterification and the amount of xyloglucan (XyG, arabinan and extensin, is also observed. In view of recently proposed CW models that consider biomechanical hotspots and direct linkages between pectins and XyG/cellulose, the outcome of these modifications in explaining maintenance of CW integrity through compensatory stiffening can be debated. Nutrient stresses do not affect evenly all tissues with undifferentiated callus tissues showing more pronounced responses, followed by shoot mature internodes, and then newly formed internodes. The impact of nitrogen depletion

  5. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

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    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  6. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  7. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Pop, Nastasia; Babeş, Anca Cristina; Matea, Cristian; Dulf, Francisc V; Bunea, Andrea

    2012-07-04

    Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 - 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 - 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of two FAD2 genes from American grape (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Sun Hee; Go, Young-Sam; Jung, Sung Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi-Chung; Lee, Sukchan; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-11-10

    The synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the most abundant fatty acids in plants, begins with a reaction catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35), also called microsomal oleate Δ12-desaturase. Since the FAD2 gene was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, FAD2 research has gained wide interest as the essential enzyme for synthesizing PUFA. Grapes are one of the most frequently cultivated fruits in the world, with most commercial growers cultivating Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca. Grapeseed oil contains a high proportion, 60-70% of linoleic acid (18:2). We cloned two putative FAD2 genes from V. labrusca cv. Campbell Early based on V. vinifera genome sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences of two putative genes showed that VlFAD2s show high similarity to Arabidopsis FAD2 and commonly contain six transmembrane domain, three histidine boxes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif representing the characteristics of fatty acid desaturase. Phylogenetic analyses of various plant FAD2s showed that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 are separately grouped with constitutive and seed-type FAD2s, respectively. Southern blot showed that one or two bands are found in each lane. Because Campbell Early is a hybrid cultivar, FAD2-1 and FAD2-2 genes may exist as one copy in V. labrusca. Expression analysis in different tissues indicated that VlFAD2-1 is a constitutive gene but VlFAD2-2 is a seed-type gene. Complementation experiments of fad2-1 mutant Arabidopsis with VlFAD2-1 or VlFAD2-2 demonstrated that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 can restore low PUFA proportion of fad2 to normal PUFA proportion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens

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    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional. Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50% against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  10. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures

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    Leo-Paul Tisserant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  11. Insight in the phenolic composition and antioxidative properties of Vitis vinifera leaves extracts

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    Ivana Generalić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, leaf ethanolic extracts of Vitis vinifera were assayed for their polyphenolic composition and antioxidative properties. The leaves were collected during lush vegetation period (May leaves and after the harvest (September leaves. Air dried plant material was homogenized and the polyphenolic constituents were extracted using conventional solvent extraction procedure. Total phenolics, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, catechins and flavanols were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were very rich in phenolic compounds. The concentration of total phenols in September leaves extract was about 30 % higher compared to May leaves extract, due to the increase of flavonoid (catechin fraction. Non-flavonoid compound content was almost equal in both extracts. The amount of flavanols, determined with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method, was taken as indicator of flavan-3-ol monomers, while high catechin content determined by vanillin method, indicated the presence of polymeric fraction. The total catechin content in September leaves extract was more than 3 folds higher in comparison to May leaves extract. Principal phenolic compounds were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography on reverse phase. Antioxidant properties, determined as: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation scavenging ability, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, Fe2+ chelating activity, and using β-carotene bleaching assay, were total phenol concentration dependent. September leaves extract had better free radical scavenging capacity, higher reducing power, and was more efficient in protecting the oxidation of emulsified linoleic acid, in comparison with May leaves extract which showed better chelating ability. The presence of active phenolic compounds: phenolic acids (3-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, vanillin acid, flavonoids ((+-catechin, (--epicatechin

  12. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  13. How the Depletion in Mineral Major Elements Affects Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Primary Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulao, Luís F; Fernandes, João C; Amâncio, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs) undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species' CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant's development. Mineral deficiency, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur, strongly affects plant metabolism, reducing both growth and crop yield. Despite the importance of mineral nutrition in development, its influence on CW synthesis and modifications is still insufficiently documented. Addressing this knowledge gap, V. vinifera experimental models were used to study CW responses to imposed mineral depletion in unorganized (callus) and organized (shoots) tissues. The discussion of the obtained results is the main focus of this review. Callus and shoots submitted to mineral restriction are impaired in specific CW components, predominantly cellulose. Reorganization on structure and deposition of several other polymers, in particular the degree and pattern of pectin methyl-esterification and the amount of xyloglucan (XyG), arabinan and extensin, is also observed. In view of recently proposed CW models that consider biomechanical hotspots and direct linkages between pectins and XyG/cellulose, the outcome of these modifications in explaining maintenance of CW integrity through compensatory stiffening can be debated. Nutrient stresses do not affect evenly all tissues with undifferentiated callus tissues showing more pronounced responses, followed by shoot mature internodes, and then newly formed internodes. The impact of nitrogen depletion leads to more

  14. Genome-wide and molecular evolution analysis of the subtilase gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Han, Xi; Zhang, Ticao; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling; Hu, Xiangyang

    2014-12-16

    Vitis vinifera (grape) is one of the most economically significant fruit crops in the world. The availability of the recently released grape genome sequence offers an opportunity to identify and analyze some important gene families in this species. Subtilases are a group of subtilisin-like serine proteases that are involved in many biological processes in plants. However, no comprehensive study incorporating phylogeny, chromosomal location and gene duplication, gene organization, functional divergence, selective pressure and expression profiling has been reported so far for the grape. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the subtilase gene family in V. vinifera was performed. Eighty subtilase genes were identified. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these subtilase genes comprised eight groups. The gene organization is considerably conserved among the groups. Distribution of the subtilase genes is non-random across the chromosomes. A high proportion of these genes are preferentially clustered, indicating that tandem duplications may have contributed significantly to the expansion of the subtilase gene family. Analyses of divergence and adaptive evolution show that while purifying selection may have been the main force driving the evolution of grape subtilases, some of the critical sites responsible for the divergence may have been under positive selection. Further analyses of real-time PCR data suggested that many subtilase genes might be important in the stress response and functional development of plants. Tandem duplications as well as purifying and positive selections have contributed to the functional divergence of subtilase genes in V. vinifera. The data may contribute to a better understanding of the grape subtilase gene family.

  15. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Mangieri, Nicola; Maghradze, David; Foschino, Roberto; Valdetara, Federica; Cantoral, Jesús M; Vigentini, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional). Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50%) against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri) revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  16. Epiphytic fungal community in Vitis vinifera of the Portuguese wine regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Arenas, M; Lage, O; Cunha, M; Amorim, M I

    2017-11-14

    In this work, fungi present in the grapevine's phyllosphere collected from the main demarcated wine regions of Portugal were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. A total of 46 vine samples (leaves and berries) were collected from different parts of the country, being isolated a total of 117 fungal colonies that were identified to the genus level and sequenced in the following genetic regions: internal transcribed spacer region and 18S rRNA and β-tubulin gene. Next, a phylogenetic tree reconstruction for each genetic region was built. The isolates retrieved from environmental samples belonged to the genera Alternaria (31%), Cladosporium (21%), Penicillium (19%), Aspergillus (7%) and Epicoccum (3%). No genetic signatures of exchange of genetic material were detected, and consequently, the reconstructed phylogenetic trees allowed to distinguish between these different species/genera. In the fungal composition of the Vitis vinifera phyllosphere, several potential pathogens were identified that can be associated with decreases in crop productivity. Knowledge of fungi identification and genetic diversity is pivotal for the development of more adequate crop management strategies. Furthermore, this information will provide guidelines for a more specific and wiser use of fungicides. The knowledge on the composition of the phyllosphere microbial community is still limited, especially when fungi are concerned. These micro-organisms not only play a crucial role in crop health and productivity but also interact with the winemaking process, determining the safety and quality of grape and grape-derived products. The elucidation of the micro-organisms present in the phyllosphere will have a notorious impact on plant breeding and protection programmes and disease management strategies, allowing a better control of pesticide applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Comparative transcriptomics of Central Asian Vitis vinifera accessions reveals distinct defense strategies against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrine, Katherine C H; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Riaz, Summaira; Pap, Dániel; Jones, Laura; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Walker, M Andrew; Cantu, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Grape powdery mildew (PM), caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe necator, is a devastating fungal disease that affects most Vitis vinifera cultivars. We have previously identified a panel of V. vinifera accessions from Central Asia with partial resistance to PM that possess a Ren1-like local haplotype. In this study, we show that in addition to the typical Ren1-associated late post-penetration resistance, these accessions display a range of different levels of disease development suggesting that alternative alleles or additional genes contribute to determining the outcome of the interaction with the pathogen. To identify potential Ren1-dependent transcriptional responses and functions associated with the different levels of resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of these Central Asian accessions at two time points of PM infection. Transcriptomes were compared to identify constitutive differences and PM-inducible responses that may underlie their disease resistant phenotype. Responses to E. necator in all resistant accessions were characterized by an early up-regulation of 13 genes, most encoding putative defense functions, and a late down-regulation of 32 genes, enriched in transcriptional regulators and protein kinases. Potential Ren1-dependent responses included a hotspot of co-regulated genes on chromosome 18. We also identified 81 genes whose expression levels and dynamics correlated with the phenotypic differences between the most resistant accessions 'Karadzhandahal', DVIT3351.27, and O34-16 and the other genotypes. This study provides a first exploration of the functions associated with varying levels of partial resistance to PM in V. vinifera accessions that can be exploited as sources of genetic resistance in grape breeding programs.

  18. Vitis Resistance to Pierce's Disease Is Characterized by Differential Xylella fastidiosa Populations in Stems and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Walker, M A

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pattern of Xylella fastidiosa infection in resistant and susceptible grapevines representing a diverse selection of Vitis spp. was characterized through measurements of X. fastidiosa bacterial movement and accumulation in artificially inoculated greenhouse-grown grapevines. A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was optimized for quantification of X. fastidiosa populations and tested on known amounts of X. fastidiosa added to grape tissue extracts. Predicted versus known X. fastidiosa concentrations proved to be highly correlated (R(2) = 0.99). Populations of X. fastidiosa in stem internode, stem node, petiole, and leaf blade samples from the genotypes in this study were measured at 12 weeks postinoculation using the optimized ELISA procedure. Samples from each plant part were taken at eight positions along the inoculated shoots. Systemic infection was detected in both susceptible and resistant genotypes. Resistant genotypes were characterized by significant differences in X. fastidiosa populations between stem internodes and leaves (1.0 x 10(6) and 1.1 x 10(7) cells/g of sample, respectively). In contrast, the susceptible genotypes were characterized by high mean X. fastidiosa populations in both stems and leaves (5.6 x 10(7) and 4.8 x 10(7) cells/g, respectively) the latter of which were not significantly different from the resistant genotypes. A high correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between stem X. fastidiosa numbers to previously characterized field Pierce's disease (PD) performance indicates that the quantitative ELISA measurements of X. fastidiosa in greenhouse-grown grapevines should be a useful tool for predicting PD resistance under field conditions.

  19. Hairy root culture optimization and resveratrol production from Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Sayed Mehdi; Bahramnejad, Bahman; Douleti Baneh, Hamed; Emamifar, Aryo; Goodwin, Paul H

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots. Strains Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402 all induced hairy roots in the tested genotypes, but the efficiency of ArA4 strain was higher than the other strains. The highest hairy root production was with using internodes as explants. The transformation of hairy roots lines was confirmed by PCR detection of rolB gene. Half Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was better for biomass production compared with MS medium. HPLC analysis of resveratrol production in the hairy root cultures showed that all the genotypes produced higher amounts of resveratrol than control roots. The highest amount of resveratrol was produced from W16 internode cultures, which was 31-fold higher than that of control root. Furthermore, TLC analysis showed that treatments of hairy roots with sodium acetate and jasmonate elevated resveratrol levels both in hairy root tissue and excreted into the half MS medium. These results demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous factors can affect resveratrol production in hairy root culture of grape, and this strategy could be used to increase low resveratrol production in grapes.

  20. Phenolic distribution in liquid preparations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieri, Francesca; Martini, Sara; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Liquid preparations such as tinctures and 'bud extracts' of bilberry and lingonberry are typical products used in some European countries but they have not been widely studied to date. Our aim was to define a phytochemical profile in terms of phenolic compounds for liquid preparations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) and Vaccinium vitis idaea L. (lingonberry) foliar tissues, and evaluate their stability. Up to 17 extracts of lingonberry, and bilberry have been analysed by HPLC equipped with a diode-array detector (DAD) in combination with MS. Some of these samples were freshly prepared (laboratory extracts). Phenolic profiles of the bud extracts and tinctures of bilberry and lingonberry were obtained at 330 nm, typical of the cinnamoyl compounds and suitable to distinguish these two species. Analogously, the profiles at 280 nm were used to detect the arbutin derivatives recognised as the typical markers of lingonberry leaves only. Among the cinnamoyl derivatives, chlorogenic acid was the main compound found in bilberry samples, while caffeoyl arbutin was the principal marker in lingonberry samples. In quantitative terms, the hydroxycinnamic acids were the main class in bilberry bud extracts ranging between 4.67 and 6.81 mg/L (from 52 to 84% of the total phenols). The young sprouts of this species, independently from the extraction mixture, show a higher phenolic content than adult leaves of the same plant. The analytical method allowed to define fingerprints of bilberry and lingonberry liquid preparations. Moreover, without applying accelerated ageing protocols, the stability over time of 11 samples was evaluated up to 6 months, demonstrating negligible variations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Proteome and transcript analysis of Vitis vinifera cell cultures subjected to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadakova, K; Havelkova, M; Kurkova, B; Tlolkova, I; Kasparovsky, T; Zdrahal, Z; Lochman, J

    2015-04-24

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine resulting in significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that characterize the interaction between B. cinerea and the host plant, the grapevine cytoplasmic proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The interaction between Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cells and B. cinerea was characterized by the increase in spot abundance of 30 proteins, of which 21 were successfully identified. The majority of these proteins were related to defence and stress responses and to cell wall modifications. Some of the modulated proteins have been previously found to be affected by other pathogens when they infect V. vinifera but interestingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were influenced by B. cinerea have not been shown to be modulated by any other pathogen studied to date. Transcript analysis using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction additionally revealed the up-regulation of several acidic, probably extracellular, chitinases. The results indicate that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are likely to be important mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Although gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine, little information is available about proteomic changes in this pathosystem. These results suggest that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are important molecular mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Surprisingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were modulated by B. cinerea have not been shown to be affected by any other pathogen studied to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  4. How the Depletion in Mineral Major Elements Affects Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Primary Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulao, Luís F.; Fernandes, João C.; Amâncio, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs) undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species’ CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant’s development. Mineral deficiency, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur, strongly affects plant metabolism, reducing both growth and crop yield. Despite the importance of mineral nutrition in development, its influence on CW synthesis and modifications is still insufficiently documented. Addressing this knowledge gap, V. vinifera experimental models were used to study CW responses to imposed mineral depletion in unorganized (callus) and organized (shoots) tissues. The discussion of the obtained results is the main focus of this review. Callus and shoots submitted to mineral restriction are impaired in specific CW components, predominantly cellulose. Reorganization on structure and deposition of several other polymers, in particular the degree and pattern of pectin methyl-esterification and the amount of xyloglucan (XyG), arabinan and extensin, is also observed. In view of recently proposed CW models that consider biomechanical hotspots and direct linkages between pectins and XyG/cellulose, the outcome of these modifications in explaining maintenance of CW integrity through compensatory stiffening can be debated. Nutrient stresses do not affect evenly all tissues with undifferentiated callus tissues showing more pronounced responses, followed by shoot mature internodes, and then newly formed internodes. The impact of nitrogen depletion leads to more

  5. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Aziz, Aziz; Jullian, Nathalie; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2016-12-10

    Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  7. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Liu, Cai-Yun; Liu, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Yue-Ling; Xu, Rui-Rui

    2016-09-01

    In plants, the transcription factor families have been implicated in many important biological processes. These processes include morphogenesis, signal transduction and environmental stress responses. Proteins containing the lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD), which encodes a zinc finger-like domain are only found in plants. This finding indicates that this unique gene family regulates only plant-specific biological processes. LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of plants such as Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, poplar, apple and tomato. However, relatively little is known about the LBD genes in grape (Vitis vinifera). In this study, we identified 40 LBD genes in the grape genome. A complete overview of the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, structures and expression profiles of this gene family during development in grape is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LBD genes could be divided into classes I and II, together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. We mapped the 40 LBD genes on the grape chromosomes (chr1-chr19) and found that 37 of the predicted grape LBD genes were distributed in different densities across 12 chromosomes. Grape LBDs were found to share a similar intron/exon structure and gene length within the same class. The expression profiles of grape LBD genes at different developmental stages were analysed using microarray data. Results showed that 21 grape LBD genes may be involved in grape developmental processes, including preveraison, veraison and ripening. Finally, we analysed the expression patterns of six LBD genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reation analysis. The six LBD genes showed differential expression patterns among the three representative grape tissues, and five of these genes were found to be involved in responses to mannitol, sodium chloride, heat stress and low temperature treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the LBD gene family in

  9. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Filipe Borges

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood. The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies.

  10. Sample preparation issues in NMR-based plant metabolomics: optimisation for Vitis wood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabalaki, Maria; Bertrand, Samuel; Stefanou, Anna; Gindro, Katia; Kostidis, Sarantos; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most commonly used analytical techniques in plant metabolomics. Although this technique is very reproducible and simple to implement, sample preparation procedures have a great impact on the quality of the metabolomics data. Investigation of different sample preparation methods and establishment of an optimised protocol for untargeted NMR-based metabolomics of Vitis vinifera L. wood samples. Wood samples from two different cultivars of V. vinifera with well-defined phenotypes (Gamaret and 2091) were selected as reference materials. Different extraction solvents (successively, dichloromethane, methanol and water, as well as ethyl acetate and 7:3 methanol-water (v/v)) and deuterated solvents (methanol-d4, 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v), dimethylsulphoxide-d6 and 9:1 dimethylsulphoxide-d6-water-d2 (v/v)) were evaluated for NMR acquisition, and the spectral quality was compared. The optimal extract concentration, chemical shift stability and peak area repeatability were also investigated. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most satisfactory solvent for the extraction of all representative chemical classes of secondary metabolites in V. vinifera wood. The optimal concentration of dried extract was 10 mg/mL and 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v) was the most suitable solvent system for NMR analysis. Multivariate data analysis was used to estimate the biological variation and clustering between different cultivars. Close attention should be paid to all required procedures before NMR analysis, especially to the selection of an extraction solvent and a deuterated solvent system to perform an extensive metabolomic survey of the specific matrix. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ying-Hai; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; Pezzotti, Mario; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2014-01-01

    The plant WRKY gene family represents an ancient and complex class of zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs) that are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as development and senescence, and in plant response to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite the growing number of studies on the genomic organisation of WRKY gene family in different species, little information is available about this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In the present study, a total number of 59 putative grapevine WRKY transcription factors (VvWRKYs) were identified based on the analysis of various genomic and proteomic grapevine databases. According to their structural and phylogentic features, the identified grapevine WRKY transcription factors were classified into three main groups. In order to shed light into their regulatory roles in growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stress in grapevine, the VvWRKYs expression profiles were examined in publicly available microarray data. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvWRKYs in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. To also extend our analysis to situations not covered by the arrays and to validate our results, the expression profiles of selected VvWRKYs in response to drought stress, Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew) infection, and hormone treatments (salicilic acid and ethylene), were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in grapevine.

  12. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  13. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  14. Essential oils of Origanum compactum and Thymus vulgaris exert a protective effect against the phytopathogen Allorhizobium vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbadi, Khaoula; Meyer, Thibault; Vial, Ludovic; Gaillard, Vincent; Benkirane, Rachid; Benbouazza, Abdellatif; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Achbani, El Hassan; Lavire, Céline

    2017-12-29

    Allorhizobium (Agrobacterium) vitis is a host-specific pathogenic bacterium that causes grapevine crown gall disease, affecting vine growth and production worldwide. The antibacterial activities of different aromatic plant essential oils were tested in vitro and in planta against A. vitis. Among the essential oils tested, those of Origanum compactum and Thymus vulgaris showed the most significant in vitro antibacterial activities, with a MIC of 0.156 and 0.312 mg/mL, respectively. A synergistic effect of these two essential oils (1:1) was observed and confirmed by the checkerboard test. Carvacrol (61.8%) and thymol (47.8%) are, respectively, the major compounds in the essential oils of O. compactum and T. vulgaris and they have been shown to be largely responsible for the antibacterial activities of their corresponding essential oils. Results obtained in vitro were reinforced by an in planta pathogenicity test. A mixture of O. compactum and T. vulgaris essential oils (1:1), inoculated into the injured stem of a tomato plant and a grapevine at 0.312 mg/mL as a preventive treatment, reduced both the number of plants developing gall symptoms and the size of the tumors.

  15. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and preliminary structure determination of the polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordtriede, Paul B.; Yoder, Marilyn D., E-mail: yoderm@umkc.edu [Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5007 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from A. vitis has been crystallized. A molecular-replacement solution indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold. Polygalacturonases are pectate-degrading enzymes that belong to glycoside hydrolase family 28 and hydrolyze the α-1,4 glycosidic bond between neighboring galacturonasyl residues of the homogalacturonan substrate. The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, where it accumulated in the periplasmic fraction. It was purified to homogeneity via a two-step chromatography procedure and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. PehA crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.387, b = 62.738, c = 149.165 Å, β = 89.98°. Crystals diffracted to 1.59 Å resolution and contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. An initial structure determination by molecular replacement indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold.

  16. Identification and molecular mapping of PdR1, a primary resistance gene to Pierce's disease in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Riaz, S; Walker, M A

    2006-04-01

    A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling resistance to Pierce's disease (PD) of grape, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), was identified on a Vitis linkage map and denoted as 'Pierce's disease resistance 1' (PdR1). Placement of the locus was accomplished by evaluating a family of full-sib progeny from a cross of two PD-resistant interspecific hybrids with resistance inherited from Vitis arizonica. Resistance was measured under greenhouse conditions by direct quantification of Xf numbers in stem tissues as well as by evaluation of disease symptoms based on leaf scorch and a cane maturation index (CMI). A large QTL (LOD 17.2) accounting for 72% of the phenotypic variance in bacterial numbers was localized to linkage group 14 of the male parent F8909-17. The approximate 95% confidence interval around the QTL peak extended 5.7 cM when using composite interval mapping. The other disease evaluation methods (leaf scorch and CMI, respectively) placed the resistance QTL to the same region on linkage group 14, although at wider 95% confidence intervals (6.0 and 7.5 cM), lower peak LOD scores (11.9 and 7.7) and accounting for less phenotypic variance (59 and 42%). This is the first report of an Xf resistance QTL mapped in any crop species. The relevance of the markers located in the region spanning the QTL will be discussed, addressing their usefulness for the development of PD-resistant grape cultivars.

  17. Identification of a Vitis vinifera endo-β-1,3-glucanase with antimicrobial activity against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Pere; Arista, Gautier; Piron, Marie-Christine; Rustenholz, Camille; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Merdinoglu, Didier; Chich, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    Inducible plant defences against pathogens are stimulated by infections and comprise several classes of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Endo-β-1,3-glucanases (EGases) belong to the PR-2 class and their expression is induced by many pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, suggesting that EGases play a role in the hydrolysis of pathogen cell walls. However, reports of a direct effect of EGases on cell walls of plant pathogens are scarce. Here, we characterized three EGases from Vitis vinifera whose expression is induced during infection by Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew. Recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic characteristics of these three enzymes were measured in vitro and in planta. A functional assay performed in vitro on germinated P. viticola spores revealed a strong anti-P. viticola activity for EGase3, which strikingly was that with the lowest in vitro catalytic efficiency. To our knowledge, this work shows, for the first time, the direct effect against downy mildew of EGases of the PR-2 family from Vitis. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

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    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  19. A dense single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic linkage map of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) anchoring Pinot Noir bacterial artificial chromosome contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    The construction of a dense genetic map for Vitis vinifera and its anchoring to a BAC-based physical map is described: it includes 994 loci mapped onto 19 linkage groups, corresponding to the basic chromosome number of Vitis. Spanning 1245 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between adjacent markers, the map was generated from the segregation of 483 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic markers, 132 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 379 AFLP markers in a mapping population of 94 F(1) individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp. On the basis of contigs containing two or more genetically mapped markers, region-dependent estimations of physical and recombinational distances are presented. The markers used in this study include 118 SSRs common to an integrated map derived from five segregating populations of V. vinifera. The positions of these SSR markers in the two maps are conserved across all Vitis linkage groups. The addition of SNP-based markers introduces polymorphisms that are easy to database, are useful for evolutionary studies, and significantly increase the density of the map. The map provides the most comprehensive view of the Vitis genome reported to date and will be relevant for future studies on structural and functional genomics and genetic improvement.

  20. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  1. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  3. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  4. MINERAIS DE VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVADAS NA FRONTEIRA DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Neidi Garcia Penna

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc foram analizadas durante oito (8 anos, com o objetivo de quantificar Nitrogênio(N, Fósforo(P, Potássio (K, Cálcio (Ca, Magnésio (Mg, Ferro (Fe, Cobre (Cu, Sódio (Na, Manganês (Mn, Boro (Bo e Zinco(Zn nos pecíolos. As amostras peciolares foram secas numa estufa com circulação de ar a aproximadamente 70°C e moídas. Nitrogênio foi determinado pelo método microkjeldahl, Fósforo por colorimetria, Potássio e Sódio por emissão de chama, Cálcio, Magnésio, Ferro, Cobre, Manganês e Zinco por espectrometria de absorção atômica e Boro por colorimetria usando curcumina como derivatizante. Valores médios dos oito (8 anos encontrados na matéria seca (MS foram para Cabernet Sauvignon (g/100g: 1,59N, 0,76P, 3,28K, 0,93Ca, 0,28Mg e em mg/100g: 11,52Fe, 4,18Cu, 85,08Na, 70,17Mn, 2.07B e 13,97Zn; para Pinot Chardonnay (g/100g: 1,26N, 0,47P, 3,20K, 0,82Ca, 0,31 Mg e em mg/100g: 15,25Fe, 3,25Cu, 63,73Na, 42,91Mn, 2,08B e 11,13Zn; para Sauvignon Blanc (g/100g: 1,51 N, 0,49P, 2.29K, 0,79Ca, 0,32Mg e em mg/100g: 16,01 Fe, 5,91 Cu, 76,02Na, 70,61 Mn, 1,91 B e 11,9Zn.

  5. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  6. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  7. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffetto, F; Ropartz, D; Zhang, X J; Gilbert, H J; Guillon, F; Ralet, M-C

    2014-10-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1-4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights

  8. Patterns of sequence polymorphism in the fleshless berry locus in cultivated and wild Vitis vinifera accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Unlike in tomato, little is known about the genetic and molecular control of fleshy fruit development of perennial fruit trees like grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Here we present the study of the sequence polymorphism in a 1 Mb grapevine genome region at the top of chromosome 18 carrying the fleshless berry mutation (flb) in order, first to identify SNP markers closely linked to the gene and second to search for possible signatures of domestication. Results In total, 62 regions (17 SSR, 3 SNP, 1 CAPS and 41 re-sequenced gene fragments) were scanned for polymorphism along a 3.4 Mb interval (85,127-3,506,060 bp) at the top of the chromosome 18, in both V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay and a genotype carrying the flb mutation, V. vinifera cv. Ugni Blanc mutant. A nearly complete homozygosity in Ugni Blanc (wild and mutant forms) and an expected high level of heterozygosity in Chardonnay were revealed. Experiments using qPCR and BAC FISH confirmed the observed homozygosity. Under the assumption that flb could be one of the genes involved into the domestication syndrome of grapevine, we sequenced 69 gene fragments, spread over the flb region, representing 48,874 bp in a highly diverse set of cultivated and wild V. vinifera genotypes, to identify possible signatures of domestication in the cultivated V. vinifera compartment. We identified eight gene fragments presenting a significant deviation from neutrality of the Tajima's D parameter in the cultivated pool. One of these also showed higher nucleotide diversity in the wild compartments than in the cultivated compartments. In addition, SNPs significantly associated to berry weight variation were identified in the flb region. Conclusions We observed the occurrence of a large homozygous region in a non-repetitive region of the grapevine otherwise highly-heterozygous genome and propose a hypothesis for its formation. We demonstrated the feasibility to apply BAC FISH on the very small grapevine chromosomes and provided

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

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    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  10. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-05-12

    Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not

  11. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

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    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics of grape clusters from Vitis rotundifolia cultivars / Características físicas e químicas dos cachos de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Janine Blaskevicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate physical and chemical cluster characteristics of eight Vitis rotundifolia cultivars: Topsail, Magnolia, Noble, Roanoke, Magoon, Regale, Bontiful and Dixie. The evaluated clusters were collected from a preexistent Vitis rotundifolia orchard located at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Parana, in Pinhais-PR. The following variables were evaluated for the 2004 and 2005 crops: total cluster mass, berry mass per cluster, rachis mass, number of berries per cluster and berry diameter. A completely random design with 50 replications was used and each cluster has been considered as a parcel. The chemical characteristics of the juice were evaluated: pH, acidity and total soluble solids. For these analyses, a completely random design with 10 replications was used with 5 clusters per plot. The cultivar Noble stood up from the rest in terms of total soluble solids content for both crops (2004 and 2005 with 12.7° and 13.7° Brix respectively. The cultivar Dixie presented the highest pH (3.04 in 2004 and the cultivar Magnolia in 2005, which present the lower acid content in both years. The cultivars Magnolia and Roanoke stood up in 2004 and 2005 respectively in total cluster mass, mass of berries and rachis mass. In terms of number of berries per cluster, the cultivars Roanoke and Magnolia presented the highest numbers in 2004 while in 2005 the highest numbers were presented by the Roanoke, Regale and Noble cultivars. In 2004, the average berry mass of the cultivars Magnolia and Topsail was superior to the others being the last cited cultivar also superior in this variable in 2005. The cultivar Noble presented the smallest diameter of berries. It was possible to conclude that Vitis rotundifolia cultivars, due to their low total soluble solids content, high acidity and low pH are not recommended for fresh consumption but present potential for juice, jam and jelly production. Furthermore, the

  13. Stilbene production in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Red Globe and Michele Palieri elicited by methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, A R; Antonacci, D; Caruso, G; Cavaliere, C; Gubbiotti, R; Lagana, A; Valletta, A; Pasqua, G

    2010-09-01

    Cell cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cvs Michele Palieri and Red Globe were cultured in order to stimulate stilbene production. In the calli, stilbene production peaked at day 22 of culture for both cultivars; the main compound was trans-piceid, followed by cis-piceid. Methyl jasmonate, which was added to cell suspensions in the first half of the exponential growth phase, enhanced stilbene accumulation, producing mainly trans-piceid and epsilon-viniferin. Other stilbenoids, though in lower quantities, were identified by liquid chromatography/positive electrospray mass spectrometry. epsilon-Viniferin and trans-resveratrol were the main compounds released into the culture medium. The total quantity of stilbenes was genotype dependent, with a better response found for the cv Red Globe.

  14. Characterization of metabolite profiles of leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Lindstedt, Anni; Markkinen, Niko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Yang, Baoru

    2014-12-10

    Leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) are potential raw materials for food and health care products. Targeted (HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, and GC-FID) and nontargeted ((1)H NMR) approaches were applied to study the metabolomic profiles of these leaves. Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound in bilberry leaves and arbutin in lingonberry leaves. Flavonol glycosides were another major group of phenolics in bilberry [5-28 mg/g DM (dry mass)] and lingonberry (15-20 mg/g DM) leaves. Contents of fatty acids were analyzed using GC-FID. The changes in the metabolomics profile during the season were apparent in bilberry but not lingonberry leaves. Negative correlation was found between the contents of lipids and phenolics. The consistency between the key results obtained by targeted and nontargeted analyses suggests nontargeted metabolomic analysis is an efficient tool for fast screening of various leaf materials.

  15. Effect of Milk thistle plant, Vitis vinifera extract on immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss challenge by diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rabie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollutants due to effect on the immune system of fish increase fish sensitivity to pathogens. Diazinon is one of the most used organophosphates pesticide in many agricultural areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diazinon on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and application of Milk thistle plant, Vitis vinifera extract to reduce the adverse effects of this pesticide on its immune system. The reduction in the level of plasma peroxides, IgM, total complement and lysozyme were observed in fish exposed to diazinon showing its effect on the fish’s immune system. No significant difference between control group and fish fed by Milk thistle plant extract and exposed to diazinon can reflect protective impact of Milk thistle plant extract on the immune system of rainbow trout by eliminating the free radicals and boosting the immune system.

  16. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  17. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  18. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and ecophysiological responses to heavy metal stress in selected populations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela; Ciepał, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in soil, and their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. organs. Analysis also concerned the physiological responses of these plants from three polluted sites (immediate vicinity of a zinc smelter in Miasteczko Śląskie, ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. iron smelter in Dąbrowa Górnicza-Łosień, and Jaworzno III power plant in Jaworzno) and one pseudo-control site (Pazurek nature reserve in Jaroszowiec Olkuski). All of the sites are situated in the southern parts of Poland in the Śląskie or Małopolskie provinces. The contents of proline, non-protein thiols, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. were measured. In soil, the highest levels of Cd, Pb, and Zn (HNO 3 extracted and CaCl 2 extracted) were detected at the Miasteczko Śląskie site. At all sites a several times lower concentration of the examined metals was determined in the fraction of soil extracted with CaCl 2 . Much higher Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe concentrations were found in V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea grown at the most polluted site (located near the zinc smelter) in comparison with cleaner areas; definitely higher bioaccumulation of these metals was found in lingonberry organs. Additionally, we observed a large capability of bilberry to accumulate Mn. Antioxidant response to heavy metal stress also differed between V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea. In V. myrtillus we found a positive correlation between the level of non-protein thiols and Cd and Zn concentrations, and also between proline and these metals. In V. vitis-idaea leaves an upward trend in ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase activity accompanied an increase in Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations. At the same time, the increased levels of all tested metals in the leaves

  20. Ácidos grasos y parámetros de calidad del aceite de semilla de uva silvestre (Vitis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franco-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available México es centro de origen de varias especies de Vitis. La gran mayoría de ellas no son empleadas en la agricultura e industrias derivadas. Como parte de la exploración de su potencial agroindustrial se identificó y cuantificó a los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de vid silvestre (Vitis spp. de frutos de Temascaltepec, México y de la accesión E-201, cultivada en Zumpahuacán, México. El contenido promedio de aceite en la semilla fue de 16,7%, encontrando ácido linoleico (71,5%, oleico (17,2%, palmítico (6,6% y esteárico (4,3%. En el aceite obtenido en vides de Temascaltepec se determinó índice de yodo (57,9 g/100 g, índice de saponificación (170,7 mg/g e índice de peroxidos (30 mEq/kg, valores relacionados posiblemente al contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados. Sin embargo, ese mismo grado de insaturación no concordó con el punto de humeo observado (211 °C, lo cual posiblemente está relacionado con el contenido de ácidos palmítico y esteárico. El aceite de semilla de vid silvestre cumple parcialmente con los estándares establecidos para el aceite de semilla de V. vinifera, lo cual implica su potencial culinario, agroindustrial y cosmetológico.

  1. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

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    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  2. Geochemical behaviour of rare earths in Vitis vinifera grafted onto different rootstocks and growing on several soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censi, P., E-mail: paolo.censi@unipa.it [DISTEM, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi, 22-90123 Palermo (Italy); Saiano, F.; Pisciotta, A. [SAF Department, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 13-90128 Palermo (Italy); Tuzzolino, N. [DISTEM, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi, 22-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    The geochemical behaviour of lanthanides and yttrium (Rare Earth Elements, REEs) has been investigated mainly in geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. This behaviour is assessed according to features recorded in sequences of REE concentrations along the REE series normalised with respect to a reference material. In this study, the geochemical behaviour of REE was investigated in different parts of Vitis vinifera specimens grown off-soil, on soils of different nature and grafted onto several rootstocks in order to evaluate effects induced by these changes. The results indicated that roots are the plant organs where REEs are preferentially concentrated, in particular elements from Sm to Ho (middle REE, MREE) whereas Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts. The geochemical behaviour of REE suggests that MREE enrichments in roots are due to preferential MREE interactions with biological membranes or to surface complexation with newly formed phosphates. Eu-positive anomalies suggest that Eu{sup 3+} can form stable organic complexes in place of Ca{sup 2+} in several biological processes in xylem fluids. The possibility that Eu mobility in these fluids can be enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu{sup 2+} cannot be ruled out. The assessment of the geochemical behaviour of REE according to the theory of the Tetrad Effect carried out confirms that REEs coming from soil are scavenged onto root tissues or mineral surfaces whereas their behaviour in aerial parts of V. vinifera is driven by dissolved complexation. - Highlights: • REE behaviour is driven by scavenging onto authigenic solids or membranes in roots. • REE behaviour is driven by dissolved complexation in aerial plant parts. • Positive Eu anomalies are a consequence of the REE translocation by xylem fluids. • Significant REE tetrad effects are observed in Vitis vinifera plants.

  3. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Colonization of Vitis spp. wood by sGFP-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a tracheomycotic fungus involved in Esca disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate wood colonization and interactions with Vitis spp. of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a fungal agent involved in Esca disease, isolate CBS 229.95 was transformed using a pCT74 construct which contained the genetic markers for synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) and hygromycin B phosphotransferase. Nine stable P. chlamydospora fungal transformants (Pch-sGFP lines) were obtained using polyethylene-glycol-mediated transformation of protoplasts. These were characterized for sgfp and hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) genome insertions and for sGFP fluorescence emission, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorimetric systems, respectively. No correlation was observed between sgfp copy number genome insertion and sGFP fluorescence expression. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera 'Montepulciano', 'Verdicchio', 'Sangiovese', 'Biancame', and 'Cabernet Sauvignon'; and the grapevine rootstocks 'Kober 5BB', 'SO4', '420A', '1103P', and V. rupestris were inoculated by immersion in a conidial suspension of the selected fungal Pch-sGFP71 line and incubated at 4 ± 1 and 25 ± 1°C. Wood colonization was estimated through epifluorescence microscopy and was affected by incubation temperature. After 6 months at 4 ± 1°C, the fungal growth was completely inhibited. At 25 ± 1°C, the highest extent of wood colonization was recorded in Montepulciano and Verdicchio, with the lowest in the rootstocks SO4 and V. rupestris. The expression of the Pch-sGFP71 transformed line was localized in the xylem area, primarily around the vessels. The use of sGFP-transformed P. chlamydospora helped to clarify different aspects associated with the location of this pathogen in grapevine tissue, before disease symptom expression.

  5. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  6. Seasonal changes of pH and buffer capacity of aqueous homogenates of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Czuchajowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly formed leaves of both Vaccinium species show in June and July the lowest pH values, 3.4-3.7, which gradually increase up to 4.6 in November. The bi- and triennial leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea are less acid and show much morę limited seasonal decrease of acidity. The buffer capacity against acid of the current year leaves ,of the two species shows in summer a high level of values (a constant one for Vaccinium myrtillus, It decreases in autumn to achieve that of bi- and triennial leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea. The buffer capacity values are influenced to a limited extent by the increase in air-pollution, much smaller than that noticed for Pinus silvestris co-existing with Vaccinium in the same ecosystems.

  7. Influence of Different Maceration Techniques and Ageing on Proanthocyanidins and Anthocyanins of Red Wine cv. Babić (Vitis vinifera, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Budić-Leto; Tomislav Lovrić; Urška Vrhovšek

    2003-01-01

    Effects of winemaking techniques on the polyphenolic composition of specific Croatian wines made from Babić (Vitis vinifera, L.), from the Primošten vine-growing region, were subjected to examination. Winemaking processes and reactions that take place during maturation significantly influence the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in wine. Prolonged maceration duration caused an increase in the content of total phenols, vanillin index and proanthocyanidins, as well as a decrease in...

  8. Conversion of Indole-3-butyric Acid to Indole-3-acetic Acid by Cuttings of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Olive (Olea europea)

    OpenAIRE

    E., Epstein; S., Lavee; Institute of Horticulture, Agricultural Research Organization,Volcani Center

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of indolebutyric acid (IBA) in hardwood cuttings of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Perlette) and green cuttings of olive (Olea europea cvs. Manzanillo, Kalamata and Koroneiki) was investigated. Radioactive IBA which was synthesized in our laboratory was used in these studies. Cuttings of both olive and grapevine converted IBA to IAA. The identity of IAA was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The stability of IBA, its slow transport...

  9. Biological effects of pollution and problems of the environment in the region of Birsesti (Town of Jiu), Romania. [Triticum vulgare; Zea mays; Brassica oleracea; Vitis vinifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, A.; Neamu, G.

    1973-01-01

    The vegetation around Birsesti showed diminished chlorophyll pigment by as much as 20% below control plants. In Triticum vulgare, Zea mays and Brassica oleracea there was a reduction in functioning stomata. The mechanical blockage by cement dust induced changes in the leaf veins. Plant productivity and dry weight were reduced. A reduction of 250% in Vitis vinifera cultivation was reduced to about 1/3 that of unaffected areas. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  11. Method validation for determination of metals in Vitis labrusca L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANE V.V. BOKOWSKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se, chromium (53Cr, nickel (62Ni, cadmium (111Cd and lead (206Pb in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory.

  12. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  13. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  14. Method validation for determination of metals in Vitis labrusca L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokowski, Liane V V; Sobrinho, Roberto B; Armijo, Cristián J V; Dani, Caroline; Henriques, João A P; Funchal, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se), chromium (53Cr), nickel (62Ni), cadmium (111Cd) and lead (206Pb) in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory.

  15. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  16. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  17. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewnum, Supaporn; Zheng, Desen; Reid, Cheryl L; Johnson, Kameka L; Gee, Jodi C; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 is able to prevent crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis on grape but not on other plant species such as tobacco. Mutations in a quorum-sensing transcription factor, aviR, and in caseinolytic protease (clp) component genes clpA and clpP1 resulted in reduced or loss of biological control. All mutants were complemented; however, restoration of biological control by complemented clpA and clpP1 mutants was dependent on the copy number of vector that was used as well as timing of application of the complemented mutants to grape wounds in relation to inoculation with pathogen. Mutations in other quorum-sensing and clp genes and in a gene associated with polyketide synthesis did not affect biological control. It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time.

  18. Examination of Correlation between Histidine and Cadmium Absorption by Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. Using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods wereused for the determination of histidine and cadmium in Eleagnus angustifolia L., Vitis vinifera L. and Nerium oleander L. leaves taken from industrial area including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. To histidine determination by HPLC-MS, flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized as 0.2 mL · min⁻¹, 70 V, 15 µL and 20 °C, respectively. For extraction of histidine from plants, distilled water was used by applying on 90 °C and 30 min. The concentrations (as mg · kg⁻¹) of histidine were found to be in range of 8~22 for Eleagnus angustifolia L., 10~33 for Vitis vinifera L. and 6~11 for Nerium oleander L. The concentrations of cadmium were found to be in ranges of 6~21 µg · kg⁻¹ for Vitis vinifera L. 15~110 µg · kg⁻¹ for Eleagnus angustifolia L. and 63~218 µg · kg⁻¹ for Nerium oleander L.

  19. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  20. Ocorrência de patulina em uva fina (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Rubi" com sinais de podridão ácida Occurrence of patulin in grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Rubi' with indication of the sour rout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Menezes Caldas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A podridão ácida é uma patologia das videiras, de alta freqüência nos períodos quentes e chuvosos, em conseqüência do desenvolvimento de fungos e bactérias em seus frutos. Um dos gêneros de fungos responsáveis por esta doença é o Penicillium spp., que poderá levar à produção de micotoxinas, como a patulina. Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma investigação sobre a podridão ácida e a ocorrência de patulina em uvas Itália (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rubi cultivadas no município de Marialva, Brasil. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: (I testemunha sem sintomas de podridão ácida; (II amostras com sintomas, sem a remoção das bagas infectadas; (III amostras com sintomas, com a remoção das bagas infectadas, (IV amostras com sintomas da doença, com a remoção das bagas infectadas e desinfecção com hipoclorito. A cromatografia em camada delgada foi utilizada para a determinação de patulina. Nas amostras analisadas, não foi detectada contaminação por esta micotoxina.Sour rout is a pathology of bunch grapes occurring in hot and rainy periods. Several fungi and bacteria are associated with this disease, including Penicilium spp. In the present study it was carried out an investigation to determine the incidence of sour rout and patulin in grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rubi cultivated in Marialva, Brazil. The treatments studied were the following: (I samples without symptoms of sour rout, (II samples with symptoms and without cleaning stage, (III samples with symptoms and with cleaning stage and (IV samples with symptoms, cleaning stage and washing with hypochlorite. The thin-layer chromatography was utilized to determine the presence and quantification of patulin. Patulin was not detected in any samples.

  1. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  2. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  3. Piirivalve orkestri 11 unustamatut päeva Austraalias / Tanel Saarmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarmann, Tanel

    2008-01-01

    Oma reisist Piirivalve Orkestriga Austraaliasse räägivad Arvi Miido, Raul Mäe ja Jüri Kalve. Lisa: Väljavõtted artiklist Adelaide'i kohalikus väliseesti ajalehes Virgats, 5. mai 2008 ; Mis on tattoo?

  4. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  5. The role of light in the regulation of ascorbate metabolism during berry development in the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, Vanessa J; Hayes, Matthew A; Soole, Kathleen L; Ford, Christopher M

    2011-07-01

    The accumulation of L-ascorbate (Asc) in fruits is influenced by environmental factors including light quantity. Fruit exposure to ambient light is often reduced by the surrounding leaf canopy, and can be altered by cultivation practices. The influence of reduced sunlight exposure on the accumulation of Asc and its catabolites was investigated in field-grown berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Growth under sunlight-eliminated conditions resulted in reduced berry fresh weight, chlorosis and a reduced total L-ascorbate pool size. The concentration of the Asc catabolite L-tartaric acid (TA) was reduced in berries grown without light. Conversely, concentrations of oxalic acid (OA), an alternative catabolite of Asc, and malic acid (MA), were unaffected by shading the berries during development. Brief and significant reductions in transcription of the Asc metabolic genes were observed in shade-grown berries after 4 weeks of dark acclimatisation whilst a key TA biosynthetic gene was not regulated by light. The results demonstrate that light-regulation of Asc and TA occurs only at brief stages of development and that OA and MA accumulation is light independent. Additionally, the comparable ratios of TA product to Asc precursor under both light regimes suggest that the diversion of Asc to TA is driven by factors that are not responsive to light. These findings suggest that an altered light regime is not the key to manipulating TA or MA levels in the harvested berry. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  7. Comparison of the triterpenoid content of berries and leaves of lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea from Finland and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Koivuniemi, Heini; Huttunen, Satu

    2012-05-16

    Triterpenoid compounds extracted from fruits and leaves of lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) collected in Finland and Poland were identified and quantitated by GC-MS/FID. The main lingonberry triterpenoid profile consisted of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, betulin, campesterol, cycloartanol, erythrodiol, fern-7-en-3β-ol, friedelin, lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, swert-9(11)-en-3β-ol, taraxasterol, urs-12-en-29-al, uvaol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough description of triterpenoid compounds in this species. Ursolic acid was identified as a principal triterpene in lingonberry fruit. The influence of geographical origin on the level of individual triterpenoid compounds was examined, and considerable variations in triterpenoid profile between berries and leaves obtained from the two locations were observed. The most striking difference concerned the occurrence of fernenol and taraxasterol, which were found to be the major triterpenol in lingonberry leaves of Finnish and Polish origin, respectively.

  8. The effect of methyl jasmonate and light irradiation treatments on the stilbenoid biosynthetic pathway in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andi, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Mansour; Ford, Christopher M

    2017-08-29

    Grape stilbenes are a well-known family of plant polyphenolics that have been confirmed to have many biological activities in relation to health benefits. In the present study, we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitor at four different concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 μM) in combination or not with high-level light irradiation (10,000 LUX) on a cell line obtained from the pulp of Vitis vinifera cv. Shahani. Our results showed that the stilbene synthesis pathway is inhibited by high-light conditions. A concentration of 50 μM MeJA was optimum for efficient production and high accumulation of total phenolics and total flavonoids as well as total stilbenoids. Furthermore, we showed that there is a significant negative correlation between the production of these metabolites and cell growth. These data provide valuable information for the future scale-up of cell cultures for the production of these very high value compounds in bioreactor system.

  9. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Amanda D; Skinkis, Patricia A; Wilson, John H; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2015-06-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment.

  10. Chemical elements as fingerprints of geographical origin in cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. raised on the same SO4 rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Grisenti, Pietro; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-10-18

    The uptake of major and trace elements in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) can be influenced by soil, climate, geographic origin, and rootstock type. Rootstocks were mainly selected to resist phylloxera and for specific tolerance to lime, mineral uptake, drought, and salinity. The relationship among concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements was studied in soil and leaves from two Italian grapevine cultivars, "Cabernet Sauvignon" and "Corvina," employed to produce renowned controlled designation of origin (DOC) wines. The cultivars were raised on the same rootstock SO4 in two different areas of the Veneto Region (Northern Italy). The elements were studied by X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and data were elaborated by non-parametric tests and multivariate linear discrimination analysis. The related index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of the elements from soil to leaves. A statistically significant correspondence between soil and leaf samples was observed for Mg, Sm, V, and Zr. The results allowed to discriminate soil and leaf samples of the two cultivars according to geographical provenance, possibly providing geochemical markers (fingerprints) useful against fraudulent use of DOC wine labels.

  11. Resveratrol, purified from the stem of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, inhibits food intake in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Yong Hwa; Han, Man-Deuk; Mar, Woongchon; Kim, Won-Ki; Nam, Kung-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) have powerful stimulatory effects on food intake, which suggests that the downregulation of brain NPY or AgRP may help reduce obesity and diabetes by inhibiting food intake. To search for active compounds that inhibit NPY and AgRP expression, we made two luciferase reporter assay systems consisting of NPY and AgRP promoter-driven luciferase genes, together with the puromycin resistance gene, in a plasmid vector. Each plasmid was permanently transfected into N29-4 neuronal cells. Using the systems, resveratrol was purified from the stem of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat by activityguided fractionation. Resveratrol downregulated NPY and AgRP promoter-driven luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory concentrations (IC(50), 50% inhibition) of resveratrol against pNPY-luc and pAgRP-luc activities were 8.9 microM and 8.0 microM, respectively. Furthermore, one-time intraperitoneal injection of resveratrol (100 mg/kg) suppressed 20.0% and 17.2% of food intake during 24 and 48 h, respectively. These results indicated that resveratrol inhibited food intake, which may be related to the downregulation of NPY and AgRP gene expression.

  12. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  13. Aplikasi Ekstrak Hasil Fermentasi Biji Jagung dan Rebung untuk Meningkatkan Mutu Buah Anggur Bali (Vitis vinifera L. var. Alphonso Lavallee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GEDE ASTAWA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Extracts of Fermented Immature Corn Seed and BambooSprout For Improvement of Table grape Quality of Vitis vinifera L. var.Alphonso Lavallee. The objective of the research was to determine the effect ofapplication of extracts of fermented immature corn seed and bamboo sprout for improvementof table grape quality. The research was designed as Completely Randomized Block Design,with five treatments and ten replications. The treatments were K0 (control, J50 (extract offermented immature seed of corn with concentration of 50%, J100 (extract of fermentedimmature seed of corn with concentration of 100%, R50 (extract of fermented bamboo sproutwith concentration of 50% and R100 (extract of fermented bamboo sprout with concentrationof 100%. The results showed that all of the treatments improved sugar content of the fruit.However, the treatment of J100 resulted in the greatest increase of berry number per-bunchand the lowest number of seed per-berry. In conclusion, for improvement of the table grapequality, the treatment of J100 was the most appropriate among other treatments used in thecurrent research.

  14. The Influence of Skin Maceration Time on the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Red Wine Teran (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Jurinjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four different maceration times (5, 10, 15 and 20 days on anthocyanins, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, flavan-3-ol composition, vanillin index and antioxidant activity of Teran red wine (Vitis vinifera L. has been investigated. Phenolics were determined by HPLC with UV-diode array detection. Vanillin index was determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The total antioxidant capacity of wine was measured with three different methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothialozine-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS+ scavenging methods and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Sensory evaluation of wine samples was performed. The obtained results show positive correlation between phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols [(+-catechin and (–-epicatechin] and vanillin index and the duration of maceration. Anthocyanin content increased to the maximum within 10 days of skin maceration. The major anthocyanins in Teran wine were malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside acetate and petunidin-3-O-glucoside. Antioxidant activity of Teran wines significantly increased with prolonged skin contact as well as total phenolic content (p<0.001. Wine produced with maceration time of 10 days had the best sensory properties.

  15. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauconneau, B; Waffo-Teguo, P; Huguet, F; Barrier, L; Decendit, A; Merillon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. Furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of V. vinifera or wine. The ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical. Antioxidant activities were assessed by their capacity to prevent Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and their action on Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. The results showed that astringin has an important antioxidant effect similar to that of trans-resveratrol, and a higher radical scavenger activity than the latter. Astringinin appeared to be more active. These data indicate that phenolic compounds (stilbenes, catechins, anthocyanins) exhibit interesting properties which may account in part for the so-called "French paradox," i.e. that moderate drinking of red wine over a long period of time can protect against coronary heart disease.

  16. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidiiFoex) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    Background : Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods : We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1-W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12-W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results : Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5- O -diglucoside and malvidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion : These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape.

  17. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

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    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  18. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

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    Radosav Palić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  19. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-03

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NMR-based phytochemical analysis of Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina leaves. Characterization of a previously undescribed biflavonoid with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Luciana; Gambuti, Angelita; De Cicco, Paola; Ercolano, Giuseppe; Ianaro, Angela; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Moio, Luigi; Forino, Martino

    2018-03-01

    Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina is an ancient grape variety of Southern Italy. A thorough phytochemical analysis of the Falanghina leaves was conducted to investigate its specialised metabolite content. Along with already known molecules, such as caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, a previously undescribed biflavonoid was identified. For this last compound, a moderate bioactivity against metastatic melanoma cells proliferation was discovered. This datum can be of some interest to researchers studying human melanoma. The high content in antioxidant glycosylated flavonoids supports the exploitation of grape vine leaves as an inexpensive source of natural products for the food industry and for both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies. Additionally, this study offers important insights into the plant physiology, thus prompting possible technological researches of genetic selection based on the vine adaptation to specific pedo-climatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The characterisation of Vitis vinifera ’Refošk’ with AFLP and SSR molecular markers and ampelographic traits

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    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and ampelographic variability of autochthonous red wine cultivar ‘Refošk’ (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Slovenia were evaluated with AFLP molecular markers and OIV descriptors, respectively. SSR molecular markers were employed to confirm cultivar identity of analysed samples. Eight AFLP primer combinations, one was monomorphic, produced 16 polymorphic markers in 41 out of 113 samples, what classified samples into monomorphic and polymorphic group. Dendrogram constructed with simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair-group method analysis presented genetic diversity within polymorphic group. Refošk biotypes from monomorphic and polymorphic groups were evaluated with 22 OIV descriptors related to bunch, berry and must, but on the basis of ampelographic characterization samples were not differentiated among two major groups obtained with AFLP analysis. Results of genetic analysis indicated that ‘Refošk’ originated from closely related plants that are phenotypically very similar. With regard to low observed genetic diversity more attention should be dedicated to the selection in order to conserve remaining genetic diversity.

  2. Endophytic fungi from Vitis labrusca L. ('Niagara Rosada') and its potential for the biological control of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, M C P; Araújo, W L; Maki, C S; Azevedo, J L

    2012-12-06

    We investigated the diversity of endophytic fungi found on grape (Vitis labrusca cv. Niagara Rosada) leaves collected from Salesópolis, SP, Brazil. The fungi were isolated and characterized by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, followed by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. In addition, the ability of these endophytic fungi to inhibit the grapevine pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp herbemontis was determined in vitro. We also observed that the climatic factors, such as temperature and rainfall, have no effect on the frequency of infection by endophytic fungi. The endophytic fungal community that was identified included Aporospora terricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Bjerkandera adusta, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, D. phaseolorum, Epicoccum nigrum, Flavodon flavus, Fusarium subglutinans, F. sacchari, Guignardia mangiferae, Lenzites elegans, Paraphaeosphaeria pilleata, Phanerochaete sordida, Phyllosticta sp, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Preussia africana, Tinctoporellus epiniltinus, and Xylaria berteri. Among these isolates, two, C. gloeosporioides and F. flavus, showed potential antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f. sp herbemontis. We suggest the involvement of the fungal endophyte community of V. labrusca in protecting the host plant against pathogenic Fusarium species. Possibly, some endophytic isolates could be selected for the development of biological control agents for grape fungal disease; alternatively, management strategies could be tailored to increase these beneficial fungi.

  3. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts.

  4. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  5. In vitro cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay synthesize the phytoalexin nerolidol upon infection by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum

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    Georgina ESCORIAZA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated terpene synthase (TPS activity and terpene antifungal metabolites in calluses and cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay infected with Phaecremonium parasiticum, one of the fungi associated with the grapevine diseases known as “hoja de malvón” and young vine decline. The highest TPS activity, assessed as tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate ([1-3H]-FPP transformed into hexane-soluble radioactive products, was observed in both inoculated calluses and cell suspension cultures (CSC. When tested in inoculated cell suspension cultures the TPS activity was maximal at 8 h after [1-3H]-FPP application and then declined; this was associated with a temporary increase of the sesquiterpene nerolidol. Grape calluses produced: α-pinene, nerolidol and squalene whether or not they were inoculated with Pm. parasiticum. As fungal amount raised the relative concentration of α-pinene and nerolidol increased in respect to squalene in calluses. The TPS activity and nerolidol and α-pinene accumulation was correlated with the increase in the amount of inoculated fungus. Of the mentioned metabolites mainly squalene was identified from extracts of fungal cultures. The results suggest that the response of grapevine tissues to Pm. parasiticum is dependent on the pathogen concentration and is characterized by increasing TPS activity through de novo synthesis.

  6. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional evolution and variability throughout the crop season for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano

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    Dominguez, N.; García-Escudero, N.; Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Martín, I.

    2015-07-01

    An adequate nutritional state of a crop can be kept by means of a well-designed fertilization plan based on the assessment of the nutrient availability throughout the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of leaf blade and petiole diagnosis and the period of validity of their references at both flowering and veraison by means of systematic monitoring throughout the complete growing season. The study was carried out in two plots planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano within the AOC Rioja (Spain). Blades and petioles were collected throughout a growing season (2006) and total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B concentrations were analyzed in both tissues. Results suggest, in general, that petioles have higher variability and lower analysis reproducibility than blades. Therefore, blade could be a more appropriate tissue to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, and Mg at both flowering and veraison in this variety. Micronutrients in blade and petiole showed different variability behaviour in each of the vineyards studied, therefore, based on our results, it was difficult to determine which one could be the best tissue for the nutritional diagnosis of the ‘Graciano’ variety. Seasonal changes of nutrient concentration in both tissues also confirmed the need for reference values for each tissue and each phenological stage. (Author)

  9. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-02-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause-effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

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    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  11. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  12. Enhanced extracellular production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells by using cyclodextrins and coronatine.

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    Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, María A

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the effect of cyclodextrin and coronatine on both trans-resveratrol production and the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera L. cv Monastrell suspension cultured cells were evaluated. The results showed the maximum level of trans-resveratrol produced by cells and secreted to the culture medium with 50 mM cyclodextrins and 1 μM coronatine. Since the levels of trans-resveratrol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. In addition, all the analysed genes were induced by cyclodextrins and/or coronatine. The expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase genes was greatly enhanced by coronatine although an increase in the amount of trans-resveratrol in the spent medium was not detected. Therefore, despite the fact that trans-resveratrol production is related with the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic process, other factors may be involved, such as post-transcriptional and post-traductional regulation. The expression maximal levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase genes were found with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with coronatine suggesting that the activity of these enzymes could be not only important for the formation of intermediates of trans-R biosynthesis but also for those intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of lignins and/or flavonoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

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    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  14. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process. PMID:22192855

  15. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  16. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  17. Varietal Dependence of GLVs Accumulation and LOX-HPL Pathway Gene Expression in Four Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes.

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    Qian, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Ke-Ji; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-11-23

    Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay. The results showed a variety dependence of GLVs profile. Muscat Tchervine harvested grapes contained less C6 aldehydes and the most abundant esters, which corresponded to very low VvLOXA and VvHPL1 expression abundance as well as high VvAAT transcript in this variety. High expression level of both VvLOXA and VvHPL1 paralleled with higher level of C6 aldehydes together with higher alcohols in Syrah grape. Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay grapes had high aldehydes and alcohols as well as low esters, which were resulted from their higher expression level of VvLOXA or VvHPL1 and lower VvAAT. From these above corresponding relations, it is concluded that VvLOXA, VvHPL1 and VvAAT in the LOX-HPL pathway are targets for altering GLVs composition in the grape varieties.

  18. Influence of berry ripeness on accumulation, composition and extractability of skin and seed flavonoids in cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    Allegro, Gianluca; Pastore, Chiara; Valentini, Gabriele; Muzzi, Enrico; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-10-01

    The anthocyanin and tannin concentration and composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese berries were investigated from post-veraison to harvest. Exhaustive extraction with methanol and acetone was performed to determine the total flavonoid concentration, while a model hydroalcoholic solution was used to prepare extracts representing the winemaking process. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the phenolic maturity of Sangiovese grape. The total anthocyanin concentration increased during ripening, but the quantity of extractable anthocyanins increased more rapidly than the total. The total skin tannin concentration declined from post-veraison to harvest, whereas the extractable portion increased, with little difference in the composition of the fractions. Both the total and extractable seed tannin concentration diminished rapidly just after veraison, and only small fluctuations were detected until harvest. These results indicate that the extractability of anthocyanins and skin tannins increases during ripening, whereas there is no clear trend for seed tannins during the same period. This is the first survey to study the behavior of phenolic compounds during different steps of ripening of Sangiovese grape. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Glucosylation of Smoke-Derived Volatiles in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is Catalyzed by a Promiscuous Resveratrol/Guaiacol Glucosyltransferase.

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    Härtl, Katja; Huang, Fong-Chin; Giri, Ashok P; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Frotscher, Johanna; Shao, Yang; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-07-19

    Vinification of grapes (Vitis vinifera) exposed to forest fire smoke can yield unpalatable wine due to the presence of taint compounds from smoke and the release of smoke derived volatiles from their respective glycosides during the fermentation process or in-mouth during consumption. To identify glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the formation of glycosidically bound smoke-derived volatiles we performed gene expression analysis of candidate GTs in different grapevine tissues. Second, substrates derived from bushfire smoke or naturally occurring in grapes were screened with the candidate recombinant GTs. A resveratrol GT (UGT72B27) gene, highly expressed in grapevine leaves and berries was identified to be responsible for the production of the phenolic glucosides. UGT72B27 converted the stilbene trans-resveratrol mainly to the 3-O-glucoside. Kinetic analyses yielded specificity constants (kcat/KM) of 114, 17, 9, 8, and 2 mM-1 s-1 for guaiacol, trans-resveratrol, syringol, methylsyringol, and methylguaiacol, respectively. This knowledge will help to design strategies for managing the risk of producing smoke-affected wines.

  20. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

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    Sara eDomingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  1. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening.

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    Pastore, Chiara; Zenoni, Sara; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Allegro, Gianluca; Dal Santo, Silvia; Valentini, Gabriele; Intrieri, Cesare; Pezzotti, Mario; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2011-12-23

    Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process.

  3. 3Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

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    Pastore Chiara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process.

  4. Color, anthocyanin, and antioxidant characteristics of young wines produced from spine grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China

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    Han, Fuliang; Ju, Yanlun; Ruan, Xianrui; Zhao, Xianfang; Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Xifu; Qin, Minyang; Fang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Spine grape has gained attention in the field of wine science due to its good growth characteristics. Spine grape wine has been made by local residents for a long time. However, the scientific evaluation of spine wine has not been systemically documented compared to Vitis vinifera grape wines Methods: We compared 11 spine wines from south China (W1–W11) with 7 high-quality international wines (W12–W18). The total phenolic content, the total anothcyanin content and the antioxidant activity of these wines were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, anthocyanin profiles of these wines were also documented. Results: Compared with other wines most of the spine wines had a strong red intensity with a blue hue. Malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaroyl)-glucoside-5-glucoside appeared to be the major anthocyanins in these wines. The scavenging capacity analyses of these wines using ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays indicated that spine wines possessed high antioxidant properties, especially spine wine W3, W4, W6 and W8. Their high antioxidant properties were mainly related to the high levels of the total phenolic content and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggested that spine wine might be considered a good wine source for the Chinese wine industry and provided useful information on the knowledge of spine grape. PMID:28804435

  5. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effects of Dealcoholized Wine Powder of Wild Grape (Vitis coignetiae in the Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    Sang Keun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxant effects of dealcoholized wild grape (Vitis coignetiae wine were investigated with isolated rat thoracic aorta. In our present study, we demonstrate that wild grape wine powder (WGWP induced relaxation of aortic rings preconstricted with norepinephrine in a dose-dependent manner (at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 mg/mL. The vasorelaxant effect of WGWP was dependent on intact endothelia, which was attenuated by incubation with inhibitors of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as NG-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor, and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Moreover, treatment with WGWP and atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist or diphenylhydramine (histamine receptor antagonist significantly inhibited endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Our results suggest that WGWP induces relaxation in rat aortic rings in an endothelium-dependent manner. Results further indicate that this effect occurs via nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and prostacyclin-cAMP pathway through a muscarinic receptor and histamine receptor.

  6. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

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    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  7. Tydeid and triophtydeid mites (Acari: Tydeoidea) associated with grapevine (Vitaceae: Vitis spp.) in Brazil, with the descriptions of species of Prelorryia (André, 1980) and Tydeus Koch, 1835.

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    Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Rocha, Matheus Dos Santos; Panou, Eleni N; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-06-11

    We report on the Tydeidae and Triophtydeidae associated with grapevine (Vitis labrusca L. and Vitis vinifera L.) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and describe a new species of Prelorryia, Prelorryia labrusca sp. nov., and two new species of Tydeus, Tydeus manoi sp. nov. and Tydeus riopardensis sp. nov. Brachytydeus formosa (Cooreman), B. podocarpa (Baker), Neolorryia pandana (Baker), Tydeus californicus (Banks), Pretydeus henriandrei Kaźmierski and Triophtydeus lebruni (André) are recorded and illustrated. A key to species of Tydeidae and Triophtydeidae from Brazil is provided. 

  8. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

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    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  9. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  10. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita Induced resistance in fruits of 'Isabel' vine (Vitis labrusca and its effects on post-harvest quality

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    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.Induction of resistance has been identified as a sustainable alternative for disease management, but little information is known about the interference of such products in the postharvest fruit. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the production and ripening of grapes 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca from plants treated with resistance elicitors in Natuba-PB, Brazil. The experiments

  11. Hot-Water Extracts from Roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana and Identified ε-Viniferin Improve Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice.

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    Lu, Yeh-Lin; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2017-03-29

    In this study, hot-water extracts (HW) from roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT-R) were shown to lower levels of lipid accumulation significantly (P food-intake regimen. The (+)-ε-viniferin isolated from VTT-R-HW was shown to reduce the size of lipid deposits significantly compared to the control (P food-intake regimen but without concurrent VTT-R-HW interventions. It might be possible to use VTT-R-HW or (+)-ε-viniferin as an ingredient in the development of functional foods for weight management, and this will need to be investigated further.

  12. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 4: Solidago virgaurea-Vitis vinifera.

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    Minciullo, Paola L; Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2014) called a 'European Union herbal monograph' - has been produced. The present part 4 addresses species from Solidago virgaurea L. to Vitis vinifera L. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

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    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  14. Hepatoprotección antioxidante de la cáscara y semilla de Vitis vinifera L. (uva

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    Miguel Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la capacidad hepatoprotectora antioxidante, inducida por las semillas y cáscaras de la uva Vitis vinifera L., en animales de experimentación con agresión alcohólica, mediante la prueba del TBARS (sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratones albinos, machos, adultos y cáscaras y semillas de Vitis vinifera L. (uva. Métodos: Las cáscaras y semillas de uva fueron del valle de Cañete; se las separó manualmente, se las exprimió en gasa y fueron desecadas con aire circulante, a 40º C, por 24 horas; luego, fueron trituradas, y la mezcla de cáscaras y semillas (cas-sem fue administrada ad libitum en la dieta. Se utilizó 104 ratones albinos machos adultos, separados en grupos, a los que se administró: (A cas-sem al 20%; (B alcohol al 5%; (C cas-sem con alcohol; (D silimarina 50 mg/100 g de alimento; (E silimarina con alcohol; y, (F grupo control. Bajo anestesia con éter y mediante laparotomía, se extrajo los hígados, fueron pesados y analizados por lipoperoxidación, mediante TBARS, y se evaluó la hepatomegalia, por peso a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, y a los 4, 5 y 7 días de tratamiento. Principales medidas de resultados: Lipoperoxidación hepática y hepatomegalia. Resultados: La hepatomegalia se presentó desde las 24 horas (36,68% de incremento de masa hepática, en el grupo alcohol, y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem. La prueba TBARS fue mayor en el grupo alcohol (63,91 a 67,07 nmol/g-tejido y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem (40,85 a 47,46 nmol/g-tejido; en el grupo cas-sem con alcohol, fue 43 a 63 nmol/g-tejido y la protección se observó hasta el quinto día (44 nmol/g-tejido. Conclusiones: El cas-sem administrado en la dieta, al 20% en peso, protege al tejido hepático, hasta el quinto d

  15. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

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    Fanizza Girolamo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant

  16. Modeling cold curing of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines in California.

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    Lieth, J H; Meyer, M M; Yeo, K-H; Kirkpatrick, B C

    2011-12-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) of Vitis vinifera grapevines is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen with a wide plant host range. Exposure of X. fastidiosa-infected plant tissue to cold temperatures has been shown to be effective at eliminating the pathogen from some plant hosts such as grapevines. This "cold curing" phenomenon suggests itself as a potential method for disease management and perhaps control. We investigated cold therapy of PD-affected 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine. In the fall, inoculated plants and controls of each cultivar were transported to each of four field sites in California (Foresthill, McLaughlin, Hopland, and Davis) that differed in the magnitude of cold winter temperatures. A model for progression of the elimination of plant disease in relation to temperature was conceptualized to be a temperature-duration effect, where temperatures below a particular threshold kill X. fastidiosa with increasing efficacy as the temperature decreases to some value Pinot Noir and T(0) = 6°C, N(100) = 302 h, N(10) = 170 h, and K(x) = 0.41 for Cabernet Sauvignon. With the parameter estimates optimized by model calibration, the simulation model was effective at predicting cold curing in four locations during the experiment, although there were some differences between Hopland for Pinot Noir and Davis for Cabernet Sauvignon. Using historical temperature data, the model accurately predicted the known severity of PD in other grape-growing regions of California, suggesting that it may have utility in assessing the relative risk of developing PD in proposed new vineyard sites.

  17. Removal of PFOA and PFOS from aqueous solutions using activated carbon produced from Vitis vinifera leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbayigbo, Bamidele Oladapo; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Fatoki, Olalekan Siyanbola; Akenga, Terresa Ayuko; Olatunji, Olatunde Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons. The effect of solution concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature was evaluated to optimize the removal efficiency of activated carbons. Adsorption isotherm models were used to analyse the equilibrium data obtained, and kinetic models were applied to study sorption mechanisms. The results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm with both AC-KOH and AC-H 3 PO 4 having high K f values. Maximum adsorption capacities for AC-H 3 PO 4 were 78.90 and 75.13 mg/g for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. Equilibrium was reached before 60 min on both adsorbents, and thermodynamic studies indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Surface morphology showed the abundance of microspores (>60%) with BET total surface area of 295.488 and 158.67 m 2 /g for AC-H 3 PO 4 and AC-KOH activated carbons, respectively. Removal efficiencies were 95 and 90% for PFOA using AC-H 3 PO 4 and AC-KOH, respectively; corresponding values for PFOS were 94 and 88%. Adsorbents' removal capacities depended on the physicochemical characteristics of adsorbents.

  18. Shared and divergent pathways for flower abscission are triggered by gibberellic acid and carbon starvation in seedless Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Cardoso, Vânia; Sánchez, Claudia; Ramalho, José C; Larcher, Roberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    Abscission is a highly coordinated developmental process by which plants control vegetative and reproductive organs load. Aiming at get new insights on flower abscission regulation, changes in the global transcriptome, metabolome and physiology were analyzed in 'Thompson Seedless' grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences, using gibberellic acid (GAc) spraying and shading as abscission stimuli, applied at bloom. Natural flower drop rates increased from 63.1% in non-treated vines to 83% and 99% in response to GAc and shade treatments, respectively. Both treatments had a broad effect on inflorescences metabolism. Specific impacts from shade included photosynthesis inhibition, associated nutritional stress, carbon/nitrogen imbalance and cell division repression, whereas GAc spraying induced energetic metabolism simultaneously with induction of nucleotide biosynthesis and carbon metabolism, therefore, disclosing alternative mechanisms to regulate abscission. Regarding secondary metabolism, changes in flavonoid metabolism were the most represented metabolic pathways in the samples collected following GAc treatment while phenylpropanoid and stilbenoid related pathways were predominantly affected in the inflorescences by the shade treatment. However, both GAc and shade treated inflorescences revealed also shared pathways, that involved the regulation of putrescine catabolism, the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis, the induction of auxin biosynthesis and the activation of ethylene signaling pathways and antioxidant mechanisms, although often the quantitative changes occurred on specific transcripts and metabolites of the pathways. Globally, the results suggest that chemical and environmental cues induced contrasting effects on inflorescence metabolism, triggering flower abscission by different mechanisms and pinpointing the participation of novel abscission regulators. Grapevine showed to be considered a valid model to study molecular pathways of flower abscission

  19. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sucrose Synthase Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera): Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Mengqi; Li, Xiaopeng; Jiu, Songtao; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SS) is widely considered as the key enzyme involved in the plant sugar metabolism that is critical to plant growth and development, especially quality of the fruit. The members of SS gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes. However, detailed information about this gene family is lacking in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of the grape (V. vinifera) genome and reported that there are five SS genes (VvSS1–5) in the grape genome. Comparison of the structures of grape SS genes showed high structural conservation of grape SS genes, resulting from the selection pressures during the evolutionary process. The segmental duplication of grape SS genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses between grape and soybean (Glycine max) demonstrated that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of grape and soybean. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the grape SS genes. VvSS1/VvSS5, VvSS2/VvSS3 and VvSS4 originated from three ancient SS genes, which were generated by duplication events before the split of monocots and eudicots. Bioinformatics analysis of publicly available microarray data, which was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvSS genes in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results will be beneficial for further investigations into the functions of SS gene in the processes of grape resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:28350372

  1. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  2. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  3. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  4. Three ERF transcription factors from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata participate in different biotic and abiotic stress-responsive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziguo; Shi, Jiangli; Xu, Weirong; Li, Huie; He, Mingyang; Xu, Yan; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yazhou; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) functions as an important plant-specific transcription factor in regulating biotic and abiotic stress response through interaction with various stress pathways. We previously obtained three ERF members, VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 from a highly powdery mildew (PM)-resistant Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata cDNA full-length library. To explore their functions associated with plant disease resistance or biotic stress, we report here to characterize three ERF members from this library. PM-inoculation analysis on three different resistant grapevine genotypes revealed that three VpERFs displayed significant responses, but a different expression pattern. Over-expression of VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 in transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that VpERF2 and VpERF3 enhanced resistance to both bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and fungal pathogen Phytophtora parasitica var. nicotianae Tucker. Importantly, VpERF1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants increased susceptibility toward these pathogens. Investigation on drought, cold, and heat treatments suggested, VpERF2 was distinctly induced, whereas VpERF3 displayed a very weak response and VpERF1 was distinctly induced by drought and heat. Concurrently, VpERF3 was significantly induced by salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ET. Our results showed that the three VpERFs from Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata play different roles in either preventing disease progression via regulating the expression of relevant defense genes, or directly involving abiotic stress responsive pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  6. Investigation of anti-asthmatic potential of dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. in animal model of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Poonam; Ansari, S H; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Anjum, Varisha; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Vitis vinifera L., commonly known as grapes, are largely consumed worldwide because of their high nutritional and medicinal benefits. The present study investigated effects of V. vinifera fruits in ovalbumin-induced animal model of bronchial asthma. Male wistar rats (except group 1) were sensitized with allergen (ovalbumin, 40 mg/rat + aluminum hydroxide, 2 mg/rat). Groups of sensitized animals were treated orally with either vehicle (0.4 mL/kg), standard dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) or alcoholic extract of V. vinifera dried fruits (31 and 42.5 mg/kg) from day 1 to 28 (n = 6 for all groups). Inflammatory markers including cell counts, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor, immunoglobulin E (IgE), leukotrienes and nitrite levels in both blood/serum and bronchoalveolar fluid were analysed. Breathing rate and tidal volume as lung function parameters were examined by spirometer. Lung tissues were studied for histamine content and histopathology. Treatment of sensitized animals with dexamethasone or two doses of V. vinifera fruits extract inhibited recruitment of inflammatory cytokines, IgE, nitrites and circulating cells particularly eosinophils in blood/serum and bronchoalveolar fluid (p vinifera fruits extract treatment also normalized lung functions and histamine levels compared to ovalbumin-sensitized controls (p vinifera fruits in allergic asthma possibly related to its ability to inhibit cellular response and subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Baránek

    Full Text Available There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5% corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2% were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase.

  8. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  10. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  11. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  13. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (-)-rotundone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-02-01

    (-)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (-)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (-)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (-)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (-)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (-)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (-)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the NF-Y gene family in grape (vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Yi; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-08-11

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor is composed of three distinct subunits: NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. Many members of NF-Y family have been reported to be key regulators in plant development, phytohormone signaling and drought tolerance. However, the function of the NF-Y family is less known in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). A total of 34 grape NF-Y genes that distributed unevenly on grape (V. vinifera) chromosomes were identified in this study. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to predict functional similarities between Arabidopsis thaliana and grape NF-Y genes. Comparison of the structures of grape NF-Y genes (VvNF-Ys) revealed their functional conservation and alteration. Furthermore, we investigated the expression profiles of VvNF-Ys in response to various stresses, phytohormone treatments, and in leaves and grape berries with various sugar contents at different developmental stages. The relationship between VvNF-Y transcript levels and sugar content was examined to select candidates for exogenous sugar treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that many VvNF-Ys responded to different sugar stimuli with variations in transcript abundance. qPCR and publicly available microarray data suggest that VvNF-Ys exhibit distinct expression patterns in different grape organs and developmental stages, and a number of VvNF-Ys may participate in responses to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses, phytohormone treatments and sugar accumulation or metabolism. In this study, we characterized 34 VvNF-Ys based on their distributions on chromosomes, gene structures, phylogenetic relationship with Arabidopsis NF-Y genes, and their expression patterns. The potential roles of VvNF-Ys in sugar accumulation or metabolism were also investigated. Altogether, the data provide significant insights on VvNF-Ys, and lay foundations for further functional studies of NF-Y genes in grape.

  15. High-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) affected by grapevine leafroll disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2012-12-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) is one of the most economically important virus diseases of grapevine (Vitis spp.) worldwide. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries made from small RNAs (sRNAs) to compare profiles of sRNA populations recovered from own-rooted Merlot grapevines with and without GLRD symptoms. The data revealed the presence of sRNAs specific to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd-2) in symptomatic grapevines and sRNAs specific only to HpSVd, GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 in nonsymptomatic grapevines. In addition to 135 previously identified conserved microRNAs in grapevine (Vvi-miRs), we identified 10 novel and several candidate Vvi-miRs in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic grapevine leaves based on the cloning of miRNA star sequences. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of selected conserved Vvi-miRs indicated that individual members of an miRNA family are differentially expressed in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves. The high-resolution mapping of sRNAs specific to an ampelovirus and three viroids in mixed infections, the identification of novel Vvi-miRs and the modulation of certain conserved Vvi-miRs offers resources for the further elucidation of compatible host-pathogen interactions and for the provision of ecologically relevant information to better understand host-pathogen-environment interactions in a perennial fruit crop. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  16. Genome-wide analysis and expression profile of the bZIP transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Chen, Nana; Chen, Fei; Cai, Bin; Dal Santo, Silvia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2014-04-13

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family is one of the largest and most diverse families in plants. Current studies have shown that the bZIP proteins regulate numerous growth and developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members remains very limited. We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship with those in Arabidopsis. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggest that expansion of the grapevine bZIP (VvbZIP) transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the grapevine genome fusion events. Nine intron/exon structural patterns within the bZIP domain and the additional conserved motifs were identified among all VvbZIP proteins, and showed a high group-specificity. The predicted specificities on DNA-binding domains indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues exist across each major group in the tree of land plant life. The expression patterns of VvbZIP genes across the grapevine gene expression atlas, based on microarray technology, suggest that VvbZIP genes are involved in grapevine organ development, especially seed development. Expression analysis based on qRT-PCR indicated that VvbZIP genes are extensively involved in drought- and heat-responses, with possibly different mechanisms. The genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structures, evolutionary and expression analyses of grapevine bZIP genes provide an overall insight of this gene family and their potential involvement in growth, development and stress responses. This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and biological functions.

  17. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines.

  18. Study of Leaf Metabolome Modifications Induced by UV-C Radiations in Representative Vitis, Cissus and Cannabis Species by LC-MS Based Metabolomics and Antioxidant Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is known to induce metabolic modifications in plants, particularly to secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To assess these modifications from a global and untargeted perspective, the effects of the UV-C radiation of the leaves of three different model plant species, Cissus antarctica Vent. (Vitaceae, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae and Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae, were evaluated by an LC-HRMS-based metabolomic approach. The approach enabled the detection of significant metabolite modifications in the three species studied. For all species, clear modifications of phenylpropanoid metabolism were detected that led to an increased level of stilbene derivatives. Interestingly, resveratrol and piceid levels were strongly induced by the UV-C treatment of C. antarctica leaves. In contrast, both flavonoids and stilbene polymers were upregulated in UV-C-treated Vitis leaves. In Cannabis, important changes in cinnamic acid amides and stilbene-related compounds were also detected. Overall, our results highlighted phytoalexin induction upon UV-C radiation. To evaluate whether UV-C stress radiation could enhance the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant activity of extracts from control and UV-C-treated leaves was measured. The results showed increased antioxidant activity in UV-C-treated V. vinifera extracts.

  19. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)], E-mail: edithchopin@softhome.net; Marin, B.; Mkoungafoko, R.; Rigaux, A. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France); Hopgood, M.J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Delannoy, E.; Cances, B.; Laurain, M. [GEGENA EA 3795, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)

    2008-12-15

    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability. - Soil Cu, Pb and Zn concentration and partitioning were combined to accumulation ratio to study the transfer of trace element from soil to Vitis vinifera L. roots and aerial parts in a contaminated vineyard plot.

  20. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MENGGUNAKAN RADIKAL 1,1-DIFENIL-2- PIKRILHIDRAZIL DAN PENETAPAN KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH ANGGUR BALI (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhael Gustandy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetat fraction of extract of Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L. using free radical and determine the total phenolic content. Balinesse grape was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate. Free radical scavenging activity was tested by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method measured the concentration of phenolic content in gallic acid total equivalents using unit's mg/g. The mean IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape was found to be 36.55 ± 0.09 µg/mL. The phenolic content was ranging from 3.23 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape. Keywords: antioxidants, Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L., fraction of ethyl acetat, DPPH, total phenolic content.

  1. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-05-01

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (pgold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparisons of large (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and small (Vaccinium oxycoccos L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) cranberry in British Columbia by phytochemical determination, antioxidant potential, and metabolomic profiling with chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N; Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-01

    There is a long history of use and modern commercial importance of large and small cranberries in North America. The central objective of the current research was to characterize and compare the chemical composition of 2 west coast small cranberry species traditionally used (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) with the commercially cultivated large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) indigenous to the east coast of North America. V. oxycoccos and V. macrocarpon contained the 5 major anthocyanins known in cranberry; however, the ratio of glycosylated peonidins to cyanidins varied, and V. vitis-idaea did not contain measurable amounts of glycosylated peonidins. Extracts of all three berries were found to contain serotonin, melatonin, and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity was not found to correlate with indolamine levels while anthocyanin content showed a negative correlation, and vitamin C content positively correlated. From the metabolomics profiles, 4624 compounds were found conserved across V. macrocarpon, V. oxycoccoS, and V. vitis-idaea with a total of approximately 8000-10 000 phytochemicals detected in each species. From significance analysis, it was found that 2 compounds in V. macrocarpoN, 3 in V. oxycoccos, and 5 in V. vitis-idaea were key to the characterization and differentiation of these cranberry metabolomes. Through multivariate modeling, differentiation of the species was observed, and univariate statistical analysis was employed to provide a quality assessment of the models developed for the metabolomics data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  4. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  5. Performance of a New Model for Predicting End of Flowering Date (bbch 69) of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The end of flowering date (BBCH 69) is an important phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.), in fact up to this date the growth is focused on the plant and gradually passes on the berries through fruit set. The aim of this study is to perform a model to predict the date of the end of flowering (BBCH69) for some grapevine varieties. This research carried out using three cultivars of grapevine (Maceratino, Montepulciano, Sangiovese) in three different locations (Macerata, Morrovalle and Potenza Picena), places of an equal number of wine farms for the time interval between 2006 and 2013. In order to have reliable temperatures for each location, the data of 6 weather stations near these farms have been interpolated using cokriging methods with elevation as independent variable. The procedure to predict the end of flowering date starts with an investigation of cardinal temperatures typical of each grapevine cultivar. In fact the analysis is characterized by four temperature thresholds (cardinals): minimum activity temperature (TCmin = below this temperature there is no growth for the plant), lower optimal temperature (TLopt = above this temperature there is maximum growth), upper optimal temperature (TUopt = below this temperature there is maximum growth) and maximum activity temperature (TC max = above this temperature there is no growth). Thus this model take into consideration maximum, mean and minimum daily temperatures of each location, relating them with the four above mentioned cultivar temperature thresholds. In this way it has been obtained some possible cases (32) corresponding to as many equations, depending on the position of temperatures compared with the thresholds, in order to calculate the amount of growing degree units (GDU) for each day. Several iterative tests (about 1000 for each cultivar) have been performed, changing the values of temperature thresholds and GDU in order to find the best possible combination which minimizes error

  6. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g(-1) from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse

  7. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. © 2013.

  8. Identification of genomic sites for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in the Vitis vinifera genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xianju; Ren, Chong; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Yang, Long; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-04-21

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been recently demonstrated as an effective and popular genome editing tool for modifying genomes of humans, animals, microorganisms, and plants. Success of such genome editing is highly dependent on the availability of suitable target sites in the genomes to be edited. Many specific target sites for CRISPR/Cas9 have been computationally identified for several annual model and crop species, but such sites have not been reported for perennial, woody fruit species. In this study, we identified and characterized five types of CRISPR/Cas9 target sites in the widely cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera and developed a user-friendly database for editing grape genomes in the future. A total of 35,767,960 potential CRISPR/Cas9 target sites were identified from grape genomes in this study. Among them, 22,597,817 target sites were mapped to specific genomic locations and 7,269,788 were found to be highly specific. Protospacers and PAMs were found to distribute uniformly and abundantly in the grape genomes. They were present in all the structural elements of genes with the coding region having the highest abundance. Five PAM types, TGG, AGG, GGG, CGG and NGG, were observed. With the exception of the NGG type, they were abundantly present in the grape genomes. Synteny analysis of similar genes revealed that the synteny of protospacers matched the synteny of homologous genes. A user-friendly database containing protospacers and detailed information of the sites was developed and is available for public use at the Grape-CRISPR website ( http://biodb.sdau.edu.cn/gc/index.html ). Grape genomes harbour millions of potential CRISPR/Cas9 target sites. These sites are widely distributed among and within chromosomes with predominant abundance in the coding regions of genes. We developed a publicly-accessible Grape-CRISPR database for facilitating the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a genome editing tool for functional studies and molecular breeding of grapes. Among

  9. Maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. for red winemaking/ Curvas de maturação da uva ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Genta

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this research was to characterize the maturation of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. produced in the northwest of Parana state, for red winemaking. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard of Vinícola Intervin®, Maringá, PR. The vineyard was planted in August of 2000 and the vines were trained in a pergola system, in a 4.0 x 1.0 m spacing, budded on ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ rootstock. The evaluations started from the winter pruning of 2003. The random design was used as the statistical model with 20 replications and each plot was composed by one tree. The maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape were determined through chemical characteristic analysis of berries, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and maturation index (TSS/TA, which were evaluated weekly from early ripening to 7 days after harvest, processing 300 berries per sampling. Through regression analysis, the performance of these chemical characteristics was evaluated over time. It was possible to conclude that: the curves of TSS, TA and TSS/TA were well-fitted to the cubic model and; the ‘Tannat’ grape reached 21.20 oBrix, 1.04% of tartaric acid and 20.38 of maturation index during harvest, what indicates a good performance of this cultivar for red winemaking at the local condition.O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a maturação da videira ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada no norte do Estado do Paraná para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, no município de Maringá, PR. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em agosto de 2000 e as plantas foram conduzidas no sistema latada no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 1,5 m, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto ‘IAC 766 Campinas’. As avaliações tiveram início a partir da poda de produção, realizada no fim do inverno de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente

  10. Actividades económicas primarias predominantes en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas, Perú. Caso: distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis

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    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las actividades económicas primarias predominantes en los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis de la provincia de Yauyos, región Lima, ubicados en la zona de aprovechamiento directo de la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas. Métodos: Es una investigación de tipo básica, alcance descriptiva, diseño transversal, en el proceso de recolección de datos se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 79 personas con edades mayores a 18 años entre varones y mujeres de los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis, quienes participaron en un evento académico sobre “Econegocios para el desarrollo” organizado por Grupo de Proyección Social “Eco-negocios” de la Universidad Continental, este mismo instrumento se aplicó a personas ubicadas circunstancialmente en la vía pública de los mencionados distritos hasta completar el tamaño muestral de 79. Resultados: El 42% manifiesta que se dedica principalmente a la agricultura; 37%, a la ganadería; 5%, a la acuicultura; 5%, a la artesanía y un 11% a otras actividades entre las cuales se puede identificar el comercio, servicios turísticos, minería, etc. Las personas cuya actividad principal es la agricultura manifestaron que el 44% de su producción es maíz; 28%, papa; 23%, trigo y 5% otros productos. Las personas dedicadas a la ganadería manifestaron que el 41%, cría camélidos; 28%, vacunos; 14%, ovinos y un 17%, otros. Conclusiones: La población de los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis dedican como una de sus actividades económicas de mayor predominancia a la agricultura, luego la ganadería, siendo este un indicador importanteque caracteriza a estos distritos como zonas con una economía basada en actividades primarias, es decir extractiva de recursos naturales y aprovechada prioritariamente para autoconsumo y su comercialización.

  11. Preliminary results on the effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed condensed tannins on in vitro intestinal digestibility of the lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed protein fraction in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Soares, A M; Soares-Pereira, A L; Matos, T J S; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M

    2011-08-01

    Condensed tannins (CT) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) were added to complex the protein fraction of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. Three CT/protein ratios were used: 96 mg/g (T(1)), 180 mg/g (T(2)) and 0 mg/g (T(0)). The CP losses in the rumen were assessed by the nylon-bag technique and CP intestinal digestibility (CPID) was estimated using an in vitro assay applying a three-step procedure: samples were subject to rumen degradation (in situ, 16 h) and the remaining residues were subject to the digestive enzymes of the abomasum and pancreas in vitro. A positive effect (p 0.05) by the presence of CT. These findings suggest that the use of grape seed CT might have the potential to improve the efficiency of utilisation of the protein fraction from lupin seeds. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  13. Histopathological study of response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and wood injury with and without inoculation by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Jérôme POUZOULET

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch is one of the main causal agents of tracheomycosis in grapevine. We characterize how this fungus affects the response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and xylem-tissue wounding after six weeks post-treatment. A histological investigation shows that, in xylem tissue, cell-wall modifications in response to wounding are related to suberin deposits rather than to lignin-induced wall thickening. The xylem response does not appear to be disturbed by Pch infection. Therefore, cell-wall modification strongly inhibits the development of wound-closure tissue (WCT but does not prevent the differentiation of the necro-phylactic periderm. Hyphae localization in tissue surrounding the wound or inoculation sites indicates that Pch colonizes all cell types, such as vascular tissues, paratracheal parenchyma cells, fibers and rays. The results also suggest that efficient compartmentalization separating fascicular xylem portions is assured by thick suberized cell walls bordering the ray parenchyma.

  14. The antimicrobial effects of three phenolic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L., Vitis vinifera L. and Polygonum cuspidatum L. on food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Sacco, Cristiana; Donato, Rosa; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2017-09-15

    In this study three phenolic extracts were examined, without volatile fraction, against common food pathogens. The samples, all suitable for food application, were from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Vitis vinifera L., and the root of Polygonum cuspidatum L. The microorganisms tested were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes, well-known as important food pathogens. The results demonstrated a microbicidal activity of all the tested compounds at different concentrations; the rosemary extract showed greater efficacy than the other compounds against the tested microorganisms. In particular, the best results were obtained with rosemary extract against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes with values of 200 and 270 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that rosemary extract, often present as a natural antioxidant in food, can also be proposed as a natural disinfectant in the food field.

  15. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made....... These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery...... character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory...

  16. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of phenolic compounds from lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and hybrid bilberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Juho; Mattila, Sampo; Jaakola, Laura; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tolonen, Ari

    2009-10-28

    Phenolic compounds from leaves of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and the natural hybrid of bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L., hybrid bilberry) were identified using LC/TOF-MS and LC/MS/MS after extraction from the plant material in methanol in an ultrasonicator. The phenolic profiles in the plants were compared using the LC/TOF-MS responses. This is the first thorough report of phenolic compounds in hybrid bilberry. In total, 51 different phenolic compounds were identified, including flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and their glycosides, and various phenolic acid conjugates. Of the identified compounds, 35 were detected in bilberry, 36 in lingonberry, and 46 in the hybrid. To our knowledge, seven compounds were previously unreported in Vaccinium genus and many of the compounds are reported for the first time from bilberry and lingonberry.

  18. Influence of Different Maceration Techniques and Ageing on Proanthocyanidins and Anthocyanins of Red Wine cv. Babić (Vitis vinifera, L.

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    Irena Budić-Leto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of winemaking techniques on the polyphenolic composition of specific Croatian wines made from Babić (Vitis vinifera, L., from the Primošten vine-growing region, were subjected to examination. Winemaking processes and reactions that take place during maturation significantly influence the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in wine. Prolonged maceration duration caused an increase in the content of total phenols, vanillin index and proanthocyanidins, as well as a decrease in the content of anthocyanins in young wine. Cold maceration brought about a decrease in anthocyanins, total phenols and proanthocyanidins in Babić wine. The effects of winemaking techniques on the index of vanillin and proanthocyanidins in wines maturated for 6 and 14 months were significant.

  19. Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2007-04-01

    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

  20. Vitis vinifera L. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection with High-Resolution Melting Analysis Based on the UDP-Glucose:Flavonoid 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonor; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2015-10-21

    Vitis vinifera L. is a species with a large number of varieties, which differ in terms of anthocyanin content. The genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have a direct effect in the anthocyanin profile of each variety, being potentially interesting for varietal identification. The current study aimed at the design of an assay suitable for the discrimination of the largest number of grapevine varieties. Two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), were sequenced in 22 grapevine varieties. The CHI gene presented 5 SNPs within the sequence. A total of 58 SNPs and 1 INDEL were found among the UFGT gene, allowing the discrimination of 18 different genotypes within the 22 grapevine varieties. A HRM assay designed for UFGT, containing 704 bp, produced differentiated melting curves for each of the 18 haplotypes. The developed HRM assay is efficient in grapevine varietal discrimination.

  1. Flavanol Quantification of Grapes via Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry. Application to Differentiation among Clones of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rufete Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-08-09

    The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and interday precisions (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rufete grapes. Seventy-two (38 nongalloylated and 34 galloylated) and 53 (24 procyanidins and 29 prodelphinidins) flavanols have been identified and quantified in grape seed and grape skin, respectively. The use of HCA and PCA on the detailed flavanol composition has allowed differentiation among Rufete clones.

  2. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression...... led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys......-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease...

  3. Optimization of the HS-SPME-GC/MS technique for determining volatile compounds in red wines made from Isabel grapes (Vitis labrusca

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    Narciza Maria de Oliveira ARCANJO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian wine production is characterized by Vitis labrusca grape varieties, especially the economically important Isabel cultivar, with over 80% of its production destined for table wine production. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the conditions for extracting volatile compounds from wine with the solid-phase microextraction technique, using the response surface method. Based on the response surface analysis, it can be concluded that the central point values maximize the process of extracting volatile compounds from wine, i.e., an equilibrium time of 15 minutes, an extraction time of 35 minutes, and an extraction temperature of 30 °C. Esters were the most numerous compounds found under these extraction conditions, indicating that wines made from Isabel cultivar grapes are characterized by compounds that confer a fruity aroma; this finding corroborates the scientific literature.

  4. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  5. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  6. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Verónica González

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1, whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1 are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment, while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment. In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy, or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance. None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and

  7. A new strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol by overexpressing stilbene synthase gene in elicited Vitis vinifera cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingyu; Pedreño, M A; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Lydia; Burgos, Lorenzo; Almagro, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    In this work, transgenic lines of suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell containing the plasmid pMOG800-sts have been obtained. The cell growth of these transgenic cell lines decreased slightly as compared to non-transgenic suspension cultured cells, while cell viability was not affected. In addition, the elicitation with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate enhanced the production of trans-resveratrol, observing the highest levels of this compound in sts-expressing transgenic Vitis suspension cultured cells with the sts expression cassette in the forwards orientation. Moreover, the forwards 2 (F2) transgenic cell line produced the greater levels of trans-resveratrol in comparison with the non-transgenic cell line. In fact, when suspension cultured cells were treated with both elicitors, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol outside the cells in the F2 transgenic suspension cultured cells increased twice (1458 mg.L-1) as compared to non-transgenic cell lines (724 mg.L-1). In both cases, the levels of trans-resveratrol detected in the treatment with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate were greater than the sum of the individual treatments, and therefore we observed a synergistic effect in the presence of both elicitors. Moreover, the expression profile of sts gene in transgenic V. vinifera cell lines was similar to the expression profile detected for the endogenous sts gene in non-transgenic V. vinifera cell lines, being the expression levels greater in the treatment with methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, which was related to the high levels of trans-resveratrol found in the presence of both elicitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  9. Influência do solvente no conteúdo total de polifenóis, antocianinas e atividade antioxidante de extratos de bagaço de uva (Vitis vinifera variedades Tannat e Ancelota Solvent Influence on total polyphenol content, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of grape (Vitis vinifera bagasse extracts from Tannat and Ancelota - different varieties of Vitis vinifera varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Ivan Rockenbach

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas solventes foram aplicados para determinar a eficiência de extração de compostos com capacidade antioxidante em bagaço de uva, importante subproduto do processo de vinificação. Realizou-se a quantificação de compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas totais e atividade antioxidante nos extratos de bagaço de uva Vitis vinifera das variedades Tannat e Ancelota, provenientes da região de Videira, Santa Catarina. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelos métodos ABTS, FRAP e β-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Conteúdos de compostos fenólicos totais em acetona 50 e 70% foram maiores nas duas variedades, enquanto que os conteúdos de antocianinas totais extraídos em ambas as variedades foram maiores no solvente etanol em concentrações de 50 e 70%. Pelo método ABTS, a atividade antioxidante foi maior nas concentrações de 50 e 70% de acetona para a variedade Tannat e 50 e 70% de acetona e etanol para a variedade Ancelota. Em relação ao poder redutor pelo método FRAP, este foi maior em solvente acetona 70% para as duas variedades. No ensaio do poder de inibição da oxidação, a adição de 100 e 200 µL de extratos etanólicos a 50% das variedades Tannat e Ancelota apresentou maior eficiência, sendo quase duas vezes superior aos extratos acetônicos testados.Different solvent systems were applied in order to determine the extraction efficiency of compounds with antioxidant capacity from grape bagasse, an important by-product from wine production. The quantification of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity was carried out in grape bagasse extracts of Tannat and Ancelota varieties from the region of Videira, state of Santa Catarina. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS, FRAP, and β-carotene/linoleic acid system methods. Extracts from acidified aqueous solutions of acetone and ethanol in different concentrations (v/v showed higher yield in aqueous solutions of acetone 50 and 70% for

  10. Stérilités mâle et femelle dans le genre Vitis. II. Conséquences en génétique et sélection

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonneau, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Les conséquences d’un nouveau modèle de l’hérédité des stérilités mâle et femelle dans le genre Vitis sont discutées sur : - certains aspects de biologie moléculaire, - le choix de géniteurs particuliers, - l’évolution de la vigne, - les stratégies de sélection.

  11. Expression Profiles and DNA-Binding Affinity of Five ERF Genes in Bunches of Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal Treated with High Levels of CO2 at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Irene; Vazquez-Hernandez, Maria; Escribano, M I; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv. Cardinal, whose deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain. The phylogeny and putative conserved motifs in VviERFs were analyzed and compared with those previously reported in Vitis. VviERFs-c gene expression was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the different tissues of bunches stored at low temperature and treated with high levels of CO2. The results showed that in most of the tissues analyzed, VviERFs-c gene expression was induced by the storage under normal atmosphere although the application of high levels of CO2 caused a greater increase in the VviERFs-c transcript accumulation. The promoter regions of two PRs (pathogenesis related proteins), Vcchit1b and Vcgns1, were obtained and the in silico analysis revealed the presence of a cis-acting ethylene response element (GCC box). In addition, expression of these two PR genes was analyzed in the pulp and rachis of CO2-treated and non-treated table grapes stored at 0°C and results showed significant correlations with VviERF2-c and VviERF6L7-c gene expression in rachis, and between VviERF11-c and Vcchit1b in pulp. Finally by using electro mobility shift assays, we denoted differences in binding of VviERFs to the GCC sequences present in the promoters of both PRs, with VviERF6L7-c being the only member which did not bind to any tested probe. Overall, our results suggest that the beneficial effect of high CO2

  12. Domain analysis of 3 Keto Acyl-CoA synthase for structural variations in Vitis vinifera and Oryza brachyantha using comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Mamta; Pandey, Neetesh; Qamar, Naseha; Singh, Brijendra; Shukla, Akanksha

    2015-03-01

    The long chain fatty acids incorporated into plant lipids are derived from the iterative addition of C2 units which is provided by malonyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA after interactions with 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), found in several plants. This study provides functional characterization of three 3 ketoacyl CoA synthase like proteins in Vitis vinifera (one) and Oryza brachyantha (two proteins). Sequence analysis reveals that protein of Oryza brachyantha shows 96% similarity to a hypothetical protein in Sorghum bicolor; total 11 homologs were predicted in Sorghum bicolor. Conserved domain prediction confirm the presence of FAE1/Type III polyketide synthase-like protein, Thiolase-like, subgroup; Thiolase-like and 3-Oxoacyl-ACP synthase III, C-terminal and chalcone synthase like domain but very long chain 3-keto acyl CoA domain is absent. All three proteins were found to have Chalcone and stilbene synthases C terminal domain which is similar to domain of thiolase and β keto acyl synthase. Its N terminal domain is absent in J3M9Z7 protein of Oryza brachyantha and F6HH63 protein of Vitis vinifera. Differences in N-terminal domain is responsible for distinguish activity. The J3MF16 protein of Oryza brachyantha contains N terminal domain and C terminal domain and characterized using annotation of these domains. Domains Gcs (streptomyces coelicolor) and Chalcone-stilbene synthases (KAS) in 2-pyrone synthase (Gerbera hybrid) and chalcone synthase 2 (Medicago sativa) were found to be present in three proteins. This similarity points toward anthocyanin biosynthetic process. Similarity to chalcone synthase 2 reveals its possible role in Naringenine and Chalcone synthase like activity. In 3 keto acyl CoA synthase of Oryza brachyantha. Active site residues C-240, H-407, N-447 are present in J3MF16 protein that are common in these three protein at different positions. Structural variations among dimer interface, product binding site, malonyl-CoA binding sites, were predicted in

  13. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

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    Ke-Gang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD show the formation of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are

  14. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

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    Sweetman Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest. Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the

  15. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Crystal; Wong, Darren Cj; Ford, Christopher M; Drew, Damian P

    2012-12-11

    Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12 differentially expressed

  16. Expression Profiles and DNA-Binding Affinity of Five ERF Genes in Bunches of Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal Treated with High Levels of CO2 at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Irene; Vazquez-Hernandez, Maria; Escribano, M. I.; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv. Cardinal, whose deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain. The phylogeny and putative conserved motifs in VviERFs were analyzed and compared with those previously reported in Vitis. VviERFs-c gene expression was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the different tissues of bunches stored at low temperature and treated with high levels of CO2. The results showed that in most of the tissues analyzed, VviERFs-c gene expression was induced by the storage under normal atmosphere although the application of high levels of CO2 caused a greater increase in the VviERFs-c transcript accumulation. The promoter regions of two PRs (pathogenesis related proteins), Vcchit1b and Vcgns1, were obtained and the in silico analysis revealed the presence of a cis-acting ethylene response element (GCC box). In addition, expression of these two PR genes was analyzed in the pulp and rachis of CO2-treated and non-treated table grapes stored at 0°C and results showed significant correlations with VviERF2-c and VviERF6L7-c gene expression in rachis, and between VviERF11-c and Vcchit1b in pulp. Finally by using electro mobility shift assays, we denoted differences in binding of VviERFs to the GCC sequences present in the promoters of both PRs, with VviERF6L7-c being the only member which did not bind to any tested probe. Overall, our results suggest that the beneficial effect of high CO2

  17. A reference integrated map for cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) from three crosses, based on 283 SSR and 501 SNP-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Silvia; Troggio, Michela; Coppola, Giuseppina; Jermakow, Angelica; Cartwright, Dustin; Zharkikh, Andrey; Stefanini, Marco; Grando, M Stella; Viola, Roberto; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark; This, Patrice; Velasco, Riccardo

    2008-08-01

    We have developed an integrated map from five elite cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.; Syrah, Pinot Noir, Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling which are parents of three segregating populations. A new source of markers, SNPs, identified in ESTs and unique BAC-end sequences was added to the available IGGP reference set of SSRs. The complete integrated map comprises 1,134 markers (350 AFLP, 332 BESs, 169 ESTs, 283 SSRs) spanning 1,443 cM over 19 linkage groups and shows a mean distance between neighbouring loci of 1.27 cM. Marker order was mainly conserved between the integrated map and the highly dense SyrahxPinot Noir consensus map except for few inversions. Moreover, the marker order has been validated through the assembled genome sequence of Pinot Noir. We have also assessed the transferability of SNP-based markers among five V. vinifera varieties, enabling marker validation across different genotypes. This integrated map can serve as a fundamental tool for molecular breeding in V. vinifera and related species and provide a basis for studies of genome organization and evolution in grapevines.

  18. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  19. GRAPE’S LEATHER AND SEED EXTRACT (VITIS VINIFERA IMPROVING THE FUNCTION OF WISTAR RATS’ MOTOR (RATTUS NORVEGICUS ISCHEMIC STROKE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasjad Indra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera, that has resveratrol, is one of many antioxidants that can pass through blood brain barrier and can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK 1/2 pathway mechanism in post stroke. Objective. To prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in brain functional Methods. True experimental design with five groups in this research. The five groups are negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. The repairment is monitored from ladder rung walking test score. Results. Range average score ladder rung walking test post stroke dan post treatment group N, K, Ra, Rb, dan Rc, were 0 ± 0, 0.001028933 ± 0.011664445, 0.123214286 ± 0.019834983, 0.064744427 ± 0.024296721, 0.03781401 ± 0.006888803. Statistical test used Annova significantly p;0,001.Dose 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. Conclusion. Grape’s leather and Seed extract 50 mg/kgBW can improve neuron regeneration on animal model.

  20. A Special Ingredient (VtR Containing Oligostilbenes Isolated from Vitis thunbergii Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

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    Yu-Ling Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii is used in Taiwan as a botanical supplement for inflammatory bone diseases. This study aims to examine its direct effect on bone metabolism. Three-month-old female mice were randomly divided into ovariectomized control (OVX, sham operated (SHAM, and ovariectomy treated with either 17β-estradiol or a special ingredient (VtR fractionated from an ethanol extract of V. thunbergii started two weeks after ovariectomy. VtR treatment for 8 weeks significantly ameliorated the deterioration of bone mineral density and reversed all the ovariectomy-induced changes in  μ-CT parameters. The antiosteoporotic effect of VtR accompanied decrease in serum levels of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx, interleukin-7, and ration of RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG but rise in osteocalcin concentration. Sparse calcified microarchitecture and less alkaline-phosphatase- (ALP- positive cells were observed at the femur and vertebral sites in OVX mice while VtR remarkably restored such variation. HPLC analysis showed (+-vitisin-A, (−-vitisin-B, and ampelopsin C predominated in VtR. Both (−-vitisin B and ampelopsin C increased ALP activity and bone nodule formation in cultured osteoblasts. Instead of stimulating osteoblastogenesis, (+-vitisin A dramatically repressed osteoclasts differentiation and bone resorption. The results suggested VtR composed of diverse components to reciprocally drive osteoblastogenesis and interdict osteoclastogenesis may serve as a potential botanic drug for osteoporosis therapy.

  1. Metabolic profiling of strawberry grape ( Vitis × labruscana cv. 'Isabella') components by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Scognamiglio, Monica; Gallicchio, Marialuisa; Potenza, Nicoletta; Piccolella, Simona; Russo, Aniello; Monaco, Pietro; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2011-07-27

    In the assessment of the antioxidant properties of edible plants, the widely consumed Vitis × labruscana cv. 'Isabella', known in Italy as "fragola" (strawberry) grape, was of interest. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extracts of peel, pulp, seed, leaf, and stalk components of the plant were determined. The metabolic profile of the extracts was performed by 1D and 2D NMR. Quantitative analysis, obtained in the presence of 0.01% of internal standard trimethylsilyl propionate, evidenced the presence of catechins in both stalk and seed extracts, whereas caffeic acid and quercetin were the main metabolites of the leaf extract. Furthermore, the extracts were tested for their radical scavenging and reducing capacities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) and to reduce Fe(III) and Mo(VI) salts. The antioxidant efficacy of the extracts in cell-free systems and their antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 and A549 cells were also evaluated. Seed and stalk components are able to reduce by 39.6 and 40.6%, respectively, the amount of the metabolically active HepG2 cells after only 24 h of exposure.

  2. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects.

  3. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    Full Text Available Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.. The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  4. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  5. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  6. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  7. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  8. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2017-10-27

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Characterization of a bifunctional O- and N-glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in glucosylating phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Sheng Xu

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1 displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works.

  10. Teores de Elementos Minerais e Caracterização Física da Uva Isabel (Vitis labrusca L. Produzida em Boa Vista/RR

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    Magda Márcia Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Roraima viticulture began in 2003 with the creation of the Vale do Rio Branco project, in which the cultivation of grapes was enlarged for a commercial production. However, no information has been found in literature  about the mineral content of grapes produced. Considering the essentiality and importance of this information for human nutrition, quantification of species K by flame photometry and Ca, Fe and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in pulps of grapes of the Isabel, Vitis labrusca L. variety, cultivated in Boa Vista/RR has been realized, as well as determination of the physical characteristics of the grape bunches and berries. The determinations´ results indicate that K had the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Fe and Zn, being similar to the data, described in other literature sources, except for Ca, which showed smaller, indicating an intervention demand of culture methods employed to optimize the absorption of this species by vines. The consumption of Isabel grape can contribute to the achievement of the adequate intake recommendations of mineral elements. The results of the physical characterization let us classify Isabel grape bunches to very small, loose and green stalks. Overall, this study reveals new data about the physical characteristics and mineral composition present in Isabel grape grown in Boa Vista/RR.

  11. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

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    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  12. Functionalization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite with copper(II) compounds as pesticide: in situ TEM and ESEM observations of treated Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Enrico; Salvatici, Maria C; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Gatti, Antonietta; Di Marco, Stefano; Mugnai, Laura

    2018-02-19

    The present study evaluates a biocompatible material for plant protection to reduce the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively due its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four copper(II) compounds applied in Vitis vinifera L. leaves as pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterised by XRD, DLS, electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify the particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen, Plasmopara viticola. XRD showed a different interaction between HA and the copper(II) compounds, DLS showed a granular distribution ranging out of the nanometer range and in all formulations, TEM and ESEM microscopy showed large aggregates which were partially nanostructured and were recognised as stable in their micrometric dimension. Such particles did not show phytotoxic effects after their application in planta. A formulation based on HA and the soluble copper(II) compound showed promising results in the control of the fungal pathogen, confirming the potential role of HA an as innovative delivery system of Cu(II) ions. The present work indicates the possibility to improve the biological activity of a bioactive substance by modifying its structure through an achievable formulation with a biocompatible material. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal changes of pigments concentration in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the influence of industrial emissions

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    Zuzanna Czuchajska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-year leaves of both Vaccinium species show a similar chlorophyll o level iii summer, ca. 3.0 mg/g d.w., however, they differ in the earliest period of possible analysis. The Vaccinium myrtillus leaves showed at that time a level of ca. 6 mg/g d.w., decreasing by one half in mid June, i.e. in the period in which the fastest increase in leaf dry matter was noted. Autumn depression reaches about 20°/o. The pigment level in biennial leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea is rather constant and typical of the current year ones, in the triennial leaves it is lower by ca. 20%. Zinc-plant emissions influence differently the two species, both showing some defence reaction. Chlorophyll b level, in summer in the range of 1.6-1.9 mg/g d.w., shows seasonal changes rather similar to those of chlorophyll a.

  14. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

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    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  15. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

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    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  16. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

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    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  17. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological Response of Field Grown Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Marzemino to Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus (GLRaV-1

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    M. Bertamini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological response of field grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Marzemino plants to grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLRaV-1 was studied. Changes in photosynthetic pigments and in photosynthetic activity were investigated. GLRaV-1 considerably decreased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs and the transpiration rate (E in grapevine leaves, and also strongly reduced pigments, soluble proteins, ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC and nitrate reductase activity. In isolated thylakoids, the virus strongly inhibited whole-chain and photosystem (PS II activity, while PSI activity was only marginally inhibited. The artificial exogenous electron donors diphenyl carbazide, manganese chloride (MnCl2 and hydroxylamine (NH2OH did not restore lost PSII activity to virus-infected leaves. Chlorophyll fluorescence suggested that the inhibition of primary light reactions was a major effect of virus infection. Immunological studies showed that D1 protein levels of the PSII reaction centre were significantly lower in virus-infected leaves. It is concluded that the decreases in photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activities caused by the virus strongly impair photosynthesis in Marzemino grapevine plants.

  19. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D.; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G.; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants. PMID:27833626

  20. A leaf gas exchange model that accounts for intra-canopy variability by considering leaf nitrogen content and local acclimation to radiation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jorge A; Louarn, Gaëtan; Perez Peña, Jorge; Ojeda, Hernán; Simonneau, Thierry; Lebon, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the distribution of gas exchange within a plant is a prerequisite for scaling up from leaves to canopies. We evaluated whether leaf traits were reliable predictors of the effects of leaf ageing and leaf irradiance on leaf photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax) , J(max) ) in field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L). Simultaneously, we measured gas exchange, leaf mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen content (N(m) ) of leaves at different positions within the canopy and at different phenological stages. Daily mean leaf irradiance cumulated over 10 d (PPFD(10) ) was obtained by 3D modelling of the canopy structure. N(m) decreased over the season in parallel to leaf ageing while LMA was mainly affected by leaf position. PPFD(10) explained 66, 28 and 73% of the variation of LMA, N(m) and nitrogen content per area (N(a) ), respectively. Nitrogen content per unit area (N(a) = LMA × N(m) ) was the best predictor of the intra-canopy variability of leaf photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we developed a classical photosynthesis-stomatal conductance submodel and by introducing N(a) as an input, the model accurately simulated the daily pattern of gas exchange for leaves at different positions in the canopy and at different phenological stages during the season. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  2. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  3. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  4. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  5. Induction of trans-resveratrol and extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in elicited suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Almagro, Lorena; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, Maria Angeles

    2013-02-15

    Suspension-cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell were used to investigate the effects of methyljasmonate, ethylene and salicylic acid separately or in combination with cyclodextrins on both trans-resveratrol production and the induction of defense responses. The results showed that the addition of methyljasmonate or ethylene to suspension-cultured cells jointly treated with cyclodextrins and salicylic acid provoked a decrease of trans-resveratrol levels suggesting that salicylic acid has a negative and antagonistic effect with methyljasmonate or ethylene on trans-resveratrol production. Likewise, the exogenous application of these compounds induced the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. Analysis of the extracellular proteome showed the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to an specific β-1,3-glucanase, class III peroxidases and a β-1,4-mannanase, which suggests that these signal molecules could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in V. vinifera cv Monastrell. Apart from these inducible proteins, other proteins were found in both the control and elicited cell cultures of V. vinifera. These included class IV chitinase, polygalacturonase inhibitor protein and reticuline oxidase-like protein, suggesting that their expression is constitutive being involved in the modification of the cell wall architecture during cell culture growth and in the prevention of pathogen attack. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae sobre dos cultivares de Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA. F. GONZALEZ LUNA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La cochinilla harinosa Planococcus ficus Signoret causa severos da- ños en viñedos argentinos. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de P. ficus sobre los cultivares de Vitis vinifera Chardon- nay y Malbec, así como evaluar el efecto de las temperatura sobre tales parámet- ros y obtener las respectivas curvas estimadas de crecimiento poblacional. Con temperaturas constantes de 15, 25 y 37 °C, 46 % de H.R. y fotoperíodo de 16:8 h (Luz: Oscuridad, diariamente se registraron el número de individuos de cada estadio, la ecdisis y la descendencia. A 25 °C, el período ninfal fue similar en am- bos cultivares. La fecundidad, la tasa intrínseca de incremento natural ( r m , la tasa finita de incremento ( λ y la tasa neta de reproducción ( R 0 sobre Malbec fueron superiores a Chardonnay. El tiempo generacional ( T y el tiempo de duplicación ( D fueron menores en Malbec. A 15 °C las cochinillas criadas sobre Malbec lograron reproducirse, no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en los cultivares ensaya- dos. No se verificó el cumplimiento del ciclo completo a 37 °C. Se demostró que la capacidad reproductiva de P. ficus fue mayor sobre Malbec.

  7. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Tempranillo' by deviation from optimum percentage method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia-Escudero, E.

    2014-06-01

    Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain), to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. 'Tempranillo' grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR) methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of 'Tempranillo' grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue. (Author)

  9. Diadenosine triphosphate is a novel factor which in combination with cyclodextrins synergistically enhances the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell suspension cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Czekała, Łukasz; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, María Angeles; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates are considered as signal molecules that may evoke response of plant cells to stress. Other compounds whose biological effects have been recognized are cyclodextrins. They are cyclic oligosaccharides that chemically resemble the alkyl-derived pectic oligosaccharides naturally released from the cell walls during fungal attack, and they act as true elicitors, since, when added to plant cell culture, they induce the expression of genes involved in some secondary metabolism pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that some dinucleoside polyphosphates triggered the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells, cyclodextrins were shown to enhance the accumulation of trans-resveratrol, one of the basic units of the stilbenes derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we show that diadenosine triphosphate, applied alone or in combination with cyclodextrins to the grapevine suspension-cultured cells, increased the transcript level of genes encoding key phenylpropanoid-pathway enzymes as well as the trans-resveratrol production inside cells and its secretion into the extracellular medium. In the latter case, these two compounds acted synergistically. However, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside trans-piceid inside cells were stimulated much better by diadenosine triphosphate than by cyclodextrins. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Functional Differentiation of the Glycosyltransferases That Contribute to the Chemical Diversity of Bioactive Flavonol Glycosides in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera)[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Eiichiro; Homma, Yu; Horikawa, Manabu; Kunikane-Doi, Satoshi; Imai, Haruna; Takahashi, Seiji; Kawai, Yosuke; Ishiguro, Masaji; Fukui, Yuko; Nakayama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    We identified two glycosyltransferases that contribute to the structural diversification of flavonol glycosides in grapevine (Vitis vinifera): glycosyltransferase 5 (Vv GT5) and Vv GT6. Biochemical analyses showed that Vv GT5 is a UDP-glucuronic acid:flavonol-3-O-glucuronosyltransferase (GAT), and Vv GT6 is a bifunctional UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose:flavonol-3-O-glucosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase. The Vv GT5 and Vv GT6 genes have very high sequence similarity (91%) and are located in tandem on chromosome 11, suggesting that one of these genes arose from the other by gene duplication. Both of these enzymes were expressed in accordance with flavonol synthase gene expression and flavonoid distribution patterns in this plant, corroborating their significance in flavonol glycoside biosynthesis. The determinant of the specificity of Vv GT5 for UDP-glucuronic acid was found to be Arg-140, which corresponded to none of the determinants previously identified for other plant GATs in primary structures, providing another example of convergent evolution of plant GAT. We also analyzed the determinants of the sugar donor specificity of Vv GT6. Gln-373 and Pro-19 were found to play important roles in the bifunctional specificity of the enzyme. The results presented here suggest that the sugar donor specificities of these Vv GTs could be determined by a limited number of amino acid substitutions in the primary structures of protein duplicates, illustrating the plasticity of plant glycosyltransferases in acquiring new sugar donor specificities. PMID:20693356

  11. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  12. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Abiotic stresses differentially affect the expression of O-methyltransferase genes related to methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits of Vitis vinifera (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, José G; Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Verdugo-Alegría, Claudio; González, Enrique; Moreno, Yerko M

    2014-07-01

    MPs (3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines) are grape-derived aroma compounds that are associated with detrimental herbaceous flavours in some wines. It is well known that several viticultural and environmental parameters can modulate MP concentrations in grapes, although comprehensive molecular studies have not been conducted in this field. Although the biosynthesis pathway of MPs has not been fully elucidated, four Vitis vinifera O-methyltransferase genes (VvOMT1-4) have been related to be involved in MP biosynthesis. We assessed whether different abiotic stresses induction have an impact on MP levels in grapes and wines from seeded and parthenocarpic fruits. Our results show that the timing of VvOMT3 expression is associated with the period of MPs accumulation in seeded fruits during both abiotic stresses, whereas no association was found in parthenocarpic fruits. These results are discussed in the context of how different viticultural practices can modulate VvOMT gene expression, which has a direct impact on MPs levels in wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Malbec grape (Vitis vinifera L.) responses to the environment: Berry phenolics as influenced by solar UV-B, water deficit and sprayed abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Berli, Federico J; Fontana, Ariel; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude vineyards receive elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) levels so producing high quality berries for winemaking because of induction in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Water deficit (D) after veraison, is a commonly used tool to regulate berry polyphenols concentration in red wine cultivars. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the acclimation to environmental factors/signals (including UV-B and D). The aim of the present study was to evaluate independent and interactive effects of high-altitude solar UV-B, moderate water deficit and ABA applications on Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec berries. The experiment was conducted during two growing seasons with two treatments of UV-B (+UV-B and -UV-B), watering (+D and -D) and ABA (+ABA and -ABA), in a factorial design. Berry fresh weight, sugar content, fruit yield, phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant capacity (ORAC) were analyzed at harvest. Previous incidence of high UV-B prevented deleterious effects of water deficit, i.e. berry weight reduction and diminution of sugar accumulation. High UV-B increased total phenols (mainly astilbin, quercetin and kaempferol) and ORAC, irrespectively of the combination with other factors. Fruit yield was reduced by combining water deficit and high UV-B or water deficit and ABA. Two applications of ABA were enough to induced biochemical changes increasing total anthocyanins, especially those with higher antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  16. Effects of Leaf Removal and Applied Water on Flavonoid Accumulation in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) Berry in a Hot Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Runze; Cook, Michael G; Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Gambetta, Gregory; Kennedy, James A; Kurtural, S Kaan

    2016-11-02

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) fruit zone light exposure and water deficits and the resulting berry flavonoid composition were investigated in a hot climate. The experimental design involved application of mechanical leaf removal (control, pre-bloom, post-fruit set) and differing water deficits (sustained deficit irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation). Flavonol and anthocyanin concentrations were measured by C18 reversed-phased HPLC and increased with pre-bloom leaf removal in 2013, but with post-fruit set leaf removal in 2014. Proanthocyanidin isolates were characterized by acid catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Post-fruit set leaf removal increased total proanthocyanidin concentration in both years, whereas no effect was observed with applied water amounts. Mean degree of polymerization of skin proanthocyanidins increased with post-fruit set leaf removal compared to pre-bloom, whereas water deficit had no effect. Conversion yield was greater with post-fruit set leaf removal. Seed proanthocyanidin concentration was rarely affected by applied treatments. The application of post-fruit set leaf removal, regardless of water deficit. increased the proportion of proanthocyanidins derived from the skin, whereas no leaf removal or pre-bloom leaf removal regardless of water deficit increased the proportion of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The study provides fundamental information to viticulturists and winemakers on how to manage red wine grape low molecular weight phenolics and polymeric proanthocyanidin composition in a hot climate.

  17. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  18. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  19. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.

  20. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.

  1. Stilbenes and tyrosol as target compounds in the assessment of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Vitis vinifera red wines from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Eliana Fortes; Mattivi, Fulvio; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2011-07-27

    The contents of stilbene monomers, cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid, trans-piceid, and tyrosol, were quantified in Vitis vinifera red wines, cvs. Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese, and Syrah, 2006 and 2007 vintages, from the São Joaquim region, a new grape-growing region at southern Brazil. Moreover, the effect of chronic consumption of these wines on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities was monitored in C57BL6 LDL receptor knockout mice and treated with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Red wines from this region had substantial levels of resveratrols (the predominant forms were glycoside and trans) and tyrosol. Biomonitoring of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in vivo revealed that consumption of these wines increased the antioxidant capacity and reduced the hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia promoted by the hypercholesterolemic diet. Significant correlations were found between the increase of antioxidant capacity markers, the decrease of lipid levels promoted by wine consumption, and the contents of stilbenes and tyrosol, supporting the important biological activity of these compounds.

  2. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The Application of Leaf Ultrasonic Resonance to Vitis vinifera L. Suggests the Existence of a Diurnal Osmotic Adjustment Subjected to Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Medrano, Hipólito; Peguero-Pina, José J; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Fariñas, Maria D; Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás G; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Ψ) through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo). With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Ψ measured at predawn (pd) and at midday (md) with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Ψ for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Ψ, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P). The difference in Ψ at constant f/fo (δ) was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A) and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Ψ, osmotic potential (π), the one that may have lowered the values of md Ψ with respect to pd Ψ by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF LEAF ULTRASONIC RESONANCE TO VITIS VINIFERA L. SUGGESTS THE EXISTENCE OF A DIURNAL OSMOTIC ADJUSTMENT SUBJECTED TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Sancho-Knapik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to apply the air-coupled broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy in attached transpiring leaves of Vitis vinifera L. to monitor changes in leaf water potential (Y through the measurements of the standardized value of the resonant frequency associated with the maximum transmitance (f/fo. With this purpose, the response of grapevine to a drought stress period was investigated in terms of leaf water status, ultrasounds, gas exchange and sugar accumulation. Two strong correlations were obtained between f/fo and Y measured at predawn (pd and at midday (md with different slopes. This fact implied the existence of two values of Y for a given value of f/fo, which was taken as a sign that the ultrasonic technique was not directly related to the overall Y, but only to one of its components: the turgor pressure (P. The difference in Y at constant f/fo (d was found to be dependent on net CO2 assimilation (A and might be used as a rough estimator of photosynthetic activity. It was then, the other main component of Y, osmotic potential (π, the one that may have lowered the values of midday Y with respect to predawn Y by the accumulation of sugars associated to net CO2 assimilation. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a diurnal osmotic adjustment in this species associated to sugars production in well-watered plants.

  6. Mesocarp cell turgor in Vitis vinifera L. berries throughout development and its relation to firmness, growth, and the onset of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tyler R; Shackel, Ken A; Matthews, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    Vitis vinifera L. berries are non-climacteric fruit that exhibit a double sigmoid growth pattern and dynamic changes in gene expression, cell metabolism, and water relations at the onset of ripening. The cell-pressure probe was utilized to examine the relationships of turgor pressure (P) in mesocarp cells to growth, sugar accumulation, and fruit softening during development. In replications utilizing three different varieties, mesocarp cell P demonstrated a consistent pattern of a relative mid-range P early in development, followed by an increase to a maximum of about 0.35 MPa, and a subsequent rapid decline before ripening to less than 0.1 MPa. Fruit "apparent elastic modulus" (E, units of MPa), was introduced as a standard measure to describe ripening-related softening. E changed dynamically and synchronously with P during development and in response to water deficits for fruit grown in greenhouse and field conditions. Thus, E and P were positively and linearly related. Sugar accumulation did not increase significantly until P had declined to less than 0.1 MPa. The results suggest that P is an important determinant of fruit softening and that P decreases in conjunction with many of the physiological and gene expression changes that are known to occur at the onset of ripening.

  7. Gene expression analyses in individual grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during ripening initiation reveal that pigmentation intensity is a valid indicator of developmental staging within the cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven T; Peng, Fred Y; Nayar, Tarun; Reid, Karen E; Schlosser, James

    2008-10-01

    Asynchronous ripening of individual grape berries within clusters can lead to inconsistent organoleptic characteristics for wine making. Ripening initiation in grape berries is non-climacteric and not well understood at the molecular level. Evidence is lacking for a single master switch controlling this process, such as the established role for ethylene in climacteric fruit ripening. We used Affymetrix microarray analyses of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries sampled from two clusters at 50% ripening initiation. By delineating four developmental stages of ripening initiation, we demonstrate that pigmentation is a statistically significant indicator of transcriptional state during ripening initiation. We report on clustered gene expression patterns which were mined for genes annotated with signal transduction functions in order to advance regulatory network modeling of ripening initiation in grape berries. Abscisic acid has previously been demonstrated to be an important signaling component regulating ripening initiation in grapevine. We demonstrate via real-time RT-PCR analyses that up-regulation of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid gene family member, VvNCED2, in grape seed and pericarp and a putative ortholog to a reported abscisic acid receptor, VvGCR2, are correlated with ripening initiation. Our results suggest a role for these genes in abscisic acid signaling during ripening initiation.

  8. FSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to drain the body in case......” was a beneficial physiological effect in the context of “a normal venous circulation in the legs”. The applicant acknowledged that this claim referred to the same physiological function of the body as another health claim application on Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow....... The Panel considers that maintenance of normal venous blood flow is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow has already been assessed by the Panel with an unfavourable outcome. The reference provided by the applicant...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow. The Panel considers that the food constituent, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous blood flow, is a beneficial physiological effect...... and did not measure venous blood flow, the Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract...

  10. Identification of shared single copy nuclear genes in Arabidopsis, Populus, Vitis and Oryza and their phylogenetic utility across various taxonomic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the overwhelming majority of genes found in angiosperms are members of gene families, and both gene- and genome-duplication are pervasive forces in plant genomes, some genes are sufficiently distinct from all other genes in a genome that they can be operationally defined as 'single copy'. Using the gene clustering algorithm MCL-tribe, we have identified a set of 959 single copy genes that are shared single copy genes in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa. To characterize these genes, we have performed a number of analyses examining GO annotations, coding sequence length, number of exons, number of domains, presence in distant lineages, such as Selaginella and Physcomitrella, and phylogenetic analysis to estimate copy number in other seed plants and to demonstrate their phylogenetic utility. We then provide examples of how these genes may be used in phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct organismal history, both by using extant coverage in EST databases for seed plants and de novo amplification via RT-PCR in the family Brassicaceae. Results There are 959 single copy nuclear genes shared in Arabidopsis, Populus, Vitis and Oryza ["APVO SSC genes"]. The majority of these genes are also present in the Selaginella and Physcomitrella genomes. Public EST sets for 197 species suggest that most of these genes are present across a diverse collection of seed plants, and appear to exist as single or very low copy genes, though exceptions are seen in recently polyploid taxa and in lineages where there is significant evidence for a shared large-scale duplication event. Genes encoding proteins localized in organelles are more commonly single copy than expected by chance, but the evolutionary forces responsible for this bias are unknown. Regardless of the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the large number of shared single copy genes in diverse flowering plant lineages, these

  11. VaCPK20, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., mediates cold and drought stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovina, Alexandra S; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Khristenko, Valeriya S; Aleynova, Olga A

    2015-08-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold and heat, are major environmental factors that limit crop productivity. Vitis amurensis Rupr. is a wild grapevine species displaying a high level of abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Protein kinases, including Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), are known to mediate plant acclimation to various environmental changes. However, the functions of most grape CDPKs have not been clarified. A recent CDPK gene expression analysis revealed that 10 CDPK genes of V. amurensis were up-regulated under different abiotic stress treatments. The expression of the VaCPK20 gene was significantly up-regulated under low and high temperature stress in V. amurensis. In the current study, the effects of overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene in callus cell lines of V. amurensis and transgenic plants of A. thaliana on their responses to abiotic stresses were investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher tolerance to freezing and drought stresses, and transgenic grape cell cultures overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher resistance to cold stress in comparison with the controls transformed by the "empty" vector. Heat and salt stress resistance of the transgenic V. amurensis calli and A. thaliana was comparable to that of the wild type and vector controls. Overexpression of the VaCPK20 gene increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as COR47, NHX1, KIN1, or ABF3, in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants under non-stress conditions, after freezing, and under drought stress. The results imply that VaCPK20 may act as a regulatory factor involved in cold and drought stress response pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  13. The contribution of flowering time and seed content to uneven ripening initiation among fruits within Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondras, Amanda M; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Schmidt, Joseph A; Petersen, Anna-Rose; Deluc, Laurent G

    2016-05-01

    Ripening initiation-associated hormonal changes and sugar accumulation for individual fruits differed by seed content and did not depend heavily on flowering time or duration from anthesis to clusters' onset of ripening. For Vitis vinifera, the ripening initiation of individual fruits in a cluster occurs unevenly. This developmental period is called véraison. Why individual fruits initiate ripening at different times is not well studied, though differences in seed content and unequal developmental durations that arise from asynchronous flowering within a cluster have been proposed. This study examined how much both variables contribute to individual fruits' ripening progress by mid-véraison, when half of berries in a cluster have initiated ripening, and whet