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Sample records for vitamin k-dependent carboxylase

  1. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylases from non-hepatic tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.; Hendrix, H.; Daemen, M.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase was investigated in the microsomal fraction of 20 different types of bovine tissue. Except for muscle, veins, lymphocytes and bone membrane, carboxylase was found in all these preparations, albeit in varying amounts. No differences could be detected

  2. Uniparental disomy causes deficiencies of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, M A; Gonzalez-Conejero, R; Izquierdo, S; Padilla, J; Garcia, J L; Garcia-Barberá, N; Argilés, B; de la Morena-Barrio, M E; Hernández-Sánchez, J M; Hernández-Rivas, J M; Vicente, V; Corral, J

    2016-12-01

    Essentials Vitamin K-dependent coagulant factor deficiency (VKCFD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. We describe a case of inherited VKCFD due to uniparental disomy. The homozygous mutation caused the absence of GGCX isoform 1 and overexpression of Δ2GGCX. Hepatic and non-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins must be assayed to monitor VKCFD treatment. Background Inherited deficiency of all vitamin K-dependent coagulant factors (VKCFD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the γ-glutamyl carboxylase gene (GGCX) or the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKORC1), with great heterogeneity in terms of both clinical presentation and response to treatment. Objective To characterize the molecular basis of VKCFD in a Spanish family. Methods and Results Sequencing of candidate genes, comparative genomic hybridization and massive sequencing identified a new mechanism causing VKCFD in the proband. Uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 2 caused homozygosity of a mutation (c.44-1G>A) resulting in aberrant GGCX splicing. This change contributed to absent expression of the mRNA coding for the full-length protein, and to four-fold overexpression of the smaller mRNA isoform lacking exon 2 (Δ2GGCX). Δ2GGCX might be responsible for two unexpected clinical observations in the patient: (i) increased plasma osteocalcin levels following vitamin K1 supplementation; and (ii) a mild non-bleeding phenotype. Conclusions Our study identifies a new autosomal disease, VKCFD1, caused by UPD. These data suggest that the Δ2GGCX isoform may retain enzymatic activity, and strongly encourage the evaluation of both hepatic and non-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins to assess differing responses to vitamin K supplementation in VKCFD patients. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of osteocalcin: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteocalcin originates from osteooblastic synthesis and is deposited into bone or released into circulation, where it correlates with histological measures of bone formation. The presence of three vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues is critical for osteocalcin’s structure, ...

  4. Osteocalcin: The extra-skeletal role of a vitamin K-dependent protein in glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eibhlís M. O'Connor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin K in the body has long been associated with blood clotting and coagulation. In more recent times, its role in a range of physiological processes has been described including the regulation of bone and soft tissue calcification, cell growth and proliferation, cognition, inflammation, various oxidative processes and fertility, where osteocalcin is thought to up-regulate the synthesis of the enzymes needed for the biosynthesis of testosterone thereby increasing male fertility. Vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP contain γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues which require post-translational, gamma-glutamyl carboxylation by the vitamin K-dependent (VKD gamma-glutamyl carboxylase enzyme for full functionality. These proteins are present both hepatically and extrahepatically. The role of bone-derived osteocalcin has many physiological roles including, maintenance of bone mass with more recent links to energy metabolism due to the role of the skeleton as an endocrine organ. It has been proposed that insulin binds to bone forming cells (osteoblasts promoting osteocalcin production which in turn promotes β-cell proliferation, insulin secretion and glucose control. However much of this research has been conducted in animal models with equivocal findings in human studies. This review will discuss the role of osteocalcin in relation to its role in human health, focusing specifically on glucose metabolism.

  5. Role of vitamin K-dependent proteins in the arterial vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrou, M L L; Reutelingsperger, C P; Schurgers, L J

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin K was discovered early last century at the same time as the vitamin K-antagonists. For many years the role of vitamin K was solely ascribed to coagulation and coagulation was thought to be involved only at the venous blood side. This view has dramatically changed with the discovery of vitamin K-dependent proteins outside the coagulation cascade and the role of coagulation factors at the arterial side. Vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration, apoptosis, and calcification. Vascular calcification has become an important independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin K-antagonists induce inactivity of inhibitors of vascular calcification, leading to accelerated calcification. The involvement of vitamin K-dependent proteins such as MGP in vascular calcification make that calcification is amendable for intervention with high intake of vitamin K. This review focuses on the effect of vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular disease.

  6. Vitamin K-dependent proteins: osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein and extra osseous effects

    OpenAIRE

    Yu V Pankratova; E A Pigarova; L K Dzeranova

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K - is a fat-soluble vitamin which plays an important role in the metabolism of bone and connective tissue, maintenance blood clotting properties. Vitamin K is involved in carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in the polypeptide chains of 14 human proteins, providing them with the necessary functional properties. Lack of vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of these proteins leads to changes in their biological activity. In this literature review we cover the mechanisms of vitamin K-de...

  7. Vitamin K dependent protein activity and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease: The multi ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular diseas...

  8. The realm of vitamin K dependent proteins: shifting from coagulation toward calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A G; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2014-08-01

    In the past few decades vitamin K has emerged from a single-function "haemostasis vitamin" to a "multi-function vitamin." The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) inevitably showed that the inhibition was not restricted to vitamin K dependent coagulation factors but also synthesis of functional extrahepatic vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs), thereby eliciting undesired side effects. Vascular calcification is one of the recently revealed detrimental effects of VKA. The discovery that VKDPs are involved in vascular calcification has propelled our mechanistic understanding of this process and has opened novel avenues for diagnosis and treatment. This review addresses mechanisms of VKDPs and their significance for physiological and pathological calcification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of matrix gla protein influences the risk of calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The ability of MGP to inhibit calcification requires the activity of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme, which mediates MGP carboxylation. We investigated how MGP carboxylation influences the risk of calciphylaxis in adult patients ...

  10. Calcimimetic and vitamin D analog use in hemodialyzed patients is associated with increased levels of vitamin K dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Giannini, Sandro; Gallieni, Maurizio; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Rossini, Maurizio; Messa, Piergiorgio; Rigotti, Paolo; Pati, Tecla; Barbisoni, Francesco; Piccoli, Antonio; Aghi, Andrea; Alessi, Marianna; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Zambon, Sabina; Sella, Stefania; Iervasi, Giorgio; Plebani, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) and bone Gla protein (BGP) are two vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) involved in the regulation of vascular calcification (VC). We carried out a secondary analysis of the VIKI study to evaluate associations between drug consumption and VKDP levels in 387 hemodialyzed patients. The VIKI study assessed the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients. We evaluated drug consumption, determined BGP and MGP levels, and verified the presence of any vertebral fractures (VF) and VC by spine radiographs. Total BGP levels were twice as high with calcimimetics versus no calcimimetics (290 vs. 158.5 mcg/L, p vitamin D analogs (268 vs. 159 mcg/L, p vitamin D analogs (21.1 vs. 18.3 mcg/L, p = 0.43). Median Total BGP level was 29 % lower in patients with ≥1 VF (151 vs. 213 mcg/L, p = 0.0091) and 36 % lower in patients with VC (164 vs. 262.1 mcg/L, p = 0.0003). In non-survivors, median BGP and MGP were lower, but only for MGP this difference reached the statistical significance (152 vs. 191 mcg/L, p = 0.20 and 15.0 vs. 19.7 mcg/L, p = 0.02, respectively). Pending studies on vitamin K supplementation, calcimimetics, and vitamin D analogs may play a role in preserving vitamin K-dependent protein activity, thus contributing to bone and vascular health in CKD patients.

  11. Vitamin K-Dependent Carboxylation of Matrix Gla Protein Influences the Risk of Calciphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Bloch, Donald B; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Vermeer, Cees; Booth, Sarah L; Xu, Dihua; Thadhani, Ravi I; Malhotra, Rajeev

    2017-06-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. The ability of MGP to inhibit calcification requires the activity of a vitamin K-dependent enzyme, which mediates MGP carboxylation. We investigated how MGP carboxylation influences the risk of calciphylaxis in adult patients receiving dialysis and examined the effects of vitamin K deficiency on MGP carboxylation. Our study included 20 patients receiving hemodialysis with calciphylaxis (cases) and 20 patients receiving hemodialysis without calciphylaxis (controls) matched for age, sex, race, and warfarin use. Cases had higher plasma levels of uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and carboxylated MGP (cMGP) than controls. However, the fraction of total MGP that was carboxylated (relative cMGP concentration = cMGP/[cMGP + uncarboxylated MGP]) was lower in cases than in controls (0.58±0.02 versus 0.69±0.03, respectively; P=0.003). In patients not taking warfarin, cases had a similarly lower relative cMGP concentration. Each 0.1 unit reduction in relative cMGP concentration associated with a more than two-fold increase in calciphylaxis risk. Vitamin K deficiency associated with lower relative cMGP concentration in multivariable adjusted analyses (β=-8.99; P=0.04). In conclusion, vitamin K deficiency-mediated reduction in relative cMGP concentration may have a role in the pathogenesis of calciphylaxis. Whether vitamin K supplementation can prevent and/or treat calciphylaxis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Maternal High Fat Diet Affects Offspring's Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lanham

    Full Text Available Studies suggest bone growth & development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition, during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs including Osteocalcin, Matrix-gla protein, Periostin, and Gas6, in bone and vascular development. This study extends the analysis of VKDPs previously conducted in 6 week old offspring, into offspring of 30 weeks of age, to assess the longer term effects of a maternal and postnatal high fat (HF diet on VKDP expression. Overall a HF maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex specific and tissue specific differences were observed in VKDP expression for both aorta and femoral tissues. In addition, significant correlations were observed between femoral OCN, Periostin Gas6, and Vkor expression levels and measures of femoral bone structure. Furthermore, MGP, OCN, Ggcx and Vkor expression levels correlated to mass and fat volume, in both sexes. In summary the current study has highlighted the importance of the long-term effects of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  13. The vitamin K oxidoreductase is a multimer that efficiently reduces vitamin K epoxide to hydroquinone to allow vitamin K-dependent protein carboxylation.

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    Rishavy, Mark A; Hallgren, Kevin W; Wilson, Lee A; Usubalieva, Aisulu; Runge, Kurt W; Berkner, Kathleen L

    2013-11-01

    The vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKORC1) recycles vitamin K to support the activation of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, which have diverse functions that include hemostasis and calcification. VKD proteins are activated by Glu carboxylation, which depends upon the oxygenation of vitamin K hydroquinone (KH2). The vitamin K epoxide (KO) product is recycled by two reactions, i.e. KO reduction to vitamin K quinone (K) and then to KH2, and recent studies have called into question whether VKORC1 reduces K to KH2. Analysis in insect cells lacking endogenous carboxylation components showed that r-VKORC1 reduces KO to efficiently drive carboxylation, indicating KH2 production. Direct detection of the vitamin K reaction products is confounded by KH2 oxidation, and we therefore developed a new assay that stabilized KH2 and allowed quantitation. Purified VKORC1 analyzed in this assay showed efficient KO to KH2 reduction. Studies in 293 cells expressing tagged r-VKORC1 revealed that VKORC1 is a multimer, most likely a dimer. A monomer can only perform one reaction, and a dimer is therefore interesting in explaining how VKORC1 accomplishes both reactions. An inactive mutant (VKORC1(C132A/C135A)) was dominant negative in heterodimers with wild type VKORC1, resulting in decreased KO reduction in cells and carboxylation in vitro. The results are significant regarding human VKORC1 mutations, as warfarin-resistant patients have mutant and wild type VKORC1 alleles. A VKORC1 dimer indicates a mixed population of homodimers and heterodimers that may have different functional properties, and VKORC1 reduction may therefore be more complex in these patients than appreciated previously.

  14. What Is Combined Deficiency of Vitamin K-Dependent Clotting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should be performed by a specialist at a hemophilia/bleeding disorders treatment centre . Care should be taken, particularly in newborns, to exclude causes of acquired vitamin K deficiency or exposure to certain medications. ...

  15. The effect of formula versus breast feeding and exogenous vitamin K1 supplementation on circulating levels of vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenbirk, K.; Peters, M.; Bouman, P.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of breast or formula feeding together with that of a single supplementation of vitamin K1 at birth, on the vitamin K1 level and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors were studied in 65 breast and 15 formula fed infants. All breast fed newborns without supplementation (n = 25) had very

  16. Vitamin K-Dependent Protein Activity and Incident Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, John; Young, Rebekah L; Shea, M Kyla; Tracy, Russell P; Ix, Joachim H; Jenny, Nancy S; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular disease has not been studied. VKDP activity was determined by measuring circulating des-γ-carboxy prothrombin concentrations in a random sample of 709 multiethnic adults free of cardiovascular disease drawn from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Lower des-γ-carboxy prothrombin concentrations reflect greater VKDP activity. Subjects were followed up for the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, and fatal cardiovascular disease) for 11.0 years of follow-up. A total of 75 first ischemic CVD events occurred during follow-up. The incidence of ischemic cardiovascular disease increased progressively across des-γ-carboxy prothrombin quartiles, with event rates of 5.9 and 11.7 per 1000 person-years in the lowest and highest quartiles. In analyses adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and measures of vitamin K intake, a doubling of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin concentration was associated with a 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.13; P=0.008) higher risk of incident ischemic cardiovascular disease. The association was consistent across strata of participants with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal impairment, and low vitamin K nutritional intake. In this sample of middle-aged and older adults, VKDP activity was associated with incident ischemic cardiovascular events. Further studies to understand the role of this large class of proteins in cardiovascular disease are warranted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A novel prothrombin time method to measure all non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Arbring, Kerstin; Wallstedt, Maria; Rånby, Mats

    2017-08-01

    There is a clinical need for point-of-care (POC) methods for non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We modified a routine POC procedure: Zafena's Simple Simon™ PT-INR, a room-temperature, wet-chemistry prothrombin time method of the Owren-type. To either increase or decrease NOAC interference, two assay variants were devised by replacing the standard 10 µL end-to-end capillary used to add the citrated plasma sample to 200 µL of prothrombin time (PT) reagent by either a 20 µL or a 5 µL capillary. All assay variants were calibrated to show correct PT results in plasma samples from healthy and warfarin-treated persons. For plasmas spiked with dabigatran, apixaban, or rivaroxaban, the 20 µL variant showed markedly higher PT results than the 5 µL. The effects were even more pronounced at room temperature than at +37 °C. In plasmas from patients treated with NOACs (n = 30 for each) there was a strong correlation between the PT results and the concentration of NOACs as determined by the central hospital laboratory. For the 20 µL variant the PT response of linear correlation coefficient averaged 0.90. The PT range was INR 1.1-2.1 for dabigatran and apixaban, and INR 1.1-5.0 for rivaroxaban. Using an INR ratio between the 20 µL and 5 µL variants (PTr20/5) made the NOAC assay more robust and independent of the patient sample INR value in the absence of NOAC. Detection limits were 80 µg/L for apixaban, 60 µg/L for dabigatran, and 20 µg/L for rivaroxaban. A wet-chemistry POC PT procedure was modified to measure the concentrations of three NOACs using a single reagent.

  18. The effect of repeated freezing and thawing on levels of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and fibrinogen in fresh frozen plasma

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    Joseph Philip

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP is considered adequate for transfusion immediately after thawing or for up to 24 hours if kept at 1-6°C, and is currently used very often to replace deficient clotting factors. If factor levels in refrozen FFP are within normal limits, then this component can possibly be transfused, thus avoiding wastage of FFP. Aim: To study the fate of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (F II, F VII, F IX, F X and fibrinogen activity levels in repeatedly (twice frozen and thawed FFP. Materials and Methods: Two hundred FFP units comprising 50 units of each major blood group (A, B, AB, and O were thawed at 37°C and 10-20 mL of FFP transferred to transfer bags with the help of a sterile connecting device (SCD. The FFP samples were taken into tubes (first sampling, and then the transfer bags were kept for 24 hours at 4°C. After 24 hours, repeat samples were taken in tubes from the transfer bag (second sampling, and then the bags were re-stored at < -18°C. One week later, the above procedure was repeated. Activity of coagulation factors and fibrinogen levels were measured by the automated coagulation analyzer. Results: The levels of F II, F VII, F IX, F X, and fibrinogen of all the 200 FFP units, at all four time points, were above the lower normal value, but well within the normal range. Conclusion: The levels of F II, F VII, F IX, F X, and fibrinogen remain stable and adequate for transfusion in twice-thawed-and-refrozen FFP. This component can be safely used for transfusion as a source of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors and fibrinogen.

  19. Multivariate relationships between international normalized ratio and vitamin K-dependent coagulation-derived parameters in normal healthy donors and oral anticoagulant therapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golanski Jacek

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives International Normalized Ratio (INR is a world-wide routinely used factor in the monitoring of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT. However, it was reported that other factors, e. g. factor II, may even better reflect therapeutic efficacy of OAT and, therefore, may be potentialy useful for OAT monitoring. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the associations of INR with other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins in a heterogenous group of individuals, including healthy donors, patients on OAT and patients not receiving OAT. The study aimed also at establishing the influence of co-morbid conditions (incl. accompanying diseases and co-medications (incl. different intensity of OAT on INR. Design and Methods Two hundred and three subjects were involved in the study. Of these, 35 were normal healthy donors (group I, 73 were patients on medication different than OAT (group II and 95 were patients on stable oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol therapy lasting for at least half a year prior to the study. The values of INR and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT ratio, as well as activities of FII, FVII, FX, protein C, and concentration of prothrombin F1+2 fragments and fibrinogen were obtained for all subjects. In statistical evaluation, the uni- and multivariate analyses were employed and the regression equations describing the obtained associations were estimated. Results Of the studied parameters, three (factors II, VII and X appeared as very strong modulators of INR, protein C and prothrombin fragments F1+2 had moderate influence, whereas both APTT ratio and fibrinogen had no significant impact on INR variability. Due to collinearity and low tolerance of independent variables included in the multiple regression models, we routinely employed a ridge multiple regression model which compromises the minimal number of independent variables with the maximal overall determination coefficient. The best

  20. A conformational investigation of propeptide binding to the integral membrane protein γ-glutamyl carboxylase using nanodisc hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christine H; Morgan, Christopher R; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Gamma (γ)-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the post-translational catalytic conversion of select glutamic acid (Glu) residues to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins. Understanding the mechanism of carboxylation and the role...

  1. [The diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in non-infant patients with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Tianqin; Ren, Chuanlu; Shen, Hongshi; Chen, Haifei; Yu, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhaoyue

    2014-02-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist -II(PIVKA-II) in non-infant with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors(ADVKCF). PIVKA-II levels were measured by ELISA in 50 patients with ADVKCF on day 0, 3, 7 after vitamin K treatment. Prothrombin time(PT), APTT, FII: C, FVII: C, FIX: C, and FX: C were analyzed simultaneously. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. The average level of PIVKA-II in ADVKCF group was (3.83 ± 1.40)µg/L, while (1.30 ± 0.54) µg/L in the control group (P 0.05], but decreasing significantly on day 7 compared to the control group(P 0.05). Coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X activity which decreased significantly before treatment returned to normal range after one week use of vitamin K, leading to complete correction of prolonged APTT and PT (>100 seconds). The PIVKA-II level in ADVKCF patients is significantly higher than that of healthy subjects within one week treatment of vitamin K, which is not influenced by plasma transfusion. This study suggests that PIVKA-II is a more sensitive parameter than APTT, PT and the activity of coagulation factor, which could be a valuable factor in the early diagnosis of ADVKCF.

  2. Expression of the vitamin K-dependent proteins GAS6 and protein S and the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

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    Hurtado, B; Muñoz, X; Recarte-Pelz, P; García, N; Luque, A; Krupinski, J; Sala, N; García de Frutos, P

    2011-05-01

    The GAS6/ProS-TAM system is composed of two vitamin K-dependent ligands (GAS6 and protein S) and their three protein tyrosine kinase receptors TYRO3, AXL and MERTK, known as the TAM receptors. The system plays a prominent role in conditions of injury, inflammation and repair. In murine models of atherosclerotic plaque formation, mutations in its components affect atherosclerosis severity. Here we used Taqman low-density arrays and immunoblotting to study mRNA and protein expression of GAS6, ProS and the TAM receptors in human carotid arteries with different degrees of atherosclerosis. The results show a clear down-regulation of the expression of AXL in atheroma plaques with respect to normal carotids that is matched by decreased abundance of AXL in protein extracts detected by immunoblotting. A similar decrease was observed in PROS1 mRNA expression in atherosclerotic carotids compared to the normal ones, but in this case protein S (ProS) was clearly increased in protein extracts of carotid arteries with increasing grade of atherosclerosis, suggesting that ProS is carried into the plaque. MERTK was also increased in atherosclerotic carotid arteries with respect to the normal ones, suggesting that the ProS-MERTK axis is functional in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. MERTK was expressed in macrophages, frequently in association with ProS, while ProS was abundant also in the necrotic core. Our data suggest that the ProS-MERTK ligand-receptor pair was active in advanced stages of atherosclerosis, while AXL signalling is probably down-regulated.

  3. Vitamin K-dependent proteins GAS6 and Protein S and TAM receptors in patients of systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with common genetic variants and disease activity.

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    Recarte-Pelz, Pedro; Tàssies, Dolors; Espinosa, Gerard; Hurtado, Begoña; Sala, Núria; Cervera, Ricard; Reverter, Joan Carles; de Frutos, Pablo García

    2013-03-12

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 protein (GAS6) and protein S (ProS) are vitamin K-dependent proteins present in plasma with important regulatory functions in systems of response and repair to damage. They interact with receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro3, Axl and MerTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM) family, involved in apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) and regulation of the innate immunity. TAM-deficient mice show spontaneous lupus-like symptoms. Here we tested the genetic profile and plasma levels of components of the system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and compare them with a control healthy population. Fifty SLE patients and 50 healthy controls with matched age, gender and from the same geographic area were compared. Genetic analysis was performed in GAS6 and the TAM receptor genes on SNPs previously identified. The concentrations of GAS6, total and free ProS, and the soluble forms of the three TAM receptors (sAxl, sMerTK and sTyro3) were measured in plasma from these samples. Plasma concentrations of GAS6 were higher and, total and free ProS were lower in the SLE patients compared to controls, even when patients on oral anticoagulant treatment were discarded. Those parameters correlated with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score, GAS6 being higher in the most severe cases, while free and total ProS were lower. All 3 soluble receptors increased its concentration in plasma of lupus patients. The present study highlights that the GAS6/ProS-TAM system correlates in several ways with disease activity in SLE. We show here that this correlation is affected by common polymorphisms in the genes of the system. These findings underscore the importance of mechanism of regulatory control of innate immunity in the pathology of SLE.

  4. Impaired vitamin K recycling in uremia is rescued by vitamin K supplementation.

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    Kaesler, Nadine; Magdeleyns, Elke; Herfs, Marjolein; Schettgen, Thomas; Brandenburg, Vincent; Fliser, Danilo; Vermeer, Cees; Floege, Jürgen; Schlieper, Georg; Krüger, Thilo

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein, are largely uncarboxylated indicating that functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to uremic vascular calcification. Since the effects of uremia on the vitamin K cycle are unknown, we investigated the influence of uremia and vitamin K supplementation on the activity of the vitamin K cycle and extraosseous calcification. Uremia was induced in rats by an adenine-supplemented diet and vitamin K1 or K2 was administered over 4 and 7 weeks. After 4 weeks of adenine diet, the activity of the vitamin K cycle enzyme γ-carboxylase but not the activities of DT-diaphorase or vitamin K epoxide reductase were reduced. Serum levels of undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein increased, indicating functional vitamin K deficiency. There was no light microscopy-detectable calcification at this stage but chemically determined aortic and renal calcium content was increased. Vitamin K treatment reduced aortic and renal calcium content after 4 weeks. Seven weeks of uremia induced overt calcification in the aorta, heart, and kidneys; however, addition of vitamin K restored intrarenal γ-carboxylase activity and overstimulated it in the liver along with reducing heart and kidney calcification. Thus, uremic vitamin K deficiency may partially result from a reduction of the γ-carboxylase activity which possibly contributes to calcification. Pharmacological vitamin K supplementation restored the vitamin K cycle and slowed development of soft tissue calcification in experimental uremia.

  5. Warfarin, a potential pollutant in aquatic environment acting through Pxr signaling pathway and γ-glutamyl carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ignacio; Santos, Adriana; Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent; Gavaia, Paulo J

    2014-11-01

    Warfarin-induced vitamin K (VK) recycling impairment is used worldwide as a rodenticide and human thromboembolic prophylactic. Since VK metabolism/signaling pathways have been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, its release to the environment might impact on aquatic organisms. Present study assessed the toxic effect of warfarin (0, 5, 25 and 125 mg L(-1)) on zebrafish development and characterized underlying mechanisms of action through qPCR analysis of VK-related genes. Expression of pregnane X receptor (pxr), the nuclear receptor binding vitamin K, was ubiquitous in zebrafish and suggests that warfarin exposure may interfere with several biological processes. Indeed, warfarin exposure of zebrafish larvae caused hemorrhages in brain, skeletal deformities and triggered ectopic calcifications, which may be the consequence of an altered γ-carboxylation of VK-dependent proteins and/or pxr signaling. This study provides new insights into warfarin effects as a bone homeostasis disruptor and soft tissue calcification inductor, and its potential risk for aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A conformational investigation of propeptide binding to the integral membrane protein γ-glutamyl carboxylase using nanodisc hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christine H; Morgan, Christopher R; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Gamma (γ)-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the post-translational catalytic conversion of select glutamic acid (Glu) residues to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins. Understanding the mechanism of carboxylation and the role...... of GGCX in the vitamin K cycle is of biological interest in the development of therapeutics for blood coagulation disorders. Historically, biophysical investigations and structural characterizations of GGCX have been limited due to complexities involving the availability of an appropriate model membrane...... of carboxylation co-substrates. Noteworthy modifications in HX of GGCX were prominently observed in GGCX peptides 491-507 and 395-401 upon pCon association, consistent with regions previously identified as sites for propeptide and glutamate binding. Several additional protein regions exhibited minor gains...

  7. Selectivity in Post-translational Biotin Addition to Five Human Carboxylases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingaramo, Maria; Beckett, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Human holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes linkage of the vitamin biotin to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domain of five biotin-dependent carboxylases. In the two-step reaction, the activated intermediate, bio-5′-AMP, is first synthesized from biotin and ATP, followed by covalent linkage of the biotin moiety to a specific lysine residue of each carboxylase BCCP domain. Selectivity in HCS-catalyzed biotinylation to the carboxylases was investigated in single turnover stopped flow and quench flow measurements of biotin transfer to the minimal biotin acceptor BCCP fragments of the carboxylases. The results demonstrate that biotinylation of the BCCP fragments of the mitochondrial carboxylases propionyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase is fast and limited by the bimolecular association rate of the enzyme with substrate. By contrast, biotinylation of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) fragments, both of which are accessible to HCS in the cytoplasm, is slow and displays a hyperbolic dependence on substrate concentration. The correlation between HCS accessibility to biotin acceptor substrates and the kinetics of biotinylation suggests that mitochondrial carboxylase sequences evolved to produce fast association rates with HCS in order to ensure biotinylation prior to mitochondrial import. In addition, the results are consistent with a role for HCS specificity in dictating biotin distribution among carboxylases. PMID:22123817

  8. Vitamin K and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Sofia; Ede, Jacob; Schött, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Subclinical vitamin K deficits refer to carboxylation defects of different types of vitamin K-dependent hepatic and extrahepatic so-called Gla proteins without prolongation of the prothrombin time. This condition has been reported in different clinical situations due to insufficient supply or malabsorption of vitamin K as well as drug interactions. This review discusses the effects of different vitamin K subspecies on tumour growth and the possible anti-tumour effects of increased vitamin K intake. Blocking carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins with warfarin anticoagulation - what are the risks/benefits for carcinogenesis? Previous studies on both heparin and low molecular weight heparin blocking of the vitamin K-dependent factors X and II have shown tumour suppressive effects. Vitamin K has anti-inflammatory effects that could also impact carcinogenesis, but little data exists on this subject.

  9. Structural and functional insights into enzymes of the vitamin K cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, J-K; Stafford, D W

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin K-dependent proteins require carboxylation of certain glutamates for their biological functions. The enzymes involved in the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation include: gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) and an as-yet-unidentified vitamin K reductase (VKR). Due to the hydrophobicity of vitamin K, these enzymes are likely to be integral membrane proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, structure-function studies on these enzymes have been challenging, and some of the results are notably controversial. Patients with naturally occurring mutations in these enzymes, who mainly exhibit bleeding disorders or are resistant to oral anticoagulant treatment, provide valuable information for the functional study of the vitamin K cycle enzymes. In this review, we discuss: (i) the discovery of the enzymatic activities and gene identifications of the vitamin K cycle enzymes; (ii) the identification of their functionally important regions and their active site residues; (iii) the membrane topology studies of GGCX and VKOR; and (iv) the controversial issues regarding the structure and function studies of these enzymes, particularly, the membrane topology, the role of the conserved cysteines and the mechanism of active site regeneration of VKOR. We also discuss the possibility that a paralogous protein of VKOR, VKOR-like 1 (VKORL1), is involved in the vitamin K cycle, and the importance of and possible approaches for identifying the unknown VKR. Overall, we describe the accomplishments and the remaining questions in regard to the structure and function studies of the enzymes in the vitamin K cycle. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  11. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D ... leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this ...

  12. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus) Dark leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collards, and turnip greens) Fish, liver, beef, and eggs WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Biotin: Chocolate Cereal Egg yolk Legumes ...

  13. Two enzymes catalyze vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase activity in mouse: VKORC1 is highly expressed in exocrine tissues while VKORC1L1 is highly expressed in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Michael; Czogalla, Katrin J; Liphardt, Kerstin; Müller, Jens; Westhofen, Philipp; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 are enzymes that both catalyze the reduction of vitamin K2,3-epoxide via vitamin K quinone to vitamin K hydroquinone. VKORC1 is the key enzyme of the classical vitamin K cycle by which vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins are γ-carboxylated by the hepatic γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX). In contrast, the VKORC1 paralog enzyme, VKORC1L1, is chiefly responsible for antioxidative function by reduction of vitamin K to prevent damage by intracellular reactive oxygen species. To investigate tissue-specific vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) function of both enzymes, we quantified mRNA levels for VKORC1, VKORC1L1, GGCX, and NQO1 and measured VKOR enzymatic activities in 29 different mouse tissues. VKORC1 and GGCX are highly expressed in liver, lung and exocrine tissues including mammary gland, salivary gland and prostate suggesting important extrahepatic roles for the vitamin K cycle. Interestingly, VKORC1L1 showed highest transcription levels in brain. Due to the absence of detectable NQO1 transcription in liver, we assume this enzyme has no bypass function with respect to activation of VKD coagulation proteins. Our data strongly suggest diverse functions for the vitamin K cycle in extrahepatic biological pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate carboxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggered by an illness or periods without food (fasting). Children with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency type A typically ... from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month Celebrating National Family Health History Day ...

  15. General and Local: Averaged k-Dependence Bayesian Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of a general Bayesian network has been shown to be an NP-hard problem, even for approximate solutions. Although k-dependence Bayesian (KDB classifier can construct at arbitrary points (values of k along the attribute dependence spectrum, it cannot identify the changes of interdependencies when attributes take different values. Local KDB, which learns in the framework of KDB, is proposed in this study to describe the local dependencies implicated in each test instance. Based on the analysis of functional dependencies, substitution-elimination resolution, a new type of semi-naive Bayesian operation, is proposed to substitute or eliminate generalization to achieve accurate estimation of conditional probability distribution while reducing computational complexity. The final classifier, averaged k-dependence Bayesian (AKDB classifiers, will average the output of KDB and local KDB. Experimental results on the repository of machine learning databases from the University of California Irvine (UCI showed that AKDB has significant advantages in zero-one loss and bias relative to naive Bayes (NB, tree augmented naive Bayes (TAN, Averaged one-dependence estimators (AODE, and KDB. Moreover, KDB and local KDB show mutually complementary characteristics with respect to variance.

  16. Vitamin K, osteoarthritis, and joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of joint pain and lower extremity disability in older adults and there is no known cure. Vitamin K has been implicated on osteoarthritis because vitamin K dependent proteins are present in joint tissues, such as cartilage and bone. In order to function, vitamin K ...

  17. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  18. Adsorption of vitamin K-dependent proteins to live cell membranes measured under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, M P; Teuschler, H

    1999-07-01

    Mechanisms mediating initial adsorption of coagulation proteins to live cells were investigated. Adsorption kinetics were examined under varying flow conditions using tracer-dilution techniques in perfused spherical monolayers of cells expressing tissue factor. At biologically relevant time and concentration ranges, rates exceeded by 2-12 fold the theoretical maximum calculated for steady-state diffusion. Rates were correlated with aqueous-phase flux of reactants and were found to be largely independent of the density of reactive sites on the membrane. Average adsorption rate of factor VIIa at 4 etaM and flow velocity of 0.8 etam s(-1) was 5 x 10(7) s(-1) cm(-2). Adsorption rates of homologous coagulation factors IX and X under similar conditions were 5 and 9 x 10(7) s(-1)cm(-2). Results indicate that flow can effectively increase the rate of coagulation factor adsorption to the membrane of live cells. They also imply that factors affecting blood flow velocity and vessel permeability influence the rate of membrane-dependent coagulation reactions.

  19. Vitamin K Dependent Protection of Renal Function in Multi-ethnic Population Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fei Wei

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation: In the general population, eGFR decreases and CKD risk increases with higher dp-ucMGP, a marker of VK deficiency. These findings highlight the possibility that VK supplementation might promote renal health.

  20. Vitamin K: dietary intake and requirements in different clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose of review: Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP). Functions include coagulation and regulation of calcification. Different clinical conditions may alter vitamin K requirements by affecting vitamin K status and VKDP carboxylation, which a...

  1. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Steven D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota. It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina. Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal

  2. Interaction Between the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Domain and the Biotin Carboxylase Domain in Pyruvate Carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Menefee, Ann L.; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Attwood, Paul V.; Wallace, John C.; Cleland, W. Wallace; Maurice, Martin St.

    2011-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To effect catalysis, the tethered biotin of PC must gain access to active sites in both the biotin carboxylase domain and the carboxyl transferase domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain. We report the 2.4 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the Rhizobium etli PC T882A mutant which reveals the first high-resolution description of the domain interaction between the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain and the biotin carboxylase domain. The overall quaternary arrangement of Rhizobium etli PC remains highly asymmetrical and is independent of the presence of allosteric activator. While biotin is observed in the biotin carboxylase domain, its access to the active site is precluded by the interaction between Arg353 and Glu248, revealing a mechanism for regulating carboxybiotin access to the BC domain active site. The binding location for the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain demonstrates that tethered biotin cannot bind in the biotin carboxylase domain active site in the same orientation as free biotin, helping to explain the difference in catalysis observed between tethered biotin and free biotin substrates in biotin carboxylase enzymes. Electron density located in the biotin carboxylase domain active site is assigned to phosphonoacetate, offering a probable location for the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate formed during biotin carboxylation. The insights gained from the T882A Rhizobium etli PC crystal structure provide a new series of catalytic snapshots in PC and offer a revised perspective on catalysis in the biotin-dependent enzyme family. PMID:21958016

  3. Vitamins K and D status in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Vitamin K, vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins and vitamin D may be involved in the regulation of calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design, setting, participants and measurements: Vitamin K and D status was measured as dietary intake, plasma phylloquinone, se...

  4. The Role of Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    van Ballegooijen, A. J.; Beulens, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. Recent Findings Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated unca...

  5. [Vitamin K: biochemistry, function, and deficiency. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, M E; Nagy, E; Guerrero, B; Arocha-Piñango, C L

    1998-09-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor for the synthesis of blood coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, and inhibitors such as Protein C and S and bone matrix protein. Its active form is a coenzyme in the glutamic acid carboxylation. Vitamin K-dependent factors form enzymatic complexes with calcium and membrane phospholipids. The insufficiency of gamma glutamic carboxylation impairs the hemostatic function. Hereditary deficiencies, antibiotics and oral anticoagulants, decrease the capacity of complex formation giving way to hemorrhage or thrombosis, or bone mass disturbances which are easily treated with administration of Vitamin K. The main causes of Vitamin K deficiency are lack of hepatic storage in newborns, liver insufficiency, malabsorption, dietetic deficiency, therapy with the antibiotics and coumarin administration. For the study of Vitamin K there are methods to measure the Vit K dependent proteins and as well methods to measure specifically the quinonas.

  6. Vitamin K and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-11-01

    One of the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K was initially discovered for its role in blood coagulation. Although several vitamin K-dependent hemostatic proteins are particularly important for the brain, other vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), not associated with blood coagulation, also contribute to the brain function. In addition to the VKDPs, vitamin K participates in the nervous system through its involvement in sphingolipid metabolism, a class of lipids widely present in brain cell membranes. Classically known for their structural role, sphingolipids are biologically potent molecules involved in a wide range of cellular actions. Also, there is growing evidence that the K vitamer, menaquinone-4, has anti-inflammatory activity and offers protection against oxidative stress. Finally, although limited in numbers, reports point to a modulatory role of vitamin K in cognition. This short review presents an overview of the known role of vitamin K in brain function to date. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Pyruvate carboxylase is expressed in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate thereby allowing supplementation of citric acid cycle intermediates. The presence of PC in skeletal muscle is controversial. We report here, that PC protein is easily detectable by str...

  8. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R M; Franco, E; Teixeira, A R

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a +5 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35S-labelled ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photo-synthetic tissues.

  9. Acyl coenzyme A carboxylase of Propionibacterium shermanii: detection and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, L A; Ahmad, P M; Ahmad, F

    1981-01-01

    An acyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase, which catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate-dependent fixation of CO2 into acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-CoA, was detected in fractionated cell extracts of Propionibacterium shermanii. Catalytic activity was inhibited by avidin but was unaffected by avidin pretreated with excess biotin. The carboxylase levels detected were relatively small and were related to cellular growth. Maximal carboxylase activity was detected in cells grown for about 96 h. Thereafter, the activity declined rapidly. Optimal CO2 fixation occurred at pH 7.5. Other parameters of the assay system were optimized, and the apparent Km values for substrates were determined. The end product of the reaction (with acetyl-CoA as the substrate) was identified as malonyl-CoA. The stoichiometry of the reaction was such that, for every mole of acetyl-CoA and adenosine triphosphate consumed, 1 mol each of malonyl-CoA, adenosine diphosphate, and orthophosphate was formed. These data provide the first evidence for the presence of another biotin-containing enzyme, an acyl-CoA carboxylase, in these bacteria in addition to the well-characterized methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase. PMID:6796564

  10. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.M.B. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia]|[Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of {sup 35}S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author).

  11. Vitamin K metabolism in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have very high levels of uncarboxylated, inactive, extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins measured in circulation, putting them at risk for complications of vitamin K deficiency. The major form of vitamin K found in the liver is phylloquinon...

  12. The role of vitamin K in chronic aging diseases: inflammation, cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases, and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory actio...

  13. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulates global histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2012-07-06

    Histone acetylation depends on intermediary metabolism for supplying acetyl-CoA in the nucleocytosolic compartment. However, because nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA is also used for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, histone acetylation and synthesis of fatty acids compete for the same acetyl-CoA pool. The first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids is carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is encoded by the ACC1 gene. In this study, we show that attenuated expression of ACC1 results in increased acetylation of bulk histones, globally increased acetylation of chromatin histones, and altered transcriptional regulation. Together, our data indicate that Acc1p activity regulates the availability of acetyl-CoA for histone acetyltransferases, thus representing a link between intermediary metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.

  14. Multiple carboxylase deficiency (late onset due to deficiency of biotinidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadatta Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotinidase is a ubiquitous mammalian cell enzyme occurring in liver, serum and kidney. It cleaves biotin from biocytin, which is a cofactor for biotin dependent enzymes, namely the human carboxylases. Biotinidase deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological, dermatological, immunological and ophthalmological abnormalities. This is a case of a 3-year-old boy presenting with delayed developmental milestones, tachypnea, progressively increasing ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis, all which dramatically responded to high doses of biotin.

  15. PI3K-dependent antagonism in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanov, Kirill; Brunert, Daniela; Corey, Elizabeth; Ache, Barry W.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, in particular PI3Kinase (PI3K) signaling, has been implicated in mediating inhibitory odorant input to mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). To better understand this phenomenon we investigated PI3K-dependent inhibition between single odorant pairs. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the response of native rat ORNs to octanol by citral is PI3K-dependent; blocking PI3K activity with the β and γ isoform-specific inhibitors AS252424 and TGX221 eliminated or strongly reduced the inhibition. Interestingly, blocking PI3K also changed the apparent agonist strength of the otherwise non-competitive antagonist citral. The excitation evoked by citral after blocking PI3K, could be suppressed by the adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) blockers MDL12330A and SQ22536, indicating that citral could also activate ACIII, presumably through the canonical OR. The G protein Gβγ subunit blockers suramin, gallein and M119 suppressed citral’s inhibition of the response to octanol, indicating that the activation of PI3K by citral was G protein dependent, consistent with the idea that inhibition acts through the canonical OR. Lilial similarly antagonized the response to isoamyl acetate in other ORNs, indicating the effect generalizes to at least one other odorant pair. The ability of methyl-isoeugenol, limonene, α-pinene, isovaleric acid and isosafrole to inhibit the response of other ORNs to IBMX/forskolin in a PI3K-dependent manner argues the effect generalizes to yet other structurally dissimilar odorants. Our findings collectively raise the interesting possibility that the OR serves as a molecular logic gate when mammalian ORNs are activated by natural, complex mixtures containing both excitatory and inhibitory odorants. PMID:21209212

  16. Learning a Flexible K-Dependence Bayesian Classifier from the Chain Rule of Joint Probability Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most common types of graphical models, the Bayesian classifier has become an extremely popular approach to dealing with uncertainty and complexity. The scoring functions once proposed and widely used for a Bayesian network are not appropriate for a Bayesian classifier, in which class variable C is considered as a distinguished one. In this paper, we aim to clarify the working mechanism of Bayesian classifiers from the perspective of the chain rule of joint probability distribution. By establishing the mapping relationship between conditional probability distribution and mutual information, a new scoring function, Sum_MI, is derived and applied to evaluate the rationality of the Bayesian classifiers. To achieve global optimization and high dependence representation, the proposed learning algorithm, the flexible K-dependence Bayesian (FKDB classifier, applies greedy search to extract more information from the K-dependence network structure. Meanwhile, during the learning procedure, the optimal attribute order is determined dynamically, rather than rigidly. In the experimental study, functional dependency analysis is used to improve model interpretability when the structure complexity is restricted.

  17. Febrile temperature facilitates hERG/IKr degradation through an altered K(+) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tingzhong; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Koichopolos, Jennifer; Lamothe, Shawn M; Kang, Yudi; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-10-01

    Dysfunction of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel (IKr) encoded by the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) is the primary cause of acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Fever has been reported to trigger LQTS in various conditions. We aim to clarify the effect and underlying mechanisms of febrile temperature on hERG expressed in HEK cells, IKr in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and the QT interval in rabbits. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of hERG channel protein in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize the localization of hERG channels. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record hERG K(+) current (IhERG) in hERG expressing HEK 293 cells, as well as IKr, transient outward K(+) current (Ito), and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed in an in vivo rabbit model. Compared with culture at 37°C, culture at 40°C reduced the mature hERG expression and IhERG in an extracellular K(+) concentration-dependent manner. Point mutations that remove the K(+) dependence of hERG-S624T and F627Y-also abolished the febrile temperature-induced hERG reduction. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, febrile temperature prolonged the action potential duration and selectively reduced IKr in a manner similar to low K(+) culture. In an in vivo rabbit model, fever and hypokalemia synergistically prolonged the QT interval. Febrile temperature facilitates the development of LQTS by expediting hERG degradation through altered K(+) dependence. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  19. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  20. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  1. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  2. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  3. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  4. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease References Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 2000. ...

  5. Liver-specific γ-glutamyl carboxylase-deficient mice display bleeding diathesis and short life span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays important roles in blood coagulation and bone metabolism. One of its functions is as a co-factor for γ-glutamyl carboxylase (Ggcx. Conventional knockout of Ggcx causes death shortly after birth in homozygous mice. We created Ggcx-floxed mice by inserting loxP sequences at the sites flanking exon 6 of Ggcx. By mating these mice with albumin-Cre mice, we generated Ggcx-deficient mice specifically in hepatocytes (Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice. In contrast to conventional Ggcx knockout mice, Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice had very low activity of Ggcx in the liver and survived several weeks after birth. Furthermore, compared with heterozygous mice (Ggcx(+/Δliver , Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice had shorter life spans. Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice displayed bleeding diathesis, which was accompanied by decreased activity of coagulation factors II and IX. Ggcx-floxed mice can prove useful in examining Ggcx functions in vivo.

  6. Vitamin Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vitamin Chart KidsHealth / For Teens / Vitamin Chart Print en español Tabla de las vitaminas Type Benefits Sources Quantity Vitamin A Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a ...

  7. Purification and characterization of acetone carboxylase from Xanthobacter strain Py2

    OpenAIRE

    Sluis, Miriam K.; Ensign, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Acetone metabolism in the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2 proceeds by a carboxylation reaction forming acetoacetate as the first detectable product. In this study, acetone carboxylase, the enzyme catalyzing this reaction, has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. Acetone carboxylase was comprised of three polypeptides with molecular weights of 85,300, 78,300, and 19,600 arranged in an α2β2γ2 quaternary structure. The carboxylation of acetone was coupled to the hydrolysis o...

  8. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: An underestimated cause of lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Habarou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is a biotin-containing mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, thereby being involved in gluconeogenesis and in energy production through replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with oxaloacetate. PC deficiency is a very rare metabolic disorder. We report on a new patient affected by the moderate form (the American type A. Diagnosis was nearly fortuitous, resulting from the revision of an initial diagnosis of mitochondrial complex IV (C IV defect. The patient presented with severe lactic acidosis and pronounced ketonuria, associated with lethargy at age 23 months. Intellectual disability was noted at this time. Amino acids in plasma and organic acids in urine did not show patterns of interest for the diagnostic work-up. In skin fibroblasts PC showed no detectable activity whereas biotinidase activity was normal. We had previously reported another patient with the severe form of PC deficiency and we show that she also had secondary C IV deficiency in fibroblasts. Different anaplerotic treatments in vivo and in vitro were tested using fibroblasts of both patients with 2 different types of PC deficiency, type A (patient 1 and type B (patient 2. Neither clinical nor biological effects in vivo and in vitro were observed using citrate, aspartate, oxoglutarate and bezafibrate. In conclusion, this case report suggests that the moderate form of PC deficiency may be underdiagnosed and illustrates the challenges raised by energetic disorders in terms of diagnostic work-up and therapeutical strategy even in a moderate form.

  9. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L

    2015-06-23

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO₂ from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin.

  10. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  11. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Vitamin K1 might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking vitamin K1 along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go ...

  12. Concepts and Controversies in Evaluating Vitamin K Status in Population-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-01-02

    A better understanding of vitamin K's role in health and disease requires the assessment of vitamin K nutritional status in population and clinical studies. This is primarily accomplished using dietary questionnaires and/or biomarkers. Because food composition databases in the US are most complete for phylloquinone (vitamin K1, the primary form in Western diets), emphasis has been on phylloquinone intakes and associations with chronic diseases. There is growing interest in menaquinone (vitamin K2) intakes for which the food composition databases need to be expanded. Phylloquinone is commonly measured in circulation, has robust quality control schemes and changes in response to phylloquinone intake. Conversely, menaquinones are generally not detected in circulation unless large quantities are consumed. The undercarboxylated fractions of three vitamin K-dependent proteins are measurable in circulation, change in response to vitamin K supplementation and are modestly correlated. Since different vitamin K dependent proteins are implicated in different diseases the appropriate vitamin K-dependent protein biomarker depends on the outcome under study. In contrast to other nutrients, there is no single biomarker that is considered a gold-standard measure of vitamin K status. Most studies have limited volume of specimens. Strategic decisions, guided by the research question, need to be made when deciding on choice of biomarkers.

  13. Genes encoding biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric ACCase that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein and CO2 to form carboxybiotin-carbo...

  14. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stomach upset and diarrhea. Large doses of vitamin C supplementation are not recommended during pregnancy. They can lead ... gov/pubmed/23440782 . Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies ...

  15. Extremes in vitamin K status of bone are related to bone ultrasound properties in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Summeren, M. J. H.; Vermeer, C.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Schurgers, L. J.; Takken, T.; Fischer, K.; Kuis, W.

    2008-01-01

    Osteopenia is a common complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In adults, low bone density and increased fracture risk are associated with low vitamin K status of bone. The vitamin K-dependent protein osteocalcin plays an important role in bone metabolism. Its activity depends upon

  16. The association between vitamin K status and knee osteoarthritis features in older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the mineralization inhibitor matrix-gla protein (MGP), are found in joint tissues including cartilage and bone. Previous studies suggest low vitamin K status is associated with higher osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence and incidence. Objective: To cla...

  17. Using k-dependence causal forest to mine the most significant dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous data mining models have been proposed to construct computer-aided medical expert systems. Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs are more distinct and understandable than other models. To graphically describe the dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis and ensure the rationality of the diagnosis results, the proposed k-dependence causal forest (KCF model generates a series of submodels in the framework of maximum spanning tree (MST and demonstrates stronger dependence representation. Friedman test on 12 UCI datasets shows that KCF has classification accuracy advantage over the other state-of-the-art BNCs, such as Naive Bayes, tree augmented Naive Bayes, and k-dependence Bayesian classifier. Our extensive experimental comparison on 4 medical datasets also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of KCF in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Interrogating the mechanism of a tight binding inhibitor of AIR carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestine, Steven M; Wu, Weidong; Youn, Hasik; Davisson, V Jo

    2009-01-15

    The enzyme aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) carboxylase catalyzes the synthesis of the purine intermediate, 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). Previously, we have shown that the compound 4-nitro-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NAIR) is a slow, tight binding inhibitor of the enzyme with a Ki of 0.34 nM. The structural attributes and the slow, tight binding characteristics of NAIR implicated this compound as a transition state or reactive intermediate analog. However, it is unclear what molecular features of NAIR contribute to the mimetic properties for either of the two proposed mechanisms of AIR carboxylase. In order to gain additional information regarding the mechanism for the potent inhibition of AIR carboxylase by NAIR, a series of heterocyclic analogs were prepared and evaluated. We find that all compounds are weaker inhibitors than NAIR and that CAIR analogs are not alternative substrates for the enzyme. Surprisingly, rather subtle changes in the structure of NAIR can lead to profound changes in binding affinity. Computational investigations of enzyme intermediates and these inhibitors reveal that NAIR displays an electrostatic potential surface similar to a proposed reaction intermediate. The result indicates that AIR carboxylase is likely sensitive to the electrostatic surface of reaction intermediates and thus compounds which mimic these surfaces should possess tight binding characteristics. Given the evolutionary relationship between AIR carboxylase and N(5)-CAIR mutase, we believe that this concept extends to the mutase enzyme as well. The implications of this hypothesis for the design of selective inhibitors of the N(5)-CAIR mutase are discussed.

  19. Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Finding the optimal dose of vitamin K1 to treat vitamin K deficiency and to avoid anaphylactoid reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Li, Bo; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Cao, Lei; Ren, Jian-Kang; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin K1 injection induces severe dose-related anaphylactoid reactions and overdose for the treatment of vitamin K deficiency. We aimed to find an optimal and small dose of vitamin K1 injection to treat vitamin K deficiency and avoid anaphylactoid reactions in animal. Rats were administered a vitamin K-deficient diet and gentamicin to establish vitamin K deficiency model. Behaviour tests were performed in beagle dogs to observe anaphylactoid reactions. The results showed an increased protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) levels, a prolonging of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and a decrease in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor (F) II, VII, IX and X activities in the model group. In vitamin K1 0.01 mg/kg group, the liver vitamin K1 levels increased fivefold and the liver vitamin K2 levels increased to the normal amount. Coagulation markers PT, APTT, FVII and FIX activities returned to normal. Both in the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg vitamin K1 groups, coagulation functions completely returned to normal. Moreover, the amount of liver vitamin K1 was 40 (0.1 mg/kg) or 100 (1.0 mg/kg) times as in normal. Vitamin K2 was about 4 (0.1 mg/kg) or 5 (1.0 mg/kg) times as the normal amount. There was no obvious anaphylactoid symptom in dogs with the dose of 0.03 mg/kg, which is equivalent to the dose of 0.01 mg/kg in rats. These results demonstrated that a small dose of vitamin K1 is effective to improve vitamin K deficiency and to prevent anaphylactoid reactions, simultaneously. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. A guide to acquired vitamin K coagulophathy diagnosis and treatment: the Russian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Valery V; Calina, Daniela; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Pivnik, Alexander V; Sergievich, Alexander A; Kodintsev, Vladimir V; Filatova, Ekaterina A; Ozcagli, Eren; Docea, Anca Oana; Arsene, Andreea Letitia; Gofita, Eliza; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2017-04-17

    Physicians often come across with cases of vitamin K antagonists-dependent coagulopathy for reasons such as accidental use of the vitamin K antagonists (VKA), excessive administration of prescribed anticoagulants of indirect action or not reported administration of vitamin K antagonists due to memory impairment and/or other mental disorders, even deliberate use thereof (attempt to murder or suicide). Rodenticide-poisoning (coumarins, warfarins) via food or occupational accidents are difficult to diagnose. This article discusses different types of acquired vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy. Differential diagnosis is primarily based on patient statements before additional causes of vitamin K deficiency are explored. Even when pathological vitamin K deficiency is not determined, appropriate and urgent medical treatment is necessary: administration of fresh frozen plasma or concentrated factors of the prothrombin complex, administration of vitamin K remedies along with symptomatic therapy. With early diagnosis and prescription of appropriate therapy, prognosis is favorable. Reasons for vitamin K antagonists-dependent coagulopathy cases.

  2. On the Relationship between Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase and Protochlorophyllide Holochrome of Phaseolus vulgaris Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoyunoglou, G.; Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, J. H.; Guiali, A.; Dassiou, C.

    1970-01-01

    The relationship between ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (3-phospho-d-glycerate carboxy-lyase [dimerizing], EC 4.1.1.39, formerly known as carboxydismutase) and protochlorophyllide holochrome of etiolated Phaseolus vulgaris leaves has been studied. A procedure for partially selective extraction of the two proteins was devised using tris-HCl buffer first without and then with Triton X-100. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase was readily extracted from etiolated bean leaves without Triton X-100, and protochlorophyllide holochrome was extracted on the addition of Triton X-100. Optimal extraction conditions for protochlorophyllide holochrome have been found to be different for tissues of different ages. PMID:5427114

  3. Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in C. elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Martina; Karaca, Samir; Wenzel, Dirk; Ho, Linh; Tishkoff, Daniel; Lombard, David B.; Verdin, Eric; Urlaub, Henning; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The biological and enzymatic function of SIRT4 is largely uncharacterized. We show that the C. elegans SIR-2.2 and SIR-2.3 orthologs of SIRT4 are ubiquitously expressed, also localize to mitochondria and function during oxidative stress. Further, we identified conserved interaction with mitochondrial biotin-dependent carboxylases (PC, PCC, MCCC), key enzymes in anaplerosis and ketone body formation. The carboxylases were found acetylated on multiple lysine residues and detailed analysis of mPC suggested that one of these residues, K748ac, might regulate enzymatic activity. Nevertheless, no changes in mPC acetylation levels and enzymatic activity could be detected upon overexpression or loss of functional SIRT4. PMID:23438705

  4. The moonlighting function of pyruvate carboxylase resides in the non-catalytic end of the TIM barrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; Venselaar, Hanka; Vriend, Gert; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    Pyruvate carboxylase is a highly conserved enzyme that functions in replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle with oxaloacetate. In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, the pyruvate carboxylase protein is also required for import and assembly of the peroxisomal enzyme alcohol oxidase. This additional

  5. Carbon fixation in Pinus halepensis submitted to ozone. Opposite response of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, V.; Pelloux, J.; Afif, D.; Gerant, D.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy 1, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere, Vandauvre les Nancy cedex (France); Podor, M.; Grieu, P. [ENSAIA-INRA, Lab. Agronomie Environnement, Vandauvre les Nancy cedex (France)

    1999-06-01

    The effects of ozone exposure on carbon-fixation-related processes in Pinus halepensis Mill. needles were assessed over 3 months under controlled conditions. Ozone fumigation (200 ppb) did not induce a modification of either net CO{sub 2} assimilation or stomatal conductance in 1-year-old needles, whereas ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) activity was shown to be reduced by a half. Moreover, this ozone-induced reduction in Rubisco activity was associated with a decrease in the quantity of Rubisco, as determined by the decrease in the large subunit (LSU). On the other hand, 200-ppb ozone fumigation induced a strong increase in both activity and quantity of another carboxylating enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31), generally considered in C{sub 3} plants to participate in carbon catabolism processes. Ozone induced a significant decrease in the Rubisco/PEPC activity ratio which promotes the role of PEPC in trees under ozone stress. The role of this carboxylase will be discussed. (au) 42 refs.

  6. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  7. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D is important ... to its active form in the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a condition in which the bones become soft ...

  8. Roles of Vitamins D and K, Nutrition, and Lifestyle in Low-Energy Bone Fractures in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Michał; Popko, Janusz; Maresz, Katarzyna; Badmaev, Vladimir; Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-01

    The research on skeletal system health in children and young adults, while recognizing the important role of calcium and vitamin D, goes beyond these nutritional standards. This review focuses on the role of vitamin K in combination with vitamin D and other factors in bone health. The current understanding is that maintaining bone health and prevention of low-energy fractures in any pediatric population includes nutritional factors combined with an active lifestyle. Calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K supplementation contribute independently and collectively to bone health. The beneficial role of vitamin K, particularly vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), in bone and cardiovascular health is reasonably well supported scientifically, with several preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical studies published over the last decade. Osteocalcin and matrix-Gla (glutamate-containing) protein (MGP) exemplify vitamin K-dependent proteins involved in building bone matrix and keeping calcium from accumulating in the arterial walls, respectively. An important part of the mechanism of vitamin K involves carboxylation and posttranslational activation of the family of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which prevent expression of pro-inflammatory factors and support improvement in bone mineral concentration, bone mineral density, and the quality of bone matrix. Understanding the combined approach to a healthy skeletal system in children and young adults, including the roles of vitamins D and K, calcium, healthy diet, and exercise, is particularly important in view of reports of subclinical insufficiency of vitamins D and K in otherwise healthy pediatric populations with low-energy bone fractures.

  9. Measurement of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in isolated hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1987-01-01

    An assay is described for acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in isolated hepatocytes. The assay is based on two principles: (a) The hepatocytes are made permeable by digitonin. 64 μg of digitonin per mg of cellular protein were most effective in exposing enzyme activity without a significant effect on

  10. Regulation of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and synthesis in Rhodopseudomonas blastica grown in continuous culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, A.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1992-01-01

    The growth of Rhodopseudomonas blastica in continuous culture under different limitations show that the organism is metabolically versatile. It responds to changes in the environmental growth conditions which results in large variations in the amount of Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

  11. Purification and Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5. Km values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667268

  12. Purification and Characterization of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, P G

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5. K(m) values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO(3)- were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively.

  13. Purification and characterization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the Diatom Cyclotella cryptica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, P.G. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from the diatom Cyclotella cryptica has been purified to near homogeneity by the use of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography, and affinity chromatography with monomeric avidin-agarose. The specific activity of the final preparation was as high as 14.6 micromoles malonyl-CoA formed per milligram protein per minute, indicating a 600-fold purification. Native acetyl-CoA carboxylase has a molecular weight of approximately 740 kilodaltons and appears to be composed of four identical biotin-containing subunits. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 8.2, but enzyme stability is greater at pH 6.5 K{sub m} values for MgATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO{sub 3} were determined to be 65, 233, and 750 micromolar, respectively. The purified enzyme is strongly inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA, and is inhibited to a lesser extent by malonyl-CoA, ADP, and phosphate. Pyruvate stimulates enzymatic activity to a slight extent. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Cyclotella cryptica is not inhibited by cyclohexanedione or aryloxphenoxypropionic acid herbicides as strongly as monocot acetyl-CoA carboxylases; 50% and 0% inhibition was observed in the presence of 23 micromolar clethodim and 100 micromolar haloxyfop, respectively.

  14. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C4 leaves is selectively targeted for inhibition by anionic phospholipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monreal, J.A.; McLoughlin, F.; Echevarría, C.; García-Mauriño, S.; Testerink, C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an enzyme playing a crucial role in photosynthesis of C4 plants. Here, we identify anionic phospholipids as novel regulators that inhibit C4 PEPC activity and provide evidence that the enzyme partially localizes to membranes.

  15. Competing carboxylases: circadian and metabolic regulation of Rubisco in C3 and CAM Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B N; Griffiths, H

    2012-07-01

    The temporal co-ordination of ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activities by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. in C(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) modes was investigated under conventional light-dark (LD) and continuous light (LL) conditions. When C(3) , net CO(2) assimilation rate increased during each subjective night under LL with maximum carboxylation unrelated to Rubisco activation state. The CAM circadian rhythm of CO(2) uptake was more pronounced, with CO(2) assimilation rate maximal towards the end of each subjective night. In vivo and in vitro techniques were integrated to map carboxylase enzyme regulation to the framework provided by CAM LL gas exchange activity. Rubisco was activated in vitro throughout each subjective dark period and consistently deactivated at each subjective dawn, similar to that observed at true dawn in constitutive CAM species. Instantaneous carbon isotope discrimination showed in vivo carboxylase co-dominance during the CAM subjective night, initially by Rubisco and latterly C(4) (PEPc), despite both enzymes seemingly activated in vitro. The circadian rhythm in titratable acidity accumulation was progressively damped over successive subjective nights, but maintenance of PEPc carboxylation capacity ensures that CAM plants do not become progressively more 'C(3) -like' with time under LL. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Circulating vitamin K is inversely associated with incident cardiovascular disease risk among those treated for hypertension in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A role for vitamin K in coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been proposed because vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP), are present in vascular tissue. Observational ...

  17. ANMCO Position Paper: the use of non-vitamin K dependent new oral anticoagulant(s) in pulmonary embolism therapy and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Loris; Azzarito, Michele; Becattini, Cecilia; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Casazza, Franco; Cuccia, Claudio; D’Agostino, Carlo; Rugolotto, Matteo; Vatrano, Marco; Vinci, Eugenio; Fenaroli, Paride; Formigli, Dario; Silvestri, Paolo; Nardi, Federico; Vedovati, Maria Cristina; Scherillo, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have radically changed the approach to the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic pulmonary embolism. The authors of this position paper face, in succession, issues concerning NOACs, including (i) their mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics; (ii) the use in the acute phase with the ‘double drug single dose’ approach or with ‘single drug double dose’; (iii) the use in the extended phase with demonstrated efficacy and with low incidence of bleeding events; (iv) the encouraging use of NOACs in particular subgroups of patients such as those with cancer, the ones under- or overweight, with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min), the elderly (>75 years); (v) they propose a possible laboratory clinical pathway for follow-up; and (vi) carry out an examination on the main drug interactions, their potential bleeding risk, and the way to deal with some bleeding complications. The authors conclude that the use of NOACs both in the acute phase and in the extended phase is equally effective to conventional therapy and associated with fewer major bleeding events, which make their use in patients at higher risk of recurrences safer. PMID:28751847

  18. Dietary changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) are accompanied by changes in factor VII protein and other vitamin K-dependent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms behind dietary effects on fasting coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) are not clarified. In the present study of 15 young volunteers, two experimental diets differing in composition of saturated fatty acids (C18:0 [diet S] or C12:0 + C14:0 [diet ML]) were served for 3 weeks...

  19. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Booth, Sarah L; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Stoecklin, Elisabeth; Baka, Athanasia; Vermeer, Cees

    2013-10-01

    Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.

  20. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss of central vision in older people, and cataracts are among the most common causes of vision ... E plus other antioxidants (such as vitamin C, selenium , and beta-carotene ) reduced the heart-protective effects ...

  1. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  2. Cosmeceuticals vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela-Azulay, Mônica; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2009-01-01

    The term cosmeceutical was created over 25 years ago to define products with active substances that cannot be considered cosmetics or drugs. Cosmeceuticals are increasingly popular, with sales representing one of the largest growing segments of the skin care market. These products are found in many forms, including vitamins, peptides, growth factors, and botanical extracts. Cosmeceuticals that contain topically applied vitamins have an increasing role in skin care.

  3. Computational Redesign of Bacterial Biotin Carboxylase Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Virtual Screening of Combinatorial Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Brylinski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria steadily increases, there is an urgent need for new antibacterial agents. Because fatty acid synthesis is only used for membrane biogenesis in bacteria, the enzymes in this pathway are attractive targets for antibacterial agent development. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the committed and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three distinct protein components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. Fragment-based screening revealed that amino-oxazole inhibits biotin carboxylase activity and also exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-negative organisms. In this report, we redesigned previously identified lead inhibitors to expand the spectrum of bacteria sensitive to the amino-oxazole derivatives by including Gram-positive species. Using 9,411 small organic building blocks, we constructed a diverse combinatorial library of 1.2 × 108 amino-oxazole derivatives. A subset of 9 × 106 of these compounds were subjected to structure-based virtual screening against seven biotin carboxylase isoforms using similarity-based docking by eSimDock. Potentially broad-spectrum antibiotic candidates were selected based on the consensus ranking by several scoring functions including non-linear statistical models implemented in eSimDock and traditional molecular mechanics force fields. The analysis of binding poses of the top-ranked compounds docked to biotin carboxylase isoforms suggests that: (1 binding of the amino-oxazole anchor is stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds to residues 201, 202 and 204; (2 halogenated aromatic moieties attached to the amino-oxazole scaffold enhance interactions with a hydrophobic pocket formed by residues 157, 169, 171 and 203; and (3 larger substituents reach deeper into the binding pocket to form additional hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues 209 and 233. These structural insights

  4. Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Cees; Theuwissen, Elke

    2011-03-01

    The function of vitamin K is to serve as a co-factor during the post-translational carboxylation of glutamate (Glu) residues into γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues. The vital importance of the Gla-proteins essential for normal haemostasis is well recognized. During recent years, new Gla-containing proteins have been discovered and the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation is also essential for their function. It seems, however, that our dietary vitamin K intake is too low to support the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-proteins. According to the triage theory, long-term vitamin K inadequacy is an independent, but modifiable risk factor for the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.

  5. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Regulates Global Histone Acetylation*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation depends on intermediary metabolism for supplying acetyl-CoA in the nucleocytosolic compartment. However, because nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA is also used for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, histone acetylation and synthesis of fatty acids compete for the same acetyl-CoA pool. The first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids is carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is encoded by the ACC1 gene. In this study, we show that attenuated expression of ACC1 results in increased acetylation of bulk histones, globally increased acetylation of chromatin histones, and altered transcriptional regulation. Together, our data indicate that Acc1p activity regulates the availability of acetyl-CoA for histone acetyltransferases, thus representing a link between intermediary metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. PMID:22580297

  6. Crystal Structures of Human and Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase and Molecular Insights into the Carboxyltransfer Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang,S.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes. PC contains the biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains. We report here the crystal structures at 2.8-Angstroms resolution of full-length PC from Staphylococcus aureus and the C-terminal region (missing only the BC domain) of human PC. A conserved tetrameric association is observed for both enzymes, and our structural and mutagenesis studies reveal a previously uncharacterized domain, the PC tetramerization (PT) domain, which is important for oligomerization. A BCCP domain is located in the active site of the CT domain, providing the first molecular insights into how biotin participates in the carboxyltransfer reaction. There are dramatic differences in domain positions in the monomer and the organization of the tetramer between these enzymes and the PC from Rhizobium etli.

  7. Purification and Characterization of the Acetone Carboxylase of Cupriavidus metallidurans Strain CH34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Caroline; Leys, Natalie; Henoumont, Céline; Mergeay, Max

    2012-01-01

    Acetone carboxylase (Acx) is a key enzyme involved in the biodegradation of acetone by bacteria. Except for the Helicobacteraceae family, genome analyses revealed that bacteria that possess an Acx, such as Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, are associated with soil. The Acx of CH34 forms the heterohexameric complex α2β2γ2 and can carboxylate only acetone and 2-butanone in an ATP-dependent reaction to acetoacetate and 3-keto-2-methylbutyrate, respectively. PMID:22492439

  8. Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jia; Tong, Liang

    2015-10-12

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) has crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACC (ScACC) is crucial for the production of very-long-chain fatty acids and the maintenance of the nuclear envelope7, 8. ACC contains biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT) activities, and its biotin is linked covalently to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP). Most eukaryotic ACCs are 250-kilodalton (kDa), multi-domain enzymes and function as homodimers and higher oligomers. They contain a unique, 80-kDa central region that shares no homology with other proteins. Although the structures of the BC, CT and BCCP domains and other biotin-dependent carboxylase holoenzymes are known1, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, there is currently no structural information on the ACC holoenzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length, 500-kDa holoenzyme dimer of ScACC. The structure is remarkably different from that of the other biotin-dependent carboxylases. The central region contains five domains and is important for positioning the BC and CT domains for catalysis. The structure unexpectedly reveals a dimer of the BC domain and extensive conformational differences compared to the structure of the BC domain alone, which is a monomer. These structural changes reveal why the BC domain alone is catalytically inactive and define the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of eukaryotic ACC by the natural product soraphen A15, 16 and by phosphorylation of a Ser residue just before the BC domain core in mammalian ACC. The BC and CT active sites are separated by 80 Å, and the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis.

  9. Cyclin K dependent regulation of Aurora B affects apoptosis and proliferation by induction of mitotic catastrophe in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecher, Sabrina; Walter, Britta; Falkenstein, Michael; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Stenzel, Philipp; Krümpelmann, Kristina; Hadaschik, Boris; Perner, Sven; Kristiansen, Glen; Duensing, Stefan; Roth, Wilfried; Tagscherer, Katrin E

    2017-10-15

    Cyclin K plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation as well as cell development. However, the role of Cyclin K in prostate cancer is unknown. Here, we describe the impact of Cyclin K on prostate cancer cells and examine the clinical relevance of Cyclin K as a biomarker for patients with prostate cancer. We show that Cyclin K depletion in prostate cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation accompanied by an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, knockdown of Cyclin K causes mitotic catastrophe displayed by multinucleation and spindle multipolarity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a Cyclin K dependent regulation of the mitotic kinase Aurora B and provide evidence for an Aurora B dependent induction of mitotic catastrophe. In addition, we show that Cyclin K expression is associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer treated with an adjuvant therapy. In conclusion, targeting Cyclin K represents a novel, promising anti-cancer strategy to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death through induction of mitotic catastrophe in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, our results indicate that Cyclin K is a putative predictive biomarker for clinical outcome and therapy response for patients with prostate cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iscd.org/documents/2014/10/nof-clin-guidelines.pdf . Accessed May 5, 2017. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017: ...

  11. Light Moderates the Induction of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase by NaCl and Abscisic Acid in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Elizabeth F.; Bohnert, Hans J.; Thomas, John C.

    1992-01-01

    In Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is synthesized de novo in response to osmotic stress, as part of the switch from C3-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism. To better understand the environmental signals involved in this pathway, we have investigated the effects of light on the induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA and protein in response to stress by 400 millimolar NaCl or 10 micromolar abscisic acid in hydroponically grown plants. When plants were grown in high-intensity fluorescent or incandescent light (850 microeinsteins per square meter per second), NaCl and abscisic acid induced approximately an eightfold accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA when compared to untreated controls. Levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein were high in these abscisic acid- and NaCl-treated plants, and detectable in the unstressed control. Growth in high-intensity incandescent (red) light resulted in approximately twofold higher levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA in the untreated plants when compared to control plants grown in high-intensity fluorescent light. In low light (300 microeinsteins per square meter per second fluorescent), only NaCl induced mRNA levels significantly above the untreated controls. Low light grown abscisic acid- and NaCl-treated plants contained a small amount of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein, whereas the (untreated) control plants did not contain detectable amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Environmental stimuli, such as light and osmotic stress, exert a combined effect on gene expression in this facultative halophyte. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668999

  12. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  13. The association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is modulated by vitamin K epoxide reductase genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Nieters, Alexandra; Hailer, Susanne; Wolfram, Günther; Linseisen, Jakob

    2009-06-01

    Vitamin K acts as a cofactor during the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a suggested biomarker of vitamin K status. The +2255 polymorphism of the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKORC1) was shown to be associated with the recycling rate of the active form of vitamin K. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC and hypothesized that this association might vary by VKORC1 genotype. ucOC and total intact osteocalcin (iOC) concentrations were quantified using specific ELISA tests in serum samples of 548 male and female participants (aged 18-81 years) of the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. ucOC was expressed relative to iOC (ucOC/iOC ratio). Dietary intake of vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones) was estimated from three 24 h dietary recalls using previously published food composition data. The association between dietary vitamin K intake and ucOC/iOC ratio was analysed using linear and non-linear regression models. Median intakes of phylloquinone/menaquinones were 83.4/37.6 microg/d in men and 79.6/29.8 microg/d in women, respectively. As expected, vitamin K intake was significantly inversely associated with the ucOC/iOC ratio. The ucOC/iOC ratio differed significantly across variants of the +2255 polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene. Stratification by VKORC1+2255 genotype revealed that only in carriers of the GG genotype (39 % of all participants) did the ucOC/iOC ratio significantly decrease with increasing intake of vitamin K. Thus, the results show that the inverse association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC depends on a functionally relevant allelic variant of the VKORC1 gene.

  14. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  16. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  17. Structural evidence for substrate-induced synergism and half-sites reactivity in biotin carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalkin, Igor; Miller, J Richard; Evdokimov, Artem; Lightle, Sandra; Yan, Chunhong; Stover, Charles Ken; Waldrop, Grover L

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that consists of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase (CT). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a potentially attractive target for novel antibiotics because it catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the first half-reaction, BC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of BCCP. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from carboxybiotinylated BCCP to acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. A series of structures of BC from several bacteria crystallized in the presence of various ATP analogs is described that addresses three major questions concerning the catalytic mechanism. The structure of BC bound to AMPPNP and the two catalytically essential magnesium ions resolves inconsistencies between the kinetics of active-site BC mutants and previously reported BC structures. Another structure of AMPPNP bound to BC shows the polyphosphate chain folded back on itself, and not in the correct (i.e., extended) conformation for catalysis. This provides the first structural evidence for the hypothesis of substrate-induced synergism, which posits that ATP binds nonproductively to BC in the absence of biotin. The BC homodimer has been proposed to exhibit half-sites reactivity where the active sites alternate or "flip-flop" their catalytic cycles. A crystal structure of BC showed the ATP analog AMPPCF(2)P bound to one subunit while the other subunit was unliganded. The liganded subunit was in the closed or catalytic conformation while the unliganded subunit was in the open conformation. This provides the first structural evidence for half-sites reactivity in BC.

  18. Cyclohexanedione Herbicides Are Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, A R; Felts, J M

    1988-04-01

    Biochemical studies of plant species susceptible to the cyclohexanedione herbicides, alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim, have demonstrated that these selective grass herbicides inhibit acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, the second enzyme common to both fatty acid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. The K(i)s for the cyclohexanediones tested ranged from 0.02 to 1.95 micromolar, depending on the species. The enzyme isolated from broadleaf plants was much less sensitive to inhibition by these herbicides (K(i)s from 53 micromolar to 2.2 millimolar). These results may explain the mechanism of action of these herbicides and their selectivity for monocotyledonous species.

  19. Induction of PEP carboxylase and crassulacean acid metabolism by gibberellic acid in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, L J; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E; Strand, D; Hockema, B; Earnest, J

    2001-02-01

    The induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism in M:esembryanthemum crystallinum was investigated in response to foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA). After 5 weeks of treatment, GA-treated plants showed 1.7- to almost a 4-fold increase of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) activity with a concomitant increase in acid metabolism when compared to control plants. Immunoblot analysis indicated an increase in the PEPcase protein similar to that of salt treatment while Rubisco did not show a similar rise. The results indicate that exogenously applied GA accelerates plant developmental expression of PEPcase and Crassulacean acid metabolism in M: crystallinum.

  20. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Sources Vitamin B6 is found in: Avocado Banana Legumes (dried beans) Beef and pork Nuts Poultry ... Alternative Names Pyridoxal; Pyridoxine; Pyridoxamine Images Vitamin B6 benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food ...

  1. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25- ...

  2. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack ... vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia called pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia risk factors include: Smoking. Smoking ...

  3. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  4. Vitamin D and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Vitamin D and Health Table of Contents Vitamin D Deficiency: ... and Colds Risk of Premature Death References Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Concern If you live north ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B- ... vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B- ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic ... your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with taking too much of a vitamin. Fat-soluble Vitamins A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid): Nausea, vomiting, ... taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the ...

  10. Hybrid Structure of a Dynamic Single-Chain Carboxylase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Anna; Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Maier, Timm

    2016-08-02

    Biotin-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylases (aCCs) are involved in key steps of anabolic pathways and comprise three distinct functional units: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyl transferase (CT). YCC multienzymes are a poorly characterized family of prokaryotic aCCs of unidentified substrate specificity, which integrate all functional units into a single polypeptide chain. We employed a hybrid approach to study the dynamic structure of Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) YCC: crystal structures of isolated domains reveal a hexameric CT core with extended substrate binding pocket and a dimeric BC domain. Negative-stain electron microscopy provides an approximation of the variable positioning of the BC dimers relative to the CT core. Small-angle X-ray scattering yields quantitative information on the ensemble of Dra YCC structures in solution. Comparison with other carrier protein-dependent multienzymes highlights a characteristic range of large-scale interdomain flexibility in this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  12. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Acetyl-CoA Activation of Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Lauren E; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Zeczycki, Tonya N

    2017-07-11

    Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer. Kinetic and linked-function analysis, or thermodynamic linkage analysis, indicates that the substrates of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domain are energetically coupled in the presence of acetyl-CoA. In contrast, both kinetic and energetic coupling between the two domains is lost in the absence of acetyl-CoA, suggesting a functional role for acetyl-CoA in facilitating the long-range transmission of substrate-induced conformational changes within the PC tetramer. Interestingly, thermodynamic activation parameters for the SaPC-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate are largely independent of acetyl-CoA. Our results also reveal the possibility that global conformational changes give rise to observed species-specific thermodynamic activation parameters. Taken together, our kinetic and thermodynamic results provide a possible allosteric mechanism by which acetyl-CoA coordinates catalysis within the PC tetramer.

  13. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  14. The role of biotin and oxamate in the carboxyltransferase reaction of pyruvate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; Lin, Yi; St Maurice, Martin

    2014-11-15

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in central metabolism. During catalysis, carboxybiotin is translocated to the carboxyltransferase domain where the carboxyl group is transferred to the acceptor substrate, pyruvate. Many studies on the carboxyltransferase domain of PC have demonstrated an enhanced oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in the presence of oxamate and it has been shown that oxamate accepts a carboxyl group from carboxybiotin during oxaloacetate decarboxylation. The X-ray crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain from Rhizobium etli PC reveals that oxamate is positioned in the active site in an identical manner to the substrate, pyruvate, and kinetic data are consistent with the oxamate-stimulated decarboxylation of oxaloacetate proceeding through a simple ping-pong bi bi mechanism in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain. Additionally, analysis of truncated PC enzymes indicates that the BCCP domain devoid of biotin does not contribute directly to the enzymatic reaction and conclusively demonstrates a biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in PC. These findings advance the description of catalysis in PC and can be extended to the study of related biotin-dependent enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  16. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  17. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  18. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  19. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  20. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin C 1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has a ... keep body tissues and the immune system healthy. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from ...

  1. Vitamin Supplement - Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This Vitamin Supplement presents some of the main information presented at The First International Vitamin Conference in Copenhagen, May, 2010. The theme of the conference was ‘Vitamins in foods and supplements: Analytical possibilities versus nutritional needs in human research, food databases, and labeling’. All 13 vitamins were represented. Although vitamin D and folate that in recent years have been heavily debated, also were the one in focus and is represented in 8 of the 17 papers inclu...

  2. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Is Dispensable for CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Differentiation of T cells is closely associated with dynamic changes in nutrient and energy metabolism. However, the extent to which specific metabolic pathways and molecular components are determinative of CD8+ T cell fate remains unclear. It has been previously established in various tissues that acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2 regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO in mitochondria. Here, we explore the cell-intrinsic role of ACC2 in T cell immunity in response to infections. We report here that ACC2 deficiency results in a marginal increase of cellular FAO in CD8+ T cells, but does not appear to influence antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cell responses during infection with listeria or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These results suggest that ACC2 is dispensable for CD8+ T cell responses.

  3. Sequences of acetyl CoA carboxylase promoter for tumour necrosis factor action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerang Park

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour necrosis factor (TNF inhibits the accumulation of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC mRNA by decreasing the rate of ACC gene transcription. The ACC mRNA species found in 30A5 cells are generated from promoter II and TNF inhibits the accumulation of class 2 type mRNAs. By using 5' deletion mutants of promoter II fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT gene, the DNA mobility shift assay and the DNase I footprinting assay, the authors have identified the 30 bp from −389 to −359 as the TNF responsive element in promoter II. TNF treatment causes a decrease in the binding activity of nuclear protein(s specific to the TNF responsive element. When the fragment containing the TNF responsive element was incorporated into the thymidine kinase promoter, the chimeric gene exhibited TNF induced inhibition of expression.

  4. Low vitamin K intakes in community-dwelling elders at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Shatenstein, Bryna; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Ferland, Guylaine

    2008-12-01

    An increasing body of evidence points to a role for vitamin K in brain physiology through its participation in sphingolipid metabolism and biological activation of the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. One hypothesis is that vitamin K may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin K than did cognitively intact control subjects. To learn more about the dietary intakes and food sources of vitamin K in these patients, a detailed analysis was conducted. Dietary vitamin K intakes were assessed from 5 nonconsecutive days of food records collected from 31 community-dwelling patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and in 31 age- and sex-matched cognitively intact control subjects. Mean vitamin K intake on a person-day basis was 63+/-90 microg/day in patients and 139+/-233 microg/day in control subjects. Vitamin K intakes were significantly less in participants with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.0001), even after adjusting for energy intakes (P=0.0003). Vegetables, fats, and fruits contributed more than 70% of total vitamin K intake in both groups. The main source of vitamin K was green vegetables, which contributed 33% and 49% to total intakes in patients and control subjects, respectively. This lower consumption of green vegetables in participants with Alzheimer's disease explained their lower vitamin K intakes overall. Despite their limitations, results are in line with the most recent research in both vitamin K and Alzheimer's disease and suggest a need to consider vitamin K in future investigations on the role of diet in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Vitamin D and allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafvelin Guro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence has established that the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, possesses immunoregulatory properties. Vitamin D exerts its effects through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR, which is expressed by cells of the immune system. Most of the immunological effects mediated by vitamin D-VDR are regulatory, inhibiting adaptive immune responses. It has become apparent that the incidence of vitamin D insufficiency is surprisingly high in the general population. A link between low vitamin D serum levels and the increased prevalence of allergic diseases has been proposed. This possible connection has been investigated in numerous studies on associations between vitamin D serum concentrations and different allergic conditions, as well as studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Although there is some evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in asthma, no consensus on the role of vitamin D in allergic disease has yet been reached. Still, treatment strategies involving vitamin D supplementation to risk groups, combinatorial corticosteroid and vitamin D treatment in asthma and vitamin D as an immunomodulator in allergen specific immunotherapy show promise for the future.

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, ... nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/vitaminsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins To use the sharing features on this page, ... of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Fat-Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, ...

  9. Circulating matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (MGP) species are refractory to vitamin K treatment in a new case of Keutel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranenburg, E. C. M.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K. Y.; Bonafe, L.; Crettol, L. Mittaz; Rodiger, L. A.; Dikkers, F. G.; van Essen, A. J.; Superti-Furga, A.; Alexandrakis, E.; Vermeer, C.; Schurgers, L. J.; Laverman, G. D.

    Background and objectives: Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent protein, is recognized as a potent local inhibitor of vascular calcification. Studying patients with Keutel syndrome (KS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from MGP mutations, provides an

  10. Reducing undercarboxylated osteocalcin with vitamin K supplementation does not promote lean tissue loss or fat gain over three years in older women and men: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein synthesized during bone formation. Mice injected with the undercarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) had more skeletal muscle mass and less fat mass than sham-treated controls, suggesting a unique metabolic role for ucOC. UcOC decreases in response to vitam...

  11. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Rathish; Maseeh, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency (VDD). This pandemic of hypovitaminosis D can mainly be attributed to lifestyle (for example, reduced outdoor activities) and environmental (for example, air pollution) factors that reduce exposure to sunlight, which is required for ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced vitamin D production in the skin. High prevalence of vit...

  12. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  13. Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status is associated with better lower extremity function: a prospective analysis of two knee osteoarthritis cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Loeser, Richard F; McAlindon, Timothy E; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-17

    Vitamins K and D are important for the function of vitamin K-dependent proteins in joint tissues. It is unclear if these nutrients are mutually important to functional outcomes related to knee osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the association of vitamin K and D sufficiency with lower-extremity function in the Health, Aging Body Composition Knee OA Sub-study (Health ABC) and conducted a replication analysis in an independent cohort, the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). In Health ABC (60% female, 75±3 years) baseline nutrient status was measured using circulating vitamin K and 25(OH)D. Lower-extremity function was assessed using the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and usual 20-meter gait speed. In the OAI (58% female, 61±9 years), baseline nutrient intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. Lower-extremity function was assessed using usual 20-meter gait speed and chair stand completion time. Multivariate mixed models were used to evaluate the association of vitamin K and D status and intake with lower-extremity function over 4-5 years. Health ABC participants with sufficient plasma vitamin K (≥1.0 nmol/L) and serum 25(OH)D (≥50 nmol/L) generally had better SPPB scores and faster usual gait speed over follow-up (p≤0.002). In the OAI, sufficient vitamin K and vitamin D intake combined was associated with overall faster usual gait speed and chair stand completion time over follow-up (p≤0.029). Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status was associated with better lower-extremity function in two knee OA cohorts. These findings merit confirmation in vitamin K and D co-supplementation trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  15. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this effect. Taking a specific supplement containing garlic, amino acids (part of proteins), and vitamins such as folic ... a combination of fatty acids commonly found in fish oil (EPA and DHA) along with B vitamins, ...

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  17. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too soft and unable to support their weight (rickets). Adults deficient in vitamin D can develop soft ... and many other parts of the body. Growing children who do not get enough vitamin Current intake ...

  18. [Vitamin D and neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Éric; Camu, William

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis and also with a higher relapse rate as well as a higher number of MRI lesions. Elders with vitamin D deficiency have worse cognitive performance. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Ischemic stroke are more frequent and more severe in patients with low vitamin D levels. Carotid atherosclerosis is more frequent and more severe in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk and worse prognosis of Parkinson's disease. In the different neurological disorders discussed herein, gene polymorphisms that could alter vitamin D metabolism are also associated with a higher incidence or a worse disease prognosis. Despite the links between vitamin D deficiency and the risks of developing neurological disorders, there is, to date, no proof that supplementation could alter the course of these diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A? Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential to our health. It helps us see normally ... IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to ...

  20. Vitamin D and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sheena D; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    .... Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake...

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect vitamin D metabolism, such as cholestyramine (a cholesterol drug), anti-seizure drugs, glucocorticoids, antifungal drugs, and ... cereals Orange juice Other dairy products, such as yogurt Soy drinks Vitamin D is in many multivitamins. ...

  2. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  3. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult...... to delimit the more subtle forms of vitamin D insufficiency. Today, a suboptimal vitamin D status is considered to be when the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is below 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as a plasma concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L, whereas the term deficiency is used...... if the concentration is below 25 nmol/L. An increased bone turnover as well as an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures has been found in subjects with vitamin D insufficiency. In blood donors and in free-living elderly Danes, vitamin D deficiency has been found in 18% and 31%, and vitamin D insufficiency in 42...

  4. Should vitamin K be supplemented instead of antagonised in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwer, Bart; Piscaer, Ianthe; Von Der Thusen, Jan H; Grutters, Jan C; Schutgens, Roger Eg; Wouters, Emiel Fm; Janssen, Rob

    2018-01-09

    There is an ongoing need for additional interventions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as antifibrotic drugs currently available only inhibit and do not stall disease progression. Vitamin K is a co-factor for the activation of coagulation factors. However, it is also required to activate proteins with functions outside of the coagulation cascade, such as matrix Gla protein (MGP), a defender against soft tissue calcification. Vitamin K antagonists are anticoagulants that are, for unknown reasons, associated with increased mortality in IPF. Areas covered: We advance the hypothesis that modulation of vitamin K-dependent MGP activation in IPF patients by either vitamin K antagonism or administration may result in acceleration and deceleration of fibrosis progression, respectively. Furthermore, shortfall in vitamin K could be suspected in IPF based on the high prevalence of certain co-morbidities, such as vascular calcification and lung cancer. Expert commentary: We hypothesize that vitamin K status is reduced in IPF patients. This, in combination with studies suggesting that vitamin K may play a role in lung fibrosis pathogenesis, would provide a rationale for conducting a clinical trial assessing the potential mitigating effects of vitamin K administration on progression of lung fibrosis, prevention of co-morbidities and mortality in IPF.

  5. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  6. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  7. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin D are rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. These are far from the only problems associated with a vitamin D deficiency. The consequences are numerous and include skeletal diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases, infections, cognitive disorders, and/or.

  8. Regulation of PEP-Carboxylase by Biological Clock in a CAM Plant : ENVIRONMENTAL AND STRESS RESPONSES : PROTEINS, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke, Kusumi; Hiroyuki, Arata; Ikuko, Iwasaki; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University

    1994-01-01

    The endogenous circadian rhythm in a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Graptopetalum paraguayense was investigated. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C) takes two forms: the malate-sensitive day form and the malate-insensitive night form. We monitored the state of PEP-C by measuring the sensitivity to malate as a parameter of the circadian rhythm. We also measured vacuolar pH and malate concentration, and contents of oxaloacetate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). A free-runni...

  9. Nitrate-Dependent Degradation of Acetone by Alicycliphilus and Paracoccus Strains and Comparison of Acetone Carboxylase Enzymes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Schink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    A novel acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain KN Bun08, was isolated from an enrichment culture with butanone and nitrate as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The cells were motile short rods, 0.5 to 1 by 1 to 2 μm in size, which gave Gram-positive staining results in the exponential growth phase and Gram-negative staining results in the stationary-growth phase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. Besides butanone and acetone, the strain used numerous fatty acids as substrates. An ATP-dependent acetone-carboxylating enzyme was enriched from cell extracts of this bacterium and of Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601T by two subsequent DEAE Sepharose column procedures. For comparison, acetone carboxylases were enriched from two additional nitrate-reducing bacterial species, Paracoccus denitrificans and P. pantotrophus. The products of the carboxylase reaction were acetoacetate and AMP rather than ADP. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of cell extracts and of the various enzyme preparations revealed bands corresponding to molecular masses of 85, 78, and 20 kDa, suggesting similarities to the acetone carboxylase enzymes described in detail for the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 (85.3, 78.3, and 19.6 kDa) and the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Protein bands were excised and compared by mass spectrometry with those of acetone carboxylases of aerobic bacteria. The results document the finding that the nitrate-reducing bacteria studied here use acetone-carboxylating enzymes similar to those of aerobic and phototrophic bacteria. PMID:21841031

  10. Enhanced citric acid production by a yeast Yarrowia lipolytica over-expressing a pyruvate carboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-Juan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Yu-Kuan; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-08-01

    In this study, after the expression of a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC) cloned from Meyerozyma guilliermondii in a marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, a transformant PG86 obtained had much higher PYC activity than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. At the same time, the PYC gene expression and citric acid (CA) production by the transformant PG86 were also greatly enhanced. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g L(-1), CA concentration formed by the transformant PG86 was 34.02 g L(-1), leading to a CA yield of 0.57 g g(-1) of glucose. During a 10-L fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 101.0 ± 1.3 g L(-1), the yield was 0.89 g g(-1) of glucose, the productivity was 0.42 g L(-1) h(-1) and only 5.93 g L(-1) reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h of the fed-batch fermentation. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA.

  11. Physiological regulation of ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum employs several mechanisms for regulating the activity of ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC/O). The activity of RuBPC/O is modulated at the level of synthesis of the enzyme and also post-transcriptionally by inactivation of the preformed enzyme. The synthesis of RuBPC/O in R. rubrum is greatly influenced by the conditions of culture. Under conditions of carbon dioxide limitation, R. rubrum derepresses the synthesis of RuBPC/O. When growing autotrophically under low CO/sub 2/ (1.5-2%) concentrations, the synthesis of the enzyme is derepressed such that RuBPC/O represents up to 50% of the soluble protein in the cell. These phenomenal levels of enzyme activity are not observed when the culture is supplied with higher levels of CO/sub 2/ (5-6%). The increase in enzyme activity observed in derepressed cultures is not paralleled by an increase in vivo CO/sub 2/ fixation rate. Rhodospirillum rubrum grown in the presence of /sup 32/P-orthophosphate, has radiolabel associated with several proteins. One of these proteins co-migrates with RuBPC/O in a SDS-polyacrylamide gel. The phosphoprotein can be separated from RuBPC/O using the technique of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A Western blot does not show any immunological cross-reactivity between the two proteins.

  12. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase overexpression in herbicide-resistant large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Martin; Soufiane, Brahim; Simard, Marie-Josée; Obeid, Kristen; Page, Eric; Nurse, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes is increasing and this report of an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor-resistant Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop. from southwestern Ontario is another example. The identified weed escaped control in an onion and carrot rotation in which graminicides were used for several consecutive years. Our goal was to characterize the level and mechanism of resistance of the biotype. The biotype was resistant to all five ACCase inhibitor herbicides tested. Gene-expression profiling was performed because none of the mutations known to confer resistance in the ACCase gene were detected. RNASeq and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that transcription of ACCase was 3.4-9.3 times higher in the resistant biotype than the susceptible biotype. ACCase gene copy number was determined by qPCR to be five to seven times higher in the resistant compared with the susceptible biotype. ACCase gene overexpression was directly related to the increase of the ACCase gene copy number. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that overexpression of the herbicide target gene ACCase confers resistance to the herbicide. This is the first reported case of target gene duplication conferring resistance to a herbicide other than glyphosate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry See related Article. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by two classes of grass-selective herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendina, A.R.; Craig-Kennard, A.C.; Beaudoin, J.D.; Breen, M.K. (Chevron Chemical Company, Richmond, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The selective grass herbicides diclofop, haloxyfop, and trifop (((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acids) and alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim (cyclohexanediones) are potent, reversible inhibitors of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) partially purified from barley, corn, and wheat. Although inhibition of the wheat enzyme by clethodim and diclofop is noncompetitive versus each of the substrates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), diclofop and clethodim are nearly competitive versus acetyl-CoA since the level of inhibition is most sensitive to the concentration of acetyl-CoA (K{sub is} < K{sub ii}). To conclusively show whether the herbicides interact at the biotin carboxylation site or the carboxyl transfer site, the inhibition of isotope exchange and partial reactions catalyzed at each site was studied with the wheat enzyme. Only the ({sup 14}C)acetyl-CoA-malonyl-CoA exchange and decarboxylation of ({sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA reactions are strongly inhibited by clethodim and diclofop, suggesting that the herbicides interfere with the carboxyl transfer site rather than the biotin carboxylation site of the enzyme. Double-inhibition studies with diclofop and clethodim suggest that the ((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acid and cyclohexanedione herbicides may bind to the same region of the enzyme.

  14. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Smith, Roberta H.; Finer, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. `Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663273

  15. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable.

  16. 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: Clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular studies in 88 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism caused by mutations in MCCC1 or MCCC2 encoding the α and β subunit of MCC, respectively. The phenotype is highly variable ranging from acute neonatal onset with fatal outcome to asymptomatic adults. Methods We report clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and mutation data of 88 MCC deficient individuals, 53 identified by newborn screening, 26 diagnosed due to clinical symptoms or positive family history and 9 mothers, identified following the positive newborn screening result of their baby. Results Fifty-seven percent of patients were asymptomatic while 43% showed clinical symptoms, many of which were probably not related to MCC deficiency but due to ascertainment bias. However, 12 patients (5 of 53 identified by newborn screening presented with acute metabolic decompensations. We identified 15 novel MCCC1 and 16 novel MCCC2 mutant alleles. Additionally, we report expression studies on 3 MCCC1 and 8 MCCC2 mutations and show an overview of all 132 MCCC1 and MCCC2 variants known to date. Conclusions Our data confirm that MCC deficiency, despite low penetrance, may lead to a severe clinical phenotype resembling classical organic acidurias. However, neither the genotype nor the biochemical phenotype is helpful in predicting the clinical course.

  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from cherimoya fruit: properties, kinetics and effects of high CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, T; Escribano, M I; Merodio, C

    2001-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) regulatory properties were studied in non-photosynthetic (mesocarp) and photosynthetic (peel) tissues from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit stored in air, in order to gain a better understanding of in vivo enzyme regulation. Analyses were also performed with fruit treated with 20% CO(2)-20% O(2) to define the role of PEPC as part of an adaptive mechanism to high external carbon dioxide levels. The results revealed that the special kinetic characteristics of the enzyme from mesocarp--high V(max) and low sensibility to L-malate inhibition - are related to the active acid metabolism of these fruits and point to a high rate of reassimilation of respired CO(2) into keto-acids. With respect to fruit stored in air, PEPC in crude extracts from CO(2)-treated cherimoyas gave a similar V(max) (1.12+/-0.03 microkat x mg(-1) protein), a lower apparent K(m) (68+/-9 microM for PEP) and a higher I(50) of L-malate (5.95+/-0.3 mM). These kinetic values showed the increase in the affinity of this enzyme toward one of its substrate, PEP, by elevated external CO(2) concentrations. The lower K(m) value and lower sensitivity to L-malate are consistent with higher in vivo carboxylation reaction efficiency in CO(2)-treated cherimoyas, while pointing to an additional enzyme regulation system via CO(2).

  18. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. by Cytokinin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Piepenbrock, Mechtild

    1992-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), the key enzyme of Crassulacean acid metabolism, is induced by water stress in leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. In water-stressed plants or excised leaves, exogenous cytokinin suppresses PEPCase transcript accumulation in the leaves. Cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) used in concentrations from 5 to 500 micromolar (a) inhibits the upregulation of PEPCase transcripts, enzyme activity, and Crassulacean acid metabolism induction in salt-stressed intact plants when sprayed once daily during the stress period, (b) inhibits the accumulation of PEPCase mRNA in leaves from well-watered plants, (c) down-regulates PEPCase transcripts within 8 hours in prestressed, intact plants after a single spraying of an individual leaf, (d) inhibits accumulation of PEPCase transcripts in excised, wilting leaves, and (e) accelerates the net decrease of PEPCase transcripts in excised leaves from prestressed plants under rehydration conditions. When roots, the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis, are excised, PEPCase induction under drought stress is intensified. We propose that roots, acting as sensors of soil water status, may regulate PEPCase gene expression in the leaves with cytokinin as a signal transducer. ImagesFigure 2Figure 7 PMID:16669088

  19. Acetone and Butanone Metabolism of the Denitrifying Bacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” Demonstrates Novel Biochemical Properties of an ATP-Dependent Aliphatic Ketone Carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schühle, Karola

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of acetone and butanone in the betaproteobacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” is initiated by their ATP-dependent carboxylation to acetoacetate and 3-oxopentanoic acid, respectively. Both reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme, acetone carboxylase, which was purified and characterized. Acetone carboxylase is highly induced under growth on acetone or butanone and accounts for at least 5.5% of total cell protein. The enzyme consists of three subunits of 85, 75, and 20 kDa, respectively, in a (αβγ)2 composition and contains 1 Zn and 2 Fe per heterohexamer but no organic cofactors. Chromatographic analysis of the ATP hydrolysis products indicated that ATP was exclusively cleaved to AMP and 2 Pi. The stoichiometry was determined to be 2 ATP consumed per acetone carboxylated. Purified acetone carboxylase from A. aromaticum catalyzes the carboxylation of acetone and butanone as the only substrates. However, the enzyme shows induced (uncoupled) ATPase activity with many other substrates that were not carboxylated. Acetone carboxylase is a member of a protein family that also contains acetone carboxylases of various other organisms, acetophenone carboxylase of A. aromaticum, and ATP-dependent hydantoinases/oxoprolinases. While the members of this family share several characteristic features, they differ with respect to the products of ATP hydrolysis, subunit composition, and metal content. PMID:22020645

  20. Membrane composition influences the activity of in vitro refolded human vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenecke, Frank; Friedrich-Epler, Beatrice; Parthier, Christoph; Stubbs, Milton T

    2015-10-27

    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the maintenance of reduced vitamin K pools, a prerequisite for the action of γ-glutamyl carboxylase and hence for hemostasis. Here we describe the recombinant expression of hVKOR as an insoluble fusion protein in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and chemical cleavage under denaturing conditions. In vitro renaturation and reconstitution of purified solubilized hVKOR in phospholipids could be established to yield active protein. Crucially, the renatured enzyme is inhibited by the powerful coumarin anticoagulant warfarin, and we demonstrate that enzyme activity depends on lipid composition. The completely synthetic system for protein production allows a rational investigation of the multiple variables in membrane protein folding and paves the way for the provision of pure, active membrane protein for structural studies.

  1. Rediscovering vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Anaizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 2 years there has been a radical change in standard clinical practice with respect to vitamin D. As a result of a growing body of knowledgeable physicians are assessing the vitamin D nutritional status of their patients and prescribing aggressive repletion regimens of a vitamin D supplement. The present paper summarizes some basic information about this essential nutrient and reviews some of the more recent data implicating vitamin D deficiency in disease etiology with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Finally a rational approach to the dosing of vitamin D in different patient populations is provided.

  2. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  3. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  4. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  5. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  6. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  7. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    D supplementation may decrease the risk of these disorders. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the regulation of several components such as the immune system and calcium homeostasis. However, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that vitamin D also affects beta cells...... directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.......Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  8. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have osteoporosis. Severe vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia (“soft” bones) in adults. Yet, vitamin ... vitamin D can become “trapped” in body fat, obesity may cause low vitamin ... likely to affect children and teens with low vitamin D than adults. ...

  9. Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Pinus halepensis needles submitted to ozone and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Véronique; Cabané, Mireille; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Effects of ozone and/or drought stresses on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc, EC 4.1.1.31) regulation in Pinus halepensis Mill. needles were assessed over 3 months in controlled conditions. Whereas moderated water stress applied to Aleppo pine had no effect on PEPc activity compared to the control, which was probably related to the high tolerance of this species to drought, ozone stress induced a dramatic increase of PEPc activity in pine needles. This stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway could provide substrates to repair processes, well known for being enhanced upon ozone exposure. The ozone-increased PEPc activity was related, to a certain extent, to an increase in protein and mRNA levels. The possible role of the stimulation of the phosphorylation status of the enzyme in the increased PEPc activity under ozone was also investigated. Following the demonstration of the existence of the phosphorylation site at the N terminal part of Aleppo pine PEPc, it was shown that, under ozone treatment, the light/dark PEPc activity ratio and the Ki (malate) for PEPc were increased. This strengthens the hypothesis of an ozone-related post-translational process, which could be part of an adaptation of the plants to prolonged stress. When ozone and water stress were applied in combination, the enhancement in PEPc activity was only related to changes in gene expression. This difference in PEPc regulation, compared to the effect of single stress, could be the consequence of the specific action of each stress on the enzyme. This study brings new insights into the regulation of PEPc in a C3 plant, Aleppo pine under these stresses. A different regulatory mechanism of PEPc is occurring according to the stress. The physiological implications of the increase in PEPc activity in response to ozone and/or water stress are discussed.

  10. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene cluster of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Nardia J; Hirt, Robert P; Bodrossy, Levente; Kovacs, Kornel L; Embley, T Martin; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2002-04-01

    The genes encoding the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were localised to an 8.3-kb EcoRI fragment of the genome. Genes encoding the large subunit ( cbbL), small subunit ( cbbS) and putative regulatory gene ( cbbQ) were shown to be located on one cluster. Surprisingly, cbbO, a second putative regulatory gene, was not located in the remaining 1.2-kb downstream (3') of cbbQ. However, probing of the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome with cbbO from Nitrosomonas europaea demonstrated that a cbbO homologue was contained within a separate 3.0-kb EcoRI fragment. Instead of a cbbR ORF being located upstream (5') of cbbL, there was a moxR-like ORF that was transcribed in the opposite direction to cbbL. There were three additional ORFs within the large 8.3-kb EcoRI fragment: a pyrE-like ORF, an rnr-like ORF and an incomplete ORF with no sequence similarity to any known protein. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbL from M. capsulatus (Bath) placed it within clade A of the green-type Form 1 Rubisco. cbbL was expressed in M. capsulatus (Bath) when grown with methane as a sole carbon and energy source under both copper-replete and copper-limited conditions. M. capsulatus (Bath) was capable of autotrophic growth on solid medium but not in liquid medium. Preliminarily investigations suggested that other methanotrophs may also be capable of autotrophic growth. Rubisco genes were also identified, by PCR, in Methylococcus-like strains and Methylocaldum species; however, no Rubisco genes were found in Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomonas methanica S1, Methylomonas rubra, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b or Methylocystis parvus OBBP.

  11. Towards efficient photosynthesis: overexpression of Zea mays phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoi, Deepika; Mohanty, Sasmita; Govindjee; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2016-12-01

    Plants with C4 photosynthesis are efficient in carbon assimilation and have an advantage over C3 photosynthesis. In C4 photosynthesis, the primary CO2 fixation is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Here, we show that overexpression of Zea mays PEPC cDNA, under the control of (35)S promoter, in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in ~7-10 fold higher protein abundance and ~7-10 fold increase in PEPC activity in the transgenic lines than that in the vector control. We suggest that overexpression of PEPC played an anaplerotic role to increase the supply of 4-carbon carboxylic acids, which provided carbon skeletons for increased amino acid and protein synthesis. Higher protein content must have been responsible for increased metabolic processes including chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and respiration. Consequently, the PEPC-overexpressed transgenic plants had higher chlorophyll content, enhanced electron transport rate (ETR), lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and a higher performance index (PI) than the vector control. Consistent with these observations, the rate of CO2 assimilation, the starch content, and the dry weight of PEPC-overexpressed plants increased by 14-18 %, 10-18 %, and 6.5-16 %, respectively. Significantly, transgenics were tolerant to salt stress as they had increased ability to synthesize amino acids, including the osmolyte proline. NaCl (150 mM)-treated transgenic plants had higher variable to maximum Chl a fluorescence (F v/F m) ratio, higher PI, higher ETR, and lower NPQ than the salt-treated vector controls. These results suggest that expression of C4 photosynthesis enzyme(s) in a C3 plant can improve its photosynthetic capacity with enhanced tolerance to salinity stress.

  12. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase mutations in resistant Lolium populations: evaluation using clethodim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Collavo, Alberto; Zheng, Ming-Qi; Owen, Mechelle; Sattin, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2007-10-01

    The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting cyclohexanedione herbicide clethodim is used to control grass weeds infesting dicot crops. In Australia clethodim is widely used to control the weed Lolium rigidum. However, clethodim-resistant Lolium populations have appeared over the last 5 years and now are present in many populations across the western Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum) belt. An aspartate-2078-glycine (Gly) mutation in the plastidic ACCase enzyme has been identified as the only known mutation endowing clethodim resistance. Here, with 14 clethodim-resistant Lolium populations we revealed diversity and complexity in the molecular basis of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides (clethodim in particular). Several known ACCase mutations (isoleucine-1781-leucine [Leu], tryptophan-2027-cysteine [Cys], isoleucine-2041-asparagine, and aspartate-2078-Gly) and in particular, a new mutation of Cys to arginine at position 2088, were identified in plants surviving the Australian clethodim field rate (60 g ha(-1)). Twelve combination patterns of mutant alleles were revealed in relation to clethodim resistance. Through a molecular, biochemical, and biological approach, we established that the mutation 2078-Gly or 2088-arginine endows sufficient level of resistance to clethodim at the field rate, and in addition, combinations of two mutant 1781-Leu alleles, or two different mutant alleles (i.e. 1781-Leu/2027-Cys, 1781-Leu/2041-asparagine), also confer clethodim resistance. Plants homozygous for the mutant 1781, 2078, or 2088 alleles were found to be clethodim resistant and cross resistant to a number of other ACCase inhibitor herbicides including clodinafop, diclofop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, butroxydim, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and pinoxaden. We established that the specific mutation, the homo/heterozygous status of a plant for a specific mutation, and combinations of different resistant alleles plus herbicide rates all are important in contributing to

  14. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2017-07-14

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  15. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M Galka

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid ((+-ABA is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP substrate. Functionally, (+-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM, but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM. Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation.

  16. Environmental Control of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Induction in Mature Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrock, Mechtild; Schmitt, Jürgen M.

    1991-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. plants shift the mode of carbon assimilation from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism when stressed by high salinity. A prerequisite for Crassulacean acid metabolism induction is the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). A moderate increase in the abundance of PEPCase transcripts and activity is observed in 7-week-old, well-watered plants. This increase in PEPCase coincides in time with a decrease in the growth rate of the shoots. The steady-state level of PEPCase activity is uniform along the leaves of well-watered plants, as can be shown by comparing leaves of different age from individual 7-week-old plants. In contrast, the rate of induction in response to salt stress varies with the age of plants and to a lesser extent with the age of the leaves. Two-week-old seedlings induce PEPCase slowly under a moderate salt stress regimen, whereas older plants induce faster. When individual leaves from a seven-week-old plant are compared with respect to induction velocity, no clear-cut correlation with leaf age is apparent. The highest induction rate is observed in leaves from node five that are about 2 weeks old at the beginning of the experiment. PEPCase transcripts are readily down-regulated to minute levels when detached leaves are hydrated. The levels reached after 8 hours of rehydration are very similar, regardless of whether the leaves were cut from young or old plants or whether the plants were previously salt-stressed or well-watered. It is concluded that environmental rather than developmental factors are predominant in determining abundance of PEPCase activity and transcripts in leaves of mature M. crystallinum plants. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:16668542

  17. Vitamin K: an old vitamin in a new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gröber, U; Reichrath, J; Holick, MF; Kisters, K

    2015-01-01

    The topic of “Vitamin K” is currently booming on the health products market. Vitamin K is known to be important for blood coagulation. Current research increasingly indicates that the antihaemorrhagic vitamin has a considerable benefit in the prevention and treatment of bone and vascular disease. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K2 menaquinones (especially MK-7, menaquinone-7). Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling with...

  18. Vitamin D and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient proven to be important for bone health. It has other physiological functions, and there are plausible reasons for investigating vitamin D in depressive disorders. Some cross-sectional clinical and epidemiologic studies, but not all studies, have found that low levels of vitamin D are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms or with a depression diagnosis. However, cross-sectional studies cannot establish causality, and the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Due to the poor quality of the treatment studies, the effectiveness of vitamin D for depression cannot be adequately assessed. Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  20. Isolated spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase and method of inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphatase carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) from a plant which has a des(methyl) lysyl residue in the LS is disclosed. In addition, the full-length cDNA clones for Rubisco LSMT are disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of inactivating the enzymatic activity of Rubisco LSMT are also disclosed.

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report Problems If you believe that you ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by ... problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report Problems If you believe ...

  6. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the body converts to a hormone. The skin makes vitamin D after exposure to sunlight. We also absorb vitamin D from certain foods, such as dairy products and certain oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines. Vitamin ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Dietary Supplements Protect Your Health Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or ...

  12. Vitamin D and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamzam Paknahad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hypertension is one of the most important causes of death all over the world because of its adverse effects on cardiovascular system. For this reason its study is very valuable. Vitamin D is one of the important factors that may influence blood pressure. Many studies have shown the modulatory effect of this vitamin on rennin-angiotensin system as well as its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. According to the fact that vitamin receptors are distributed in almost all organs of human body, we can't consider its role just as factor in calcium homeostasis. Therefore many other important roles could be attributed to it. So vitamin D deficiency could arise many problems. There are many causes for vitamin D deficiency. The most important is insufficient exposure to UV-B. In epidemiological studies the vitamin D deficiency is considered to be associated with high blood pressure, as emphasized in many cross-sectional studies. Concerning the cohort prospective studies, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension is reported in some cases. The interventional studies about the association between vitamin D and hypertension are not many and the results are different or contradictory. Controversial results might be due to differences in dose of supplements or duration of supplement therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the researches about the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension and discuss the power of them. This can be helpful to lighten the path to prospective investigations.

  13. Vitamin D and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hariri Ahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptors are located in body tissues and cells.  In various physiological processes of the body the primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, will become the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through many enzymatic. Although different functions of vitamin D has been identified, reducing the possibility of several chronic diseases, including common cancers, autoimmune, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases is proposed as the major role of this component. According to various experimental and clinical studies, vitamin D affects the immune system activity. In this review we study the possible effects of vitamin D on sepsis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the role of vitamin D in the immune system, with particular focus on infections and sepsis. We studied different areas related to vitamin D in the literature review including its roles sepsis and infection incidence, as well as seasonal and racial variation in sepsis. Based on evidence, vitamin D positively affects the immune system, so it might act as a therapeutic strategy. Despite several experimental studies which demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin D on improved functioning of the immune system, its association with prevention or management of infections and sepsis is not revealed through clinical investigations.

  14. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  15. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  16. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  17. Conformational states of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase and their interaction with chaperonin 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vies, S M; Viitanen, P V; Gatenby, A A; Lorimer, G H; Jaenicke, R

    1992-04-14

    Conformational states of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) from Rhodospirillum rubrum were examined by far-UV circular dichroism (CD), tryptophan fluorescence, and 1-anilino-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) binding. At pH 2 and low ionic strength (I = 0.01), Rubisco adopts an unfolded, monomeric conformation (UA1 state) as judged by far-UV CD and tryptophan fluorescence. As with other acid-unfolded proteins [Goto, Y., Calciano, L. J., & Fink, A. L. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 573-577], an intermediate conformation (A1 state) is observed at pH 2 and high ionic strength. The A1 state has an alpha-helical content equivalent to 64% of that present in the native dimer (N2 state). However, fluorescence measurements indicate that the tertiary structure of the A1 state is largely disordered. A site-directed mutant, K168E, which exists as a stable monomer [Mural, R. J., Soper, T. S., Larimer, F. W., & Hartman, F. C. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 6501-6505] was used to characterize the "native" monomer (N1 state). The far-UV CD spectra of the N1 and N2 states are almost identical, indicating a similar secondary structure content. However, the tertiary structure of the N1 state is less ordered than that of the N2 state. Nevertheless, when appropriately complemented in vitro, K168E forms an active heterodimer. Upon neutralization of acid-denatured Rubisco or dilution of guanidine hydrochloride-denatured Rubisco, unstable folding intermediates (I1 state) are rapidly formed. At concentrations at or below the "critical aggregation concentration" (CAC), the I1 state reverts spontaneously but slowly to the native states with high yield (greater than 65%). The CAC is temperature-dependent. At concentrations above the CAC, the I1 and the A1 states undergo irreversible aggregation. The commitment to aggregation is rapid [ef. Goldberg, M. E., Rudolph, R., & Jaenicke, R. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2790-2797] and proceeds until the concentration of folding intermediate(s) has

  18. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  19. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  20. Rediscovering vitamin D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. In the. 1940s it became mandatory in the United States to fortify milk with vitamin D3, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of rickets. Consequently, most of the early research focused on the role of vitamin D in regulating calcium balance ...

  1. Vitamin E and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dying from prostate cancer—than men given a placebo. Vitamin E’s protective effect was strongest for men whose cancers were far ... al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med . ...

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  3. Maternal vitamin D deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: A rare but reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in infants born to vitamin D deficient mothers due to hypocalcaemia. CASE REPORT: We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to hypocalcaemia secondary to maternal vitamin D deficiency in an.

  4. Vitamin D – The vitamin hormone | Muntingh | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and seems to have some anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. For most people sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D. The time required to make sufficient vitamin D varies according to a number of environmental, ...

  5. Low vitamin K status is associated with osteoarthritis in the hand and knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Booth, Sarah L; Zhang, Yu Qing; Jacques, Paul F; Terkeltaub, Robert; Aliabadi, Piran; Felson, David T

    2006-04-01

    Poor intake of vitamin K is common. Insufficient vitamin K can result in abnormal cartilage and bone mineralization. Furthermore, osteophyte growth, seen in osteoarthritis (OA), may be a vitamin K-dependent process. We undertook this study to determine whether vitamin K deficiency is associated with radiographic features of OA. We conducted an analysis among 672 participants (mean age 65.6 years, 358 women) in the Framingham Offspring Study, a population-based prospective observational cohort. Levels of plasma phylloquinone (the primary form of vitamin K) had previously been measured in these participants, for whom we also had bilateral hand and knee radiographs. The main outcomes were 1) prevalence ratios (PRs) of OA, osteophytes, and joint space narrowing (JSN) per quartile of plasma phylloquinone level for each joint, adjusting for correlated joints using generalized estimating equations, and 2) adjusted mean number of joints with each feature per quartile of plasma phylloquinone level. Analyses were conducted in hands and knees separately and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, total energy intake, plasma vitamin D, and femoral neck bone mineral density. The PRs for OA, osteophytes, and JSN and adjusted mean number of joints with all 3 features in the hand decreased significantly with increasing plasma phylloquinone levels (Pvitamin K and increased prevalence of OA manifestations in the hand and knee.

  6. Cloning and characterization of F3PYC gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase in Aspergillus flavus strain (F3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Sadia; Khan, Ibrar; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Peng, Changsheng

    2017-08-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131.2008 kDa was characterized. Deduced protein showed 90-95% similarity to those deduced from PYC gene from different fungal strains including; Aspergillus parasiticus, Neosartorya fischeri, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus clavatus, and Aspergillus niger. Protein generated from the PYC gene was a homotetramer (α4) and having four potential N-linked glycosylation sites and had no signal peptide. Amongst most possible N-glycosylation sites were -N-S-S-I- at 36 amino acid, -N-G-T-V- at 237 amino acid, N-G-S-S- at 517 amino acid, and N-T-S-R- at 1111 amino acid, with several functions have been proposed for the carbohydrate moiety such as thermal stability, pH, and temperature optima for activity and stabilization of the three-dimensional structure. Hence, cloning of F3PYC gene from A. flavus has important biotechnological applications.

  7. Vitamin K deficit and elastolysis theory in pulmonary elasto-degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Rob; Vermeer, Cees

    2017-10-01

    Elastin is a unique protein providing deformability and resilience to dynamic tissues, such as arteries and lungs. It is an absolute basic requirement for circulation and respiration. Elastin can be degraded by elastases and has a high calcium affinity. Elastin calcification and elastin degradation are two pathological processes that impair elastin's functioning. Furthermore, elastin degradation can be associated to elastin calcification. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is probably the most potent natural inhibitor of elastin calcification and requires vitamin K for its activation. Measuring circulating levels of inactive MGP (dp-ucMGP) is a frequently used method to assess vitamin K status. Dp-ucMGP reflects the burden of vitamin K-dependent proteins that have not been activated by vitamin K and could therefore best be regarded as a biomarker of a vitamin K deficit. Dp-ucMGP levels decrease after vitamin K supplementation. Since the amino acids desmosine and isodesmosine (DES) are unique to crosslinked elastin fibers, systemic elastin degradation can be assessed with the plasma DES assay. Recently, we discovered a strong correlation between plasma dp-ucMGP and plasma DES levels in both patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and controls. The 'Vitamin K deficit and elastolysis theory' posits that elastin degradation causes a rise in the vitamin K deficit and implies that vitamin K supplementation could be preventing elastin degradation. If this hypothesis holds true and is universally found in every state and condition, it will have an unprecedented impact on the management of every single pulmonary disease characterized by accelerated elastin degradation, such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, bronchiectasis, COPD and cystic fibrosis. Theoretically, a plasma dp-ucMGP concentration of zero would be associated with a near-complete standstill of elastin degradation and disease progression in patients with any of these debilitating conditions. Copyright

  8. Vitamins as hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2007-02-01

    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  9. CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote cisplatin resistance in breast cancer cell through Akt activation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy heavily relies on apoptosis to kill breast cancer (BrCa) cells. Many breast tumors respond to chemotherapy, but cells that survive this initial response gain resistance to subsequent treatments. This leads to aggressive cell variants with an enhanced ability to migrate, invade and survive at secondary sites. Metastasis and chemoresistance are responsible for most cancer-related deaths; hence, therapies designed to minimize both are greatly needed. We have recently shown that CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote BrCa cell migration and invasion, while others have shown that this axis play important role in T cell survival. In this study we have shown potential role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in breast cancer cell survival and therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. Methods Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, Vybrant apoptosis and TUNEL assays were performed to ascertain the role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of BrCa cells. Fast Activated Cell-based ELISA (FACE) assay was used to quantify In situ activation of PI3Kp85, AktSer473, GSK-3βSer9 and FKHRThr24 in breast cancer cells with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25. Results CCR9-CCL25 axis provides survival advantage to BrCa cells and inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-independent fashion. Furthermore, CCR9-CCL25 axis activates cell-survival signals through Akt and subsequent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and forkhead in human rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) inactivation. These results show that CCR9-CCL25 axis play important role in BrCa cell survival and low chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin primarily through PI3K/Akt dependent fashion. PMID:21539750

  10. A Functional Study of Mutations in K+-dependent Na+-Ca2+ Exchangers Associated with Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Non-syndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloul, Ali H.; Rogasevskaia, Tatiana P.; Szerencsei, Robert T.; Schnetkamp, Paul P. M.

    2016-01-01

    K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchangers belong to the solute carrier 24 (SLC24A1–5) gene family of membrane transporters. Five different gene products (NCKX1–5) have been identified in humans, which play key roles in biological processes including vision, olfaction, and skin pigmentation. NCKXs are bi-directional membrane transporters that transport 1 Ca2++K+ ions in exchange for 4 Na+ ions. Recent studies have linked mutations in the SLC24A4 (NCKX4) and SLC24A5 (NCKX5) genes to amylogenesis imperfecta (AI) and non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA6), respectively. Here, we introduced mutations found in patients with AI and OCA6 into human SLC24A4 (NCKX4) cDNA leading to single residue substitutions in the mutant NCKX4 proteins. We measured NCKX-mediated Ca2+ transport activity of WT and mutant NCKX4 proteins expressed in HEK293 cells. Three mutant NCKX4 cDNAs represent mutations found in the SCL24A4 gene and three represent mutations found in the SCL24A5 gene involving residues conserved between NCKX4 and NCKX5. Five mutant proteins had no observable NCKX activity, whereas one mutation resulted in a 78% reduction in transport activity. Total protein expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane (the latter with one exception) were not affected in the HEK293 cell expression system. We also analyzed two mutations in a Drosophila NCKX gene that have been reported to result in an increased susceptibility for seizures, and found that both resulted in mutant proteins with significantly reduced but observable NCKX activity. The data presented here support the genetic analyses that mutations in SLC24A4 and SLC24A5 are responsible for the phenotypic defects observed in human patients. PMID:27129268

  11. A Functional Study of Mutations in K+-dependent Na+-Ca2+ Exchangers Associated with Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Non-syndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloul, Ali H; Rogasevskaia, Tatiana P; Szerencsei, Robert T; Schnetkamp, Paul P M

    2016-06-17

    K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers belong to the solute carrier 24 (SLC24A1-5) gene family of membrane transporters. Five different gene products (NCKX1-5) have been identified in humans, which play key roles in biological processes including vision, olfaction, and skin pigmentation. NCKXs are bi-directional membrane transporters that transport 1 Ca(2+)+K(+) ions in exchange for 4 Na(+) ions. Recent studies have linked mutations in the SLC24A4 (NCKX4) and SLC24A5 (NCKX5) genes to amylogenesis imperfecta (AI) and non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA6), respectively. Here, we introduced mutations found in patients with AI and OCA6 into human SLC24A4 (NCKX4) cDNA leading to single residue substitutions in the mutant NCKX4 proteins. We measured NCKX-mediated Ca(2+) transport activity of WT and mutant NCKX4 proteins expressed in HEK293 cells. Three mutant NCKX4 cDNAs represent mutations found in the SCL24A4 gene and three represent mutations found in the SCL24A5 gene involving residues conserved between NCKX4 and NCKX5. Five mutant proteins had no observable NCKX activity, whereas one mutation resulted in a 78% reduction in transport activity. Total protein expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane (the latter with one exception) were not affected in the HEK293 cell expression system. We also analyzed two mutations in a Drosophila NCKX gene that have been reported to result in an increased susceptibility for seizures, and found that both resulted in mutant proteins with significantly reduced but observable NCKX activity. The data presented here support the genetic analyses that mutations in SLC24A4 and SLC24A5 are responsible for the phenotypic defects observed in human patients. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. CCR9 interactions support ovarian cancer cell survival and resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Erica L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is more often used to treat ovarian cancer (OvCa, which provides modest survival advantage primarily due to chemo-resistance and up regulated anti-apoptotic machineries in OvCa cells. Therefore, targeting the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance in OvCa cell may improve therapeutic outcomes. We have shown that ovarian cancer cells express CC chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9. Others have also shown that CCL25, the only natural ligand for CCR9, up regulates anti-apoptotic proteins in immature T lymphocytes. Hence, it is plausible that CCR9-mediated cell signals might be involved in OvCa cell survival and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanisms of CCR9-mediated inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OvCa cells. Methods Cell proliferation, vibrant apoptosis, and TUNEL assays were performed with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25 to determine the role of the CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin resistance. In situ Fast Activated cell-based ELISA (FACE assays were performed to determine anti-apoptotic signaling molecules responsible for CCL25-CCR9 mediated survival. Results Our results show interactions between CCR9 and CCL25 increased anti-apoptotic signaling cascades in OvCa cells, which rescued cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Specifically, CCL25-CCR9 interactions mediated Akt, activation as well as GSK-3β and FKHR phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest the CCR9-CCL25 axis plays an important role in reducing cisplatin-induced apoptosis of OvCa cells.

  13. CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote cisplatin resistance in breast cancer cell through Akt activation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillard James W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy heavily relies on apoptosis to kill breast cancer (BrCa cells. Many breast tumors respond to chemotherapy, but cells that survive this initial response gain resistance to subsequent treatments. This leads to aggressive cell variants with an enhanced ability to migrate, invade and survive at secondary sites. Metastasis and chemoresistance are responsible for most cancer-related deaths; hence, therapies designed to minimize both are greatly needed. We have recently shown that CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote BrCa cell migration and invasion, while others have shown that this axis play important role in T cell survival. In this study we have shown potential role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in breast cancer cell survival and therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. Methods Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation, Vybrant apoptosis and TUNEL assays were performed to ascertain the role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of BrCa cells. Fast Activated Cell-based ELISA (FACE assay was used to quantify In situ activation of PI3Kp85, AktSer473, GSK-3βSer9 and FKHRThr24 in breast cancer cells with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25. Results CCR9-CCL25 axis provides survival advantage to BrCa cells and inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and focal adhesion kinase (FAK-independent fashion. Furthermore, CCR9-CCL25 axis activates cell-survival signals through Akt and subsequent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β and forkhead in human rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR inactivation. These results show that CCR9-CCL25 axis play important role in BrCa cell survival and low chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin primarily through PI3K/Akt dependent fashion.

  14. CCR9 interactions support ovarian cancer cell survival and resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica L; Singh, Rajesh; Johnson-Holiday, Crystal M; Grizzle, William E; Partridge, Edward E; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2010-06-17

    Cisplatin is more often used to treat ovarian cancer (OvCa), which provides modest survival advantage primarily due to chemo-resistance and up regulated anti-apoptotic machineries in OvCa cells. Therefore, targeting the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance in OvCa cell may improve therapeutic outcomes. We have shown that ovarian cancer cells express CC chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9). Others have also shown that CCL25, the only natural ligand for CCR9, up regulates anti-apoptotic proteins in immature T lymphocytes. Hence, it is plausible that CCR9-mediated cell signals might be involved in OvCa cell survival and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanisms of CCR9-mediated inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OvCa cells. Cell proliferation, vibrant apoptosis, and TUNEL assays were performed with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25 to determine the role of the CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin resistance. In situ Fast Activated cell-based ELISA (FACE) assays were performed to determine anti-apoptotic signaling molecules responsible for CCL25-CCR9 mediated survival. Our results show interactions between CCR9 and CCL25 increased anti-apoptotic signaling cascades in OvCa cells, which rescued cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Specifically, CCL25-CCR9 interactions mediated Akt, activation as well as GSK-3beta and FKHR phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion. Our results suggest the CCR9-CCL25 axis plays an important role in reducing cisplatin-induced apoptosis of OvCa cells.

  15. CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote cisplatin resistance in breast cancer cell through Akt activation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Holiday, Crystal; Singh, Rajesh; Johnson, Erica L; Grizzle, William E; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2011-05-03

    Chemotherapy heavily relies on apoptosis to kill breast cancer (BrCa) cells. Many breast tumors respond to chemotherapy, but cells that survive this initial response gain resistance to subsequent treatments. This leads to aggressive cell variants with an enhanced ability to migrate, invade and survive at secondary sites. Metastasis and chemoresistance are responsible for most cancer-related deaths; hence, therapies designed to minimize both are greatly needed. We have recently shown that CCR9-CCL25 interactions promote BrCa cell migration and invasion, while others have shown that this axis play important role in T cell survival. In this study we have shown potential role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in breast cancer cell survival and therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, Vybrant apoptosis and TUNEL assays were performed to ascertain the role of CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of BrCa cells. Fast Activated Cell-based ELISA (FACE) assay was used to quantify In situ activation of PI3Kp85, AktSer473, GSK-3βSer9 and FKHRThr24 in breast cancer cells with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25. CCR9-CCL25 axis provides survival advantage to BrCa cells and inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-independent fashion. Furthermore, CCR9-CCL25 axis activates cell-survival signals through Akt and subsequent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and forkhead in human rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) inactivation. These results show that CCR9-CCL25 axis play important role in BrCa cell survival and low chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin primarily through PI3K/Akt dependent fashion.

  16. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D

    1981-09-01

    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis.

  17. K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 3 is involved in renal active calcium transport and is differentially expressed in the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-08-01

    Previously, we reported that renal active calcium-transporting genes are highly expressed in female mice and suggested that renal calcium-processing genes play a critical role in normal calcium reabsorption in females (Lee GS, Lee KY, Choi KC, Ryu YH, Paik SG, Oh GT, Jeung EB. J Bone Miner Res 22: 1968-1978, 2007). In the current study, we evaluated the differential expression of renal calcium-processing genes in male and female mice. Using microarray analysis, we identified K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 3 (NCKX3) as a gene that was differentially expressed in the kidneys of female and male mice. The expression levels of renal NCKX3 mRNA and protein were higher in female than in male mice, whereas there was no difference between the genders in the levels of NCKX3 expression in the brain. Renal NCKX3 localized to the basolateral layer of distal convoluted tubules, indicating that this protein participates in renal calcium reabsorption. To identify putative regulators in the gender-specific expression of NCKX3, several hormones were injected into mature female and male mice. Although any hormones did not alter NCKX3 expression, adrenal gland-secreted hormones aldosterone and hydrocortisone did downregulate renal NCKX3 mRNA expression in female mice, but they did not change its protein levels. Taken together, the results in this study suggest that a high level of renal NCKX3 expression maintain in distal convoluted tubules may play a role in active calcium transport in the kidneys of female mice.

  18. Vitamin deficiencies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, T M; Williams, S N; Graham, T W

    1991-03-01

    Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, K, E and thiamin can cause severe limitations in beef production. In particular, vitamin A and E can be common causes of lost profit, secondary to limitations of reproductive and growth potential. Prolonged dry periods will reduce available A and E in pasture forage, as can ensiling and prolonged storage of harvested feedstuffs. Polioencephalomalacia is a thiamin responsive disorder, associated with high concentrate feeding and lush pastures. Antimetabolites, such as amprolium, will cause thiamine deficiency when fed in excess. Recent information has shown improved performance with supplemental beta carotene and niacin. The positive responses in reproductive performance, noted with cattle fed supplemental beta carotene, was independent of vitamin A. Supplementation of vitamins above National Research Council recommendations can be justified. However, proper evaluation of feed and animal status, and documentation of a response to supplementation is necessary before diagnosing deficiencies of specific nutrients.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease osteoporosis. Severe vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Both problems cause soft, ... The oral dose is once daily or weekly. Children with rickets or at risk of this disease may get ...

  20. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... nations where high numbers of people have limited diets. One of the first signs of vitamin A ...

  1. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... nutritional status. B vitamins are absorbed from the diet, used as needed, and any excess is removed ...

  2. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Lactation Consultant Association About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While breastfeeding ...

  3. Vitamin D for infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Hannelie; Decallonne, Brigitte; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Current data clearly support an interaction of vitamin D with cells of the immune system apart from its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. The discovery that immune cells express the vitamin D receptor and are capable of metabolizing circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D into its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has revolutionized the field and suggested a regulatory role on both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Of particular interest with respect to infectious diseases, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has been shown to trigger the production of antimicrobial peptides with a direct pathogen-killing capacity. Interestingly, pathogen-derived components influence the key players in the vitamin D metabolizing pathway, further supporting such an interaction. Here, we review the potential mechanisms of vitamin D in promoting the innate immune response against infectious agents and discuss the possible implications for such a response in the prevention of or the intervention in various infectious diseases.

  4. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified ... B12 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, ...

  5. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kempker, Jordan A; Jenny E. Han; Tangpricha, Vin; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Martin, Greg S.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and sepsis are both highly prevalent worldwide problems and this article reviews the emerging science that is defining the intersections of these conditions. The importance of vitamin D’s role in skeletal health has long been understood but recent evidence is beginning to highlight its role in the functioning of other physiologic systems of the body. Basic science data reveal its integral role in local immune responses to pathogens and the systemic inflammatory pathway...

  7. Identification of the Large Subunit of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase as a Substrate for Transglutaminase in Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margosiak, Stephen A.; Dharma, Abdi; Bruce-Carver, Megan R.; Gonzales, Andrea P.; Louie, Donna; Kuehn, Glenn D.

    1990-01-01

    Extracts prepared from floral meristematic tissue of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated for expression of the enzyme transglutaminase in order to identify the major protein substrate for transglutaminase-directed modifications among plant proteins. The large polymorphic subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in alfalfa, with molecular weights of 52,700 and 57,600, are major substrates for transglutaminase in these extracts. This was established by: (a) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit followed by fluorescent detection in SDS-polyacrylamide gels; (b) covalent conjugation of [14C]putrescine to the large subunit with detection by autoradiography; (c) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit and demonstration of immunocross-reactivity on nitrocellulose transblot of the modified large subunit with antibody prepared in rabbits against dansylated-ovalbumin; (d) demonstration of a direct dependence of the rate of transglutaminase-mediated, [14C]putrescine incorporation upon the concentration of ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from alfalfa or spinach; and (e) presumptive evidence from size exclusion chromatography that transglutaminase may cofractionate with native molecules of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in crude extracts. Analysis of the primary structure of plant large subunit has revealed numerous potential glutaminyl and lysyl sites for transglutaminase-directed modifications of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667270

  8. The cyclic keto-enol insecticide spirotetramat inhibits insect and spider mite acetyl-CoA carboxylases by interfering with the carboxyltransferase partial reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lümmen, P.; Khajehali, J.; Luther, K.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the committed and rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. The two partial reactions, carboxylation of biotin followed by carboxyl transfer to the acceptor acetyl-CoA, are performed by two separate domains in animal ACCs. The cyclic keto-enol insecticides

  9. VITAMIN D IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Radović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its antiproliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists.

  10. Suboptimal vitamin K status and its risk factors in a population of Chinese chronic haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunlin; Ruan, Yizhe; He, Qiang; Zhang, Wensong; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin K deficiency is known to be common in haemodialysis patients and associates with adverse outcomes in this population, particularly vascular calcification. We aimed to investigate the vitamin K status in a population of Chinese haemodialysis (HD) patients. We collected demographic and biochemical data from a population of maintenance HD (MHD) patients in our unit and a control group composed of healthy subjects from our outpatient clinic. Fasting serum samples from all subjects were collected for the measurement of known vitamin K-dependent proteins i.e. matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteocalcin (OC) and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). We also quantified the fraction of ucOC to total OC (%ucOC). Differences of these parameters between groups were analyzed and risk factors of vitamin K deficiency based on the definition as per %ucOC were investigated. We enrolled 93 MHD patients as a test group and 93 healthy subjects as a control group. There was no significant difference in MGP between groups (4.0 ± 2.8 pg/mL in MHD vs 4.2 ± 1.2 pg/mL in control; P = 0.676). Mean %ucOC was significantly greater in the MHD patients as compared to control subjects (76.4 ± 20.0% in MHD vs 48.56 ± 15.5%; P vitamin K deficiency, with the former being an independent risk factor. Defining Vitamin K deficiency by %ucOC, suboptimal vitamin K levels appear common in Chinese MHD patients. Time on dialysis and LDL cholesterol level predict vitamin K deficiency. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. Activity ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase accurately reflect carbamylation ratios. [Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacla oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, N.D.; Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Activity ratios and carbamylation ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were determined for leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Spinacia oleracea exposed to a variety of partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and photon flux densities (PFD). It was found that activity ratios accurately predicted carbamylation ratios except in extracts from leaves held in low PFD. In particular, it was confirmed that the loss of FuBPCase activity in low partial pressure of O{sub 2} and high PFD results from reduced carbamylation. Activity ratios of RuBPCase were lower than carbamylation ratios for Phaseolus leaves sampled in low PFD, presumably because of the presence of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate. Spinacia leaves sampled in darkness also exhibited lower activity ratios than carbamylation ratios indicating that this species may also have an RuBPCase inhibitor even though carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate has not been detected in this species in the past.

  12. Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Xu

    Full Text Available Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

  13. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has a potential acetone carboxylase that enhances its ability to colonize mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachary, Priyanka; Wang, Ge; Benoit, Stéphane L; Weinberg, Michael V; Maier, Robert J; Hoover, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is the etiological agent of peptic ulcer disease. All three H. pylori strains that have been sequenced to date contain a potential operon whose products share homology with the subunits of acetone carboxylase (encoded by acxABC) from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 and Rhodobacter capsulatus strain B10. Acetone carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetone to acetoacetate. Genes upstream of the putative acxABC operon encode enzymes that convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, which is metabolized further to generate two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Results To determine if the H. pylori acxABC operon has a role in host colonization the acxB homolog in the mouse-adapted H. pylori SS1 strain was inactivated with a chloramphenicol-resistance (cat) cassette. In mouse colonization studies the numbers of H. pylori recovered from mice inoculated with the acxB:cat mutant were generally one to two orders of magnitude lower than those recovered from mice inoculated with the parental strain. A statistical analysis of the data using a Wilcoxin Rank test indicated the differences in the numbers of H. pylori isolated from mice inoculated with the two strains were significant at the 99% confidence level. Levels of acetone associated with gastric tissue removed from uninfected mice were measured and found to range from 10–110 μmols per gram wet weight tissue. Conclusion The colonization defect of the acxB:cat mutant suggests a role for the acxABC operon in survival of the bacterium in the stomach. Products of the H. pylori acxABC operon may function primarily in acetone utilization or may catalyze a related reaction that is important for survival or growth in the host. H. pylori encounters significant levels of acetone in the stomach which it could use as a potential electron donor for microaerobic respiration. PMID:18215283

  14. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  15. Vitamins and Other Nutrients during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight & fitness > Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy E-mail to ... supplements without your provider’s OK. What are prenatal vitamins? Prenatal vitamins are multivitamins made just for pregnant ...

  16. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... deficient ” or has a “ vitamin deficiency ”. What is vitamin K and why is it important? Vitamin K is ...

  17. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  18. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... follow any instructions for not eating before the test. ... This test is done to determine if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood.

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins (video) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Update Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ... Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... consuming foods, with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health ... acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health care providers before combining or substituting them with other ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ... Needs According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There ... Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a " ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety ...

  12. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can ... Don’t do this: Don’t take antioxidant vitamin supplements such as A, C and E . Scientific evidence ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter multivitamins. According to ... for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as ... to spot false claims. If something sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Examples of ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental ...

  16. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Is it possible to take too much vitamin C? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq- ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary ... and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  19. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers ... FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

  4. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  5. Vitamin D Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms of vitamin D that are important for nutrition: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 mainly comes ... from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-d National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ...

  6. Vitamin D and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available D vitamine metabolites are necessary nutrients for the human body, they perform important functions. Vitamin D deficiency leads to the development of many somatic diseases, as well as diseases of the periodontal tissues. Pleiotropic effects of vitamin D on periodontal tissues include the impact on parodontopatogens, regulation of the immune response and metabolism of the skeletal system.

  7. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Vink-Van Wijngaarden (Trudy)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractVitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus blood levels and bone metabolism via effects on intestine, kidney, and bone. Vitamin D is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet irradiation or is taken up from dietary sources. Vitamin D must be metabolically altered

  8. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.R.; Gaksch, M.; Grubler, M.; Pilz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  11. Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Joyce C; Ames, Bruce N

    2009-10-01

    The triage theory posits that some functions of micronutrients (the approximately 40 essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids) are restricted during shortage and that functions required for short-term survival take precedence over those that are less essential. Insidious changes accumulate as a consequence of restriction, which increases the risk of diseases of aging. For 16 known vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, we evaluated the relative lethality of 11 known mouse knockout mutants to categorize essentiality. Results indicate that 5 VKD proteins that are required for coagulation had critical functions (knockouts were embryonic lethal), whereas the knockouts of 5 less critical VKD proteins [osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (Mgp), growth arrest specific protein 6, transforming growth factor beta-inducible protein (Tgfbi or betaig-h3), and periostin] survived at least through weaning. The VKD gamma-carboxylation of the 5 essential VKD proteins in the liver and the 5 nonessential proteins in nonhepatic tissues sets up a dichotomy that takes advantage of the preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K1 to the liver to preserve coagulation function when vitamin K1 is limiting. Genetic loss of less critical VKD proteins, dietary vitamin K inadequacy, human polymorphisms or mutations, and vitamin K deficiency induced by chronic anticoagulant (warfarin/coumadin) therapy are all linked to age-associated conditions: bone fragility after estrogen loss (osteocalcin) and arterial calcification linked to cardiovascular disease (Mgp). There is increased spontaneous cancer in Tgfbi mouse knockouts, and knockdown of Tgfbi causes mitotic spindle abnormalities. A triage perspective reinforces recommendations of some experts that much of the population and warfarin/coumadin patients may not receive sufficient vitamin K for optimal function of VKD proteins that are important to maintain long-term health.

  12. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  13. [Vitamin D and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Jade; Viard, Jean-Paul

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in the synthesis of antibacterial peptids and in autophagy. Several studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D are associated with the susceptibility and the severity of acute infections on one hand, and with an unfavorable outcome of some chronic infections (such as HIV infection). Vitamin D supplementation improves response to treatment of some viral (such as chronic hepatitis C infection) or bacterial infections (such as pulmonar tuberculosis). Vitamin D supplementation demonstrated no benefit in reducing the incidence of pulmonary infections. The target level of vitamin D to be reached after supplementation is not known yet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive

  15. Vitamin contents of archaebacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, K M; Barber, T S

    1988-01-01

    The levels of six water-soluble vitamins of seven archaebacterial species were determined and compared with the levels found in a eubacterium, Escherichia coli. Biotin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, and lipoic acid contents of Halobacterium volcanii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H, "Archaeoglobus fulgidus" VC-16, Thermococcus celer, Pyrodictium occultum, Thermoproteus tenax, and Sulfolobus solfataricus were measured by using bioassays. The archaebacte...

  16. Vitamin D and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Miragliotta, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1920s the antirachitic effect of food irradiated with ultraviolet light and cod liver oil has been recognized. The antirachitic substance was identified and called "vitamin D". Since then the key role of vitamin D in calcium and bone homeostasis has been investigated. Moreover, it has been recognized that vitamin D is able to modulate a variety of processes and regulatory systems such as host defense, inflammation, immunity, and repair. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is likely to be an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, as well as it has been associated with higher mortality rate for respiratory disease. In this regard, either observational studies aimed to verify an association between low vitamin D level and the incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) or clinical trials on the effect of vitamin D as a supplementary treatment in RTIs patients have been presented in the emerging clinical literature. Conflicting results have been demonstrated in several randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials concerning the vitamin D treatment in tuberculosis. Some studies suggest a beneficial effect by vitamin D but it could not be reproduced in larger studies so far. In conclusion, although basic science research suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in modulating immune functions, no strong evidence exists whether correction of vitamin D depletion may be useful in the prevention or treatment of infections. Further and larger studies may clarify the role of vitamin D in infection.

  17. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  18. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  19. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  20. QSAR Study of the Inhibitors of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 and 2 using Bayesian Regularized Genetic Neural Networks: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abolfazl; Asadollahi-Baboli, Mohammad; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Linear and non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were presented for modeling and predicting anti-diabetic activities of a set of inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2). Different algorithms were utilized to choose the best variables among large numbers of descriptors and then these selected descriptors were used for non-linear (artificial neural network) and linear (multiple linear regression) modeling. The variable selection methods were ...

  1. Diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes in the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ

    Partial sequences of the form I (cbbL) and form II (cbbM) of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large subunit genes were obtained from the brine and interface of the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin Discovery. CbbL and cbbM genes were found in both brine and

  2. Identification of the large subunit of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase as a substrate for transglutaminase in Medicageo sativa L. (alfalfa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margosiak, S.A.; Dharma, A.; Carver, M.R.B.; Gonzales, A.P., Louie, D.; Kuehn, G.D. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Extract prepared from floral meristematic tissue of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated for expression of the enzyme transglutaminase in order to identify the major protein substrate for transglutaminase-directed modifications among plant proteins. The large polymorphic subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in alfalfa, with molecular weights of 52,700 and 57,600, are major substrates for transglutaminase in these extracts. This was established by: (a) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit followed by fluorescent detection in SDS-polyacrylamide gels; (b) covalent conjugation of ({sup 14}C)putrescine to the large subunit with detection by autoradiography; (c) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit and demonstration of immunocross-reactivity on nitrocellulose transblot of the modified large subunit with antibody prepared in rabbits against dansylated-ovalbumin; (d) demonstration of a direct dependence of the rate of transglutaminase-mediated, ({sup 14}C)putresciene incorporation upon the concentration of ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from alfalfa or spinach; and (e) presumptive evidence from size exclusion chromatography that transglutaminase may cofractionate with native molecules of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in crude extracts.

  3. Inactivation of pycA, encoding pyruvate carboxylase activity, increases poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in Azotobacter vinelandii on solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, D; Espín, G

    2004-09-01

    Strain AJ1678, an Azotobacter vinelandii mutant overproducing the storage polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in solid but not liquid complex medium with sucrose, was isolated after mini-Tn5 mutagenesis of strain UW136. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the affected locus led to identification of pycA, encoding a protein with high identity to the biotin carboxylase subunit of pyruvate carboxylase enzyme (PYC). A gene ( pycB) whose product is similar to the biotin-carrying subunit of PYC is present immediately downstream from pycA. An assay of pyruvate carboxylase activity and an avidin-blot analysis confirmed that pycA and pycB encode the two subunits of this enzyme. In many organisms, PYC catalyzes ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to generate oxaloacetate and is responsible for replenishing oxaloacetate for continued operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We propose that the pycA mutation causes a slow-down in the TCA cycle activity due to a low oxaloacetate concentration, resulting in a higher availability of acetyl-CoA for the synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.

  4. Enhanced rat beta-cell proliferation in 60% pancreatectomized islets by increased glucose metabolic flux through pyruvate carboxylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y Q; Han, J; Epstein, P N; Long, Y S

    2005-03-01

    Islet beta-cell proliferation is a very important component of beta-cell adaptation to insulin resistance and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, we know little about the mechanisms of beta-cell proliferation. We now investigate the relationship between pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway activity and islet cell proliferation 5 days after 60% pancreatectomy (Px). Islet cell number, protein, and DNA content, indicators of beta-cell proliferation, were increased two- to threefold 5 days after Px. PC and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities increased only approximately 1.3-fold; however, islet pyruvate content and malate release from isolated islet mitochondria were approximately threefold increased in Px islets. The latter is an indicator of pyruvate-malate cycle activity, indicating that most of the increased pyruvate was converted to oxaloacetate (OAA) through the PC pathway. The contents of OAA and malate, intermediates of the pyruvate-malate cycle, were also increased threefold. PDH and citrate content were only slightly increased. Importantly, the changes in cell proliferation parameters, glucose utilization, and oxidation and malate release were partially blocked by in vivo treatment with the PC inhibitor phenylacetic acid. Our results suggest that enhanced PC pathway in Px islets may have an important role in islet cell proliferation.

  5. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 suppression rescues human proximal tubular cells from palmitic acid induced lipotoxicity via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Lei; Xu, Ying; Li, Zhaoping; Chen, Liyong; Wang, Xiaojie; Yi, Fan; Wan, Qiang

    2015-07-31

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades damaged proteins and organelles in mammalian cells. Although acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) plays a crucial role in the fatty acid metabolism, it keeps unknown whether ACC2 is associated with autophagic activity. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of ACC2 on palmitic acid (PA) induced lipotoxicity in human proximal tubular cells and the putative role of autophagy in this process. Here we show that autophagy was induced by PA in HK-2 cells. Moreover, the PA induced autophagy was regulated both by ACC2 suppression and CPTI inhibitor treatment, which represent an altered fatty acid β-oxidation. And the knockdown of ACC2 reduced PA-induced autophagy and thus protects the cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity with attenuated lipid accumulation and rescued cell viability. Collectively, the present study proposed a novel autophagy-involved mechanism of PA-induced renal lipotoxicity and provided potential therapeutic strategy by modulating lipid β-oxidation for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple isoforms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the Orchidaceae (subtribe Oncidiinae): implications for the evolution of crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Katia; Winter, Klaus; Rodriguez, B Leticia; Albion, Rebecca L; Cushman, John C

    2014-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) catalyses the initial fixation of atmospheric CO2 into oxaloacetate and subsequently malate. Nocturnal accumulation of malic acid within the vacuole of photosynthetic cells is a typical feature of plants that perform crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). PEPC is a ubiquitous plant enzyme encoded by a small gene family, and each member encodes an isoform with specialized function. CAM-specific PEPC isoforms probably evolved from ancestral non-photosynthetic isoforms by gene duplication events and subsequent acquisition of transcriptional control elements that mediate increased leaf-specific or photosynthetic-tissue-specific mRNA expression. To understand the patterns of functional diversification related to the expression of CAM, ppc gene families and photosynthetic patterns were characterized in 11 closely related orchid species from the subtribe Oncidiinae with a range of photosynthetic pathways from C3 photosynthesis (Oncidium cheirophorum, Oncidium maduroi, Rossioglossum krameri, and Oncidium sotoanum) to weak CAM (Oncidium panamense, Oncidium sphacelatum, Gomesa flexuosa and Rossioglossum insleayi) and strong CAM (Rossioglossum ampliatum, Trichocentrum nanum, and Trichocentrum carthagenense). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two main ppc lineages in flowering plants, two main ppc lineages within the eudicots, and three ppc lineages within the Orchidaceae. Our results indicate that ppc gene family expansion within the Orchidaceae is likely to be the result of gene duplication events followed by adaptive sequence divergence. CAM-associated PEPC isoforms in the Orchidaceae probably evolved from several independent origins. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Carbonyl sulfide: an alternate substrate for but not an activator of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, G H; Pierce, J

    1989-02-15

    Carbonyl sulfide, a competitive inhibitor of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase with respect to CO2 (Laing, W. A., and Christeller, J. T. (1980) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 202, 592-600), is an alternate substrate. Thiocarboxylation was monitored by mass spectrometry as the stoichiometric consumption of carbonyl sulfide. The product, 1-thio-3-phosphoglycerate, was identified by 13C NMR and UV absorption spectroscopy and measured by enzymic conversion to thiolactate, coupled to the oxidation of NADH. The expected stoichiometry of thiocarboxylation was confirmed. The maximal rates of thiocarboxylation for the spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum enzymes were close to the maximal rates of carboxylation for these two enzymes. Both enzymes favored CO2 over carbonyl sulfide (with Mg2+ as metal ion) by a factor of about 110. Thiocarboxylation could only be demonstrated with enzymes carbamylated with CO2. Incubation of the carbamylated E.ACO2.Mg complex with excess carbonyl sulfide caused the displacement of the activator carbamate. The thiocarbamylated enzyme was catalytically incompetent and did not form a stable quaternary complex with 2'-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate. Incubation of the thiocarbamylated enzyme with excess CO2 resulted in the displacement of the thiocarbamate, the re-formation of the carbamylated E.ACO2.Mg complex and the restoration of catalytic competence. Computergraphic simulation of the thiocarbamylated quaternary complex indicated unfavorable van der Waals interactions associated with the thiocarbamate.

  8. Salt Stress Increases the Level of Translatable mRNA for Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrem, James A.; Olson, Steve W.; Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1987-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to salt stress by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). During this transition the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) increases in soluble protein extracts from leaf tissue. We monitored CAM induction in plants irrigated with 0.5 molar NaCl for 5 days during the fourth, fifth, and sixth week after germination. Our results indicate that the age of the plant influenced the response to salt stress. There was no increase in PEPCase protein or PEPCase enzyme activity when plants were irrigated with 0.5 molar NaCl during the fourth and fifth week after germination. However, PEPCase activity increased within 2 to 3 days when plants were salt stressed during the sixth week after germination. Immunoblot analysis with anti-PEPCase antibodies showed that PEPCase synthesis was induced in both expanded leaves and in newly developing axillary shoot tissue. The increase in PEPCase protein was paralleled by an increase in PEPCase mRNA as assayed by immunoprecipitation of PEPCase from the in vitro translation products of RNA from salt-stressed plants. These results demonstrate that salinity increased the level of PEPCase in leaf and shoot tissue via a stress-induced increase in the steady-state level of translatable mRNA for this enzyme. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665596

  9. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  10. The phenomenon of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Gruber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of vitamin D (VDR is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most “sun consumers” know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention.

  11. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  12. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  13. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  14. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Phillips

    Full Text Available An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol. Vitamin D(4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3H] itamin D(3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively. Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4 content was more than twice that of D(2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4 coeluted with D(3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2 in mushrooms and using D(3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3 and D(4.

  15. The association between vitamin K status and knee osteoarthritis features in older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M K; Kritchevsky, S B; Hsu, F-C; Nevitt, M; Booth, S L; Kwoh, C K; McAlindon, T E; Vermeer, C; Drummen, N; Harris, T B; Womack, C; Loeser, R F

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, including the mineralization inhibitor matrix-gla protein (MGP), are found in joint tissues including cartilage and bone. Previous studies suggest low vitamin K status is associated with higher osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence and incidence. To clarify what joint tissues vitamin K is relevant to in OA, we investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between vitamin K status and knee OA structural features measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Plasma phylloquinone (PK, vitamin K1) and dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP ((dp)ucMGP) were measured in 791 older community-dwelling adults who had bilateral knee MRIs (mean ± SD age = 74 ± 3 y; 67% female). The adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) [OR (95%CI)] for presence and progression of knee OA features according to vitamin K status were calculated using marginal models with generalized estimating equations (GEEs), adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides and other pertinent confounders. Longitudinally, participants with very low plasma PK (vitamin K status) was associated with higher odds of meniscus damage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, and subarticular cysts cross-sectionally [ORs (95% CIs) comparing highest to lowest quartile: 1.6(1.1-2.3); 1.7(1.1-2.5); 1.9(1.3-2.8); 1.5(1.0-2.1), respectively]. Community-dwelling men and women with very low plasma PK were more likely to have progression of articular cartilage and meniscus damage. Plasma (dp)ucMGP was associated with presence of knee OA features but not progression. Future studies are needed to clarify mechanisms underlying vitamin Ks role in OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D and Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    children. Termorshuizen F, et al. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 2004; 20: 270-271. Vitamin D Metabolism John Cannell and Bruce... ozone easily filters out Ultra Violet B radiation unless the sun is high enough in the sky. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D levels Cannell JJ, Vieth R...could be easily measured, and such measurement could guide therapy using UV light or through diet. Acknowledgements Cannell JJ Vieth R Holick MF

  17. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  18. Vitamin D and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyesser Saykı Arslan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH2D3, has an antiproliferative, anti-apopitotic and prodifferentiating effects in several tumour types in preclinical studies. Several studies reported the impact of vitamin D on cancer risk particularly in breast and colorectal cancer however, its effect on thyroid cancer is less known. This review focuses on the relationship of vitamin D and thyroid cancer under the light of the litherature. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer and also vitamin D deficiency is a common condition throughout the world. Some clinical studies showed that vitamin D deficiency is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. Preclinical studies evidenced that vitamin D has an effect on differentiation, reduction in tumor burden, and prevention of metastatic growth in thyroid cancer used alone or in combination with anticancer drugs. However, further clinical studies are needed to understand its impact on prognosis of thyroid cancer.

  19. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Amrein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Vitamin D toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Maji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of lethargy, memory impairment, confusion, anorexia and gait imbalance for 2 weeks duration. She did not have any history of fall or head injury. She had total hip replacement 1 year back and was on orthopedic follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on admission revealed no focal abnormalities. Routine biochemistry detected hypercalcemia, and she was treated with I/V fluid, diuretics and glucocorticoids. She was screened thoroughly to exclude occult malignancy. After 7 days of admission, a follow-up orthopedic prescription revealed that she was getting inj. Arachitol 6 lac units every week for last 3 months. On the 9 th day of admission, she was detected to have very high serum 25(OH vitamin D level (254.70 ng/ml. Patient was discharged after 2 weeks after her serum calcium came down to normal range with the advice of no dietary calcium and vitamin D intake. Her 25(OH vitamin D level remained high for the next 6 months. Now she is completely asymptomatic and her serum 25(OH D is normal.

  2. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....

  3. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-01-01

    In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular...

  4. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print ... here’s what you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your ...

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  6. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  7. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  8. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Krone, Wilhelm; Berthold, Heiner K

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a potential risk factor for many diseases not traditionally associated with vitamin D, such as cancer and CVD. This review discusses the evidence suggesting an association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and CVD and the possible mechanisms mediating it. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with CVD risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis such as intima-media thickness and coronary calcification as well as with cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke as well as congestive heart failure. It could be suggested that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the development of CVD through its association with risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension. However, direct effects of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system may also be involved. Vitamin D receptors are expressed in a variety of tissues, including cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells and vitamin D has been shown to affect inflammation and cell proliferation and differentiation. While much evidence supports a potential antiatherosclerotic effect of vitamin D, prospective, placebo-controlled randomized as well as mechanistic studies are needed to confirm this association. Since vitamin D deficiency is easy to screen for and treat, the confirmation of such an association could have important implications for both, patient care and health policy.

  9. Mutations in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in patients with propionic acidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, E.; Leon-Del-Rio, A.; Gravel, R.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). PCC has the structure {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4}, with the {alpha} subunit containing the biotin prosthetic group. This study is concerned with defining the spectrum of mutations occurring in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit. Mutations were initially assigned to this gene through complementation experiments done after somatic fusion of patient fibroblasts. The analyses were performed on PCR-amplified reverse transcripts of fibroblast RNA. The mutations were identified by single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of PCR products. Three candidate disease-causing mutations and one DNA polymorphism were identified in the {alpha} subunit sequence in different patients: (1) a 3 bp deletion {triangle}CTG{sub 2058-2060}, which eliminates Cys687 near the biotin binding site (Lys669); (2) T{sub 611}{r_arrow}A which converts Met204 to Lys in a highly conserved region matching that of an ATP binding site; (3) An {approximately}50 bp deletion near the 3{prime} end of the cDNA which likely corresponds to the loss of an exon due to a splicing defect; and (4) a 3 bp insertion, +CAG{sub 2203}, located downstream of the stop codon, which is likely a DNA polymorphism. In order to determine the effect of the Cys687 deletion on the biotinylation of PCC, we expressed the mutation in a 67 amino acid C-terminal fragment of the PCC {alpha} subunit in E. coli in which biotinylation is directed by the bacterial biotin ligase. While the mutant peptide was expressed at about half-normal levels, the biotinylation of the peptide that was present was reduced to only {approximately}20% normal. We suggest, therefore, that the absence of PCC activity due to {triangle}Cys687 results at least in part from defective biotinylation of an unstable protein.

  10. Metabolic regulation of invadopodia and invasion by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and de novo lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristen E N; Wheeler, Frances B; Davis, Amanda L; Thomas, Michael J; Ntambi, James M; Seals, Darren F; Kridel, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Invadopodia are membrane protrusions that facilitate matrix degradation and cellular invasion. Although lipids have been implicated in several aspects of invadopodia formation, the contributions of de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis have not been defined. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), the committed step of fatty acid synthesis, reduced invadopodia formation in Src-transformed 3T3 (3T3-Src) cells, and also decreased the ability to degrade gelatin. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation and ACC phosphorylation also decreased invadopodia incidence. The addition of exogenous 16∶0 and 18∶1 fatty acid, products of de novo fatty acid synthesis, restored invadopodia and gelatin degradation to cells with decreased ACC1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also altered the phospholipid profile of 3T3-Src cells, with the majority of changes occurring in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) species. Exogenous supplementation with the most abundant PC species, 34∶1 PC, restored invadopodia incidence, the ability to degrade gelatin and the ability to invade through matrigel to cells deficient in ACC1 activity. On the other hand, 30∶0 PC did not restore invadopodia and 36∶2 PC only restored invadopodia incidence and gelatin degradation, but not cellular invasion through matrigel. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also reduced the ability of MDA-MB-231 breast, Snb19 glioblastoma, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells to invade through matrigel. Invasion of PC-3 cells through matrigel was also restored by 34∶1 PC supplementation. Collectively, the data elucidate the novel metabolic regulation of invadopodia and the invasive process by de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis.

  11. Metabolic regulation of invadopodia and invasion by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and de novo lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E N Scott

    Full Text Available Invadopodia are membrane protrusions that facilitate matrix degradation and cellular invasion. Although lipids have been implicated in several aspects of invadopodia formation, the contributions of de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis have not been defined. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, the committed step of fatty acid synthesis, reduced invadopodia formation in Src-transformed 3T3 (3T3-Src cells, and also decreased the ability to degrade gelatin. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK activation and ACC phosphorylation also decreased invadopodia incidence. The addition of exogenous 16∶0 and 18∶1 fatty acid, products of de novo fatty acid synthesis, restored invadopodia and gelatin degradation to cells with decreased ACC1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also altered the phospholipid profile of 3T3-Src cells, with the majority of changes occurring in the phosphatidylcholine (PC species. Exogenous supplementation with the most abundant PC species, 34∶1 PC, restored invadopodia incidence, the ability to degrade gelatin and the ability to invade through matrigel to cells deficient in ACC1 activity. On the other hand, 30∶0 PC did not restore invadopodia and 36∶2 PC only restored invadopodia incidence and gelatin degradation, but not cellular invasion through matrigel. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also reduced the ability of MDA-MB-231 breast, Snb19 glioblastoma, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells to invade through matrigel. Invasion of PC-3 cells through matrigel was also restored by 34∶1 PC supplementation. Collectively, the data elucidate the novel metabolic regulation of invadopodia and the invasive process by de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis.

  12. Artificial miRNA inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase increases fatty acid production in a green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaogang; Chen, Xi; Li, Hui; Wang, Jiangxin; Hu, Zhangli

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient limitation, such as nitrogen depletion, is the most widely used method for improving microalgae fatty acid production; however, these harsh conditions also inhibit algal growth significantly and even kill cells at all. To avoid these problems, we used artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology as a useful tool to manipulate metabolic pathways to increase fatty acid contents effectively in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We down-regulated the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyzes the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and regulates carbon flux. amiRNAs against two CrPEPC genes were designed and transformed into Chlamydomonas cells and amiRNAs were induced by heat shock treatment. The transcription levels of amiRNAs increased 16-28 times, resulting in the remarkable decreases of the expression of CrPEPCs. In the end, inhibiting the expression of the CrPEPC genes dramatically increased the total fatty acid content in the transgenic algae by 28.7-48.6%, which mostly increased the content of C16-C22 fatty acids. Furthermore, the highest content was that of C18:3n3 with an average increase of 35.75%, while C20-C22 fatty acid content significantly increased by 85-160%. Overall our results suggest that heat shock treatment induced the expression of amiRNAs, which can effectively down-regulate the expression of CrPEPCs in C. reinhardtii, resulting in an increase of fatty acid synthesis with the most significant increase occurring for C16 to C22 fatty acids.

  13. Substrate-induced Assembly of Methanococcoides burtonii d-Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Dimers into Decamers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hernán; Blayney, Michelle J.; Beck, Jennifer L.; Whitney, Spencer M.

    2009-01-01

    Like many enzymes, the biogenesis of the multi-subunit CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in different organisms requires molecular chaperones. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the large (L) subunits of the Rubisco from the archaeabacterium Methanococcoides burtonii assemble into functional dimers (L2). However, further assembly into pentamers of L2 (L10) occurs when expressed in tobacco chloroplasts or E. coli producing RuBP. In vitro analyses indicate that the sequential assembly of L2 into L10 (via detectable L4 and L6 intermediates) occurs without chaperone involvement and is stimulated by protein rearrangements associated with either the binding of substrate RuBP, the tight binding transition state analog carboxyarabinitol-1,5-bisphosphate, or inhibitory divalent metal ions within the active site. The catalytic properties of L2 and L10 M. burtonii Rubisco (MbR) were indistinguishable. At 25 °C they both shared a low specificity for CO2 over O2 (1.1 mol·mol−1) and RuBP carboxylation rates that were distinctively enhanced at low pH (∼4 s−1 at pH 6, relative to 0.8 s−1 at pH 8) with a temperature optimum of 55 °C. Like other archaeal Rubiscos, MbR also has a high O2 affinity (Km(O2) = ∼2.5 μm). The catalytic and structural similarities of MbR to other archaeal Rubiscos contrast with its closer sequence homology to bacterial L2 Rubisco, complicating its classification within the Rubisco superfamily. PMID:19837658

  14. Diversity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Mutations in Resistant Lolium Populations: Evaluation Using Clethodim1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Collavo, Alberto; Zheng, Ming-Qi; Owen, Mechelle; Sattin, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting cyclohexanedione herbicide clethodim is used to control grass weeds infesting dicot crops. In Australia clethodim is widely used to control the weed Lolium rigidum. However, clethodim-resistant Lolium populations have appeared over the last 5 years and now are present in many populations across the western Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum) belt. An aspartate-2078-glycine (Gly) mutation in the plastidic ACCase enzyme has been identified as the only known mutation endowing clethodim resistance. Here, with 14 clethodim-resistant Lolium populations we revealed diversity and complexity in the molecular basis of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides (clethodim in particular). Several known ACCase mutations (isoleucine-1781-leucine [Leu], tryptophan-2027-cysteine [Cys], isoleucine-2041-asparagine, and aspartate-2078-Gly) and in particular, a new mutation of Cys to arginine at position 2088, were identified in plants surviving the Australian clethodim field rate (60 g ha−1). Twelve combination patterns of mutant alleles were revealed in relation to clethodim resistance. Through a molecular, biochemical, and biological approach, we established that the mutation 2078-Gly or 2088-arginine endows sufficient level of resistance to clethodim at the field rate, and in addition, combinations of two mutant 1781-Leu alleles, or two different mutant alleles (i.e. 1781-Leu/2027-Cys, 1781-Leu/2041-asparagine), also confer clethodim resistance. Plants homozygous for the mutant 1781, 2078, or 2088 alleles were found to be clethodim resistant and cross resistant to a number of other ACCase inhibitor herbicides including clodinafop, diclofop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, butroxydim, sethoxydim, tralkoxydim, and pinoxaden. We established that the specific mutation, the homo/heterozygous status of a plant for a specific mutation, and combinations of different resistant alleles plus herbicide rates all are important in contributing to

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Huerlimann

    Full Text Available The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT, and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric. All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO, Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta. These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was

  16. H2S-induced S-sulfhydration of pyruvate carboxylase contributes to gluconeogenesis in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, YoungJun; Untereiner, Ashley; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE)-derived hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) possesses diverse roles in the liver, affecting lipoprotein synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial biogenesis. H(2)S S-sulfhydration is now proposed as a major mechanism for H(2)S-mediated signaling. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an important enzyme for gluconeogenesis. S-sulfhydration regulation of PC by H(2)S and its implication in gluconeogenesis in the liver have been unknown. Gene expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting, and protein S-sulfhydration was assessed by both modified biotin switch assay and tag switch assay. Glucose production and PC activity was measured with coupled enzyme assays, respectively. Exogenously applied H(2)S stimulates PC activity and gluconeogenesis in both HepG2 cells and mouse primary liver cells. CSE overexpression enhanced but CSE knockout reduced PC activity and gluconeogenesis in liver cells, and blockage of PC activity abolished H(2)S-induced gluconeogenesis. H(2)S had no effect on the expressions of PC mRNA and protein, while H(2)S S-sulfhydrated PC in a dithiothreitol-sensitive way. PC S-sulfhydration was significantly strengthened by CSE overexpression but attenuated by CSE knockout, suggesting that H(2)S enhances glucose production through S-sulfhydrating PC. Mutation of cysteine 265 in human PC diminished H(2)S-induced PC S-sulfhydration and activity. In addition, high-fat diet feeding of mice decreased both CSE expression and PC S-sulfhydration in the liver, while glucose deprivation of HepG2 cells stimulated CSE expression. CSE/H(2)S pathway plays an important role in the regulation of glucose production through S-sulfhydrating PC in the liver. Tissue-specific regulation of CSE/H(2)S pathway might be a promising therapeutic target of diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    KAUST Repository

    Huerlimann, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  18. Influence of NaCl on Growth, Proline, and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Levels in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Suspension Cultures 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; De Armond, Richard L.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    The facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to salt stress by increasing the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and other enzymes associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism. A more common response to salt stress in sensitive and tolerant species, including M. crystallinum, is the accumulation of proline. We have established M. crystallinum suspension cultures to investigate whether both these salt-induced responses occur at the cellular level. Leaf-and root-derived cultures maintain 5% of the total soluble amino acids as proline. Cell culture growth slows upon addition of 400 millimolar NaCl, and proline levels increase to 40% of the total soluble amino acids. These results suggest a functional salt-stress and response program in Mesembryanthemum cells. Suspension cultures grown with or without 400 millimolar NaCl have PEPCase levels that compare with those from roots and unstressed leaves. The predominant protein cross-reacting with an anti-PEPCase antibody corresponds to 105 kilodaltons (apparent molecular mass), whereas a second species of approximately 110 kilodaltons is present at low levels. In salt-stressed leaves, the 110 kilodalton protein is more prevalent. Levels of mRNA for both ppc1 (salt stress induced in leaves) and ppc2 (constitutive) genes in salt-treated suspensions cultures are equal to unstressed leaves, and only twice the levels found in untreated suspension cultures. Whereas cells accumulate proline in response to NaCl, PEPCase protein amounts remain similar in salt-treated and untreated cultures. The induction upon salt stress of the 110 kilodalton PEPCase protein and other Crassulacean acid metabolism enzymes in organized tissues is not observed in cell culture and may depend on tissue-dependent or photoautotrophy-dependent programs. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668687

  19. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (Vkorc1 haplotype diversity in mouse priority strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Michael H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the vitamin K-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 gene, Vkorc1, could affect blood coagulation and other vitamin K-dependent proteins, such as osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP. Here we sequenced the Vkorc1 gene in 40 mouse priority strains. We analyzed Vkorc1 haplotypes with respect to prothrombin time (PT and bone mineral density and composition (BMD and BMC; phenotypes expected to be vitamin K-dependent and represented by data in the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Findings In the commonly used laboratory strains of Mus musculus domesticus we identified only four haplotypes differing in the intron or 5' region sequence of the Vkorc1. Six haplotypes differing by coding and non-coding polymorphisms were identified in the other subspecies of Mus. We detected no significant association of Vkorc1 haplotypes with PT, BMD and BMC within each subspecies of Mus. Vkorc1 haplotype sequences divergence between subspecies was associated with PT, BMD and BMC. Conclusion Phenotypic variation in PT, BMD and BMC within subspecies of Mus, while substantial, appears to be dominated by genetic variation in genes other than the Vkorc1. This was particularly evident for M. m. domesticus, where a single haplotype was observed in conjunction with virtually the entire range of PT, BMD and BMC values of all 5 subspecies of Mus included in this study. Differences in these phenotypes between subspecies also should not be attributed to Vkorc1 variants, but should be viewed as a result of genome wide genetic divergence.

  20. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as nodular purpura in infancy: A rare and life-threatening entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Gahalaut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB disorder is an uncommon entity, which occurs due to inadequate activity of vitamin K-dependant coagulation factors. An 8-months-old exclusively breast-fed male infant presented with multiple, purpuric and nodular non-collapsible swellings on trunk of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed raised activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombintime. Fibrinogen level and platelet counts were normal. Late VKDB usually presents as intra-cranial or mucosal hemorrhages. [1] Though skin and mucosal bleeding may occur in 1/3 rd of infants with VKDB, ′nodular purpura′ is not the common presenting feature. Earlier recognition of VKDB and immediate investigation/treatment helps prevent the potentially fatal outcome of the disease. Very little is mentioned about this entity in dermatology literature.

  2. Gut Microbes Take Their Vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial ecosystem within the gut is connected through a complex web of metabolic interactions. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Degnan et al. (2014) establish the importance of different vitamin B12transporters that help a Bacteroides species acquire vitamins from the environment tomaintain a competitive edge.

  3. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. Listed in the " ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. Listed in the " ...

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Work with your health care providers to determine how best to achieve optimal health." Consider the following tips before ... a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 ...

  9. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Potrokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the effect of vitamin D on the tolerogenic modulation of an immune response, its relationship to cells of the monocyte-macrophage series, including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, in the context of the impact of the expression of anti-inflammatory proinflammatory cytokines in some autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn`s disease. It discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Despite some conflicting evidence, the immune regulatory function of vitamin D is generally directed toward inhibition of the components of innate and acquired immunity, which are responsible for the induction of autoimmune reactions; in this connection there are a growing number of publications devoted to the issues of vitamin D supplementation in patients with autoimmune diseases, the preventive effect of vitamin D intake on the risk of an abnormality and that of therapeutic doses of the vitamin on its course. The maintenance of the threshold value for serum 25(OHD3 at least 30 ng/ml, which is achieved by the intake of about 2000 IU of vitamin D, is shown to be required for its immune regulatory function. The data given raise the question as to whether it is necessity to revise the Russian recommended daily dietary allowances for vitamin D through its infant food fortification.

  10. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  11. Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regular bone growth and in adequate function of the innate immune system, including barrier functions of mucous membranes. A sufficient supply during pregnancy and lactation protects the child from infectious diseases. Clinical symptoms of severe vitamin D deficiency (rickets) are well known and can be easily detected. Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, however, remain to be elucidated. Based on clinical and observational data, the plasma level of 25(OH)D may serve as a 'marker' to detect or define a subclinical deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l might be insufficient to maintain the non-bone-related activities of vitamin D. Finally, it has to be considered that all of the nonbone activities of vitamin D are in concert with vitamin A (9-cis retinoic acid). Studies combining both vitamins in sufficient amounts (cod liver oil) demonstrated a beneficial effect on the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Consequently, it should be strongly recommended to increase the intake of vitamin D and to ensure a daily intake of vitamin A as counseled. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking too much of a vitamin. Fat-soluble Vitamins A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid): Nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, clumsiness, birth defects, liver problems, possible risk of osteoporosis. You may be at greater risk of these effects if you drink high amounts of alcohol or ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fix" that departs from scientific research and established dietary guidance. More ... and requirements for advance payment. "Also ask yourself, "Is the ...

  14. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    , macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red ... People with this type of anemia often do well with treatment. Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent if ...

  17. Biochemistry and Physiology of Vitamins in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated.Previous biochemical studies indicated that E. gracilis Z contains several vitamin-related novel synthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways which suggests that it is a highly suitable organism for elucidating the physiological functions of vitamins in comparative biochemistry and biological evolution. E. gracilis Z has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vitamin C, a hybrid of the pathways found in animals and plants. This chapter presents up-to-date information on the biochemistry and physiological functions of vitamins in this organism.

  18. Inhibiting the Progression of Arterial Calcification with Vitamin K in HemoDialysis Patients (iPACK-HD Trial: Rationale and Study Design for a Randomized Trial of Vitamin K in Patients with End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Holden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease, which is due in part to progressive vascular calcification, is the leading cause of death among patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD on dialysis. A role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification is plausible based on the presence of vitamin K dependent proteins in vascular tissue, including matrix gla protein (MGP. Evidence from animal models and observational studies support a role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification. A large-scale study is needed to investigate the effect of vitamin K supplementation on the progression of vascular calcification in patients with ESKD, a group at risk for sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency. Methods/Design: We plan a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter controlled trial of incident ESKD patients on hemodialysis in centers within North America. Eligible subjects with a baseline coronary artery calcium score of greater than or equal to 30 Agatston Units, will be randomly assigned to either the treatment group (10 mg of phylloquinone three times per week or to the control group (placebo administration three times per week. The primary endpoint is the progression of coronary artery calcification defined as a greater than 15% increase in CAC score over baseline after 12 months. Discussion: Vitamin K supplementation is a simple, safe and cost-effective nutritional strategy that can easily be integrated into patient care. If vitamin K reduces the progression of coronary artery calcification it may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality in men and women with ESKD. Trial registration: NCT 01528800.

  19. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vitamin D receptors in various cells, regulation of blood pressure (through renin-angiotensin system, and modulation of cell growth and proliferation including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Identifying correct mechanisms and relationships between vitamin D and such diseases could be important in relation to patient care and healthcare policies.

  20. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  1. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  3. Vitamin D and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; López-Baena, María T

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter-the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20-30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is advised in children and adolescents-though correcting vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency may require 1000 IU/day or more. High-dose calcifediol depots are an alternative for

  4. Vitamin C and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Maggini, Silvia

    2017-11-03

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100-200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  5. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  6. Circulating Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Those Treated for Hypertension in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L; Weiner, Daniel E; Brinkley, Tina E; Kanaya, Alka M; Murphy, Rachel A; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Wassel, Christina L; Vermeer, Cees; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Background: A role for vitamin K in coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been proposed because vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP), are present in vascular tissue. Observational studies found that low circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) was associated with increased CAC progression, especially in persons treated for hypertension. It is unknown whether hypertension treatment modifies this putative role of vitamin K in clinical CVD risk.Objective: We determined the association between vitamin K status and incident clinical CVD in older adults in the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study) and whether the association differed by hypertension treatment status.Methods: Plasma phylloquinone was measured in 1061 participants free of CVD (70-79 y of age, 58% women, 39% black). Plasma uncarboxylated MGP [(dp)ucMGP] was measured in a subset of 635 participants. Multivariate Cox models estimated the HR for incident CVD over 12.1 follow-up years. Effect modification by hypertension was tested with the use of interaction terms.Results: Neither low plasma phylloquinone (K status was not significantly associated with CVD risk overall, but low plasma phylloquinone was associated with a higher CVD risk in older adults treated for hypertension. Additional evidence from larger clinical studies is needed to clarify the importance of vitamin K to CVD in persons treated for hypertension, a segment of the population at high risk of clinical CVD events. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Regeneration of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase Activity Associated with Lack of Oxygen Inhibition of Photosynthesis at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    H. Schnyder; MÄCHLER, F.; NÖSBERGER, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of the lack of oxygen inhibition of C3-photosynthesis at low temperature was investigated in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Detached leaves were brought to steady-state photosynthesis in air (34 Pa p(CO2), 21 kPa p(O2), balance N2) at temperatures of 20°C and 8°C, respectively. Net photosynthesis, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and ATP contents, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) activities were followed before and after changing to 2·0 kPa p(O2). A...

  8. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H. [Hatter Cardiovascular Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925 (South Africa); Essop, M. Faadiel, E-mail: mfessop@sun.ac.za [Cardio-Metabolic Research Group (CMRG), Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  9. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  10. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  11. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  12. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  13. Live Longer with Vitamin D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OHD levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OHD level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L. Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OHD > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OHD levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations.

  14. Vitamin D and respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; de Cassia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2015-04-15

    Vitamin D or 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) has a well-established role in calcium homeostasis. In recent years, the discovery of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the lungs and various cells of the immune system has led to numerous studies conducted to evaluate its role in respiratory functions and, in particular, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). A PubMed literature search was done using vitamin D and respiratory infections as key words. Only clinical studies were considered. This study aimed to review recent clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in adults and children, and to evaluate the functional role of vitamin D in respiratory infections. The evaluated studies show an important immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, which reduces the incidence and risk of URTIs, both in children and in adults. Combating URTIs can be done prophylactically, associating the use of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae with strengthening the immune system through supplementation with vitamin D. These actions can significantly contribute to reducing the number of URTIs, the use of antibiotics, and consequently, the rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  17. Vitamin E in spruces. Vitamin E in Fichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, J.

    1990-05-01

    The distribution of vitamin E in spruce and the change of its concentration in the needles under oxidative or dark stress are studied in this thesis. [gamma]-tocopherol is found in seeds only, and [beta]-tocopherol and [alpha]-tocotrienol are found in seddlings only, but [alpha]-tocopherol is found in all living organs. The age groups of needles exhibit on asymptotic, age-dependent accumulation. Etiolation in consequence of artifical dark stress and oxidative stress result in an increase in vitamin E, while monoterpene fumigation and high light intensity entail a decrease in vitam E. Field investigations reveal a connection between the degree of injury in trees and their vitamin E content. On the whole, vitamin E seems to be an essential, stabilizing component of vegetable membranes. (UWA).

  18. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  19. Essentiality of Lys-329 of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum as demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, T S; Mural, R J; Larimer, F W; Lee, E H; Machanoff, R; Hartman, F C

    1988-04-01

    The unusual chemical properties of active-site Lys-329 of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum have suggested that this residue is required for catalysis. To test this postulate Lys-329 was replaced with glycine, serine, alanine, cysteine, arginine, glutamic acid or glutamine by site-directed mutagenesis. These single amino acid substitutions do not appear to induce major conformational changes because (i) intersubunit interactions are unperturbed in that the purified mutant proteins are stable dimers like the wild-type enzyme and (ii) intrasubunit folding is normal in that the mutant proteins bind the competitive inhibitor 6-phosphogluconate with an affinity similar to that of wild-type enzyme. In contrast, all of the mutant proteins are severely deficient in carboxylase activity (less than 0.01% of wild-type) and are unable to form the exchange-inert complex, characteristic of the wild-type enzyme, with the transition-state analogue carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate. These results underscore the stringency of the requirement for a lysyl side-chain at position 329 and imply that Lys-329 is involved in catalysis, perhaps stabilizing a transition state in the overall reaction pathway.

  20. Examination of the intersubunit interaction between glutamate-48 and lysine-168 of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, R J; Soper, T S; Larimer, F W; Hartman, F C

    1990-04-15

    The active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is constituted from domains of adjacent subunits and includes an intersubunit electrostatic interaction between Lys 168 and Glu48, which has been recently identified by x-ray crystallography (Andersson, I., Knight, S., Schneider, G., Lindqvist, Y., Lundqvist, T., Brändén, C.-I., and Lorimer, G.H. (1989) Nature 337, 229-234; Lundqvist, T., and Schneider, G. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7078-7083). To examine the structural and functional requirements for this interaction, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to replace Lys168 of the homodimeric enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum with arginine, glutamine, or glutamic acid. All three substitutions result in mutant enzymes with less than or equal to 0.1% of wild-type activity. The nonconservative substitution of Lys168 with a glutamyl residue precludes the formation of a stable dimer, explaining the consequential abolition of enzymic activity. Both the Arg168 and Gln168 mutant proteins are isolated as stable dimers, even though the latter obviously lacks an electrostatic interaction present in the wild-type enzyme. Despite the absence of overall carboxylase activity, these two mutant proteins serve as catalysts for the enolization of ribulose bisphosphate, as measured by exchange of the C3 proton with solvent. These observations, as well as ligand-binding properties of the mutant proteins, are consistent with Lys168 facilitating a catalytic step subsequent to enolization.

  1. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that are not needed. Fat- ... walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron absorption. Folic Acid (folate): High ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... are numerous nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and ...

  5. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve ... varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that ... are fluids used to absorb fat. The body stores these for use as needed. Practice Safety with ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... National Institute of Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ... the individual's intake of food." She adds, "An important point made in the guidelines is that nutrient ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... counter multivitamins. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend that you ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline ... supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in ...

  19. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Fábio; Larriba, María Jesús; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition, recent epidemiological and experimental studies support the association of vitamin D deficiency with a large variety of human diseases, and particularly with the high risk of colorectal cancer...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... you believe that you are experiencing an adverse response to taking a vitamin or a dietary supplement, ... Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ... Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health ... are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... and to reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with ... ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, ...

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing...... sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: An overall pooled...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  11. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults spend lots of time indoors at school and work. When outdoors, it's important to protect skin to prevent melanoma and skin damage from too much sun exposure. Food Very few foods have vitamin D naturally. The ...

  12. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are pregnant or lactating, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 15 micrograms (μg) per day. Because ... intake level of vitamin D for adults and children older than 8 years of age is 100 ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... are easily absorbed by the body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins ... have liver problems, high cholesterol levels or don't get enough protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. ... Physicians (AAFP), a doctor may recommend that you take them: for certain health problems if you eat ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  16. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the

  17. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  18. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yin, Devendra K Agrawal Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. Keywords: asthma, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease

  19. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea K Wöbke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signalling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes i the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, ii the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-kB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and iii the activation of signalling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signalling and other signalling cascades involved in inflammation.An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq.

  20. Vitamins in Aging, Health, and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David R

    2006-01-01

    Evidence of epidemiological associations of vitamins and disease states have been found for nine vitamins. In observational studies, people with a high intake of antioxidant vitamins by regular diet or as food supplements generally have a lower risk of major chronic disease, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, than people who are low consumers of antioxidant vitamins. Prospectively, folate appears to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Vitamin D is associated with a decreased occurrence of fractures when taken with calcium. Zinc, betacarotene, and vitamin E appear to slow the progression of macular degeneration, but do not reduce the incidence. Vitamin E and lycopene may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. In other randomized controlled trials, the apparent beneficial results of a high intake of antioxidant vitamins seen in observational studies have not been confirmed. There is increasing concern from these trials that pharmacological supplementation of vitamins may be associated with a higher mortality risk. PMID:18047260

  1. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila Kaushal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation.

  2. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.

  3. Excretion of the urinary 5C- and 7C-aglycone metabolites of vitamin K by young adults responds to changes in dietary phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J; Booth, Sarah L; Card, David J; Shearer, Martin J

    2007-07-01

    The physiological function and putative health roles of vitamin K-dependent proteins now extend beyond their classical role in hemostasis and include bone mineralization, arterial calcification, apoptosis, phagocytosis, growth control, chemotaxis, and signal transduction. Current assessments of vitamin K status do not reflect the variety of molecular forms of vitamin K. We assessed whether urinary excretion of 2-methyl-3-(5'-carboxy-3'-methyl-2'-pentenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (7C-aglycone) and 2-methyl-3-(3'-3'-carboxymethylpropyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (5C-aglycone), vitamin K metabolites common to both phylloquinone and the menaquinone series, reflect dietary vitamin K intake. In a randomized crossover study, 9 adults resided in a metabolic unit for two 30-d periods separated by a free-living period of > or = 4 wk. During each residency, subjects consumed 3 sequential diets: a control diet (93 microg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (11 microg/d) for 15 d, followed by a randomly assigned repletion diet for 10 d with either phylloquinone (206 microg/d) or dihydrophylloquinone (240 microg/d). During the second residency, the alternative repletion diet was assigned. Urinary excretion of the 5C- and 7C-aglycones was measured in sequential 24-h collections. The 5C-aglycone accounted for approximately 75% of total excretion and declined in response to phylloquinone restriction (P = 0.001) to approximately 30% of that during the control diet period. Repletion with phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone doubled the excretion rate of the major 5C-aglycone by 24 h (P < 0.001), and tripled excretion by 4 d. There was a linear relationship between the logarithm of total urinary excretion and dietary vitamin K intake (r = 0.699, P < 0.001). We conclude that the urinary excretion of vitamin K metabolites reflects dietary phylloquinone intake and offers the first candidate marker of global vitamin K status.

  4. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  5. Beneficial role of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients are gaining acceptance as an important nutritional therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and its associated health risks. Although a very small quantity of micronutrients are required for specific functions in our bodies, moderate deficiencies can lead to serious health issues. Impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance play a major role in the development of diabetic pathophysiology. Vitamin K is well known for its function in blood coagulation. Moreover, several human studies reported the beneficial role of vitamin K supplementation in improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, preventing insulin resistance, and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2 D). Both animal and human studies have suggested that vitamin K-dependent protein (osteocalcin [OC]), regulation of adipokine levels, antiinflammatory properties, and lipid-lowering effects may mediate the beneficial function of vitamin K in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. This review for the first time provides an overview of the currently available preclinical and clinical evidences on the effect of vitamin K supplementation in the management of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The outcome of this review will increase understanding for the development of a novel adjuvant therapy to achieve better control of glycemia and improve the lives of diabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  7. Vitamin K2 supplementation in haemodialysis patients: a randomized dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Rogier; Vandecasteele, Stefaan; Van Vlem, Bruno; Vermeer, Cees; De Vriese, An S

    2014-07-01

    Haemodialysis patients suffer from accelerated vascular calcification. The vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) is one of the most powerful inhibitors of vascular calcification. Haemodialysis patients have high levels of the inactive form of MGP (desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated-MGP, dp-uc-MGP) and may benefit from pharmacological doses of vitamin K2 (menaquinone) to improve the calcification inhibitory activity of MGP. To determine the optimal dose of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) for MGP activation, 200 chronic haemodialysis patients were recruited to randomly receive 360, 720 or 1080 µg of MK-7 thrice weekly for 8 weeks. Dp-uc-MGP was measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Dietary intake of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and menaquinone was estimated based on a detailed questionnaire. At baseline, dp-uc-MGP was not associated with phylloquinone intake (P = 0.92), but correlated inversely with menaquinone intake (P = 0.023). MK-7 supplementation dose dependently reduced dp-uc-MGP. The levels decreased by 17, 33 and 46% in the respective groups. Drop-outs were mainly due to gastrointestinal side-effects related to the unpleasant smell of the tablets. Chronic haemodialysis patients have high levels of inactive MGP, possibly related to a low dietary vitamin K intake. Pharmacological doses of MK-7 dose-dependently reduce dp-uc-MGP. Menaquinone supplementation may be a novel approach to prevent vascular calcifications in chronic haemodialysis patients. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple determination of the CO sub 2 /O sub 2 specificity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by the specific radioactivity of ( sup 14 C) glycerate 3-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhai Zhu; Jensen, R.G.; Hallick, R.B.; Wildner, G.F. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

    1992-02-01

    A new method is presented for measurement of the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} specificity factor of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The ({sup 14}C)3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) from the Rubisco carboxylase reaction and its dilution by the Rubisco oxygenase reaction was monitored by directly measuring the specific radioactivity of PGA. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with Rubisco occurred under two reaction conditions: carboxylase with oxygenase with 40 micromolar CO{sub 2} in O{sub 2}-saturated water and carboxylase only with 160 micromolar CO{sub 2} under N{sub 2}. Detection of the specific radioactivity used the amount of PGA as obtained from the peak area, which was determined by pulsed amperometry following separation by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and the radioactive counts of the ({sup 14}C)PGA in the same peak. The specificity factor of Rubisco from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) (93 {plus minus} 4), from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (66 {plus minus} 1), and from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (13) were comparable with the published values measured by different methods.

  9. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  10. Oxidative Stress Induces Partial Degradation of the Large Subunit of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase in Isolated Chloroplasts of Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, M.; Henke, A.; Wagner, E.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of oxidative stress on the degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) were studied in isolated chloroplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Angora). Active oxygen (AO) was generated by varying the light intensity, the oxygen concentration, or the addition of herbicides or ADP-FeCl3-ascorbate to the medium. Oxidative treatments stimulated association of Rubisco with the insoluble fraction of chloroplasts and partial proteolysis of the large subunit (LSU). The most prominent degradation product of the LSU of Rubisco showed an apparent molecular mass of 36 kD. The data suggest that an increase in the amount of AO photogenerated by O2 reduction at photosystem I triggers Rubisco degradation. A possible relationship between AO-mediated denaturation of Rubisco and proteolysis of the LSU is discussed.

  11. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  12. Multiple resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS- and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. populations from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczewski Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides seeds were sampled from 32 winter wheat fields from 2010 to 2014. Resistance to herbicides was detected in 17 A. myosuroides populations. In addition to single resistance to herbicides, cross-resistance and multiple resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS- and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase-inhibiting herbicides were found. Application of sulfometuron and imazapyr was unable to control some of the resistant biotypes in this study. This result implies that resistance in these populations is due to a target site mechanism. The A. myosuroides biotypes resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides varied in their responses to derivatives of aryloxy-phenoxy-propionic acid (FOPs, cyclohexanediones (DIMs and phenylpyrazolines (DENs. Resistant biotypes of A. myosuroides that could not be controlled with fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (FOP and pinoxaden (DEN were controlled with clethodim (DIM.

  13. Induction of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum by High Salinity: Mass Increase and de Novo Synthesis of PEP-Carboxylase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Roswitha; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winter, Klaus; Bohnert, Hans J.; Schmitt, Jürgen M.

    1987-01-01

    Intact plants of the halophilic species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum were induced to exhibit Crassulacean acid metabolism by irrigation with nutrient solution containing 500 millimolar NaCl. During the induction period, the extractable activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) increased approximately 40-fold. This increase was linearly correlated with a mass increase of PEPcase protein as measured by single radial immunodiffusion. De novo synthesis of PEPcase protein was shown by immunoprecipitation of the newly synthesized, radioactively labeled protein in leaf discs from salt-treated plants. Nontreated plants were characterized by a low level of the enzyme and low rates of PEPcase synthesis. Synthesis of this enzyme in leaf discs was correlated with the concentration of NaCl in the nutrient solution during growth. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665363

  14. Induction of mRNA for Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Is Correlated with a Decrease in Shoot Water Content in Well-Irrigated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Piepenbrock, Mechtild

    1992-01-01

    The abundance of mRNA specific for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) was measured in leaves from well-watered plants of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Plants grown side by side in pots of four different volumes (0.16, 0.74, 2.6, 6.5 liters) were compared. The time of increase in the steady-state level of PEPCase mRNA in well-watered plants was dependent on soil volume. The larger the pot, the later PEPCase transcripts were increased. PEPCase mRNA induction started when shoot water content decreased to well below 4000% of dry weight. No positive correlation with the developmental status of the plants could be found. The data indicate that PEPCase mRNA induction in well-watered plants up to 10 weeks of age is controlled environmentally rather than developmentally. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668951

  15. Synchronization of the seminiferous epithelium after vitamin A replacement in vitamin A-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis was studied in mice. Breeding pairs of Cpb-N mice were given a vitamin A-deficient diet for at least 4 wk. The born male mice received the same diet and developed signs of vitamin A deficiency at the age of 14-16 wk. At

  16. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  17. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  18. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... the body and must be supplied by the diet. Vitamin B12 and folate tests measure vitamin levels ...

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the pediatric critical care population. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. The role of vitamin D in certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study.

  20. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  1. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish......A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases....... In addition to skeletal health, vitamin D has also been associated with several extra-skeletal conditions including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Evaluation of Vitamin D status is complex because it is modified by several factors and because the level of optimal vitamin D concentration...

  2. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  3. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  4. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  5. Literatuuronderzoek HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het inventariseren van HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E, eventueel in combinatie met vitamine A, in levensmiddelen. Een overzicht van de in de literatuur beschreven HPLC-methoden vanaf ca. 1977 wordt gegeven.

  6. Cloning and Characterization of a Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene from Penicillium rubens and Overexpression of the Genein the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for Enhanced Citric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ge-Yi; Lu, Yi; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Zhao, Shou-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC1) from a marine fungus Penicillium rubens I607 was cloned and characterized. ORF of the gene (accession number: KM397349.1) had 3534 bp encoding 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127.531 kDa and a PI of 6.20. The promoter of the gene was located at -1200 bp and contained a TATAA box, several CAAT boxes and a sequence 5'-SYGGRG-3'. The PYC1 deduced from the gene had no signal peptide, was a homotetramer (α4), and had the four functional domains. After expression of the PYC1 gene from the marine fungus in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, the transformant PR32 obtained had much higher specific pyruvate carboxylase activity (0.53 U/mg) than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b (0.07 U/mg), and the PYC1 gene expression (133.8%) and citric acid production (70.2 g/l) by the transformant PR32 were also greatly enhanced compared to those (100 % and 27.3 g/l) by Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g/l, citric acid (CA) concentration formed by the transformant PR32 was 36.1 g/l, leading to conversion of 62.1% of glucose into CA. During a 10-l fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 111.1 ± 1.3 g/l, the yield was 0.93 g/g, the productivity was 0.46 g/l/h, and only 1.72 g/l reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA. However, minor malic acid and other unknown products also existed in the culture.

  7. Vitamin intake in Japanese women college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Hayakawa, Fumiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2003-06-01

    The Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods was newly revised in 2000, and contains information on all of the vitamins except biotin. Thus, we carried out a survey of vitamin intake in Japanese women who were university seniors majoring a dietitian course. The subjects (n = 33) consumed self-selected foods, and food intake was recorded by the weight method. We calculated the vitamin intake except for biotin from the food records using the Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods. In terms of daily intake, vitamin A was 705+/-435 microg (mean+/-SD), vitamin D 6+/-8 microg, vitamin E 7.7+/-3.0 mg, vitamin K 191+/-156 microg, vitamin B1 0.7+/-0.3 mg (0.43+/-0.15 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B2 1.1+/-0.4 mg (0.65+/-0.18 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B6 0.9+/-0.4 mg (0.017+/-0.005 mg/g protein), vitamin B12 4.4+/-4.1 microg, niacin equivalent 23+/-7 mg (14.4+/-4.9 mg/1,000 kcal), pantothenic acid 4.6+/-1.4 mg, folic acid 267+/-115 microg, and vitamin C 73+/-38 mg. All of these averages were around the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for level "III (preferable)" of physical activity. Major vitamin A resources were vegetables; vitamin D resources, fish; vitamin E resources, fats and oils and vegetables; vitamin K resources, vegetables; vitamin B1 resources, cereals and animal meats; vitamin B2 resources, various foods; vitamin B6 resources, cereals, vegetables, fish, and animal meats; vitamin B12 resources, fish; niacin equivalent resources, fish, animal meats, and cereals; pantothenic acid resources, various foods; folic acid resources, vegetables; and vitamin C resources, vegetables and potatoes. From this survey, it was found that Japanese women college students consumed many kinds of food, and therefore, their vitamin nutrition was good as compared to the RDA values for level III of physical activity; however, their energy intake (1,622+/-377 kcal) was lower than the RDA for level III (2,050 kcal/d). Their strength of physical activity would be level I. Therefore, in

  8. Histopathological effects of Cyperdicot and vitamin E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.08 and 0.16 mg/L Cyperdicot and vitamin E. Fish were divided into six groups: control, 0.80 mg/L; Cyperdicot, 0.16 mg/L; Cyperdicot, vitamin E, vitamin E + 0.08 mg/L Cyperdicot, and vitamin E + 0.16 m/L Cyperdicot insecticide. There was significant relation between temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen with Cyperdicot ...

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  10. The use and misuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M; Briggs, M

    1977-02-01

    Overt vitamin deficiency in Australia is a medical curiosity. Suspected hypovitaminoses in the general population requires education in nutrition, rather than supplementation by vitamin capsules. Vitamin supplementation, however, may be needed by patients receiving long-term drug treatment, or with chronic malabsorption conditions. The receipt of specific additional vitamins may also be beneficial during pregnancy, or in persons dedicated to a totally vegan diet.

  11. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the m...

  12. Vitamin D and respiratory infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksi, Ilkka

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue that has significant implications for health. The classical role of vitamin D in bone mineralisation is well known; vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, osteomalacia or osteoporosis. The role of vitamin D in an immune system is less known. Vitamin D is not an actual vitamin but a secosteroid hormone produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol after exposure to sunlight UVB radiation. Nutrition and supplements are main sources of vitamin D in wintertime in northern countries as sunlight exposure is inadequate for the production. For activation vitamin D needs to be hydroxylated in liver to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D and in kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the most active hormone in Ca absorption in the gut. For determination of vitamin D status serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, the major circulating form of the hormone is to be measured. Vitamin D regulates gene expression through binding with vitamin D receptors, which dimerises with retinoid X receptor. This complex binds to vitamin D-responsive elements inside the promoter regions of vitamin D-responsive genes. Vitamin D has a key role in innate immunity activation; the production of antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidin and defensins) following Toll-like receptor stimulation by pathogen lipopeptides is dependent on sufficient level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Clinically, there is evidence of the association of vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory tract infections. There is also some evidence of the prevention of infections by vitamin D supplementation. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to explore this preventive effect.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the...

  15. Update in vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, Fatimah M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease, and its etiology remains unknown. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the possible association between MS and vitamin D deficiency. Here, we review the current literature between MS and vitamin D, showing clear evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for MS despite the lack of direct evidence for the effects of vitamin D in MS progression.

  16. APPLICATION OF VITAMINS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of balanced nutrition remains to be quite urgent in the modern pediatrics. Despite the fact there are many high quality foodstuffs in the Russian market, the occurrence of the vitamin deficient statuses is still high. The authors of the article describe the important functions of vitamins and microelements in the human body, as well as demonstrate the necessity to additionally administer them as correctly balanced pharmacological forms.Key words: vitamins, vitamin deficiency, correction, children.

  17. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Swui-Ling; Alappat, Lini; Awad, Atif B

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and characterized by neurological and cognitive manifestations. The disease is more common in populations living in high altitudes with low sun exposure, women more than men, and certain ethnic backgrounds more than others. The etiology of MS is yet unknown, although several factors have been implicated in its development. These include genetic factors and environmental factors as well as dietary components and their interactions. Among the dietary components that have recently attracted the attention is vitamin D. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the potential use of vitamin D in the protection and treatment of MS. In addition, the mechanism(s) by which vitamin D plays a role in the development and/or protection from MS are discussed.

  18. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  19. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  20. Vitamin A and clefting: putative biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.M.; Zhou, Huiqing; Carels, C.E.L.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as vitamin intake contribute to the etiology of cleft palate. Vitamin A is a regulator of embryonic development. Excess vitamin A can cause congenital malformations such as spina bifida and cleft palate. Therefore, preventive nutritional strategies are required. This review

  1. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  2. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12

  3. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  5. Bone muscle interactions and vitamin D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunton, J.E.; Girgis, C.M.; Baldock, P.A.; Lips, P.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the established roles of vitamin D in bone and mineral homeostasis, we are becoming increasingly aware of its diverse effects in skeletal muscle. Subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency or mutations of the vitamin D receptor develop generalized atrophy of muscle and bone, suggesting

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency and Tuberculosis Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Talat, Najeeha; Perry, Sharon; Parsonnet, Julie; Dawood, Ghaffar; Hussain, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. Most (79%) persons showed deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis.

  7. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  10. Vitamine A voorziening van de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2004-01-01

    In this report vitamin A intake is assessed. From these analyses, 17 to 30 per cent of the adults in our study were found to have an inadequate vitamin A intake to maintain sufficient vitamin A stores. A substantial proportion of these individuals had a level of intake greatly less than required.

  11. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjeva, Janna

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K, phytonadione, IV, intravenous, injectable, and oral. The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  12. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter is written in response to an editorial by Gray and Bolland stating incorrectly that vitamin D does not reduce fracture risk and that safety of vitamin D has not been demonstrated. We and others have demonstrated that vitamin D is effective in lowering risk of fractures when given in adeq...

  13. Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation on Plasma and Urinary Vitamin C Concentration in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jayoung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2017-01-01

    Although vitamin C supplements were consumed for health maintenance and fatigue recovery, the effects of high doses of vitamin C supplement remains controversial. Our study performed the effects of 100 mg and 2,000 mg vitamin C supplements on plasma and urinary vitamin C concentration in Korean women. Twenty-four women completed the 4 weeks intervention. Anthropometric data, plasma and urinary vitamin C concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA...

  14. Role of Third Serum Vitamin B12 Binding Protein in Vitamin B12 Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chanarin, I.; England, J. M.; Rowe, K. L.; Stacey, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A third vitamin B12 binding protein present in normal serum has been shown to participate in transport of labelled vitamin B12 absorbed from the gut. All three vitamin B12 binding proteins in serum were labelled at the same time after oral administration of vitamin B12, implying that “free” vitamin B12 reached the portal blood from the gut mucosa.

  15. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2008-01-01

    Sun exposure has been associated with lower death rates for pancreatic cancer in ecological studies. Skin exposure to solar ultra-violet B radiation induces cutaneous production of precursors to 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D (D) and is considered the primary contributor to vitamin D status in most populations. Pancreatic islet and duct cells express 25-(OH) D3-1α-hydroxylase that generates the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxy(OH)2 D form. Thus, 25(OH)D concentrations could affect pancreatic fun...

  16. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous...

  17. Vitamine--vitamin. The early years of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L

    1997-04-01

    In 1905, Cornelius Adrianus Pekelharing found that animals fed purified proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water would thrive only if small amounts of milk were added to the diet. He concluded that the milk contained some unrecognized substance that in very small quantities was necessary for normal growth and maintenance. In 1911, Casimir Funk isolated a concentrate from rice polishings that cured polyneuritis in pigeons. He named the concentrate "vitamine" because it appeared to be vital to life and because it was probably an amine. Although the concentrate and other "accessory food substances" were not amines, the name stuck, but the final "e" was dropped. In 1913 two groups discovered a "fat-soluble" accessory food substance. Initially believed to be a single vitamin, two separate factors were involved. One, effective against xerophthalmia, was named vitamin A; the other, effective against rickets, was named vitamin D. The factor that prevented scurvy was isolated in 1928. Known as "water-soluble C," it was renamed ascorbic acid.

  18. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with

  19. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV and TB infections are both associated with elevated oxidative stress parameters. Anti-oxidant supplementation may offer beneficial effects in positively modulating oxidative stress parameters in HIV and HIV-TB infected patients. We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative ...

  20. Effect of vitamin A and vitamin C supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of vitamin A and C supplementation on oxidative stress in HIV infected and HIV-TB co-infected subjects. ... Comparing the indices at baseline and post no-supplementation in HIV/TB co-infection showed no significant differences in ... ease like diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.11,12 Substantial.

  1. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  2. Relevance of vitamin D in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2017-03-01

    This review will summarize recent clinical studies and meta-analyses on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fall prevention. As fall prevention is fundamental in fracture prevention at older age, we discuss if and to what extend the vitamin D effect on muscle modulates hip fracture risk. Further, to explain the effect of vitamin D on fall prevention, we will review the mechanistic evidence linking vitamin D to muscle health and the potentially selective effect of vitamin D on type II fast muscle fibers.

  3. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the ben......In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment...... of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...

  5. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B12 by A/D Strategy: An Unexpected Journey. G Wayne Craig. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 624-640. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that ... Guidelines warn that there are numerous nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients ...

  8. Vitamins and neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Rodney

    1988-01-01

    The use of vitamin supplements by women around the time of conception was examined and compared in those having babies with neural tube defects, those with still births or some other type of malformation, and in women who had normal babies.

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. This Consumer Update video includes an interview ...

  10. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    solar exposure since the melanin absorbs some of the UV energy required to manufacture vit D3.65 At higher latitudes, such as New York, winter...Philadelphia, Penn: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999:315-319. 24. Carlberg C, Polly P. Gene regulation by vitamin D3. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene

  11. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although ... that nutrient needs be met primarily through consuming foods, with supplementation ... (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as one of those recommended in the USDA Food Guide or the National Institute of Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that it recommends not be exceeded during any given day. (For more information, visit www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id= ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... pregnant or is in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic ... of folate from a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and ... dicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud ...

  19. Impact of vitamin D on infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Malcolm D; Alvarez, Jessica A; Seidel, Natan; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have linked vitamin D status and infectious disease. This association is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor and CYP27B1 in immune cells. This review aims to consolidate data from clinical trials that used vitamin D for the treatment or prevention of infectious disease. The authors searched the term "(vitamin D OR ergocalciferol OR cholecalciferol OR vitamin D2 OR vitamin D3 OR calcitriol) AND (infection OR tuberculosis OR sepsis OR pneumonia)" with limits preset to manuscripts published in English and with human subjects. They identified controlled trials that measured infectious outcomes (eg, incidence and severity of disease, time to disease resolution or recurrence, measures of clinical improvement, mortality). Studies that used analog, topical or micronutrient formulations of vitamin D, assessed only vitamin D status or lacked a comparison group were excluded. The references from eligible manuscripts and from 2 recent reviews were scanned for additional manuscripts. One thousand two hundred eighty-four manuscripts were identified with our search terms, with 60 papers still eligible after review of the title and abstract. Full review of these papers, their references and 2 related reviews yielded 38 manuscripts. Although some prospective studies show positive results regarding vitamin D on infectious disease, several robust studies are negative. Factors such as high variability between studies, the difference in individual responsiveness to vitamin D and study designs that do not primarily investigate infectious outcomes may mask the effects of vitamin D on infections.

  20. Molecular Approaches for Optimizing Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D can be synthesized endogenously within UV-B exposed human skin. However, avoidance of sufficient sun exposure via predominant indoor activities, textile coverage, dark skin at higher latitude, and seasonal variations makes the intake of vitamin D fortified food or direct vitamin D supplementation necessary. Vitamin D has via its biologically most active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types. Different interpretation of results from observational studies with vitamin D led to some dispute in the field on the desired optimal vitamin D level and the recommended daily supplementation. This chapter will provide background on the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide functions of vitamin D and will outline how this insight may be used for determining of the optimal vitamin D status of human individuals. These reflections will lead to the concept of a personal vitamin D index that may be a better guideline for an optimized vitamin D supplementation than population-based recommendations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.