WorldWideScience

Sample records for vitamin d3 status

  1. 25(OH)D3-enriched or fortified foods are more efficient at tackling inadequate vitamin D status than vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2017-11-27

    The ability to synthesise sufficient vitamin D through sunlight in human subjects can be limited. Thus, diet has become an important contributor to vitamin D intake and status; however, there are only a few foods (e.g. egg yolk, oily fish) naturally rich in vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D-enriched foods via supplementing the animals' diet with vitamin D or vitamin D fortification of foods have been proposed as strategies to increase vitamin D intake. Evidence that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and calcifediol (25(OH)D3) content of eggs, fish and milk increased in response to vitamin D3 supplementation of hens, fish or cows' diets was identified when vitamin D-enrichment studies were reviewed. However, evidence from supplementation studies with hens showed only dietary 25(OH)D3, not vitamin D3 supplementation, resulted in a pronounced increase of 25(OH)D3 in the eggs. Furthermore, evidence from randomised controlled trials indicated that a 25(OH)D3 oral supplement could be absorbed faster and more efficiently raise serum 25(OH)D concentration compared with vitamin D3 supplementation. Moreover, evidence showed the relative effectiveness of increasing vitamin D status using 25(OH)D3 varied between 3·13 and 7·14 times that of vitamin D3, probably due to the different characteristics of the investigated subjects or study design. Therefore, vitamin D-enrichment or fortified foods using 25(OH)D3 would appear to have advantages over vitamin D3. Further well-controlled studies are needed to assess the effects of 25(OH)D3 enriched or fortified foods in the general population and clinical patients.

  2. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 affects vitamin D status similar to vitamin D-3 in pigs - but the meat produced has a lower content of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Maribo, H.; Bysted, Anette

    2007-01-01

    In food databases, the specific contents of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in food have been implemented in the last 10 years. No consensus has yet been established on the relative activity between the components. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relative...... activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 compared to vitamin D-3. The design was a parallel study in pigs (n 24), which from an age of 12 weeks until slaughter 11 weeks later were fed approximately 55 mu g vitamin D/d, as vitamin D-3, in a mixture of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3...

  3. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    -subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... estimated in each of the four human intervention studies did not differ significantly (p=0.55). Hence, the pooled standard deviation was 15.3 nmol 25OHD3/L. In the studies with 6-8 samplings during 7-20 months of supplementation, the within-subject variation was 3.9-7.2 nmol 25OHD3/L, while vitamin D status...... was in the range 47-120 nmol/L. Conclusions. The validated HPLC method was applied in samples from human intervention studies in which subjects were supplemented with vitamin D3. The estimated standard deviation between and within subjects is useful in the forthcoming decision on setting limits for optimal vitamin...

  4. Vitamin D3supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-03-01

    The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

  5. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Spira, Avrum; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409). A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3) or 2000 IUs (n = 5) vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  6. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  7. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  8. Translating the role of vitamin D3 in infectious diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoo, A.L.; Chai, L.; Koenen, H.J.; Joosten, I.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A. van der

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D(3) affects both the innate as well as adaptive immune responses. Epidemiological studies have established that vitamin D(3) deficiency plays an important role in tuberculosis (TB) and viral influenza prevalence as well as susceptibility to active disease in TB. Vitamin D(3) status has been

  9. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Helen; Hart, Kathryn; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline; Vieth, Reinhold; Lanham-New, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge (January 1966 to July 2011) database was searched electronically for all relevant studies in adults that directly compared vitamin D3 with vitamin D2. The Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number register, and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for any unpublished trials. Results: A meta-analysis of RCTs indicated that supplementation with vitamin D3 had a significant and positive effect in the raising of serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the effect of vitamin D2 (P = 0.001). When the frequency of dosage administration was compared, there was a significant response for vitamin D3 when given as a bolus dose (P = 0.0002) compared with administration of vitamin D2, but the effect was lost with daily supplementation. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3 could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify. PMID:22552031

  10. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous...

  11. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... was quantified. Results: In the subjects given vitamin D-3, the median concentrations of serum 25(OH)D-3, fat vitamin D-3, and fat 25(OH)D-3 were 99 nmol/l, 209 ng/g, and 3.8 ng/g, respectively; and correspondingly in the placebo group 62 nmol/l, 32 ng/g, and 2.5 ng/g. If assuming an equal amount of vitamin D-3...

  12. Effect of feeding 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a negative cation-anion difference diet on calcium and vitamin D status of periparturient cows and their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Azem, E; Steinberg, W; Reinhardt, T A

    2015-08-01

    Holstein cows (>1 gestation) were fed 1 of 3 diets during the last 13 d of gestation (ranged from 22 to 7 d). The control diet (16 cows) was formulated to provide 18,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 and had a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of 165mEq/kg (DCAD=Na + K - Cl - S). The second diet (DCAD + D) provided the same amount of vitamin D3 but had a DCAD of -139mEq/kg (17 cows). The third diet (DCAD + 25D) had no supplemental vitamin D3 but provided 6mg/d of 25-(OH) vitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] with a DCAD of -138mEq/kg (20 cows). Diets were fed until parturition and then all cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained vitamin D3. Negative DCAD diets reduced urine pH, with the greatest decrease occurring with the DCAD + D treatment. Urinary Ca excretion was greatest for cows fed DCAD + 25D followed by cows fed DCAD + D. Urinary pH was negatively correlated with urinary excretion of Ca for cows fed DCAD + D. No such correlation was observed with the DCAD + 25D treatment because substantial excretion of urinary Ca occurred at moderate urinary pH values for that treatment. Cows fed DCAD + 25D had greater serum concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 than other treatments from 5 d after supplementation started through 7 d in milk. Concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in serum were greatest in DCAD + 25D cows starting at 2 d before calving and continued through 7 d in milk. Serum Ca concentrations 5 d before calving were greatest for cows fed DCAD + 25D, but at other time points before and after parturition treatment did not affect serum Ca. Incidence of clinical hypocalcemia was not statistically different between treatments, but cows fed DCAD + 25 had the highest incidence rate (12.5, 0, and 20% for control, DCAD + D, and DCAD + 25D). Calves born from cows fed DCAD + 25D had greater concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 in serum at birth than calves from other treatments (before colostrum consumption), but concentrations were similar by 3 d of age. Concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 in colostrum and

  13. Translating the role of vitamin D3 in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Ai Leng; Chai, Louis; Koenen, Hans; Joosten, Irma; Netea, Mihai; van der Ven, André

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin D(3) affects both the innate as well as adaptive immune responses. Epidemiological studies have established that vitamin D(3) deficiency plays an important role in tuberculosis (TB) and viral influenza prevalence as well as susceptibility to active disease in TB. Vitamin D(3) status has been associated with the clinical course of HIV infection and drug interaction with anti-retroviral therapy. This article reviews the immunomodulatory capacity of vitamin D(3) and examines the impact of vitamin D(3) supplementation as a preventive or therapeutic intervention with the intent to uncover its potential therapeutic application in infectious diseases and to identify novel areas for future research. We present a review of randomized, controlled clinical studies conducted in humans which included assessment of the immune function or clinical outcome as study end points. Current data support vitamin D(3) supplementation as risk-modifying intervention in tuberculosis and viral respiratory tract infection, but the optimal dosage regimen remains to be determined. However, to date the knowledge on its role in fungal infection and sepsis is limited although a potential benefit could be harnessed from its ability to curtail the unrestrained pro-inflammatory response and therefore prevent excessive collateral tissue damage.

  14. How much vitamin D-3 do the elderly need?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    parathyroid hormone, (S-iPTH) concentrations. Aims of the Study: We studied how serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25-OHD) concentrations respond to different doses of vitamin D3 supplementation. Secondly to determine the smallest efficient dose to maintain serum 25-OHD concentration above the insufficiency level...... with increasing vitamin D supplementation. The dose-response to supplementation decreased with increasing vitamin D status at baseline, r = -0.513, p = 0.002. S-iPTH tended to decrease in those with highest dose response to supplementation. Conclusions: A clear dose response was noted in S-25-OHD to different......Background: Vitamin D insufficiency poses a problem in many parts of the world, the elderly being an especially vulnerable group. This insufficiency results from an inadequate amount of sunshine and a low dietary intake of vitamin D. Typically, insufficiency is accompanied with high intact...

  15. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T; Pickova, J; Ertbjerg, P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Swedish recommended vitamins A, D3 and E supplementation levels on muscle tenderness and fatty acid (FA) composition under indoor or outdoor finishing programmes. Swedish Red breed steer calves were divided into vitamin supplemented (n512) and non-supplemented (n515......) groups while on pasture prior to the finishing period. This trial began at the beginning of the winter housing period during which the steers were fed a 55 : 45 dry matter barley : grass silage diet indoors. The indoor finished group was comprised of vitamin supplemented (n56) and non-supplemented (n58......) steers slaughtered after about 155 days on feed. Vitamin supplemented steers were provided with 100 g mineral supplement providing 400 000 IU vitamin A, 100 000 IU D3 and 3000 IU E daily as recommended for Swedish production practices. In spring, outdoor finished vitamin supplemented (n56) and non...

  16. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One...... of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater...... anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5953 - Vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin D3. 582.5953 Section 582.5953 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5953 Vitamin D3. (a) Product. Vitamin D3. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Vitamin D3 a new drug against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, D; Merzouki, S; Bachiri, M; Ailane, S E; Zerroug, M M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that vitamin D3 had fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The susceptibility of the yeast strain to the vitamin D3 was investigated by the antimicrobial screening using modified agar diffusion method, minimum fungistatic concentrations (MFCs) and minimum fungicide concentrations (MFCC) of the vitamin D3 were determined by the broth dilution method. The antifungal activity indicted that 100μg/ml of vitamin D3 had a power inhibition in the growth of C. albicans with zone of inhibition 12.5mm and CMFC and CMFs were 1.58±0.0764μg/ml. These values indicate that vitamin D3 can be considered to have fungicide activity. This antifungal effect may be due to the large lipsolubility of vitamin D3 changing the integrity of the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of feeding 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a negative cation-anion difference diet on calcium and vitamin D status of periparturient cows and their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein cows (>1 gestation) were fed 1 of 3 diets during the last 13 d of gestation (ranged from 22 to 7 d). The Control diet was formulated to provide 18,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 and had a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of 165 mEq/kg (DCAD = Na + K – Cl – S). The second diet (DCAD+D) provi...

  20. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  1. Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2compared with vitamin D3to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripkovic, Laura; Wilson, Louise R; Hart, Kathryn; Johnsen, Sig; de Lusignan, Simon; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Elliott, Ruan; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A

    2017-08-01

    Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D 2 or vitamin D 3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y ( n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D 2 , biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D 2 , juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D 3 , or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D 3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D 3 biscuit and the vitamin D 3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D 2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) ( P vitamin D 2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) ( P vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, vitamin D 3 was more effective than vitamin D 2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D 3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Vitamin D3 supplementation in multiple sclerosis: Symptoms and biomarkers of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Bol, Yvonne; Damoiseaux, Jan; Smolders, Joost; Hupperts, Raymond

    2017-07-15

    Depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and both depression and MS have been associated with a poor vitamin D status. As cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of both disorders, we hypothesized that vitamin D3 supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in MS via its immunomodulatory properties. In this randomized pilot study relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients received either vitamin D3 supplementation (n=20; 14.000IU/day) or placebo (n=20) during 48weeks. Pre- and post-supplementation depression scores, measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) depression subscale (HADS-D), showed a significant decrease within the vitamin D3 group (median HADS-D 4.0 to 3.0, p=0.02), a trend towards a decrease within the placebo group (median HADS-D 3.0 to 2.0, p=0.06), but no significantly different reductions between groups (p=0.78). Furthermore, no reductions in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balances, secreted by stimulated leukocytes and CD8+ T cells, were found in the vitamin D3 compared to the placebo arm. Therefore, we found no evidence for a reduction of depressive symptoms or related biomarkers upon vitamin D3 supplementation in RRMS patients in this exploratory study. Whether vitamin D3 supplementation is of benefit in manifest depression in MS needs to be assessed by additional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new method for the determination of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Clausen, I.; Leth, Torben

    2004-01-01

    D-2 was used as internal standard for vitamin D-3 as well as for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3. Precision for vitamin D-3 was determined in lean meat and lard to 9.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The corresponding values for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 were 8.9% and 9.9%. Accuracy was determined in spiked samples...

  4. VITAMIN D3: RESEARCH BREAKTHROUGHS AND THERAPEUTIC USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohorila М.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, the natural form of vitamin D, is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol. The synthesis of vitamin D in the skin is the most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D can also be taken through nutrition, in the diet, but it is present in only a few food sources, containing relevant levels of vitamin D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH2D3] is the hormonally active form of vitamin D. Novel researches show it generates a number of extraskeletal biological responses including inhibition of variety types cancer progression, effects on cardiovascular disorders and mediates a protection against a number of inflammatory, autoimmune and infection diseases The biological actions of 1,25(OH2D3 are mediated by the VDR. The genomic mechanism of 1,25(OH2D3 action involves the direct binding of 1,25(OH2D3 activated VDR/RXR to specific DNA sequences in and around target genes resulting in either activation or repression of transcription [7] VDR modulates the expression of genes involved in immune function and cytokine production. The VDR and CYP27B1, the enzyme located in kidneys and target organs, are present in immune competent cells, bronchial and pulmonary epithelial cells, among others, and is up-regulated following the ligation of specific toll-like receptors by extracellular pathogens, implicating vitamin D in innate immunity. By binding the VDR, calcitriol induces several endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMP in monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells including cathelicidin LL-37, α-defensin, β defensing and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and up-regulates nitric oxide (NO synthase. Since the inflammatory response associated with infections such influenza, pneumonia and sepsis increases both clinical severity and mortality, the ability to reduce inflammation may allow vitamin D to decrease mortality and disease burden in certain infections. Notwithstanding the width of possible vitamin D application

  5. Stability of Vitamin D3 in fortified yoghurt and yoghurt drink (Doogh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Tina; Askari, Gholamreza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Faghihimani, Elham; Fallah, Aziz A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are recognized as a worldwide problem with serious consequences. Fortification of foods with Vitamin D is a certain approach to improve serum Vitamin D status if the stability of vitamin in the foodstuffs was controlled. The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of Vitamin D3 added to low-fat yogurt and yogurt drink "Doogh" during the products shelf-life. Two kinds of Vitamin D3, water- and oil-dispersible forms, suitable for food fortification, were compared to find out whether they show different stability in the products. The products were packed in opaque or translucent containers. The content of Vitamin D3 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. Vitamin D was not affected by the heat treatment (pasteurization) and other processes (homogenization and fermentation). Both water- and oil-dispersible forms were stable during the shelf-life of yogurt samples packed in opaque containers. The Vitamin D3 content of yogurt fortified with water-dispersible form and packed in translucent containers was not stable during the shelf-life and significantly reduced after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of storage compared to the day 0. The Vitamin D3 content of samples fortified with the oil-dispersible form packed in the same container was only stable after 1-week and significantly reduced after 2 and 3 weeks of storage. The Vitamin D3 content of Doogh packed in the opaque containers remained stable during the shelf-life while it was not stable in the samples packed in translucent containers. The results suggested that both forms of Vitamin D are suitable for fortification, and opaque container is a better choice for packaging of the product.

  6. Vitamin D3 and calcidiol are not equipotent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Valverde, Cristina; Sosa-Henríquez, Manuel; Alhambra-Expósito, Maria Rosa; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Despite the discussion on the optimal threshold of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level continues, there is now consensus on the fact that post-menopausal and elderly populations have inadequate Vitamin D serum levels worldwide. The adjustment of these levels is necessary to improve both bone and general health, as it is to optimize bone response to antiresortive treatments. It is recommended, as endorsed by international clinical guides, to use Vitamin D3, the physiological form of Vitamin D, in a dose range between 600-2000IU. It should be administered on a daily basis or on its weekly or monthly equivalents. In Spain, the use of calcidiol (25(OH)D3) at the same dose than Vitamin D3 is the most extended prescription, notwithstanding the available evidence stating that they are not equipotent. This may lead to over-dosage. In order to provide evidence on this circumstance, a convenience study was performed. Four groups of ten post-menopausal osteoporotic women each (average age 67), deficient in Vitamin D ((25(OH)D 37.5±10 nmol/L)) were enrolled. Each group followed a different treatment regimen: (G1) vitamin D3 20μg/day [800IU/day]; (G2) 25 (OH)D3 20μg/day; (G3) 25(OH)D3 266μg/week and (G4) 25(OH)D3 0.266mg every two weeks. 25(OH)D levels were measured for each group at 0, 6 and 12 months, with the following results: G1 (40.5±4.7;80.0±2; 86.2±23.7), G2 (37,2±4.2; 161±21.7;188.0±24.0), G3 (38±3.7;213.5±80.0; 233.0±81.2), G4 (39.5±4;164.5±41,7;210.5±22.2). These data reveal that both metabolites are not equipotent. Calcidiol is faster and 3-6 times more potent to obtain serum levels of 25(OH)D in the medium to long term. This circumstance must be assessed and included in the therapeutic prescription guides for Osteoporosis, since it should be of concern when planning and prescribing treatments to normalize serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and avoid potential adverse impacts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Vitamin D2 versus vitamin D3 supplementation in hemodialysis patients: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroux, Maïté; Shenouda, Milhad; Bacri, Jean-Louis; Lemaitre, Vincent; Vanhille, Philippe; Bataille, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease, vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent. It can be corrected by supplementation with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D3. Recent studies in patients without impaired kidney function suggest that vitamin D(3) is more efficient than vitamin D(2) in correcting vitamin D insufficiency. However, no direct comparison has been made in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-nine HD patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels =20 ng/mL were enrolled in this comparative, prospective pilot study. They were divided into 3 groups and treated over a 3-month period. Each patient received oral doses of 200,000 international units (IU) vitamin D per month according to the following treatment schedule: (i) vitamin D(2) in small fractionated doses at each HD session, 3 times per week (group D2S); (ii) vitamin D(2) once a month (group D2M); or (iii) vitamin D(3) once a month (group D3M). Changes in serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at the end of the study. Posttreatment serum 25(OH)D levels increased significantly in all groups. The mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D value for group D3M patients (40 ± 13 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that for groups D2M (25 ± 9 ng/mL, p30 ng/mL in 84% of group D3M patients, but in only 15% and 27% of group D2M and D2S subjects, respectively. Vitamin D(3) is more effective than vitamin D(2) in providing adequate 25(OH)D serum levels in HD patients.

  8. Vitamin D (25-0H D3) status and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage II/III breast cancer: Data from the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 10-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charehbili, A.; Hamdy, N. A. T.; Smit, V. T. H. B. M.; Kessels, L.; van Bochove, A.; van Laarhoven, H. W.; Putter, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; van Leeuwen-Stok, A. E.; van der Hoeven, J. J. M.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Kroep, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (vitamin D) have been shown to be prognostic for disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. We investigated the predictive value of these levels for pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer taking part in the

  9. Vitamin D (25-0H D3) status and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage II/III breast cancer: Data from the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 10-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charehbili, A.; Hamdy, N.A.; Smit, V.T.; Kessels, L; Bochove, A. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Putter, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Leeuwen-Stok, A.E. van; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Velde, C.J. van de; Nortier, J.W.; Kroep, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (vitamin D) have been shown to be prognostic for disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. We investigated the predictive value of these levels for pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer taking part

  10. Vitamin D3 concentration correlates with the severity of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahbeigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the possible association between serum 25(OH vitamin D 3 concentration and the severity of disease in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and to compare this concentration with a matched control group. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study performed at Jondishapour Neurology Clinic in Tehran, Iran. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS were categorized by disease severity: mild [0≤ Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS ≤3], moderate (3.5≤EDSS≤5.5, and severe (6≤EDSS. Serum concentrations of 25(OH vitamin D 3 , calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone were measured in 98 MS patients and 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Fisher′s exact, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t and Spearman rank correlation tests were used. Results: Serum 25(OH vitamin D 3 concentration was significantly lower in patients with MS, especially in the severe MS subgroup, compared with healthy controls (P=0.047. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between 25(OH vitamin D 3 concentration and EDSS score (P=0.049, R=-0.168 by Spearman rank correlation test, which was observed in women only (P=0.044, R=-0.199. Conclusions: Our findings not only further disclose the lower level of vitamin D in MS patients in comparison with healthy controls, but also support the association between vitamin D and disease severity in MS.

  11. Antidepressants differentially related to 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and 25-(OH) vitamin D(3) in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Derks, W.J.; Comijs, H.C.; Schoevers, R.A.; Borst, M.H. de; Marijnissen, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    A low plasma 25-OH vitamin D3 level is a universal risk factor for a wide range of diseases and has also been implicated in late-life depression. It is currently unknown whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, that is, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, is also decreased in late-life depression, or

  12. Vitamin D3 analogs for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is recommended whenever patients are given therapeutic drugs for osteoporosis, to make their calcium (Ca) balance positive. Vitamin D is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver, and then activated to become 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidneys. The active vitamin D acts in the intestine to stimulate Ca absorption and maintain the Ca balance. 2β-(3-Hydroxypropyloxy)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (eldecalcitol) and 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (2MD) are newly developed vitamin D analogs, with a substitution at the 2 position of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). Eldecalcitol and 2MD share common structural and biological characteristics. Both compounds increase serum Ca levels more markedly than calcitriol, increase bone mineral density (BMD), and improve bone strength in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 1 year clinical trial, eldecalcitol dose-dependently increased lumbar and hip BMD and suppressed bone turnover markers in patients with osteoporosis. Whereas, 2MD markedly increased the bone turnover markers, but it did not change the BMD of postmenopausal women with osteopenia in a 1 year clinical trial. After a randomized, double-blind, 3 year fracture-prevention trial comparing it with alfacalcidol, eldecalcitol was approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. On the other hand, the manufacturer discontinued the clinical development of 2MD. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences between these 2 compounds, and the reasons why different outcomes resulted from their clinical trials.

  13. Safety and T cell modulating effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Smolders

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A poor vitamin D status has been associated with a high disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS. Recently, we described associations between vitamin D status and peripheral T cell characteristics in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients. In the present study, we studied the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on safety and T cell related outcome measures.Fifteen RRMS patients were supplemented with 20,000 IU/d vitamin D3 for 12 weeks. Vitamin D and calcium metabolism were carefully monitored, and T cell characteristics were studied by flowcytometry. All patients finished the protocol without side-effects, hypercalcaemia, or hypercalciuria. The median vitamin D status increased from 50 nmol/L (31-175 at week 0 to 380 nmol/L (151-535 at week 12 (P<0.001. During the study, 1 patient experienced an exacerbation of MS and was censored from the T cell analysis. The proportions of (naïve and memory CD4+ Tregs remained unaffected. Although Treg suppressive function improved in several subjects, this effect was not significant in the total cohort (P=0.143. An increased proportion of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells was found after supplementation (P=0.021. Additionally, a decrease of the ratio between IFN-γ+ and IL-4+ CD4+ T cells was observed (P=0.035.Twelve week supplementation of high dose vitamin D3 in RRMS patients was well tolerated and did not induce decompensation of calcium metabolism. The skewing towards an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile supports the evidence on vitamin D as an immune-modulator, and may be used as outcome measure for upcoming randomized placebo-controlled trials.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00940719.

  14. [Influence of active vitamine D3 on bones (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, N

    1979-12-01

    Influence of 1 alpha-OH-D3, an active vitamine D supplement, on bone cells was studied, histologically and electro-microscopically observing the vitamine D objective bone cell after treatment with the drug in a dose of 50 microgram/kg/day. Light-microscopic findings revealed that osteogenesis gradually became dominant after transient osteoporosis, leading to a disproportional state of the bone remodelling. In electromicroscopy, no morphological changes were observed, though the number of osteoclasts increased five days after treatment. Hypofunctional findings, however, appeared seven and ten days after treatment. On the other hand, findings of distinguishable osteogenesis, e.g. well-developed golgi complex (G), endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria (M), were observed in the osteoblast and osteocyte, defining the strong influence of vitamine D in a large dose on the osteoblast-osteocyte system. Especially, the osteoblast seemed to be influenced earlier and to a greater degree. We concluded that 1 alpha-OH-D3 in doses of 0.02 and 0.08 microgram/kg/day hardly caused any morphological changes in the bone cell in our experiment.

  15. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    synthesis in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Different scenarios have been suggested but never tested in cows; for example, that vitamin D3 is synthesized from sebum on the hair and ingested by cows during grooming or that body areas such as the udder and muzzle that have scant hair exclusively...... hair are not comparable with respect to prevention of vitamin D3 synthesis and that cows, like humans, synthesize vitamin D3 evenly over their body surface. That vitamin D3 should be synthesized from sebum on the hair and obtained by cows as a result of grooming is not supported by the findings......How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...

  16. Vitamin D3 supplementation and upper respiratory tract infections in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Judy R; Hendricks, Kristy; Barry, Elizabeth L; Peacock, Janet L; Mott, Leila A; Sandler, Robert S; Bresalier, Robert S; Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M; Baron, John A

    2013-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials testing the association between vitamin D status and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) have given mixed results. During a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of colorectal adenoma chemoprevention, we tested whether 1000 IU/day vitamin D(3) supplementation reduced winter episodes and duration of URTI and its composite syndromes, influenza-like illness (ILI; fever and ≥2 of sore throat, cough, muscle ache, or headache) and colds (no fever, and ≥2 of runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, cough, swollen or tender neck glands). The 2259 trial participants were aged 45-75, in good health, had a history of colorectal adenoma, and had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≥12 ng/mL. They were randomized to vitamin D(3) (1000 IU/day), calcium (1200 mg/day), both, or placebo. Of these, 759 participants completed daily symptom diaries. Secondary data included semiannual surveys of all participants. Among those who completed symptom diaries, supplementation did not significantly reduce winter episodes of URTI (rate ratio [RR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], .79-1.09) including colds (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, .78-1.10) or ILI (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, .62-1.46), nor did it reduce winter days of illness (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, .90-1.43). There was no significant benefit according to adherence, influenza vaccination, body mass index, or baseline vitamin D status. Semiannual surveys of all participants (N = 2228) identified no benefit of supplementation on ILI (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% CI, .84-1.54) or colds (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, .87-1.23). Supplementation with 1000 IU/day vitamin D(3) did not significantly reduce the incidence or duration of URTI in adults with a baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≥12 ng/mL.

  17. UV dependent vitamin D syntheses. UV exposure time balancing for optimum production of the vitamins D3 status in the human body. Final report; UV-abhaengige Vitamin D Synthese. Bilanzierung der Expositionszeit durch UV zur Produktion des optimalen Vitamin D{sub 3}-Bedarfes im menschlichen Koerper. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuschke, P.; Lehmann, B.; Pueschel, A.; Roensch, H.

    2012-10-15

    UV-dependent vitamin D{sub 3} synthesis - balancing of UV exposure time and the production of an optimal vitamin D{sub 3} status in men The adverse health effects on human skin and eyes by UV radiation have been well known for years. They are known to the public, too. Increased exposures by the UV-B fraction of solar radiation cause e.g. sun burn as an acute skin reaction or an increased risk on skin cancer as a chronic effect. Radiation of the same spectral UV-B range is necessary to induce the essential vitamin D metabolism in men. The UV-induced vitamin D synthesis in the skin supplies the body with more than 90 % while our typical nutrition contributes no more than 10 %. These photobiological effects are diametrically opposed. Therefore, up to now there are contradictory recommendations to the public concerning the health effects of solar UV exposure. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative relations of UV exposure and the vitamin D status in men taking into account different conditions in the population. In result, well-balanced recommendations on optimal UV exposures for the different fractions of the population should be elaborated, realizing health protection aspects against detrimental UV effects. A literature survey (updated in 2011) summarizes the current knowledge on the vitamin D metabolism, on the effects of the hormone vitamin D and on the stage of the current discussion on the optimal vitamin D status. In a number of studies of this project the effects of UV exposure on the vitamin D status (25OH-vitamin D{sub 3} und 1,25OH-vitamin D{sub 3}) were investigated. Exposure parameters were the photobiologically effective UV dose (with respect to the minimal erythema dose MED = individual sun burn dose in each investigated volunteer) and the extent of the exposed skin area: face and hands (like everyday conditions) or whole body respectively. Serial UV exposures were applied by natural solar UV radiation or by

  18. Vitamin D vitamers affect vitamin D status differently in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Wreford Andersen, Elisabeth Anne; Christensen, Tue

    2018-01-01

    Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect on 25......-hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3......, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) in serum was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hypothesis that the three sources of vitamin D affect vitamin D status equally was rejected. Based on the assumption that 1 µg vitD3/day will show an increase in vitamin D status...

  19. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 B.O.N intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OHD concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.

  20. Vitamin D3 in the hemolymph of goliath birdeater spiders (Theraphosa blondi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Trevor T; Mitchell, Mark A

    2009-06-01

    Vitamin D3 is an important vitamin in vertebrates. This fat-soluble vitamin is associated with the regulation of many physiologic processes, most importantly calcium metabolism. The presence or importance of vitamin D3 has been determined in only a handful of invertebrate species. In this study, hemolymph was collected from six wild-caught, subadult goliath birdeater spiders (Theraphosa blondi) and analyzed for the presence of 25(OH)-vitamin D3, the precursor to the active form of vitamin D3. The metabolite 25(OH)-vitamin D3 was detected in all of the spiders (mean: 5.7 nmol/L, SD: 1.5 nmol/L, range: 3-7 nmol/L). The method by which spiders acquire vitamin D3 is unknown. It is possible, though unlikely, that they synthesize it via exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Many of the invertebrate species upon which theraphosid spiders prey are not known to have high circulating levels of vitamin D3 or its precursors. However, dietary intake is a possible means of vitamin D3 acquisition in this study.

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin D 3 supplementation on meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quadratic equation was used to determine vitamin D3 supplementation levels for optimum shear force value and sensory attributes. Vitamin D3 supplementation did not improve (P>0.05) shear force values of unaged or aged raw and cooked naked neck chicken meat. Shear force values of unaged raw or cooked meat ...

  2. Combined effects of aspirin and vitamin D3 on two OSCC cell lines: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting-Ting; Li, Xian; Feng, Jia-Li; Li, Yong

    2018-01-18

    We evaluated the potential effects of aspirin combined with vitamin D3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combinations of aspirin and vitamin D3 significantly decreased the rates of cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay, and caused higher rates of cell apoptosis in both CAL-27 and SCC-15 cells by Annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay and flow cytometry. Remarkably, the combined treatment with aspirin and vitamin D3 significantly suppressed the expression of Bcl-2 protein and p-Erk1/2 protein, examined by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates that aspirin and vitamin D3 have biological activity against two human OSCC cell lines and their activity is synergistic or additive when two drugs used in combination with therapeutic concentrations. The combination of aspirin and vitamin D3 may be an effective approach for inducing cell death in OSCC.

  3. Regulation of the vitamin D receptor and cornifin beta expression in vaginal epithelium of the rats through vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Abban

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the respective role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on vaginal epithelium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor expression in ovariectomized rats and vitamin D3 treated rats. Bilateral ovariectomies were performed in 20 mature, non-pregnant Wistar female rats. All the animals were divided into 2 groups consisting of 10 rats each. Group I served as control. In group II, animals were injected intramuscularly with vitamin D3 (50, 00 IU/kg. Two weeks after the injections, vaginas of animals in group I and group II were removed removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Epithelial differentiation, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor and cornifin b expression were investigated in vaginal epithelium of control group (ovariectomized and vitamin D3 treated rats. Vaginal epithelial cells from vitamin D3 treated animals changed into highly- stratified keratinizing layers. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor and cornifin b as a marker of squamous differentiation were present in ovariectomized rats treated with 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3. In contrast, cornifin b and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor were absent in all layers of vaginal epithelium in control group. We demonstrated for the first time that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induced proliferation of vaginal epithelium consistent with the cornifin b expression and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 up-regulated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor expression in vaginal epithelium.

  4. Vitamin D3 in cancer prevention and therapy: the nutritional issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    The action of vitamin D3, in its biological form 1α,25(OH)2vitD3 or calcitriol, may be summarized as a steroid-like hormone able to modulate basic functions of cell encompassing energy balance, stress response, mitochondria biogenesis, intracellular calcium oscillations, and replication/apoptosis mechanisms leading to cell survival. Moreover, calcitriol exerts a potent role as an innate and adaptive immune cytokine as immunity is closely related to self-maintenance through its energetic/metabolic balance and homeostasis of cell turnover. Therefore, vitamin D might be the ancestral form of survival hormones developed with calcified vertebrate bearing skeleton in order to survive far from water. This characteristic may suggest that the role of dietary vitamin D in preventing cancer is simply ancillary to the many factors playing a major role in contrasting impairment in energy balance and cell survival. Most probably, the immune role of calcitriol might be included in the maintenance, mostly by adipose tissue, of an anti-inflammatory, tolerant immune status, depending on the immune tolerance and modulation from the gut. A balance closely modulated by the leptin axis, which when impairments in metabolism occur, such as in insulin resistance or obesity, calcitriol is unable to face at this imbalance, while leptin plays a major role and cancer progression may be promoted. Furthermore, this mechanism promotes epithelial/mesenchymal transition-mediated fibrosis, leading to cancer resistance to immune control and drug action. Interestingly, this pathologic picture is triggered by deficiency in vitamin D from the diet. Therefore, a dietary habit including vitamin D sources, besides flavonoids, may ameliorate lifestyle and health span in most individuals, depending on their genetic background.

  5. Clinical improvement following vitamin D3 supplementation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, J.; Shan, L.; Du, L.; Li, H.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.; Dong, H.; Yue, X.; Xu, Z.; Staal, W.G.; Jia, F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was previously reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but little is known about the efficacy of vitamin D3 treatment in ASD, although data from pilot studies seem promising. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels are reduced

  6. Features of Immune and Metabolic Changes in patients with Combined Endocrine Pathology and Vitamin D3 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Komisarenko

    2014-06-01

    Methods. The examined patients with DM type 1 and type 2 combined with autoimmune thyroiditis had reduced levels of D3 vitamin. They were divided into two groups of 28 and 30 patients respectively. All patients with autoimmune thyroiditis had hypothyroidism. The levels of Th1-cytokine profile (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, Th2-profile (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and IL-17 were determined. The amount of vitamin D3 was assessed by the level of 25(OHD. Results. The patients with combined endocrine disorders — DM and autoimmune thyroiditis (with hypothyroidism secondary to vitamin D3 deficiency had a significant increase in the background concentration of Th1-cytokine profile (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and a reduced cytokine concentrations of Th2-cytokine profile (IL-4, IL-5 as well as IL-10 and IL-17. Conclusions. The presence of two endocrine diseases and florid vitamin D3 deficiency leads to an imbalance in the immune status of patients, supports an autoimmune inflammatory process and contributes to the progression or advanced development of complications. Further research may confirm the need for the use of vitamin D3 for the prevention and treatment of multiple endocrinopathy to correct metabolic and immunological changes.

  7. Vitamin D(3 availability and functional activity of peripheral blood phagocytes in experimental type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. О. Labudzynskyi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was devoted to identifying the relation between vitamin D3 availability (assessed by the level of circulatory 25OHD3, content of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase isozymes CYP27A1 and CYP2R1 in hepatic tissue and functional activity of peripheral blood phagocytes in mice with experimental type 1 diabetes. It has been shown that diabetes is accompanied by the development of vitamin D3-deficiency which is characterized by decreased 25OHD3 content in blood serum and determined by changes in tissue expression of the major isoforms of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase. The level of hepatic CYP27A1 was revealed to be markedly reduced with a concurrent significant augmentation of CYP2R1. Cholecalciferol administration resulted in normalization of tissue levels of both isoforms of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase and blood serum 25OHD3 content. Diabetes-associated vitamin D3 deficiency correlated with a decrease in phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes, and their ability to produce antibacterial biooxidants such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen forms. Vitamin D3 efficacy to attenuate these abnormalities of immune function was established, indicating an important immunoregulatory role of cholecalciferol in the phagocytic mechanism of antigens elimination implemented by granulocytes and monocytes.

  8. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  9. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood stream and respiratory tract Share | Exposure to cigarette smoke reduces vitamin D3 in the blood stream and respiratory tract Published Online: April 2, 2014 Cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke have long ...

  10. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 on the expression of the vitamin D receptor in human skeletal muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and action in non-human skeletal muscle have recently been reported in several studies, yet data on the activity and expression of VDR in human muscle cells are scarce. We conducted a series of studies to examine the (1) effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH...

  11. Neuroprotective role of vitamin D3 in colchicine-induced Alzheimer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group II: rats with induced AD by icv colchicine injection of 15 lg/rat bilaterally and receiving no treatment. Group III: rats pre-treated with active form of vitamin D3 42 IU/kg/day subcutaneously (s.c.) for one week followed by induction of AD then post-treated with vitamin D3 in the same dose for 3 weeks. Group IV: rats with ...

  12. Treatment of vitiligo vulgaris with the combination therapy of topical steroid and vitamin D3 compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Konishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported here two cases of vitiligo vulgaris successfully treated with the combination therapy of topical steroid and vitamin D3 compound and currently maintained by vitamin D3 analog without any adverse effects: skin atrophy, striae or telangiectasia on the exposed areas. The best-known mechanism of topical vitamin D3 analog is the enhancement of keratinocytes differentiation and anti-proliferative effects. Vitamin D3 analog is also reported to suppress T-cell mediated immunity, T-cell skin recruitment, and skin infiltration via down-regulating cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression. Furthermore, vitamin D3 compounds are known to influence melanocyte maturation and differentiation and also to up-regulate melanogenesis. Autoreactive lymphocytes against melanocytes are one of the causes. Topical vitamin D3 analog may control vitiligo itself, however stronger immunosuppressive effects of topical corticosteroid may contribute to rapid re-pigmentation suppressing auto-reactive lymphocytes. The topical combination therapy is a simple, effective and safe option for vitiligo vulgaris in sun-exposed areas.

  13. UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Sandra J; Walling, Kelly; Wilbert, Steven A; Catlin, Diane M; Monaghan, Cailin E; Hlynchuk, Sofiya; Meehl, Pamela G; Resch, Lauren N; Carrera, J Valerie; Bowles, Stephanie M; Clark, Michael D; Tan, Loraine T; Cody, Jeremy A

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

  14. Identification of vitamin D3 target genes in human breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Anderson, Paul H; Turner, Andrew G; Pishas, Kathleen I; Dhatrak, Deepak J; Gill, Peter G; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2016-11-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that high vitamin D3 status is strongly associated with improved breast cancer survival. To determine the molecular pathways influenced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in breast epithelial cells we isolated RNA from normal human breast and cancer tissues treated with 1,25D in an ex vivo explant system. RNA-Seq revealed 523 genes that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues in response to 1,25D treatment, and 127 genes with altered expression in normal breast tissues. GoSeq KEGG pathway analysis revealed 1,25D down-regulated cellular metabolic pathways and enriched pathways involved with intercellular adhesion. The highly 1,25D up-regulated target genes CLMN, SERPINB1, EFTUD1, and KLK6were selected for further analysis and up-regulation by 1,25D was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in breast cancer cell lines and in a subset of human clinical samples from normal and cancer breast tissues. Ketoconazole potentiated 1,25D-mediated induction of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 mRNA through inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) activity. Elevated expression levels of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 are associated with prolonged relapse-free survival for breast cancer patients. The major finding of the present study is that exposure of both normal and malignant breast tissue to 1,25D results in changes in cellular adhesion, metabolic pathways and tumor suppressor-like pathways, which support epidemiological data suggesting that adequate vitamin D3 levels may improve breast cancer outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of metabolism of vitamins D2 and D3 in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Obadofin, Michael O; Levine, Michael A; Singh, Ravinder J; Pettifor, John M

    2010-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets may have increased vitamin D requirements and respond differently to vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3). Our objective was to compare the metabolism of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in rachitic and control children. We administered an oral single dose of vitamin D(2) or D(3) of 1.25 mg to 49 Nigerian children--28 with active rickets and 21 healthy controls. The primary outcome measure was the incremental change in vitamin D metabolites. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ranged from 7 to 24 and 15 to 34 ng/mL in rachitic and control children, respectively (p children with rickets (29 ± 17 and 25 ± 11 ng/mL, respectively) and in control children (33 ± 13 and 31 ± 16 ng/mL, respectively). 1,25(OH)(2)D rose significantly (p children with rickets. By contrast, control children had no significant increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D (19 ± 28 and 16 ± 38 pg/mL after vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively). We conclude that in the short term, vitamins D(2) and D(3) similarly increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations in rachitic and healthy children. A marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D in response to vitamin D distinguishes children with putative dietary calcium-deficiency rickets from healthy children, consistent with increased vitamin D requirements in children with calcium-deficiency rickets. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. The effect of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on intestinal calcium absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Obadofin, Michael O; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets have high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D values. The objective of the study was to determine whether vitamin D increased calcium absorption. This was an experimental study. The study was conducted at a teaching hospital. Participants included 17 children with nutritional rickets. The participants were randomized to 1.25 mg oral vitamin D(3) (n = 8) or vitamin D(2) (n = 9). Fractional calcium absorption 3 da after vitamin D administration was measured. Mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 20 ng/ml (range 5-31 ng/ml). The increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was equivalent after vitamin D(3) (29 +/- 10 ng/ml) or vitamin D(2) (29 +/- 17 ng/ml). Mean 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D values increased from 143 +/- 76 pg/ml to 243 +/- 102 pg/ml (P = 0.001), and the increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D did not differ between vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) (107 +/- 110 and 91 +/- 102 ng/ml, respectively). The increment in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was explained almost entirely by the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (r(2) = 0.72; P rickets in Nigerian children is not primarily due to vitamin D-deficient calcium malabsorption.

  17. Long-Term Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Prevent Colonic Inflammation or Modulate Bone Health in IL-10 Knockout Mice at Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Glenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an idiopathic disease that can impair bone metabolism. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in its progress. This study used interleukin (IL-10 knockout (KO mice, that develop an intestinal inflammation when housed in a non-sterile environment, to determine if supplementation with vitamin D3 throughout life could mitigate inflammation and attenuate the lower bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD, and bone strength. Female IL-10 KO mice were randomized 25 or 5000 IU vitamin D3/kg diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring received the same or opposite diet as their mother until age three months. Body weight growth was similar among groups within a sex. At three months of age, there were no differences in inflammation and gene expression in the colon of offspring. Male offspring exposed to continuous 25 IU vitamin D3/kg diet had lower (p < 0.001 colonic VDR expression and those exposed only to low vitamin D3 until weaning had higher serum IL-6. There were no differences in femur or vertebral BMC, BMD or bone strength. In summary, long-term exposure to vitamin D3 did not attenuate intestinal inflammation or preserve bone mineral or bone strength. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D3 does not exert anti-inflammatory effects in this mouse model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation does not prevent colonic inflammation or modulate bone health in IL-10 knockout mice at young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea J; Fielding, Kristina A; Chen, Jianmin; Comelli, Elena M; Ward, Wendy E

    2014-09-22

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease that can impair bone metabolism. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in its progress. This study used interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice, that develop an intestinal inflammation when housed in a non-sterile environment, to determine if supplementation with vitamin D3 throughout life could mitigate inflammation and attenuate the lower bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), and bone strength. Female IL-10 KO mice were randomized 25 or 5000 IU vitamin D3/kg diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring received the same or opposite diet as their mother until age three months. Body weight growth was similar among groups within a sex. At three months of age, there were no differences in inflammation and gene expression in the colon of offspring. Male offspring exposed to continuous 25 IU vitamin D3/kg diet had lower (p < 0.001) colonic VDR expression and those exposed only to low vitamin D3 until weaning had higher serum IL-6. There were no differences in femur or vertebral BMC, BMD or bone strength. In summary, long-term exposure to vitamin D3 did not attenuate intestinal inflammation or preserve bone mineral or bone strength. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D3 does not exert anti-inflammatory effects in this mouse model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. [Correlation between vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in vitamin D deficiency rickets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi-Gu; Li, Yu-Ning; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Li-Jun; Kang, Xi-Guang

    2010-07-01

    To study the correlation between vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism Fokand vitamin D deficiency rickets in children between 1 to 3 years old, and to explore the significance of hereditary factors in the development of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Sixty-two children with vitamin D deficiency rickets and 60 healthy children as a control group were enrolled. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were measured using ELISA. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genetic analysis method was used. A restriction fragment length polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism Fok I was tested. The frequencies of the vitamin D receptor genotype and allele were compared between the two groups. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in the rickets group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( 9.1+/-4.1 ng/mL vs 16.1+/-6.9 ng/mL; Ppolymorphism Fok I was more common in the rickets group than in the control group (53% vs 25%; Ppolymorphism Fok I and vitamin D deficiency rickets. This suggests that vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism might play an important role in determining susceptibility to development of vitamin D deficiency rickets.

  20. A Randomised, Cross-Over Study to Estimate the Influence of Food on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Serum Level after Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Cavalier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D3 is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D3. However, as bioavailability is related not only to the active molecules but also to the formulations and excipients used, the optimization of the pharmaceutical form of vitamin D3 is also important. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a food effect on absorption when a high dose of vitamin D3 is completely solubilized in an oily solution. In the present cross-over study, 88 subjects were randomized and received a single dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 in fasting state or with a standardized high-fat breakfast. Assessment of serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 was performed three, five, seven, 14, 30 and 60 days after supplementation. In fed and fast conditions, the 25(OHD3 serum concentrations were significantly higher than the baseline value three days after administration and remained significantly higher during the first month. No significant difference between fasting vs. fed conditions was observed. It is therefore concluded that the vitamin D3 absorption from an oily solution was not influenced by the presence or absence of a meal.

  1. The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D3 and the threshold limit associated with the risk of health complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojto, V; Kolcunova, M; Rausova, Z; Chrenova, J; Dedik, L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the threshold limit of vitamin D3 associated with the risk of nonskeletal health complications in humans. Vitamin D3 deficiency is primary caused by a reduced sun exposure, consequent limiting of vitamin D3 production in the skin, and low intake of food with this vitamin. Ninety-two adults (25-95 years old) were admitted to III. Internal clinic or examined in outpatient department of The University hospital in Bratislava. Vitamin D3 levels were determined using electrochemical luminescence immunoassay. The least square method for the results processing was used. Vitamin D3 level 16 ng/ml may be threshold limit for the risk of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. A higher occurrence of the observed diseases was in female and male patients with vitamin D3 levelsvitamin D3vitamin D3≥16 ng/ml (40%) was observed. Concerning the men, the highest increase refers to ischaemic heart disease (67%). The limit value of vitamin D3, 16 ng/ml, confirmed the association between vitamin D3 insufficiency and the presence of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Its relation to age, sex and other variables was detected (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 27).

  2. Protective effects of vitamin D3 against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Neriman; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Ozan, Enver; Kocaman, Nevin; Dabak, Durrin Ozlem; Parlak, Gozde

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we examined liver damage induced by d-galactosamine (d-GaIN) and the protective effects of vitamin D3 in relation to d-GaIN toxicity. Twenty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into four groups. Group I rats were used as the control group. Group II rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of d-GaIN. Group III rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of d-GaIN, intramuscular vitamin D3 for five days. Group IV rats were given intramuscular vitamin D3 for five days. All of rats were euthanized by cervical decapitation on the fifth day of experiment. Upon completion of the experiment, a midsaggital incision was performed, and the livers of all rats were removed and fixed. The livers were processed to perform TUNEL technique and histochemical staining. During the microscope examination, we observed inflamatory cell infiltration, sinusoidal dilatation, and apoptotic bodies due to d-GaIN exposure. In addition, glycogen content of the group II hepatocytes was significantly decreased. Vitamin D3 treatment provided better structural apperance of the livers in group III. TUNEL positive cells were extremly pervasive in the group II livers. The study found group III TUNEL positive cells at a reduced rate in relation to group II due to vitamin D3 treatment. This findings indicate that d-GaIN causes inflamation in the liver. This inflamation triggers the apoptotic process gradually. Vitamin D3 has potency to decrease the severity of d-GaIN-caused structural liver damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunoregulation of Inflammatory and Inhibitory Cytokines by Vitamin D3 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan Mohammed, H; Mirshafiey, A; Vahedi, H; Hemmasi, G; Moussavi Nasl Khameneh, A; Parastouei, K; Saboor-Yaraghi, A A

    2017-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of vitamin D3 in patients with IBD exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of vitamin D3 on naïve T cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 and IL-5. The binding of vitamin D to dendritic cells (DCs) through vitamin D receptors inhibits the action of IL-12 on DCs, resulting in the downregulation of Th1 and Th17. On the other hand, this interaction favours Th2 and Treg upregulation and facilitates the maintenance of immune homoeostasis between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines which is essentially significant in the management of patients with IBD. The aim of this review was to explore the current and mounting scientific evidence on the roles of vitamin D3 in immunoregulation of inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines in patients with IBDs. An extensive literature search was conducted using keywords such as Vitamin D3*, IBD*, inflammatory cytokines*, inhibitory cytokines*, naïve-T-cells* and antigen presenting cells* through PubMed, SCOPUS and MEDLINE search engines. The results of the accumulated bodies of research that have been conducted demonstrate that vitamin D3 plays a major role not only in the immunoregulation of cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of IBDs but also in many other inflammatory disorders. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  4. Effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on antibody responses against Epstein-Barr virus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsjø, Egil; Lossius, Andreas; Abdelmagid, Nada; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Kampman, Margitta T; Jørgensen, Lone; Sundström, Peter; Olsson, Tomas; Steffensen, Linn H; Torkildsen, Øivind; Holmøy, Trygve

    2017-03-01

    Elevated antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a poor vitamin D status are environmental factors that may interact in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) aetiology. To examine effects of high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation on antibody levels against EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) in RRMS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) and immunoglobulin G antibody levels against EBNA1 (whole protein and amino acid 385-420 fragment), EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) were measured in 68 RRMS patients enrolled in a 96-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (20,000 IU/week) (NCT00785473). The mean 25(OH)D level more than doubled in the vitamin D group and was significantly higher than in the placebo group at study conclusion (123.2 versus 61.8 nmol/L, p vitamin D group from baseline to week 48 ( p = 0.038 and p = 0.004, respectively), but not from baseline to week 96. Vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect antibodies against VCA, CMV or VZV. The results indicate that high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation can affect humoral immune responses against the latent EBV antigen EBNA1 in RRMS.

  5. Dietary vitamin D3 supplements reduce demyelination in the cuprizone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Wergeland

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is emerging as a probably important environmental risk factor in multiple sclerosis, affecting both susceptibility and disease progression. It is not known to what extent this effect is due to a modulation of peripheral lymphocyte function, or to intrathecal effects of vitamin D. We investigated the effect of dietary vitamin D3 content on de/remyelination in the cuprizone model, which is a well established toxic model of demyelination, with no associated lymphocyte infiltration. The mice received diets either deficient of (<50 IU/kg, or supplemented with low (500 IU/kg, high (6200 IU/kg or very high (12500 IU/kg amounts of vit D3. Cuprizone (0.2% was added to the diet for six weeks, starting two weeks after onset of the experimental diets. Mouse brain tissue was histopathologically evaluated for myelin and oligodendrocyte loss, microglia/macrophage activation, and lymphocyte infiltration after six weeks of cuprizone exposure, and two weeks after discontinuation of cuprizone exposure. High and very high doses of vitamin D3 significantly reduced the extent of white matter demyelination (p = 0.004 and attenuated microglia activation (p = 0.001. No differences in the density of oligodendrocytes were observed between the diet groups. Two weeks after discontinuation of cuprizone exposure, remyelination was only detectable in the white matter of mice receiving diets deficient of or with low vitamin D3 content. In conclusion, high dietary doses of vitamin D3 reduce the extent of demyelination, and attenuate microglia activation and macrophage infiltration in a toxic model of demyelination, independent of lymphocyte infiltration.

  6. Relation of obesity with serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cimbek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM. Aim of our study was to determine the relation of obesity with vitamin D levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We examined 101 type 2 diabetic patients and made a correlation analysis in all parameters. Then we classified our diabetics according to their body-mass indices and compared their 25 hdroxy vitamin D3 levels. Results: We found negative correlation between 25O HD and body mass index (BMI (P: <0.001, r: -0.23. When we classified our diabetics according to their body mass indices as normal, overweight and obese, and compared their 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 levels, we determined that in every BMI group 25 hydroxy vitamin D levels were not found to be significantly different. Conclusion: These results suggest that at least in a Turkish population with type 2 DM vitamin D levels are low and correlate with BMI, but when vitamin D levels are so low, as obesity worsens vitamin D levels does not lessen.

  7. Vitamin D3 and gargling for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Emma C; Granados, Andrea C; Luinstra, Kathy; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Coleman, Brenda L; Loeb, Mark; Smieja, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Background We undertook a 2X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether vitamin D3 supplementation (10,000 international units per week) versus placebo and gargling versus no gargling could prevent viral, clinical upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in university students. Methods We randomized 600 students into 4 treatment arms: 1) vitamin D3 and gargling, 2) placebo and gargling, 3) vitamin D3 and no gargling, and 4) placebo and no gargling. Students completed week...

  8. Skin-Derived Vitamin D-3 Protects against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Roelink, Henk

    2017-01-01

    UVR in sunlight causes mutations that drive basal cell carcinomas. However, the incidence of these tumors plateaus with prolonged exposure, but the incidence of other skin cancers increases. Makarova et al. now show that vitamin D-3 produced in the skin by UVR protects against its oncogenic effects

  9. Ultraviolet radiation and Vitamin D3 in amphibian health, behaviour, diet and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, R E; Browne, R K

    2009-10-01

    Amphibians are currently suffering a period of mass extinction with approximately 20% of species under severe threat and more than 120 species already extinct. In light of this crisis there is an urgency to establish viable ex situ populations and also find the causes of in situ declines. The role of ultraviolet radiation and Vitamin D(3) in amphibian health directly influences both ex situ and in situ populations. Vitamin D(3) can be photosynthesised endogenously via UV-B radiation (UV-B), or acquired through the diet, and then metabolised to calcitriol the biologically active hormonal form. Although, there is a lack of literature concerning Vitamin D(3) requirements and calcitriol synthesis in amphibians, amphibians are likely to have similar Vitamin D(3) requirements and metabolic processes as other vertebrates due to the phylogenetically conservative nature of calcitriol biosynthesis. Deficiencies in calcitriol in amphibians result in nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD) and could compromise reproduction and immunity. However, excess biologically active UV radiation has also proven detrimental across all three amphibian life stages and therefore could impact both in situ and ex situ populations. Here we review the role and necessity of UV-B and calcitriol in amphibians and the potential for negative impacts due to excessive exposure to UV radiation. We also identify priorities for research that could provide critical information for maintaining healthy in ex situ and in situ populations of amphibians.

  10. Neuroprotective role of vitamin D3 in colchicine-induced Alzheimerâ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adham R. Mohamed

    2014-06-14

    Jun 14, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease charac- terized by progressive decline in memory, language and other cognitive functions. Recent studies provide convincing evidence on the role of vitamin D3 on the nervous system. Aim: To investigate the effect of ...

  11. Role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D3 as immunomodulator in recurrent missed miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Mahdy Ibrahim

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Although statistically insignificant, vitamin D3 oral supplementation has resulted in reducing risk of pregnancy loss up to 15% among women with recurrent miscarriage so it is a matter that is worth more attention and large scale studies with larger sample size may result in more significant results.

  12. Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Judy R.; Hendricks, Kristy; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Peacock, Janet L.; Mott, Leila A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M.; Baron, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In a trial substudy of 1000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation, 759 participants completed daily health diaries for up to 17 months. Supplementation provided no significant reduction in upper respiratory tract infections, colds, or influenza-like illness during winter or overall.

  13. Vitamin D3 is not effective in the treatment of chronic chilblains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souwer, I.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic chilblains is a common disease causing major restrictions in daily life, nevertheless little is known about effective treatment. In a literature search, we found thin evidence of three interventions: fluocinolone cream, nifedipine and vitamin D3. OBJECTIVE: We have conducted a

  14. Clinicopathological Studies on Vitamin D(3) Toxicity and Therapeutic Evaluation of Aloe vera in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Sambhaji G; Brar, R S; Banga, H S; Sandhu, H S; Sodhi, S; Gadhave, P D; Kothule, V R; Kammon, A M

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in vitamin D(3) toxicity at a dose rate 2 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin D(3) and to assess the protective effect of Aloe vera in vitamin D(3) toxicity. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, progressive weight loss, difficulty in movement and respiration, diarrhea, epistaxis, subnormal body temperature and nervous signs before death. Mortality was observed in treated rats between day 10 and day 19 of treatment. The gross postmortem changes observed were severe emaciation, white chalky deposits on epicardial surface of heart, pin point white deposits on cortical surface of kidneys with pale yellow discoloration and diffused white deposits on serosal surface of stomach and intestine with bloody ingesta in lumen. The hematological changes included non-significant increase in hemoglobin and total leukocyte count and significant increase in relative neutrophil count. The biochemical changes observed were significant increase in plasma concentration of calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen, whereas a significant decrease in the concentration of albumin and total plasma protein was observed. The histopathological lesions included calcification of various organs, viz., tongue, stomach, intestines, kidney, heart, aorta, larynx, trachea, lungs, spleen, choroid plexus arteries of brain and vas deferens. The Aloe vera juice (2.5% in drinking water) has no protective effect on vitamin D(3) toxicity (2 mg/kg b.wt.).

  15. Activated vitamin D3 and pro-activated vitamin D3 attenuate induction of permanent changes caused by neonatal estrogen exposure in the mouse vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Manabu; Kurosaki, Keiko; Okamura, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development.

  16. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency exacerbates sinonasal inflammation and alters local 25(OH)D3 metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jennifer K; Pasquini, Whitney N; Carroll, William W; Williamson, Tucker; Reaves, Nicholas; Patel, Kunal J; Mappus, Elliott; Schlosser, Rodney J; Atkinson, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have been shown to be vitamin D3 (VD3) deficient, which is associated with more severe disease and increased polyp size. To gain mechanistic insights into these observational studies, we examined the impact of VD3 deficiency on inflammation and VD3 metabolism in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis (Af-CRS). Balb/c mice were fed control or VD3 deficient diet for 4 weeks. Mice were then sensitized with intraperitoneal Af, and one week later given Af intranasally every three days for four weeks while being maintained on control or VD3 deficient diet. Airway function, sinonasal immune cell infiltrate and sinonasal VD3 metabolism profiles were then examined. Mice with VD3 deficiency had increased Penh and sRaw values as compared to controls as well as exacerbated changes in sRaw when coupled with Af-CRS. As compared to controls, VD3 deficient and Af-CRS mice had reduced sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase and the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3. Differential analysis of nasal lavage samples showed that VD3 deficiency alone and in combination with Af-CRS profoundly upregulated eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers. VD3 deficiency exacerbated increases in monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) associated with Af-CRS. Conversely, T-regulatory cells were decreased in both Af-CRS mice and VD3 deficient mice, though coupling VD3 deficiency with Af-CRS did not exacerbate CD4 or T-regulatory cells numbers. Lastly, VD3 deficiency had a modifying or exacerbating impact on nasal lavage levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but had no impact on IL-17A. VD3 deficiency causes changes in sinonasal immunity, which in many ways mirrors the changes observed in Af-CRS mice, while selectively exacerbating inflammation. Furthermore, both VD3 deficiency and Af-CRS were associated with altered sinonasal VD3 metabolism causing reductions in local levels of the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3

  17. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  18. Whether vitamin D 3 is effective in reducing proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays Vitamin D deficiency is a notable medical condition world-wide and also in Iran. Since, vitamin D can have renoprotective effect by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system; it appears that low vitamin D level can worsen the renal injury in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates the effect of vitamin D 3 therapy on reducing proteinuria in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic nephropathy and vitamin D deficiency after controlling hypertension and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs or angiotensin II type receptor blockers (ARBs. Materials and Methods: In this randomized double blinded parallel groups clinical trial, 51 diabetic patients with proven nephropathy and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and stable hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemic treatment were enrolled. The patients were divided randomly into two groups (treatment and placebo group. Patients received oral vitamin D 3 (pearl 50000 IU or placebo one pearl every week for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention from the point of 25(OH D level, and urine albumin/creatinine ration (UACR. Results: Mean serum 25(OH D concentrations were 14.06 ng/ml and 16.05 ng/ml before treatment. Furthermore, after intervention, its levels were risen to71.23 and 17.63 in drug and placebo groups, respectively. Whereas, UACR as the main variable did not change significantly after intervention in both groups ( P = 0.919. Conclusion: According to our finding, there was not a decrease in proteinuria in diabetic patients who received vitamin D for a period of 3 months.

  19. High-dose vitamin D3 reduces deficiency caused by low UVB exposure and limits HIV-1 replication in urban Southern Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussens, Anna K.; Naude, Celeste E.; Goliath, Rene; Chaplin, George; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Jablonski, Nina G.

    2015-06-01

    Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal pattern of UVB radiation and a predominantly dark-skinned urban population who suffer high HIV-1 prevalence. This coexistent environmental and phenotypic scenario puts residents at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which may potentiate HIV-1 disease progression. We conducted a longitudinal study in two ethnically distinct groups of healthy young adults in Cape Town, supplemented with vitamin D3 in winter, to determine whether vitamin D status modifies the response to HIV-1 infection and to identify the major determinants of vitamin D status (UVB exposure, diet, pigmentation, and genetics). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating leukocytes, and reversed winter-associated anemia. Vitamin D3 therefore presents as a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity.

  20. Dental caries and vitamin D3 in children with growth hormone deficiency: A STROBE compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dorota; Krzewska, Aleksandra; Szalewski, Leszek; Pietryka-Michałowska, Elżbieta; Szalewska, Magdalena; Krzewski, Szymon; Pels, Elżbieta; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D may prevent dental caries. To date, no attempts have been made to examine the correlation between the incidence of caries and the concentrations of vitamin D in children with pituitary growth hormone deficiency.The study observed patients of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the University Paediatric Hospital of the Medical University of Lublin treated with human recombinant growth hormone for pituitary growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015. The study group consisted of 121 children and adolescents (6-17 years old), including 56 children from rural areas and 65 children from urban areas. The study group was stratified by area of residence.In our study, the increase in vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels reduced the D component by 0.66 per each 10 ng/mL of vitamin D3 concentration. The percentage of children with active caries in rural areas is 91.07% (n = 51), which is significantly higher than the percentage of children with active caries in urban areas (81.54%, n = 53).To date, information regarding the potential possibility of reducing the incidence of dental caries by means of increasing the levels of vitamin D was sidelined by paediatricians and dentists alike. Therefore, this aspect of caries prevention should be highlighted.

  1. Vitamin D3: A Role in Dopamine Circuit Regulation, Diet-Induced Obesity, and Drug Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinko, Joseph R; Land, Benjamin B; Solecki, Wojciech B; Wickham, Robert J; Tellez, Luis A; Maldonado-Aviles, Jaime; de Araujo, Ivan E; Addy, Nii A; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    The influence of micronutrients on dopamine systems is not well defined. Using mice, we show a potential role for reduced dietary vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in promoting diet-induced obesity (DIO), food intake, and drug consumption while on a high fat diet. To complement these deficiency studies, treatments with exogenous fully active vitamin D3 (calcitriol, 10 µg/kg, i.p.) were performed. Nondeficient mice that were made leptin resistant with a high fat diet displayed reduced food intake and body weight after an acute treatment with exogenous calcitriol. Dopamine neurons in the midbrain and their target neurons in the striatum were found to express vitamin D3 receptor protein. Acute calcitriol treatment led to transcriptional changes of dopamine-related genes in these regions in naive mice, enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in both naive mice and rats, and increased locomotor activity after acute amphetamine treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Alternatively, mice that were chronically fed either the reduced D3 high fat or chow diets displayed less activity after acute amphetamine treatment compared with their respective controls. Finally, high fat deficient mice that were trained to orally consume liquid amphetamine (90 mg/L) displayed increased consumption, while nondeficient mice treated with calcitriol showed reduced consumption. Our findings suggest that reduced dietary D3 may be a contributing environmental factor enhancing DIO as well as drug intake while eating a high fat diet. Moreover, these data demonstrate that dopamine circuits are modulated by D3 signaling, and may serve as direct or indirect targets for exogenous calcitriol.

  2. Vitamin D3 Induces Tolerance in Human Dendritic Cells by Activation of Intracellular Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela Bomfim; Vanherwegen, An-Sofie; Eelen, Guy; Gutiérrez, Ana Carolina Fierro; Van Lommel, Leentje; Marchal, Kathleen; Verlinden, Lieve; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Nogueira, Tatiane; Georgiadou, Maria; Schuit, Frans; Eizirik, Décio L; Gysemans, Conny; Carmeliet, Peter; Overbergh, Lut; Mathieu, Chantal

    2015-02-04

    Metabolic switches in various immune cell subsets enforce phenotype and function. In the present study, we demonstrate that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), induces human monocyte-derived tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) by metabolic reprogramming. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 upregulated several genes directly related to glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although OXPHOS was promoted by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , hypoxia did not change the tolerogenic function of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 -treated DCs. Instead, glucose availability and glycolysis, controlled by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, dictate the induction and maintenance of the 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 -conditioned tolerogenic DC phenotype and function. This metabolic reprogramming is unique for 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , because the tolerogenic DC phenotype induced by other immune modulators did not depend on similar metabolic changes. We put forward that these metabolic insights in tolerogenic DC biology can be used to advance DC-based immunotherapies, influencing DC longevity and their resistance to environmental metabolic stress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D3 Induces Tolerance in Human Dendritic Cells by Activation of Intracellular Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bomfim Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic switches in various immune cell subsets enforce phenotype and function. In the present study, we demonstrate that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3, induces human monocyte-derived tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC by metabolic reprogramming. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,25(OH2D3 upregulated several genes directly related to glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. Although OXPHOS was promoted by 1,25(OH2D3, hypoxia did not change the tolerogenic function of 1,25(OH2D3-treated DCs. Instead, glucose availability and glycolysis, controlled by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, dictate the induction and maintenance of the 1,25(OH2D3-conditioned tolerogenic DC phenotype and function. This metabolic reprogramming is unique for 1,25(OH2D3, because the tolerogenic DC phenotype induced by other immune modulators did not depend on similar metabolic changes. We put forward that these metabolic insights in tolerogenic DC biology can be used to advance DC-based immunotherapies, influencing DC longevity and their resistance to environmental metabolic stress.

  4. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL accessed by Wiley Science) was conducted. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including men and women (aged ≥65 years or mean age ≥65 years); enlisting resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation; including outcomes of muscle strength, function, muscle power, body composition, serum vitamin D/calcium status or quality of life comparing results with a control group. The review was informed by a preregistered protocol (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020157). Seven studies including a total of 792 participants were identified. Studies were categorised into two groups; group 1 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus exercise alone (describing the additive effect of vitamin D3 supplementation when combined with resistance exercise training) and group 2 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus vitamin D3 supplementation alone (describing the additive effect of resistance exercise training when combined with vitamin D3 supplementation).Meta-analyses for group 1 found muscle strength of the lower limb to be significantly improved within the intervention group (0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.24, pvitamin D3 supplementation for the improvement of muscle strength in older adults. For

  5. Effect of dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    neck chicken meat. Shear force values of unaged raw or cooked meat were optimized at different levels of 3735 (r2=0.832) and 2512 (r2=0.669) IU of vitamin D3 per kg DM feed, respectively. Shear force values of aged raw or cooked .... 24.77 E. The area receives a mean rainfall of less than 400 mm. Experimental designs ...

  6. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  7. Modulation of quail intestinal and egg shell gland calbindin (Mr 28,000) gene expression by vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and egg laying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striem, S; Bar, A

    1991-02-01

    The effects of vitamin D3 sources, egg production and egg cycle on the genomic expression of calbindin (Mr 28,000) in the intestine and egg shell gland (ESG) of quail were characterized by Northern blot and solution hybridization, using synthetic oligonucleotide probe. In vitamin D3- or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3)-fed quail, onset of egg production induced duodenal and ESG calbindin mRNA and calbindin synthesis. Duodenal calbindin mRNA was slightly higher during the period of shell calcification as compared with the period during which shells were not formed (ESG inactivity). ESG calbindin mRNA was markedly higher during the period of shell calcification than of ESG inactivity. Increasing dietary intake of [3H]1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased the duodenal, but not ESG, content of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and calbindin. Duodenal calbindin and its mRNA were absent in vitamin D-deficient quail and were not affected by egg laying. ESG calbindin in the vitamin D-deficient quail was not affected by egg laying, but calbindin mRNA increased in the vitamin D-deficient birds during shell calcification. The results suggest that: (a) intestinal calbindin mRNA and calbindin are induced and/or regulated, either directly or indirectly, by 1,25-(OH)2D3; (b) intestinal calbindin and its mRNA are further induced at the onset of egg laying by an additional stimulator besides 1,25-(OH)2D3; (c) 1,25-(OH)2D3 is required for the expression of the latter stimulator; (d) ESG calbindin mRNA and calbindin are induced in egg-laying birds by a stimulator associated with the egg cycle; and (e) the induction of ESG calbindin mRNA does not need vitamin D metabolites, but 1,25-(OH)2D3 is required for the translation of the mRNA.

  8. Effects of High-Dose Vitamin D2 Versus D3 on Total and Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Markers of Calcium Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Rene F.; Ma, Christina; Witzel, Sten; Meyer, Briana; Rafison, Brandon; Swinkels, Leon; Huijs, Tonnie; Pepkowitz, Sam; Holmquist, Brett; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Controversy persists over: 1) how best to restore low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) levels (vitamin D2 [D2] vs vitamin D3 [D3]); 2) how best to define vitamin D status (total [protein-bound + free] vs free 25D); and 3) how best to assess the bioactivity of free 25D. Objective: To assess: 1) the effects of D2 vs D3 on serum total and free 25D; and 2) whether change in intact PTH (iPTH) is more strongly associated with change in total vs free 25D. Design: Participants previously enrolled in a D2 vs D3 trial were matched for age, body mass index, and race/ethnicity. Participants received 50 000 IU of D2 or D3 twice weekly for 5 weeks, followed by a 5-week equilibration period. Biochemical assessment was performed at baseline and at 10 weeks. Setting and Participants: Thirty-eight adults (19 D2 and 19 D3) ≥18 years of age with baseline 25D levels P = .5) and free (5.4 ± 0.8 vs 5.3 ± 1.7 pg/mL; P = .8) 25D levels were similar between D2 and D3 groups. Increases in total (+27.6 vs +12.2 ng/mL; P = .001) and free (+3.6 vs +6.2 pg/mL; P = .02) 25D levels were greater with D3 vs D2. Percentage change in iPTH was significantly associated with change in free (but not total) 25D, without and with adjustment for supplementation regimen, change in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and change in calcium. Conclusions: D3 increased total and free 25D levels to a greater extent than D2. Free 25D may be superior to total 25D as a marker of vitamin D bioactivity. PMID:27192696

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese

  10. Microarray analyses of glucocorticoid and vitamin D3 target genes in differentiating cultured human podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available Glomerular podocytes are highly differentiated epithelial cells that are key components of the kidney filtration units. Podocyte damage or loss is the hallmark of nephritic diseases characterized by severe proteinuria. Recent studies implicate that hormones including glucocorticoids (ligand for glucocorticoid receptor and vitamin D3 (ligand for vitamin D receptor protect or promote repair of podocytes from injury. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated podocyte-protecting activity from injury, we carried out microarray gene expression studies to identify the target genes and corresponding pathways in response to these hormones during podocyte differentiation. We used immortalized human cultured podocytes (HPCs as a model system and carried out in vitro differentiation assays followed by dexamethasone (Dex or vitamin D3 (VD3 treatment. Upon the induction of differentiation, multiple functional categories including cell cycle, organelle dynamics, mitochondrion, apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization were among the most significantly affected. Interestingly, while Dex and VD3 are capable of protecting podocytes from injury, they only share limited target genes and affected pathways. Compared to VD3 treatment, Dex had a broader and greater impact on gene expression profiles. In-depth analyses of Dex altered genes indicate that Dex crosstalks with a broad spectrum of signaling pathways, of which inflammatory responses, cell migration, angiogenesis, NF-κB and TGFβ pathways are predominantly altered. Together, our study provides new information and identifies several new avenues for future investigation of hormone signaling in podocytes.

  11. Endothelial relaxation mechanisms and nitrative stress are partly restored by Vitamin D3 therapy in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masszi, Gabriella; Benko, Rita; Csibi, Noemi; Horvath, Eszter M; Tokes, Anna-Maria; Novak, Agnes; Beres, Nora Judit; Tarszabo, Robert; Buday, Anna; Repas, Csaba; Bekesi, Gabor; Patocs, Attila; Nadasy, Gyorgy L; Hamar, Peter; Benyo, Zoltan; Varbiro, Szabolcs

    2013-08-06

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction is related to hyperandrogenic status and insulin resistance, however, Vitamin D3 has a beneficial effect partly due to its anti-oxidant capacity. Nitrative stress is a major factor in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction and insulin resistance in various diseases. Our aim was to determine the effects of vitamin D3 in a rat model of PCOS, particularly the pathogenic role of nitrative stress. Female Wistar rats weighing 100-140g were administered vehicle (C), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or dihydrotestosterone plus vitamin D3 (DHT+D) (n=10 per group). On the 10th week, acetylcholine (Ach) induced relaxation ability of the isolated thoracic aorta rings was determined. In order to examine the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways in the impaired endothelial function, immunohistochemical labeling of aortas with anti-eNOS and anti-COX-2 antibodies was performed. Leukocyte smears, aorta and ovary tissue sections were also immunostained with anti-nitrotyrosine antibody to determine nitrative stress. Relaxation ability of aorta was reduced in group DHT, and vitamin D3 partly restored Ach induced relaxation. eNOS labeling was significantly lower in DHT rats compared to the other two groups, however COX-2 staining showed an increment. Nitrative stress showed a significant increase in response to dihydrotestosterone, while vitamin D3 treatment, in case of the ovaries, was able to reverse this effect. Nitrative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and in the development of the therapeutic effect of vitamin D3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  13. Interactive effects of vitamin D3 and strontium on performance, nutrient retention and bone mineral composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Linda C; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2015-03-30

    Strontium is currently prescribed for patients with osteoporosis to increase bone density and reduce bone fractures but its relevance in animal nutrition is obscure. In order to investigate the effect of supplemental strontium and vitamin D3 on performance, egg quality and skeletal integrity in poultry a total of 108 laying hens, 99 weeks of age, were fed three levels of strontium (0, 500, 1000 mg kg(-1) ) and two levels of vitamin D3 (2500, 5,000 iu kg(-1)) over a 12-week period. There was an improvement (P strontium at 500 mg kg(-1) and a significant increase in egg weight in those hens fed additional vitamin D3 . Supplemental strontium increased phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 2500 iu D3 kg(-1) but reduced phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 5000 iu D3 kg(-1), resulting in an interaction (P strontium and vitamin D3 . Addition of 5000 iu D3 kg(-1) increased egg weight (P strontium supplementation reduced egg weight (P strontium supplementation reduced (P strontium significantly improved egg production and feed efficiency; however, further investigation needs to be undertaken to refine the optimum level of strontium required to maximize hen performance. The interrelationship between strontium and vitamin D3 requires further exploratory study. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of vitamin D3 on the cytokine synthesizing activity of cells of gingival fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya L.Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the effect of vitamin D3 on cytokine activity of macrophages and monocytes of gingival fluid. Material and methods. The examination and treatment of 42 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis at the age of 45-50 years were conducted. Gingival fluid was obtained from the periodontal pockets of patients. Material processed statistically. Results. Colecalciferol efficacy in inflammation and processes of destruction of periodontal tissue was twice higher than using traditional therapy. Resistance anti-inflammatory effect of the drug was maintained for 6 months, which had been confirmed by clinical and laboratory investigations. Conclusion. The use of applications of vitamin D in the treatment of periodontitis may achieve compensatory restoration of immune protection of the oral cavity.

  15. Role of Map Kinase in Mediating the Effects of Vitamin D3 Metabolites on Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haris, Ehland

    2003-01-01

    .... The process is required for normal long bone growth and in certain kinds of bone repair. Vitamin D3 plays an important regulatory role in chondrocyte differentiation and maturation and therefore is essential for proper endochondral ossification...

  16. Impact of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy on the prevalence of neonatal vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser F. Aly

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal vitamin D deficiency is not uncommon. The lack of vitamin D during pregnancy may result in poor fetal growth and altered neonatal development that may persist into later life. Recognition of risk factors and early detection of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is important in order to prevent neonatal vitamin D deficiency and related complications. The aim of the current study is to assess the effect of maternal vitamin D status on the neonatal vitamin D stores. A total of 92 pregnant women at the end of the 3rd trimester and their newborns were recruited from Al Khafji Joint Operation Hospital, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2011. Maternal and cord blood samples were taken for determination of serum levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentration, serum calcium (Ca++, phosphorus (PO4 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Compared with pregnant women with adequate vitamin D levels, women deficient in vitamin D had infants with vitamin D deficiency (X±SD 33.44±18.33 nmol/L vs 55.39±17.37 nmol/L, P=0.01. Maternal and neonatal serum 25(OHD3 levels showed a positive correlation with serum Ca++ and negative correlation with serum PO4 and ALP. Neonatal 25(OHD was related to maternal 3rd trimester levels (r=0.89, P=0.01. The newborn serum 25(OHD3\tconcentrations rely on maternal vitamin D status. Poor maternal vitamin D status may adversely affect neonatal vitamin D status and, consequently, calcium homeostasis.

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of TEI-9647 derivatives as Vitamin D3 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Kazuya; Sogawa, Ryo; Manabe, Kenji; Saitoh, Hiroshi; Gao, Qingzhi; Miura, Daishiro; Ishizuka, Seiichi

    2004-05-01

    The Vitamin D(3) lactone analogues, (23S)- and (23R)-25-dehydro-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-26,23-lactone (TEI-9647 and TEI-9648) are antagonists of the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) nuclear receptor (VDR)-mediated differentiation of human leukemia (HL-60) cells. In order to clarify the structure-Vitamin D antagonistic activity relationship, we paid attention to the unique lactone moiety of TEI-9647 and TEI-9648: alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactone structure. We synthesized the exo-methylene-modified analogues (methylene saturated, endo-methylene, methylene-deleted, methyl-substituted, dimethyl-substituted, methylene-replaced with dimethyl and cyclopropane) and oxygen-modified analogues (oxygen atom replaced with nitrogen and carbon atom) by convergent method using palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction or direct modification of VD(3) skeleton. The antagonistic activity in HL-60 cell differentiation evaluating system of these analogues revealed that any exo-methylene-modified analogues and nitrogen analogue did not have the antagonistic activity, on the other hand carbon analogue did show. The results suggest that "alpha-exo-methylene carbonyl" structure of VD(3) side-chain is crucial for antagonistic activity. The structure is integral building block of many natural products which have interesting biological and it is thought that Michael-type addition of alpha-exo-methylene carbonyl structure with protein nucleophiles such as cysteine would play an important role for the activities. According to this theory, Michael-type reaction of TEI-9647 and TEI-9648 with cysteine residue in protein related to VDR/VDRE-mediated genomic actions such as VDR would be essential step of the antagonistic action.

  18. A Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based genetic sensor for functional screening of vitamin D3 analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Sharma, Nynne; Bak, Rasmus O

    2011-01-01

    methods that allow a comparative evaluation of drug properties. As a new tool in functional screening of vitamin D3 analogues, we describe a genomically integratable sensor for sensitive drug detection. This system facilitates assessment of the pharmacokinetic and pharmadynamic properties of vitamin D3...... analogues. The tri-cistronic genetic sensor encodes a drug-sensoring protein, a reporter protein expressed from an activated sensor-responsive promoter, and a resistance marker....

  19. Efficacy of micellized vs. fat-soluble vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy school children from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Yenamandra, Vamsi K; Ganie, Mohammed Asraf; Sethuraman, Gomathy; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Mathur, Sathish K; Sharma, Vinod K; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a widely recognized public health problem. Efficacy of a recently developed micellized form of vitamin D3 has not been studied. Hence, we undertook this study to compare its efficacy with the conventionally used fat-soluble vitamin D3. In this open-labeled nonrandomized pilot study, we recruited 180 healthy children, aged 13-14 years in two groups and supplemented Group A (60 children) with 60,000 IU of fat-soluble vitamin D3/month with milk and Group B (120 children) with 60,000 IU/month of water miscible vitamin D3 under supervision for 6 months. Serum 25(OD)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were evaluated before and after supplementation in 156 children (54 in Group A and 102 in Group B) who completed the study. We observed a significantly greater increase in the serum 25(OH)D levels in group B as compared to group A (31.8±9.1 ng/mL vs. 23.7±10.4 ng/mL; p20 ng/mL) as against 83.3% children in group A. Serum PTH and ALP levels declined considerably in both the groups following supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased the serum 25(OH)D levels in both groups. Miscible form of vitamin D3 appears to be better in achieving higher levels of serum 25(OH)D than that observed with a similar dose of fat-soluble vitamin D3. Further studies with different dose regimens are required to establish its efficacy over the conventionally used fat-soluble vitamin D3.

  20. Effects of the vitamin D3 analog 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-3 beta-bromoacetate on rat osteosarcoma cells: comparison with 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, M; Buckley, D; Ray, R; Holick, M F; Baran, D T

    1996-12-01

    The actions of the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha, 25-(OH)2 D3], are mediated by both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Several vitamin D synthetic analogs have been developed in order to identify and characterize the site(s) of action of 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 in many cell types including osteoblastic cells. We have compared the effects of 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 and a novel 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 bromoester analog (1,25-(OH)2-BE) that covalently binds to vitamin D receptors. Rat osteosarcoma cells that possess (ROS 17/2.8) or lack (ROS 24/1) the classic intracellular vitamin D receptor were studied to investigate genomic and nongenomic actions. In ROS 17/2.8 cells plated at low density, the two vitamin D compounds (1 x 10(-8) M) caused increased cell proliferation, as assessed by DNA synthesis and total cell counts. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mitogenic effect of both agents was accompanied by an increase in steady-state osteocalcin mRNA levels, but neither agent altered alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels in ROS 17/2.8 cells. ROS 17/2.8 cells responded to 1,25-(OH)2-BE but not the natural ligand with a significant increase in osteocalcin secretion after 72, 96, 120, and 144 hr of treatment. Treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with the bromoester analog also resulted in a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity. To compare the nongenomic effects of 1 alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 and 1,25-(OH)2-BE intracellular calcium was measured in ROS 24/1 cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Quin 2. At 2 x 10(-8) M, both 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3 and 1, 25-(OH)2-BE increased intracellular calcium within 5 min. Both the genomic and nongenomic actions of 1,25-(OH)2-BE are similar to those of 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and since 1,25-(OH)2-BE has more potent effects on osteoblast function than the naturally occurring ligand due to more stable binding, this novel vitamin D analog may be useful in elucidating the structure and function

  1. The Effects of Uric Acid, Serum Vitamin D3, and Their Interaction on Parkinson’s Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In current study, the relationships between serum vitamin D3 levels and serum UA concentrations as well as their interaction with severity of PD were evaluated in a sample of Iranian PD patients. Method. In a cross sectional study at the one of the main referral hospitals in central region of Iran, during September to November 2011, 112 patients were recruited. Severity of PD was evaluated sing H&R stages and UPDRS. Results. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient suggests the negative significant association between serum vitamin D3 and UPDRS in patients aged >62 (r=-0.34, P<0.05. No statistically significant association was observed between the UA levels and severity of PD (represented by H&Y categories in different levels of serum vitamin D3 not only in total sample but also in separate age and sex groups. The linear regression coefficients suggested positive association between UA and serum vitamin D3 with UPDRSIII scores while negative relationship between UA and serum vitamin D3 interaction with UPDRSIII; however it was only statistically significant in age group ≤62 (P<0.05. Conclusion. Our study revealed a negative correlation between interaction of serum vitamin D3 and UA with severity of PD; other studies are required to confirm our findings.

  2. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish......A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases....... In addition to skeletal health, vitamin D has also been associated with several extra-skeletal conditions including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Evaluation of Vitamin D status is complex because it is modified by several factors and because the level of optimal vitamin D concentration...

  3. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Adrian R; James, Wai Yee; Hooper, Richard L; Barnes, Neil C; Jolliffe, David A; Greiller, Claire L; Islam, Kamrul; McLaughlin, David; Bhowmik, Angshu; Timms, Peter M; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Rowe, Marion; Venton, Timothy R; Choudhury, Aklak B; Simcock, David E; Wilks, Mark; Degun, Amarjeet; Sadique, Zia; Monteiro, William R; Corrigan, Christopher J; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have vitamin D deficiency, which is associated with increased susceptibility to upper respiratory infection-a major precipitant of exacerbation. Multicentre trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of exacerbation and upper respiratory infection in patients with COPD are lacking. We therefore investigated whether vitamin D3 (colecalciferol) supplementation would reduce the incidence of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations and upper respiratory infections. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in adults with COPD in 60 general practices and four Acute National Health Service Trust clinics in London, UK. Patients were allocated to receive six 2-monthly oral doses of 3 mg vitamin D3 or placebo over 1 year in a 1:1 ratio using computer-generated permuted block randomisation. Participants and study staff were masked to treatment assignment. Coprimary outcomes were time to first moderate or severe exacerbation and first upper respiratory infection. Analysis was by intention to treat. A prespecified subgroup analysis was done to assess whether effects of the intervention on the coprimary outcomes were modified by baseline vitamin D status. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00977873. 240 patients were randomly allocated to the vitamin D3 group (n=122) and placebo group (n=118). Vitamin D3 compared with placebo did not affect time to first moderate or severe exacerbation (adjusted hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·60-1·24, p=0·42) or time to first upper respiratory infection (0·95, 0·69-1·31, p=0·75). Prespecified subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D3 was protective against moderate or severe exacerbation in participants with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 50 nmol/L (0·57, 0·35-0·92, p=0·021), but not in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 50 nmol/L (1·45, 0

  4. Genetic and epigenetic factors influencing vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaeizadeh, Seyed-Amir; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Behboodi, Negin; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Avan, Amir

    2017-10-14

    The global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency appears to be increasing, and the impact of this on human health is important because of the association of vitamin D insufficiency with increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. There are few studies on the genetic factors that can influence vitamin D levels. In particular, the data from twin and family-based studies have reported that circulating vitamin D concentrations are partially determined by genetic factors. Moreover, it has been shown that genetic variants (e.g., mutation) and alteration (e.g., deletion, amplification, inversion) in genes involved in the metabolism, catabolism, transport, or binding of vitamin D to it receptor, might affect vitamin D level. However, the underlying genetic determinants of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentrations remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the association between epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and vitamin D level has now been reported in several studies. The aim of current review was to provide an overview of the possible value of loci associated to vitamin D metabolism, catabolism, and transport as well epigenetic modification and environmental factors influencing vitamin D status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification.

  6. Vitamin D status and supplementation in elite Irish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Wallace, Julie M W; Cleary, John; Conway, Joe; Harney, Edward; Madigan, Sharon M

    2013-10-01

    A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, which may impact on health and training ability, is evident among athletes worldwide. This observational study investigated the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes and determined the effect of wintertime supplementation on status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and plasma parathyroid hormone were analyzed in elite athletes in November 2010 (17 boxers, 33 paralympians) or March 2011 (34 Gaelic Athletic Association [GAA] players). A subset of boxers and paralympians (n = 27) were supplemented during the winter months with either 5,000 IU vitamin D3/d for 10-12 weeks or 50,000 IU on one or two occasions. Biochemical analysis was repeated following supplementation. Median 25(OH)D of all athletes at baseline was 48.4 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (serum 25(OH)D supplementation (all doses) significantly increased 25(OH)D (median 62.8 nmol/L at baseline vs. 71.1 nmol/L in April or May; p = .001) and corrected any insufficiencies/deficiencies in this subset of athletes. In contrast, 25(OH)D significantly decreased in those that did not receive a vitamin D supplement, with 74% of athletes classed as vitamin D insufficient/deficient after winter, compared with only 35% at baseline. This study has highlighted a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency among elite Irish athletes and demonstrated that wintertime vitamin D3 supplementation is an appropriate regimen to ensure vitamin D sufficiency in athletes during winter and early spring.

  7. Metabolism of selective 20-epi-vitamin D3 analogs in rat osteosarcoma UMR-106 cells: Isolation and identification of four novel C-1 fatty acid esters of 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarakos, Caroline Ceailles; Weiskopf, Andrew; Robinson, Matthew; Wang, Guoshun; Vouros, Paul; Sasso, Gino J; Uskokovic, Milan R; Reddy, G Satyanarayana

    2017-03-01

    Analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (S1) with 20-epi modification (20-epi analogs) possess unique biological properties. We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxy-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S2), the basic 20-epi analog is metabolized into less polar metabolites (LPMs) in rat osteosarcoma cells (UMR-106) but not in a perfused rat kidney. Furthermore, we also noted that only selective 20-epi analogs are metabolized into LPMs. For example, 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S4), but not 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S5) is metabolized into LPMs. In spite of these novel findings, the unequivocal identification of LPMs has not been achieved to date. We report here on a thorough investigation of the metabolism of S4 in UMR-106 cells and isolated two major LPMs produced directly from the substrate S4 itself and two minor LPMs produced from 3-epi-S4, a metabolite of S4 produced through C-3 epimerization pathway. Using GC/MS, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analysis, we identified all the four LPMs of S4 as 25-hydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3-1-stearate and 25-hydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3-1-oleate and their respective C-3 epimers. We report here for the first time the elucidation of a novel pathway of metabolism in UMR-106 cells in which both 1α,25(OH)2-16-ene-20-epi-D3 and 1α,25(OH)2-16-ene-20-epi-3-epi-D3 undergo C-1 esterification into stearic and oleic acid esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    children’s vitamin D status with regard to sufficiency level, possibilities to improve status, and whether status is associated with cardio-metabolic markers. The project is based on data from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND......A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases...... latitudes such as Denmark and low winter concentrations have been observed in Danish children. Also, very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D and little is known on the effect of dietary vitamin D on children’s vitamin D status. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate aspects of Danish...

  9. Optimization of vitamins A and D3loading in re-assembled casein micelles and effect of loading on stability of vitamin D3during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Anisa; Chan, Benny; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to apply response surface methodology to optimize fat-soluble vitamin loading in re-assembled casein micelles, and to evaluate vitamin D stability of dry formulations during ambient or accelerated storage and in fortified fluid skim milk stored under refrigeration. Optimal loading of vitamin A (1.46-1.48mg/100mgcasein) was found at 9.7mM phosphate, 5.5mM citrate and 30.0mM calcium, while optimal loading of vitamin D (1.38-1.46mg/100mg casein) was found at 4.9mM phosphate, 4.0mM citrate and 26.1mM calcium. In general, more vitamin D was retained in vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles than control powders during storage, while vitamin D loss was not different for vitamin D-re-assembled casein micelles and control fortified milks after 21days of refrigerated storage with light exposure. In conclusion, re-assembled casein micelles with high loading efficiency show promise for improving vitamin D stability during dry storage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  11. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with frequent respiratory tract infections: a randomised and double-blind intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter; Norlin, Anna-Carin; Hansen, Susanne; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Agerberth, Birgitta; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Ekström, Lena; Lindh, Jonatan D; Andersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Clinical trials with vitamin D(3) against various infections have been carried out but data are so far not conclusive. Thus, there is a need for additional randomised controlled trials of effects of vitamin D(3) on infections. To investigate if supplementation with vitamin D(3) could reduce infectious symptoms and antibiotic consumption among patients with antibody deficiency or frequent RTIs. A double-blind randomised controlled trial. Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge. 140 patients with antibody deficiency (selective IgA subclass deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, common variable immune disorder) and patients with increased susceptibility to RTIs (>4 bacterial RTIs/year) but without immunological diagnosis. Vitamin D(3) (4000 IU) or placebo was given daily for 1 year. The primary endpoint was an infectious score based on five parameters: symptoms from respiratory tract, ears and sinuses, malaise and antibiotic consumption. Secondary endpoints were serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), microbiological findings and levels of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, HNP1-3) in nasal fluid. The overall infectious score was significantly reduced for patients allocated to the vitamin D group (202 points) compared with the placebo group (249 points; adjusted relative score 0.771, 95% CI 0.604 to 0.985, p=0.04). A single study centre, small sample size and a selected group of patients. The sample size calculation was performed using p=0.02 as the significance level whereas the primary and secondary endpoints were analysed using the conventional p=0.05 as the significance level. Supplementation with vitamin D(3) may reduce disease burden in patients with frequent RTIs.

  12. Quantification of vitamin D3 in feed, food, and pharmaceuticals using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, Heiko S; Gössl, Richard; Seibel, Natalie; Aebischer, Claude-P

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and selective method for the quantification of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in solid and liquid food, feed, and tablets based on HPLC/MS/MS has been developed and validated. The sample preparation procedure consists of a quick and robust alkaline saponification and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by direct injection of the organic extract into the HPLC/MS/MS system for analysis without any further concentration, reconstitution, or prepurification steps. The reduction in sample preparation time was achieved by applying a heart-cutting, two-dimensional chromatography technique prior to positive electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring MS analysis. Total vitamin D3 (sum of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3) was quantified using an isotopically labeled internal standard. The ionization efficiency of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 in the positive electrospray ionization mode was found to be very similar. The validation experiments included four feed matrixes, three types of tablets, and 12 food matrixes. The obtained recoveries were between 96.1 and 105.3%, and intermediate precision ranged from 1.32 to 15.6% RSD, with HorRat values between 0.07 and 0.65. For all samples, extraction efficiencies were above 95.8%. Analysis of two certified reference materials (SRM 1849 and BCR-122) gave accuracies of 102.4 and 99.8%, respectively.

  13. Amelioration of altered oxidant/antioxidant balance of Indian water buffaloes with subclinical mastitis by vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Pankaj; Jhambh, Ricky; Singh, Bishwambhar; Bandhyopadhyay, Samiran; Verma, Med Ram

    2013-04-01

    The effect of vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation on oxidative stress indices in Indian water buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis was investigated. Changes in the total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in milk were evaluated before and after the supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H. The buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis revealed remarkable alterations in the milk oxidants/antioxidants balance shifted towards oxidative status. The buffaloes with subclinical mastitis revealed significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher TOC, NO contents, and CAT activity, while TAC content and GSH-Px activity were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) lower in comparison with the healthy controls. However, SOD activity did not show any significant change. Supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H to these animals revealed significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in TOC, NO, and CAT, while a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in TAC and GSH-Px activity was also evident. From the present study, it may be concluded that supplementation of these vitamins can help ameliorate the altered milk oxidants/antioxidants balance towards normalcy and, thus, ensue recovery from subclinical mastitis in the Indian water buffaloes.

  14. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    -25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...... transplant patients and is associated with reduced concentrations of S-1,25(OH)(2)D and increased S-PTH concentrations. Sun avoidance and vitamin D supplementation are important determinants of vitamin D status. The observed hypovitaminosis D might be corrected by intensified routine vitamin D......BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...

  15. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario; King, Tonya S; Kunselman, Susan J; Cabana, Michael D; Denlinger, Loren; Holguin, Fernando; Kazani, Shamsah D; Moore, Wendy C; Moy, James; Sorkness, Christine A; Avila, Pedro; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bleecker, Eugene; Boushey, Homer A; Chmiel, James; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gentile, Deborah; Hundal, Mandeep; Israel, Elliot; Kraft, Monica; Krishnan, Jerry A; LaForce, Craig; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lemanske, Robert; Lugogo, Njira; Martin, Richard J; Mauger, David T; Naureckas, Edward; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Que, Loretta G; Sheshadri, Ajay; Smith, Lewis; Solway, Julian; Sullivan-Vedder, Lisa; Sumino, Kaharu; Wechsler, Michael E; Wenzel, Sally; White, Steven R; Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-05-01

    In asthma and other diseases, vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse outcomes. It is not known if supplementing inhaled corticosteroids with oral vitamin D3 improves outcomes in patients with asthma and vitamin D insufficiency. To evaluate if vitamin D supplementation would improve the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels. The VIDA (Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma) randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial studying adult patients with symptomatic asthma and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL was conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by January 2014. After a run-in period that included treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, 408 patients were randomized. Oral vitamin D3 (100,000 IU once, then 4000 IU/d for 28 weeks; n = 201) or placebo (n = 207) was added to inhaled ciclesonide (320 µg/d). If asthma control was achieved after 12 weeks, ciclesonide was tapered to 160 µg/d for 8 weeks, then to 80 µg/d for 8 weeks if asthma control was maintained. The primary outcome was time to first asthma treatment failure (a composite outcome of decline in lung function and increases in use of β-agonists, systemic corticosteroids, and health care). Treatment with vitamin D3 did not alter the rate of first treatment failure during 28 weeks (28% [95% CI, 21%-34%] with vitamin D3 vs 29% [95% CI, 23%-35%] with placebo; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.3]). Of 14 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 were analyzed, including asthma exacerbation; of those 9, the only statistically significant outcome was a small difference in the overall dose of ciclesonide required to maintain asthma control (111.3 µg/d [95% CI, 102.2-120.4 µg/d] in the vitamin D3 group vs 126

  16. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Vitamin D3 in MS: Subgroup Analysis of Patients with Baseline Disease Activity Despite Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Åivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a subgroup analysis of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with vitamin D3 in MS. In the overall study population, there were 34 patients in the vitamin D arm and 32 patients in the placebo arm. All the patients were using interferon-β-1b (IFNB therapy. The subgroup consisted of 15 patients in the vitamin D arm and 15 patients in the placebo arm, who had either at least one relapse during the year preceding the study or enhancing T1 lesions at the baseline MRI scan. We measured the total number of MRI T1 enhancing lesions, the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and T2 lesion volume (BOD (mm3, EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, annual relapse Rate (ARR, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and timed 10-foot tandem walk (TT10W at baseline and at 12 months in the vitamin D-treated and in the placebo-treated patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of T1 enhancing lesions, a smaller T2 lesion volume growth and less new/enlarging T2 brain MRI lesions in the vitamin D3-treated than in the placebo-treated subgroup patients. The MRI results were slightly more pronounced in the subgroup than in the overall study population.

  17. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy on Risk of Persistent Wheeze in the Offspring: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Stokholm, Jakob; Vissing, Nadja H; Bjarnadóttir, Elín; Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Wolsk, Helene M; Pedersen, Tine Marie; Vinding, Rebecca K; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Arianto, Lambang; Hallas, Henrik W; Heickendorff, Lene; Brix, Susanne; Rasmussen, Morten A; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-26

    Observational studies have suggested that increased dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against wheezing in the offspring, but the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women is unknown. To determine whether supplementation of vitamin D3 during the third trimester of pregnancy reduces the risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring. A double-blind, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted within the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort. Enrollment began March 2009 with a goal of 708 participants, but due to delayed ethical approval, only 623 women were recruited at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Follow-up of the children (N = 581) was completed when the youngest child reached age 3 years in March 2014. Vitamin D3 (2400 IU/d; n = 315) or matching placebo tablets (n = 308) from pregnancy week 24 to 1 week postpartum. All women received 400 IU/d of vitamin D3 as part of usual pregnancy care. Age at onset of persistent wheeze in the first 3 years of life. Secondary outcomes included number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms, asthma, respiratory tract infections, and neonatal airway immunology. Adverse events were assessed. Of the 581 children, persistent wheeze was diagnosed during the first 3 years of life in 47 children (16%) in the vitamin D3 group and 57 children (20%) in the control group. Vitamin D3 supplementation was not associated with the risk of persistent wheeze, but the number of episodes of troublesome lung symptoms was reduced, and the airway immune profile was up-regulated (principal component analysis, P = .04). There was no effect on additional end points. Intrauterine death was observed in 1 fetus (interpretation of the study is limited by a wide CI that includes a clinically important protective effect. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00856947.

  18. Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-11-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  19. Vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia increases carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity through elevated oxidative stress in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Usuda, Haruki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Fukuishi, Nobuyuki; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Onosaka, Satomi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether calcium potentiates acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced toxicity. Elevated calcium levels were induced in mice by pre-treatment with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; V.D3), a compound that has previously been shown to induce hypercalcemia in human and animal models. As seen previously, mice injected with CCl4 exhibited increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine; transient body weight loss; a...

  20. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation for the prevention of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ng, M; Aloia, J F; Pollack, S; Cunha, B A; Mikhail, M; Yeh, J; Berbari, N

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to be an important immune system regulator. Vitamin D insufficiency during winter may cause increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). To determine whether vitamin D supplementation during the winter season prevents or decreases URI symptoms, 162 adults were randomized to receive 50 microg vitamin D3 (2000 IU) daily or matching placebo for 12 weeks. A bi-weekly questionnaire was used to record the incidence and severity of URI symptoms. There was no difference in the incidence of URIs between the vitamin D and placebo groups (48 URIs vs. 50 URIs, respectively, P=0.57). There was no difference in the duration or severity of URI symptoms between the vitamin D and placebo groups [5.4+/-4.8 days vs. 5.3+/-3.1 days, respectively, P=0.86 (95% CI for the difference in duration -1.8 to 2.1)]. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level at baseline was similar in both groups (64.3+/-25.4 nmol/l in the vitamin D group; 63.0+/-25.8 nmol/l in the placebo group; n.s.). After 12 weeks, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased significantly to 88.5+/-23.2 nmol/l in the vitamin D group, whereas there was no change in vitamin D levels in the placebo group. There was no benefit of vitamin D3 supplementation in decreasing the incidence or severity of symptomatic URIs during winter. Further studies are needed to determine the role of vitamin D in infection.

  1. Use of vitamin d3 and its metabolites in broiler chicken feed on performance, bone parameters and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  2. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on relapses, disease progression, and measures of function in persons with multiple sclerosis: exploratory outcomes from a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Margitta T; Steffensen, Linn H; Mellgren, Svein I; Jørgensen, Lone

    2012-08-01

    High vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of relapses and disease progression in multiple sclerosis. This 96-week randomised controlled trial was designed to assess the effect of vitamin D(3) supplementation on bone mineral density in persons with multiple sclerosis. Supplementation with 20,000 IU vitamin D(3) weekly raised median serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) to 121 nmol/L. The modified intention to treat analysis included 35 persons in the vitamin D(3) group and 33 in the placebo group. Participants were age 21 to 50 years and fully ambulatory (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 2.5). We studied the effect of supplementing vitamin D(3) on the exploratory outcomes annualised relapse rate (ARR), EDSS, multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) components, grip strength, and fatigue. After 96 weeks, there was no significant difference between groups in ARR (absolute difference 0.10, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.27; p = 0.25), EDSS (absolute difference -0.01, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.35; p = 0.97), MSFC components, grip strength, or fatigue. Supplementation with 20,000 IU vitamin D(3) weekly did not result in beneficial effects on the measured multiple sclerosis-related outcomes. This study was not powered to address clinical outcomes, but none of the results were suggestive of an effect in this unselected population of fully ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis.

  3. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem...... mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels–Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200ng vitamin D3/g dry weight and 31ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D3/g dry weight......, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 in both free (32ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17ng/g dry weight)....

  4. In vitro vitamin K(2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) combination enhances osteoblasts anabolism of diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Christina C W; Li, Rachel W S; Seto, Sai Wang; Kong, Siu Kai; Ho, Ho Pui; Hoi, Maggie P M; Lee, Simon M Y; Ngai, Sai Ming; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George P H; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the anabolic effect and the underlying cellular mechanisms involved of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (10 nM), alone and in combination, on primary osteoblasts harvested from the iliac crests of C57BL/KsJ lean (+/+) and obese/diabetic (db/db) mice. A lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity plus a reduced expression of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors (osteocalcin, Runx2, Dlx5, ATF4 and OSX) were consistently detected in osteoblasts of db/db mice compared to lean mice. A significantly higher calcium deposits formation in osteoblasts was observed in lean mice when compared to db/db mice. Co-administration of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) caused an enhancement of calcium deposits in osteoblasts in both strains of mice. Vitamins K2 and 1,25(OH)2D3 co-administration time-dependently (7, 14 and 21 days) increased the levels of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors, with a greater magnitude of increase observed in osteoblasts of db/db mice. Combined vitamins K2 plus 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly enhanced migration and the re-appearance of surface microvilli and ruffles of osteoblasts of db/db mice. Thus, our results illustrate that vitamins K2 plus D3 combination could be a novel therapeutic strategy in treating diabetes-associated osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six...

  6. Estimates of optimal vitamin D status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Heaney, R.P.; Holick, M.F.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Meunier, P.J.; Vieth, R.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D has captured attention as an important determinant of bone health, but there is no common definition of optimal vitamin D status. Herein, we address the question: What is the optimal circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for the skeleton? The opinions of the authors on the

  7. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency exacerbates sinonasal inflammation and alters local 25(OHD3 metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Mulligan

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP have been shown to be vitamin D3 (VD3 deficient, which is associated with more severe disease and increased polyp size. To gain mechanistic insights into these observational studies, we examined the impact of VD3 deficiency on inflammation and VD3 metabolism in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis (Af-CRS.Balb/c mice were fed control or VD3 deficient diet for 4 weeks. Mice were then sensitized with intraperitoneal Af, and one week later given Af intranasally every three days for four weeks while being maintained on control or VD3 deficient diet. Airway function, sinonasal immune cell infiltrate and sinonasal VD3 metabolism profiles were then examined.Mice with VD3 deficiency had increased Penh and sRaw values as compared to controls as well as exacerbated changes in sRaw when coupled with Af-CRS. As compared to controls, VD3 deficient and Af-CRS mice had reduced sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase and the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH2D3. Differential analysis of nasal lavage samples showed that VD3 deficiency alone and in combination with Af-CRS profoundly upregulated eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers. VD3 deficiency exacerbated increases in monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC associated with Af-CRS. Conversely, T-regulatory cells were decreased in both Af-CRS mice and VD3 deficient mice, though coupling VD3 deficiency with Af-CRS did not exacerbate CD4 or T-regulatory cells numbers. Lastly, VD3 deficiency had a modifying or exacerbating impact on nasal lavage levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but had no impact on IL-17A.VD3 deficiency causes changes in sinonasal immunity, which in many ways mirrors the changes observed in Af-CRS mice, while selectively exacerbating inflammation. Furthermore, both VD3 deficiency and Af-CRS were associated with altered sinonasal VD3 metabolism causing reductions in local levels of the active VD3 metabolite, 1

  8. Effect of vitamin D3 on mild to moderate persistent asthmatic patients: A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Nageswari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial airways. Well defined treatment options for asthma are very few. The role of vitamin D 3 on asthma is still baffling. Aim: We have examined the effect of vitamin D 3 supplementation in mild to moderate persistent asthma patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted an open labeled, randomized comparative trial in 48 asthma patients. The study duration was about 90 days. The study had a run-in-period of 2 weeks. At the end of run-in-period, patients were divided into two groups: Usual care group (n = 31 patients received budesonide and formoterol and intervention care group (n = 32 patients received vitamin D 3 supplementation along with their regular medicine. Results: The primary outcome of the study was to measure the improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 . Patients in both groups had a significant improvement in FEV 1 at the end of the study. The mean difference in percentage predicted FEV 1 in usual care and intervention care group was 4.95 and 7.07 respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that adjunctive therapy of vitamin D 3 is effective in asthma patients. The present study will be an evidence based report; however, future studies are warranted in longer duration of time to substantiate the present findings.

  9. The beneficial effects of vitamin D3 on reducing antibody titers against Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipoor, Adeleh; Roghanian, Rasoul; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Bouzari, Majid; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the relationship between immunoreactivity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and hypo-vitamin D in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D3 supplementation in MS patients could influence the immune response against latent EBV infection. Forty MS patients were recruited in this study. Twenty-seven patients were supplemented with 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D3 for 6 months and thirteen enrolled as controls. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and IgG titers against EBNA1 and VCA were determined pre- and post-supplementation. All the patients were seropositive for EBV prior to vitamin D supplementation. In this cohort, 22.5% and 47.5% of the MS patients had deficient and insufficient levels of 25OHD, respectively. Our findings confirm that antibody titers against EBV in MS patients rise after the onset of the disease and indicate that vitamin D3 supplementation could limit augmentation of these titers in MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D3 and gargling for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Emma C; Granados, Andrea C; Luinstra, Kathy; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Coleman, Brenda L; Loeb, Mark; Smieja, Marek

    2014-05-19

    We undertook a 2X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether vitamin D3 supplementation (10,000 international units per week) versus placebo and gargling versus no gargling could prevent viral, clinical upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in university students. We randomized 600 students into 4 treatment arms: 1) vitamin D3 and gargling, 2) placebo and gargling, 3) vitamin D3 and no gargling, and 4) placebo and no gargling. Students completed weekly electronic surveys and submitted self-collected mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs during September and October in 2010 or 2011. Symptomatic students also completed an electronic symptom diary. The primary and secondary outcomes were the occurrence of symptomatic clinical URTI and laboratory confirmed URTI respectively. Of 600 participants, 471 (78.5%) completed all surveys while 43 (7.2%) completed none; 150 (25.0%) reported clinical URTI. Seventy participants (23.3%) randomized to vitamin D3 reported clinical URTI compared to 80 (26.7%) randomized to placebo (RR:0.79, CI95:0.61-1.03, p = 0.09). Eighty-five participants (28.3%) randomized to gargling reported clinical URTI compared to 65 participants (21.7%) randomized to the no gargling arm (RR:1.3, CI95:0.92-1.57, p = 0.19). Laboratory testing identified 70 infections (46.7 per 100 URTIs). Vitamin D3 treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk for laboratory confirmed URTI (RR: 0.54, CI95:0.34-0.84, p = 0.007) and with a significantly lower mean viral load measured as log10 viral copies/mL (mean difference: -0.89, CI95: -1.7, -0.06, p = 0.04). Fewer students assigned to gargling experienced laboratory confirmed URTI, however this was not statistically significant (RR:0.82, CI95:0.53-1.26, p = 0.36). These results suggest that vitamin D3 is a promising intervention for the prevention of URTI. Vitamin D3 significantly reduced the risk of laboratory confirmed URTI and may reduce the risk of clinical infections

  11. 300,000 IU or 600,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 for treatment of nutritional rickets: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Hema; Rai, Sunita; Shah, Dheeraj; Madhu, S V; Mehrotra, Gopesh; Malhotra, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the non-inferiority of a lower therapeutic dose (300,000 IU) in comparison to standard dose (600,000) IU of Vitamin D for increasing serum 25(OH) D levels and achieving radiological recovery in nutritional rickets. Randomized, open-labeled, controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital. 76 children (median age 12 mo) with clinical and radiologically confirmed rickets. Oral vitamin D3 as 300,000 IU (Group 1; n=38) or 600,000 IU (Group 2; n=38) in a single day. Primary: Serum 25(OH)D, 12 weeks after administration of vitamin D3; Secondary: Radiological healing and serum parathormone at 12 weeks; and clinical and biochemical adverse effects. Serum 25(OH)D levels [geometric mean (95% CI)] increased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks after therapy in both the groups [Group 1: 7.58 (5.50–10.44) to 16.06 (12.71– 20.29) ng/mL, Pchildren by 12 weeks. Both groups demonstrated significant (Pchildren after 12 weeks of intervention [Group 1: 20/32 (62.5%); Group 2: 18/28 (64.3%)]. No major clinical adverse effects were noticed in any of the children. Hypercalcemia was documented in 2 children at 4 weeks (1 in each Group) and 3 children at 12 weeks (1 in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2). None of the participants had hypercalciuria or hypervitaminosis D. A dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D3 is comparable to 600,000 IU, administered orally, over a single day, for treating rickets in under-five children although there is an unacceptably high risk of hypercalcemia in both groups. None of the regime is effective in normalization of vitamin D status in majority of patients, 3 months after administering the therapeutic dose.

  12. UHPLC-PDA Assay for Simultaneous Determination of Vitamin D3 and Menaquinone-7 in Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jehangir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed method based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was optimized for the simultaneous determination of vitamin D3 and menaquinone-7 (MK-7 in tablet formulation in the present study. UHPLC separation of vitamin D3 and MK-7 was performed with ACE Excel 2 C18-PFP column (2 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm at 0.6 mL min−1 flow rate, whereas the mobile phase consisted of methanol/water (19:1, v/v, phase A and isopropyl alcohol (99.9%, phase B containing 0.5% triethylamine. Isocratic separation of both the analytes was performed at 40°C by pumping the mobile phases A and B in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v, pH, 6.0. Both analytes were detected at a wavelength of 265 nm and the injection volume was 1.0 μL. The overall runtime per sample was 4.5 min with retention time of 1.26 and 3.64 min for vitamin D3 and MK-7, respectively. The calibration curve was linear from 5.0 to 100 μg mL−1 for vitamin D3 and MK-7 with a coefficient of determination (R2 ≥ 0.9981, while repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviation were lower than 1.46 and 2.21%, respectively. The proposed HPLC method was demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of vitamin D3 and MK-7 in tablets.

  13. Vitamin D3 levels and NLRP3 expression in murine models of obese asthma: association with asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-H; Chen, Y-P; Yang, X; Li, C-Q

    2017-11-13

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D3) is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the immune system. Serum 25(OH)D3 is found to be associated with asthma. However, the role of vitamin D in obese asthma remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between vitamin D levels and asthma outcomes in a murine model of obese asthma. We also evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome activity in the pathogenesis of obese asthma. We divided 20 male Balb/c mice (3-4 weeks old) into 4 groups: normal control, asthma, obese, and obese asthma and developed an obese asthma mouse model. Airway hyperreactivity, cytokine concentrations, 25(OH)D3 levels, NLRP3 mRNA and IL-1β mRNA expressions were measured. Lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count were also determined. Obese asthma mice showed a significant increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and NLRP3 mRNA, IL-1β mRNA expression. Both asthma and obese groups had lower 25(OH)D3 levels. Vitamin D levels in obese asthma were the lowest among all groups. Vitamin D levels correlated negatively with body weight, lung resistance levels at 25 mg/mL of methacholine, total inflammatory cells, and IL-1β and IL-17 concentrations in BALF. These data demonstrated an association between serum vitamin D levels and outcomes of obese asthma, and indicated that NLRP3 inflammasome may play a role in this disorder.

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy and the Risk of Subsequent Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Strøm, Marin; Boyd, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    of postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women......Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk...

  16. Vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risk of subsequent postpartum depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Strøm, Marin; Boyd, Heather A.

    of postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women......Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk...

  17. 1α,25(OH)2-3-Epi-Vitamin D3, a Natural Physiological Metabolite of Vitamin D3: Its Synthesis, Biological Activity and Crystal Structure with Its Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Ferdinand; Sigüeiro, Rita; Sato, Yoshiteru; Araujo, Clarisse; Schuster, Inge; Antony, Pierre; Peluso, Jean; Muller, Christian; Mouriño, Antonio; Moras, Dino; Rochel, Natacha

    2011-01-01

    Background The 1α,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin-D3 (1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3), a natural metabolite of the seco-steroid vitamin D3, exerts its biological activity through binding to its cognate vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), a ligand dependent transcription regulator. In vivo action of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 is tissue-specific and exhibits lowest calcemic effect compared to that induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. To further unveil the structural mechanism and structure-activity relationships of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 and its receptor complex, we characterized some of its in vitro biological properties and solved its crystal structure complexed with human VDR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we report the more effective synthesis with fewer steps that provides higher yield of the 3-epimer of the 1α,25(OH)2D3. We solved the crystal structure of its complex with the human VDR-LBD and found that this natural metabolite displays specific adaptation of the ligand-binding pocket, as the 3-epimer maintains the number of hydrogen bonds by an alternative water-mediated interaction to compensate the abolished interaction with Ser278. In addition, the biological activity of the 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 in primary human keratinocytes and biochemical properties are comparable to 1α,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions/Significance The physiological role of this pathway as the specific biological action of the 3-epimer remains unclear. However, its high metabolic stability together with its significant biologic activity makes this natural metabolite an interesting ligand for clinical applications. Our new findings contribute to a better understanding at molecular level how natural metabolites of 1α,25(OH)2D3 lead to significant activity in biological systems and we conclude that the C3-epimerization pathway produces an active metabolite with similar biochemical and biological properties to those of the 1α,25(OH)2D3. PMID:21483824

  18. 1α,25(OH2-3-epi-vitamin D3, a natural physiological metabolite of vitamin D3: its synthesis, biological activity and crystal structure with its receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Molnár

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1α,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin-D3 (1α,25(OH2-3-epi-D3, a natural metabolite of the seco-steroid vitamin D3, exerts its biological activity through binding to its cognate vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR, a ligand dependent transcription regulator. In vivo action of 1α,25(OH2-3-epi-D3 is tissue-specific and exhibits lowest calcemic effect compared to that induced by 1α,25(OH2D3. To further unveil the structural mechanism and structure-activity relationships of 1α,25(OH2-3-epi-D3 and its receptor complex, we characterized some of its in vitro biological properties and solved its crystal structure complexed with human VDR ligand-binding domain (LBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we report the more effective synthesis with fewer steps that provides higher yield of the 3-epimer of the 1α,25(OH2D3. We solved the crystal structure of its complex with the human VDR-LBD and found that this natural metabolite displays specific adaptation of the ligand-binding pocket, as the 3-epimer maintains the number of hydrogen bonds by an alternative water-mediated interaction to compensate the abolished interaction with Ser278. In addition, the biological activity of the 1α,25(OH2-3-epi-D3 in primary human keratinocytes and biochemical properties are comparable to 1α,25(OH2D3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The physiological role of this pathway as the specific biological action of the 3-epimer remains unclear. However, its high metabolic stability together with its significant biologic activity makes this natural metabolite an interesting ligand for clinical applications. Our new findings contribute to a better understanding at molecular level how natural metabolites of 1α,25(OH2D3 lead to significant activity in biological systems and we conclude that the C3-epimerization pathway produces an active metabolite with similar biochemical and biological properties to those of the 1α,25(OH2D3.

  19. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish......(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S......-25(OH)D 40-75 nmol/L], and an additional 29% had moderate-to-severe vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation (positive association) were independent determinants of S-25(OH)D concentrations...

  20. Active vitamin D3, 1,25-(OH)2D3, protects against macrovasculopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R; Deng, X L; Du, G L; Li, C; Xiao, S; Aibibai, Y; Zhu, J

    2016-06-03

    To investigate the protective effect of the active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-(OH)2D3, on macrovasculopathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, T2DM group, and treatment group. The T2DM model was established after 6 weeks by administering an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). 1,25-(OH)2D3 was administered by gavage to rats in the treatment group, and an equal volume of peanut oil was administered to rats in the T2DM group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterols were measured in all rats. The morphology of the thoracic aorta was examined, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), endothelin (ET), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), CD54, and CD106 in the thoracic aorta was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of FPG, TG, TC, and LDL-C in rats from the T2DM and treatment groups was significantly elevated compared with rats from the control group (P treatment group, while the expression of CD54 was increased only in the T2DM group (P treatment group were lower than those in the T2DM group (P 25-(OH)2D3 may protect the macrovessels from injury in T2DM rats by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, CD54, and CD106.

  1. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D 3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D 3 . There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P D levels  0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D 3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  2. Effects of the supplementation of vitamin D3 on the growth and vitamin D metabolites in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liansheng; Xu, Hong; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chang'an; Li, Jinnan; Zhao, Zhigang; Luo, Liang; Du, Xue; Xu, Qiyou

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of vitamin D3 on the growth, vitamin D metabolites, and osteocalcin secretion in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). A 90-day growth trial was conducted with juvenile Siberian sturgeon (initial body weight 3.47 ± 0.14 g) fed seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic practical diets (45% CP and 13% lipid) containing 60 (basal diet), 240, 450, 880, 1670, 3300, or 1.0 × 105 IU/kg feed (D60~D 1.0 × 105) vitamin D3. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate increased as the dietary vitamin D3 levels increased from 450 to 3300 IU/kg (P fish fed with D1670 and D3300 diets had higher crude lipid and ash levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P fish fed D880, D1670, or D3300 diets had higher 25-OH-D3 and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P fish fed D880, D1670, D3300, or D1.0 × 105 diets had higher osteocalcin levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Based on the broken line method analysis of weight gain and osteocalcin, the dietary vitamin D3 requirement of juvenile Siberian sturgeon was estimated to be 1683.30 and 1403.27 IU/kg per diet, respectively.

  3. Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; da Costa, Pauline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Hussein, Fátima Abdala; Schmatz, Roberta; Rubin, Maribel A; Signor, Cristiane; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dietary vitamin D3 requirement of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shouqun; Jiang, Zongyong; Yang, Kuanmin; Chen, Fang; Zheng, Chuntian; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Three experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary levels of vitamin D3 ( VD3: ) on growth performance, metabolic regulation of calcium (CA), phosphorus (P), and bone development of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers during 3 growth phases: 1 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 43 to 63 d. Dietary Ca and P in the corn-soybean-based diet were adequate. A total of 2,000 1-day-old, 1,600 22-day-old, and 1,600 43-day- old Lingnan yellow male broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments with 5 replicates per treatment (50 birds per replicate for 1 to 21 d, 40 birds for both 22 to 42 d and 43 to 63 d). Dietary levels of VD3 were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 IU/kg for treatments 2 to 8 through the addition of VD3 to the basal mash diet which otherwise lacked detectable VD3. Graded doses of VD3 from 0 to 700 IU/kg in the diet produced linear (Pgrowth factor 23, Klotho protein, and parathyroid hormone all decreased with the increasing level of dietary VD3 (Prequirements of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers from 1 to 21 d for optimal tibial ash content were estimated from regression analysis to be 464 IU/kg from 1 to 21 d, 539 IU/kg from 22 to 42 d, and 500 IU/kg from 43 to 63 d. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Increase in the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations by switching from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Toru; Kawakami, Junko; Mikami, Noriko; Wakai, Haruki; Ishii, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kazunari; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hida, Miho; Kurata, Yasuhisa

    2014-06-01

    It is widely known that dialysis patients who are administered vitamin D preparations have a better prognosis than patients who are not. In this study, of 22 patients on maintenance dialysis who had been administered calcium (Ca) carbonate in our hospital, we investigated the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations after the phosphorus (P) binder was switched from Ca carbonate to the newly developed lanthanum carbonate (LC). After completely switching to LC, the dosage amount of oral vitamin D3 preparation (alfacalcidol equivalent) was significantly increased from 0.094 μg/day to 0.375 μg/day (P = 0.0090). No significant changes were observed in the values of serum corrected Ca, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone and P after switching. The administration of LC enabled complete cessation of the administration of Ca carbonate preparations, and increased the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations. Therefore, LC may be a useful P binder to improve patient prognosis. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  6. Vitamin D3 analog maxacalcitol (OCT) induces hCAP-18/LL-37 production in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takamitsu; Nagaoka, Isao; Takada, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Maxacalcitol (22-oxacalcitriol: OCT) is a synthetic vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect. In this study, we investigated whether OCT increases the production of LL-37/CAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, in human gingival/oral epithelial cells. A human gingival epithelial cell line (Ca9-22) and human oral epithelial cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) exhibited the enhanced expression of LL-37 mRNA upon stimulation with OCT as well as active metabolites of vitamins D3 and D2. Among the human epithelial cell lines, Ca9-22 exhibited the strongest response to these vitamin D-related compounds. OCT induced the higher production of CAP-18 (ng/mL order) until 6 days time-dependently in Ca9-22 cells in culture. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was killed by treatment with the LL-37 peptide. These findings suggest that OCT induces the production of hCAP-18/LL-37 in a manner similar to that induced by the active metabolite of vitamin D3.

  7. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itkonen, Suvi T.; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated...

  8. A Proposed Molecular Mechanism of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zabul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized prospective clinical study performed on a group of 74 pregnant women (43 presenting with severe preeclampsia proved that urinary levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients relative to the control (3.05 vs. 2.00 ng/mg creatinine. Surprisingly enough, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in both study groups were below the clinical reference range with no significant difference between the groups. In vitro study performed on isolated placental mitochondria and placental cell line showed that suicidal self-oxidation of cytochrome P450scc may lead to structural disintegration of heme, potentially contributing to enhancement of oxidative stress phenomena in the course of preeclampsia. As placental cytochrome P450scc pleiotropic activity is implicated in the metabolism of free radical mediated arachidonic acid derivatives as well as multiple Vitamin D3 hydroxylations and progesterone synthesis, we propose that Vitamin D3 might act as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of lipid peroxides or excess progesterone synthesis, both of which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. The proposed molecular mechanism is in accord with the preliminary clinical observations on the surprisingly high efficacy of high-dose Vitamin D3 supplementation in prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.

  9. A Proposed Molecular Mechanism of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabul, Piotr; Wozniak, Michal; Slominski, Andrzej T; Preis, Krzysztof; Gorska, Magdalena; Korozan, Marek; Wieruszewski, Jan; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zabul, Ewa; Tuckey, Robert; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Mickiewicz, Wieslawa; Knap, Narcyz

    2015-06-09

    A randomized prospective clinical study performed on a group of 74 pregnant women (43 presenting with severe preeclampsia) proved that urinary levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients relative to the control (3.05 vs. 2.00 ng/mg creatinine). Surprisingly enough, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in both study groups were below the clinical reference range with no significant difference between the groups. In vitro study performed on isolated placental mitochondria and placental cell line showed that suicidal self-oxidation of cytochrome P450scc may lead to structural disintegration of heme, potentially contributing to enhancement of oxidative stress phenomena in the course of preeclampsia. As placental cytochrome P450scc pleiotropic activity is implicated in the metabolism of free radical mediated arachidonic acid derivatives as well as multiple Vitamin D3 hydroxylations and progesterone synthesis, we propose that Vitamin D3 might act as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of lipid peroxides or excess progesterone synthesis, both of which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. The proposed molecular mechanism is in accord with the preliminary clinical observations on the surprisingly high efficacy of high-dose Vitamin D3 supplementation in prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.

  10. Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D3 Protect Bone Microarchitecture in Female Rats with Chronic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study showed that green tea polyphenols (GTP) in conjunction with 1-a-OH¬vit-D3 (vitD3) treatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone mineral density loss in female rats. This study was undertaken to further explore the mechanism and bone microarchitecture of GTP plus vitD3 in...

  11. Importance of body weight and skin color in determining appropriate vitamin D3 supplement doses for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Tom; Rajan, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin D directly impact children's health and place minority and obese youth at risk for a range of health issues. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium has set both a recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D supplementation and a population-wide sufficiency target for the biomarker of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, new research suggests that the RDA is not sufficient to meet the target biomarker status for individuals who are heavy or who have dark skin. Our objective was to provide appropriate daily vitamin D supplementation levels for these individuals. Using data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a recently published dosing formula, we calculated the required supplemental dose of vitamin D to meet the IOM target in children and adolescents. To be sure that 95% of the target population meets the IOM's population-wide biomarker target, some individuals require a daily dose of up to 2,000 international units (IUs) of supplemental vitamin D. Health professionals should work with their patients to encourage lifelong vitamin D supplement use at a dosage sufficient to obtain adequate 25(OH)D levels.

  12. Vitamin D receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is necessary for beneficial effects of 1,25D[3] on peripheral glucose levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    While a wide range of data correlates low vitamin D levels with type 2 diabetes, few studies examine potential mechanisms by which vitamin D might impact key aspects of metabolism. The active form of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[3] (1,25D[3]; calcitriol) is hydroxylated in the liver and kidney from ...

  13. Winter vitamin D3 supplementation does not increase muscle strength, but modulates the IGF-axis in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian; Hauger, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore whether muscle strength, the insulin-like growth factor axis (IGF-axis), height, and body composition were associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and affected by winter vitamin D supplementation in healthy children, and furthermore to explore potential sex...... differences. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response winter trial at 55ºN. A total of 117 children aged 4-8 years were randomly assigned to either placebo, 10, or 20 µg/day of vitamin D3 for 20 weeks. At baseline and endpoint, we measured muscle strength with handgrip...

  14. Immune regulatory effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a randomized controlled trial in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients receiving IFNβ; the SOLARIUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Anne-Hilde; Smolders, Joost; Rolf, Linda; Thewissen, Marielle; Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2016-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by a disturbed immune homeostasis and low serum vitamin D levels are associated with an increased disease activity. While vitamin D has been hypothesized to promote the maintenance of immune homeostasis, vitamin D supplementation could be of benefit to patients with MS. The SOLAR study investigated the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on clinical outcomes in a randomized controlled trial. Here we present the immune regulatory effects, investigated in the SOLARIUM sub-study. Thirty Dutch relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients treated with IFNβ-1a received high dose vitamin D3 supplementation and 23 patients received placebo during a period of 48weeks. Lymphocytes were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine secretion was assessed in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3 using Luminex technology. Changes in immune regulatory parameters were determined within subjects as well as between treatment groups. The proportion of cells in the immune regulatory cell compartment (nTreg, iTreg and Breg) was not altered upon high dose vitamin D3 supplementation. Proportions of T helper subsets were not affected by vitamin D3, except for the proportion of IL4+ Th cells, which decreased in the placebo but not in the vitamin D3 group. T cell cytokine secretion increased, most pronounced for IL5 and latency activated protein of TGFβ, in the placebo group but not in the vitamin D3 group. Lymphocytes remained equally reactive to in vitro 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not result in a relative increase in lymphocytes with a regulatory phenotype. However, this study supports the hypothesis that vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of immune homeostasis by preventing further disturbance of the T cell compartment early in the disease course of MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Low 25(OH) Vitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Adverse Outcome in Newly-Diagnosed Intensively-Treated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun Ju; Muindi, Josephia R.; Tan, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Song; Wilding, Gregory E.; Ford, Laurie A.; Sait, Sheila N.J.; Block, Annemarie W.; Adjei, Araba A.; Barcos, Maurice; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E.; Wang, Eunice S.; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L.; Wetzler, Meir

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that low 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels may be prognostic in some malignancies, but no studies have evaluated their impact on treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods VD levels were evaluated in 97 consecutive newly diagnosed, intensively-treated AML patients. MicroRNA-expression profiles and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 25(OH) vitamin D3 pathway genes were evaluated and correlated with 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels and treatment outcome. Results Thirty-four (35%) patients had normal 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels (32–100 ng/ml), 34 (35%) insufficient (20–31.9 ng/ml) and 29 (30%) deficient levels (<20 ng/ml). Insufficient/deficient 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels were associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS) compared to normal vitamin D3 levels. In multivariate analyses, deficient 25(OH) vitamin D3, smoking, European LeukemiaNet Genetic Groups and white blood cell count retained their statistical significance for RFS. A number of microRNAs and SNPs were found to be associated with 25(OH) vitamin D3 level, although none remained significant after multiple test corrections; one 25(OH) vitamin D3 receptor SNP, rs10783219, was associated with lower complete remission rate (p=0.0442), shorter RFS (p=0.0058) and overall survival (p=0.0011). Conclusions It remains to be determined what role microRNA and SNP profiles play in contributing to low 25(OH) vitamin D3 level and/or outcome and whether supplementation will improve AML outcome. PMID:24166051

  16. VITAMIN C STATUS IN ALLERGIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Fining Neyestani; Mahmoud Djaiali; Ali Keshavarz; Abolhasan Farhoodi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; andZahra Poor-Pak

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess vitamin C status in allergic children. Twenty-six allergic patients and 46 apparently healthy controls aged 7-16 years of both sexes were introduced. All patients were diagnosed being allergic based on their histories, physical examinations and laboratory findings. Blood samples were obtained between 09.00-11.00 to determine total serum immunoglobulin E, histamine, plasma vitamin C and complete blood cell count. Stool examinations and urinealysis were also ...

  17. The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunova, Zoya; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Lindberg, Fedon; Hexeberg, Sofie; Moan, Johan

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem in most developed countries. Excess body weight is a risk factor for many somatic and even psychological disorders, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and several cancer types. Recently, overweight and obesity have been shown to be related to low vitamin D status. The 25(OH)D3 status was analyzed in a population of 2,126 patients registered in a Metabolic and Medical Lifestyle Management Clinic in Oslo, Norway. Seasonal variation and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were assessed in different body mass index (BMI), sex and age categories. For both sexes and both age groups ( or = 50 years) there was a significant decrease of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with increasing BMI. Surprisingly, not only were the 25(OH)D3 levels negatively correlated with BMI, but the serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were also. The seasonal variation of serum 25(OH)D3 was highest in young (vitamin D deficiency was highest in individuals with BMI > or = 40, being as high as 32% among women and 46% among men. The 25(OH)D3 level, as well as its seasonal variation and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, are all dependent on BMI, and age separately. The results of the study suggest that 1 in 3 women and 1 in 2 men with BMI > or = 40 are vitamin D deficient.

  18. Scenario for adequate cutaneous vitamin D 3 synthesis due to solar radiation in Poland for people with phototype II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Narbutt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The limited outdoor activity of contemporary people results in deficiency of vitamin D. An adequate vitamin D level cannot be achieved due to random insolation. A scenario of pro-healthy outdoor behavior is needed that takes into account climatic conditions in Poland. Objective . To present the outdoor activity scenario in Poland for people with phototype II and III to get an adequate vitamin D 3 dose without the risk of erythema. Material and methods. The paper presents the results of mathematical simulations of UV doses received by persons with phototype II and III in the spring/summer season in Poland (Jastrzębia Góra, Zakopane. The following scenarios are examined: using all the time a sunscreen with SPF30, short sunbathing without photo-protection and application of a sunscreen with SPF30 for the rest of the day. Results. During late spring and summer in Poland it is possible to get a vitamin D 3 dose of 2000 IU due to solar radiation without the risk of erythema. For persons with phototype II and III short (20–30 min near-noon exposure without photo-protection then application of sunscreen with SPF30 for the rest of the time spent outdoors is recommended. Clothing should allow insolation of at least 1/4 of the whole skin area. Conclusions . Avoiding near-noon solar radiation or using sunscreens with high SPF always while staying on the sun does not allow one to obtain a proper vitamin D status.

  19. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial with vitamin D3 as an add on treatment to interferon β-1b in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilu-Hänninen, Merja; Aivo, Julia; Lindström, Britt-Marie; Elovaara, Irina; Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa; Färkkilä, Markus; Tienari, Pentti; Atula, Sari; Sarasoja, Taneli; Herrala, Lauri; Keskinarkaus, Irma; Kruger, Johanna; Kallio, Timo; Rocca, Maria A; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 as an add on therapy to interferon β-1b (IFNB) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). 1 year, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study in 66 MS patients. The primary outcomes were T2 burden of disease (BOD) on MRI scans, proportion of patients with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥85 nmol/l or intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) ≤20 ng/l, and number of adverse events. Secondary outcomes were number of MRI enhancing T1 lesions and new T2 lesions, annual relapse rate, changes in the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, timed 25 foot walk test and timed 10 foot tandem walk tests. Median change in BOD was 287 mm(3) in the placebo group and 83 mm(3) in the vitamin D group (p=0.105). Serum levels of 25(OH)D increased from a mean of 54 (range 19-82) nmol/l to 110 (range 67-163) nmol/l in the vitamin D group. 84% of patients reached a serum 25(OH)D level >85 nmol/l in the vitamin D group and 3% in the placebo group (pvitamin D group showed fewer new T2 lesions (p=0.286) and a significantly lower number of T1 enhancing lesions (p=0.004), as well as a tendency to reduced disability accumulation (p=0.071) and to improved timed tandem walk (p=0.076). There were no significant differences in adverse events or in the annual relapse rate. Vitamin D3 add on treatment to IFNB reduces MRI disease activity in MS. EudraCT number 2007-001958-99 and ClinicalTrialsGov number NCT01339676.

  20. The ROS-generating and antioxidant systems in the liver of rats treated with prednisolone and vitamin D(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Shymanskyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced disturbances of liver function is currently not fully clarified. Vitamin D3 was previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of impaired oxidative metabolism and detoxification function of the liver associated with the effects of hepatotoxic compounds. The study was undertaken to define the intensity of oxidative metabolism in the rat liver and survival of hepatocytes after prolonged prednisolone administration and to assess whether vitamin D3 is capable to counter glucocorticoid-induced changes. It has been shown that prednisolone (0.5 mg per animal for 30 days leads to 1.6-fold increase in the percentage of necrotic cells among isolated hepatocytes as compared with the control. The glucocorticoid-induced impairment of hepatocellular function was accompanied by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, accumulation of TBA-active products and carbonylated proteins but reduced levels­ of free SH-groups of low molecular weight compounds. It was demonstrated a decrease in the activities of key enzymes of antioxidant system (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, whereas the activities of pro-oxidant enzymes NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase were shown to be increased. Vitamin D3 (and to greater extent in combination with α-tocopherol administration (100 IU on the background of glucocorticoid therapy caused normalizing effects on the level of ROS formation, oxidative modification of biomolecules and activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in better survival of hepatocytes. These data suggest a potential role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of oxidative metabolism alterations related to hepatotoxic action of glucocorticoids.

  1. 1α,25(OH2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Boodhoo

    Full Text Available 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D is a naturally synthesized fat soluble vitamin shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and cancer prevention properties in human and murine models. Here, we studied the effects of Vitamin D on the functional abilities of avian T lymphocytes using chicken Interferon (IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, BrdU proliferation assay, Annexin V apoptosis assay and PhosFlow for detecting phosphorylated signalling molecules. The results demonstrate that Vitamin D significantly inhibited the abilities of T lymphocytes to produce IFN-γ and proliferate in vitro (P≤0.05, but retained their ability to undergo degranulation, which is a maker for cytotoxicity of these cells. Similarly, Vitamin D did not inhibit Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, a key mediator in T cell signalling, in the stimulated T lymphocytes population, while reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels in the unstimulated cells. Our data provide evidence that Vitamin D has immuno-modulatory properties on chicken T lymphocytes without inducing unresponsiveness and by limiting immuno-pathology can promote protective immunity against infectious diseases of poultry.

  2. Vitamin D3 and androgen receptors in testis and epididymal region of roosters (Gallus domesticus) as affected by epididymal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2008-12-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a dysfunction characterized by formation of calcium-rich stones in the epididymal region of roosters, associated with decreased serum testosterone and loss of fertility. The segment most affected by the lithiasis is the efferent ductules, which, in birds, are responsible for reabsorption of calcium and luminal fluid. Therefore, we postulated that epididymal lithiasis could result from local impairment of calcium or fluid homeostasis, culminating in initiation of stone formation. Transepithelial calcium transport depends on vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 receptor (VDR). Based on the fact that VDR are present in efferent ductules, possible changes in the pattern of VDR in roosters affected by the epididymal lithiasis was investigated, to start to gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of calcium stones. To evaluate the potential impact of androgen reduction, changes in androgen receptor (AR) were also investigated. Both VDR and AR were increased in specific segments of the epididymal region, whereas no alterations were found in the testes of affected animals. The increase in VDR was most likely due to an increase in the number of VDR-positive mononuclear leukocyte infiltrates found in the connective tissue followed by an increase in epithelial receptors. The AR were increased, however, mainly in the epididymal duct epithelium. These results suggest that the vitamin D3 and androgen responsive system may be directly/indirectly involved in the development of the disease.

  3. Effects of Sunlight and Diet on Vitamin D Status of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Tbilisi, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nirali S.; Tukvadze, Nestani; Frediani, Jennifer; Kipiani, Maia; Sanikidze, Eka; Nichols, Memorie M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Kempker, Russell R.; Mirtskhulava, Veriko; Kalandadze, Iagor; Seydafkan, Shabnam; Sutaria, Nilay; Chen, Tai C.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in tuberculosis (TB) and this may modulate immune responses. Objective To determine vitamin D status in patients with TB and examine sources of vitamin D in Tbilisi, Georgia. Research Methods and Procedures We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and dietary vitamin D intake in pulmonary TB patients (n=85) in Tbilisi, Georgia. To determine the impact of season on vitamin D status, we tested in vitro conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to previtamin D3 after sunlight exposure. Results In TB subjects, mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were 14.5 ± 7.0 ng/mL, and vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D were mainly fish, eggs, and butter. Daily intake was well below recommended daily intakes in TB subjects (172 IU + 196 IU). The conversion of 7-DHC to previtamin D3 was undetectable between October to March, and highest in June and July between 11:00 and 14:00 h. Conclusion Insufficient vitamin D dietary intake and limited production of vitamin D from sunlight during the majority of the year, may explain the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency TB patients in Tbilisi. PMID:22304856

  4. Real-life use of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk during a winter season: the effects of CYP2R1 and GC genes on 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Danish families, the VitmaD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 and rs842999 in GC and a combined genetic risk score (GRS) of these four variants influence late summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The objectives were to identify those who are most at risk of developing low...... vitamin D status during winter and to assess whether vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk will increase 25(OH)D concentrations in those with genetically determined low 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer. We used data from the VitmaD study. Participants were allocated to either vitamin D3-fortified bread...... 25(OH)D concentrations and carriage of 0-8 risk alleles (p vitamin D intake and the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations among carriers of 0...

  5. Dynamics of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent chromatin accessibility of early vitamin D receptor target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuter, Sabine; Pehkonen, Petri; Heikkinen, Sami; Carlberg, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    The signaling cascade of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) is triggered by its specific ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3). In this study we demonstrate that in THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells 87.4% of the 1034 most prominent genome-wide VDR binding sites co-localize with loci of open chromatin. At 165 of them 1α,25(OH)2D3 strongly increases chromatin accessibility and has at further 217 sites weaker effects. Interestingly, VDR binding sites in 1α,25(OH)2D3-responsive chromatin regions are far more often composed of direct repeats with 3 intervening nucleotides (DR3s) than those in ligand insensitive regions. DR3-containing VDR sites are enriched in the neighborhood of genes that are involved in controling cellular growth, while non-DR3 VDR binding is often found close to genes related to immunity. At the example of six early VDR target genes we show that the slope of their 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced transcription correlates with the basal chromatin accessibility of their major VDR binding regions. However, the chromatin loci controlling these genes are indistinguishable in their VDR association kinetics. Taken together, ligand responsive chromatin loci represent dynamically regulated contact points of VDR with the genome, from where it controls early 1α,25(OH)2D3 target genes. © 2013.

  6. Effects of maternal vitamin D status on pregnancy outcomes, health of pregnant women and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elzbieta; Lebiedzińska, Katarzyna; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Głowacka, Ewa; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy increases the demand for vitamins, including vitamin D. Data on effects of vitamin D deficiency for pregnant woman and fetus available in Poland are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D3 concentration in pregnant women and its influence on pregnancy course, health of pregnant women and their offspring. The study included 102 healthy pregnant women, aged 21 to 40 years, mean 30.5±4.9 years. Women were divided into three groups based on 25(OH)D serum concentration in the third trimester of pregnancy: Group I - with sufficient 25(OH)D serum concentration (>30 ng/ml), Group II - with vitamin D3 insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), Group III - with serious vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D concentrations were found only in 31.2% of women, however in winter months only in 16%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly more common in women with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (pvitamin D status and the incidence of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, mode of delivery and size of newborns. A relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and subsequent incidence of respiratory infections in children (pvitamin D supplementation in pregnant women in Poland is insufficient, particularly in winter. 2. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women fosters development of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy and recurrent respiratory infections in children, suggestive of the role of vitamin D in prevention of infections.

  7. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  8. Vitamin D Status, Lung Function and Atopy in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Sebnem; Sari, Gizem; Aktan, Ibrahim Hakki; Aydin, Belma; Irmak, Canan; Cavdar, Sabanur

    2017-05-01

    To determine the associations between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels and pulmonary function test outcomes and atopy in children with asthma. Cross-sectional study. Pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic and pediatric outpatient clinic, from December 2012 to March 2013. Atotal of 71 asthmatic children and 77 healthy controls aged 7-17 years were recruited. Vitamin D status was assessed by measuring the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels and compared between two groups. The relationship between serum vitamin D levels and pulmonary function test outcomes and serum IgE levels and inhalant panels were also examined in asthmatic patients. The serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were low in both the asthmatic and control participants (median = 11.8 and 9.8 ng/ml, respectively). Vitamin D levels were significantly low in the patients who had high IgE levels and high levels of specific IgE antibodies against inhalant allergens in asthmatic patients. No correlation was found between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function test outcomes in asthmatic patients (p>0.05). Vitamin D levels are not associated with pulmonary function test outcomes. However, low vitamin Dlevels are associated with atopy.

  9. Vitamin D status of psychiatric inpatients in New Zealand’s Waikato region

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    Menkes David B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in New Zealand, confers multiple health risks, and may be particularly common among people with psychiatric illness. We studied vitamin D status in an unselected sample of adult psychiatric inpatients in Hamilton (latitude 37.5 S during late winter. Methods We recruited 102 consenting subjects and measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in venous blood using a competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In addition to descriptive statistics, we used one-sample t-tests to determine the extent to which ethnic and diagnostic subgroups fell below the vitamin D deficiency threshold of 50 nM. Results 75 subjects (74% had vitamin D levels Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the psychiatric inpatient setting in New Zealand and may be relevant to poor physical health outcomes, notably among Maori and those with schizophrenia. These findings support proposals to provide vitamin D supplementation, particularly during the winter months.

  10. LC–MS/MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation to study the effect of UV treatment on the formation of vitamin D3 and sterols in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Some plant species are known to cause calcium intoxification in grazing animals. This has been attributed to the presence of vitamin D3-like activity. However, research into the presence of vitamin D3 in plants has been limited. One reason for this may be limitations in the analytical methods ava...... that vitamin D3 formation in plants is dependent on light exposure.......Some plant species are known to cause calcium intoxification in grazing animals. This has been attributed to the presence of vitamin D3-like activity. However, research into the presence of vitamin D3 in plants has been limited. One reason for this may be limitations in the analytical methods...... available for unambiguous detection and quantification of vitamin D3. This paper presents a new method for determining vitamin D3 and its sterol precursors. The method is based on saponification and extraction followed by solid phase clean-up of the compounds from plant leaves and detection by APCI...

  11. Vitamin status of elderly people in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, D; Stehle, P

    1999-05-01

    In the last decade several attempts (Nationale Verzehrsstudie, NVS; Verbundstudie Ernährungserhebung und Risikofaktoren-Analytik, VERA: Bethanien-Ernährungsstudie, BEST) have been made to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Germany. A careful evaluation of those data describing the vitamin status clearly indicate that healthy older people are not at higher risk for vitamin deficiency compared to younger adults. The results of the NVS showed that, except for folic acid, mean intake of all vitamins exceeded 80% of the current recommendations. Only 5% of blood vitamin concentrations analyzed in a subpopulation (VERA-Study) were founded to be below the physiological range. Only the incidence of low cobalamin values increased with age, presumably due to gastrointestinal problems (atrophic gastritis). In contrast, geriatric patients showed markedly lower vitamin blood concentrations compared to healthy subjects of the same age (BEST-Study). This might be explained by physical and mental deterioration, handicaps, chronic diseases and multiple chronic drug use. Underrepresentation of very old people, lack of reliable reference values for biomarkers and uncertainties in data collection may have contributed to misinterpretations. Representative studies are needed to objectively assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in Germany.

  12. Vitamina D y cáncer: acción antineoplásica de la 1α, 25(OH2 -vitamina D3 Vitamin D and cancer: antineoplastic effects of 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3

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    Verónica González Pardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma hormonalmente activa de la vitamina D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamina D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, además de desempeñar un rol crucial en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis de calcio en el cuerpo, también regula el crecimiento y la diferenciación de diferentes tipos celulares, incluyendo células cancerosas. Actualmente hay numerosos estudios que investigan los efectos de la hormona en estas células, debido al interés en el uso terapéutico del 1α,25(OH2D3 y de análogos con menor actividad calcémica para el tratamiento o prevención del cáncer. En este trabajo de revisión se describe el sistema endocrino de la vitamina D, su mecanismo de acción, su acción antineoplásica y se provee información sobre los últimos avances en el estudio de nuevos análogos de la hormona con menos actividad calcémica para el tratamiento del cáncer.The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, in addition of playing a central role in the control of calcium homeostasis in the body, regulates the growth and differentiation of different cell types, including cancer cells. At present several epidemiologic and clinical studies investigate the effect of the hormone in these cells due to the interest in the therapeutic use of 1α,25(OH2D3 and analogues with less calcemic activity for prevention or treatment of cancer. This review describes vitamin D endocrine system, its mechanism of action, its antineoplastic activity and provides information about the latest advances in the study of new hormone analogues with less calcemic activity for cancer treatment.

  13. Evaluation of 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in patients with alopecia areata

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    Atiye Oğrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Current studies link a possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency and many autoimmune diseases. Alopecia areata(AA is a frequent autoimmune dermatological disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and alopecia areata; a frequent autoimmune dermatological disease. Materials and Methods: The 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OH D levels of 40 patients with alopecia areata and age, gender and skin phototype matched healthy controls were evaluated. Serum 25 OH D was measured in all subjects, grouped as normal/sufficient (> 30 ng/ml, insufficient (15-30 ng/ml and deficient (0,05. In both groups 97,5% of patients had 25 OH D levels under normal range. Conclusion: Vitamin D levels of patients with AA was similar with the control group This similarity may suggest that a connection between vitamin D and AA does not exist. However, it may also indicate that the relationship between AA and Vitamin D is not via the level but receptor (number and / or structure of vitamin D.

  14. DIFFERENTIATED («SEASON» APPROACH TO THE PROPHYLAXIS OF VITAMIN D3 INSUFFICIENCY IN CHILDREN

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    R.T. Saygitov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is key part of bone tissue metabolism as in children, as in adult. It is considered that the needed quantity of vitamin D is synthesized by skin cells within ultraviolet light. As a result, provision with endogenous vitamin D significantly changes during the year; the maximum can be reached in summer months, lessening in winter. Straight consequence of these changes is insufficient bone mineralization in children. A correction of insufficiency of vitamin D, depending on season, seems to be well-grounded. But still there are some unsolved questions. It’s not clear, when «season» prophylaxis should be started, and how long should it be prolonged. Shall we use fortified food? What criteria can be used for the control of effectiveness of these measures? There is no research on this theme in Russia. Only data from single studies allow supposing that more than a half of Russian children have vitamin D insufficiency.Key words: children, vitamin D, «season» insufficiency, prophylaxis, bone mineral density.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:70-79

  15. Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001–2006 Recommend on ... deficiency, inadequacy In 2001–2006, what was the vitamin D status of the U.S. population based on ...

  16. Simultaneous determination of vitamins A and D3 in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, I. S. A.; Hammouri, M. K.; Habib, I.

    2015-10-01

    A potential method for simultaneous determination of vitamin A and vitamin D3 (25- hydroxyvitamin D3) in fresh milk samples is addressed. The method is based on combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry during the course of analysis. The method applied for determination of vitamins A and D3 on eighteen (18) different fresh milk samples using liquid chromatography along with tandem -mass spectrometry. The work describes the suitability of the proposed method for the simultaneous determination of both vitamins using LC-MS/MS as a specific and quantitative technique. The vitamins of milk were separated by C18 Thermo gold column(100mm × 4.6mm × 5 μm) with a flow rate of 1ml/min (using an isocratic mobile phase). The method was validated using duplicate analyses, relative recovery experiment, and comparative analysis with control samples. Liquid- liquid extraction was employed as a pre-concentration step with n-hexane - dichloromethane mixture (90%:10%) as an extraction solvent. The molecular ions (m/z) appeared near 286 and 385nm and for the base peaks were appeared near 255 and 355nm for vitamins A and D3. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, 0.9999 for vitamin D3 and 0.9994 for vitamin A. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 0.09ng/ml and 0.54ng/ml for vitamin D3 and 0.32ng/ml and 1.8ng/ml and for vitamin A. The proposed method showed excellent recoveries, about 98% for both vitamins A and D3.

  17. The optimal UV exposure time for vitamin D3 synthesis and erythema estimated by UV observations in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) from spectral UV measurements during 2006-2010. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied to the broadband UV measured by UV-Biometer at 6 sites in Korea Thus, the optimal UV exposure time for vitamin D3 synthesis and erythema was estimated for diurnal, seasonal, and annual scales over Korea. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice

  18. Comparison of Antioxidant Status and Vitamin D Levels between Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Matched Subjects

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    Ehsan Hejazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS and 25(OH D3 and dietary intake of multiple sclerosis (MS patients with those of normal subjects. Method. Thirty-seven MS patients (31 women and the same number of healthy matched controls were compared for their serum levels and dietary intake of 25(OH D3 and TAS. Sun exposure and the intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods were estimated through face-to-face interview and food frequency questionnaire. Results. Dietary intake of antioxidants and vitamin D rich foods, vitamin C, vitamin A, and folate was not significantly different between the two groups. There were also no significant differences in the mean levels of 25(OH D3 and TAS between the study groups. Both groups had low serum levels of 25(OH D3 and total antioxidants. Conclusion. No significant differences were detected in serum levels and dietary intake of vitamin D and antioxidants between MS patients and healthy controls. All subjects had low antioxidant status and vitamin D levels.

  19. TRPV6 determines the effect of vitamin D3 on prostate cancer cell growth.

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    V'yacheslav Lehen'kyi

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable advances in the therapy and prevention of prostate cancer it is still the second cause of death from cancer in industrialized countries. Many therapies initially shown to be beneficial for the patients were abandoned due to the high drug resistance and the evolution rate of the tumors. One of the prospective therapeutical agents even used in the first stage clinical trials, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, was shown to be either unpredictable or inefficient in many cases. We have already shown that TRPV6 calcium channel, which is the direct target of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, positively controls prostate cancer proliferation and apoptosis resistance (Lehen'kyi et al., Oncogene, 2007. However, how the known 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 antiproliferative effects may be compatible with the upregulation of pro-oncogenic TRPV6 channel remains a mystery. Here we demonstrate that in low steroid conditions 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates the expression of TRPV6, enhances the proliferation by increasing the number of cells entering into S-phase. We show that these pro-proliferative effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are directly mediated via the overexpression of TRPV6 channel which increases calcium uptake into LNCaP cells. The apoptosis resistance of androgen-dependent LNCaP cells conferred by TRPV6 channel is drastically inversed when 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 effects were combined with the successful TRPV6 knockdown. In addition, the use of androgen-deficient DU-145 and androgen-insensitive LNCaP C4-2 cell lines allowed to suggest that the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to induce the expression of TRPV6 channel is a crucial determinant of the success or failure of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-based therapies.

  20. Significant Effects of Oral Phenylbutyrate and Vitamin D3 Adjunctive Therapy in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Akhirunnesa Mily

    Full Text Available Development of new tuberculosis (TB drugs and alternative treatment strategies are urgently required to control the global spread of TB. Previous results have shown that vitamin D3 (vitD3 and 4-phenyl butyrate (PBA are potent inducers of the host defense peptide LL-37 that possess anti-mycobacterial effects.To examine if oral adjunctive therapy with 5,000IU vitD3 or 2x500 mg PBA or PBA+vitD3 to standard chemotherapy would lead to enhanced recovery in sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients.Adult TB patients (n = 288 were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Bangladesh. Primary endpoints included proportions of patients with a negative sputum culture at week 4 and reduction in clinical symptoms at week 8. Clinical assessments and sputum smear microscopy were performed weekly up to week 4, fortnightly up to week 12 and at week 24; TB culture was performed at week 0, 4 and 8; concentrations of LL-37 in cells, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in plasma and ex vivo bactericidal function of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were determined at week 0, 4, 8, 12 and additionally at week 24 for plasma 25(OHD3.At week 4, 71% (46/65 of the patients in the PBA+vitD3-group (p = 0.001 and 61.3% (38/62 in the vitD3-group (p = 0.032 were culture negative compared to 42.2% (27/64 in the placebo-group. The odds of sputum culture being negative at week 4 was 3.42 times higher in the PBA+vitD3-group (p = 0.001 and 2.2 times higher in vitD3-group (p = 0.032 compared to placebo. The concentration of LL-37 in MDM was significantly higher in the PBA-group compared to placebo at week 12 (p = 0.034. Decline in intracellular Mtb growth in MDM was earlier in the PBA-group compared to placebo (log rank 11.38, p = 0.01.Adjunct therapy with PBA+vitD3 or vitD3 or PBA to standard short-course therapy demonstrated beneficial effects towards clinical recovery and holds potential for host-directed-therapy in the treatment of TB

  1. [Vitamin status of citizens from Moscow Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Pogozheva, A V; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Aristarhova, T V; Levin, L G; Danisova, N N; Baturin, A K

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of vitamin status in healthy individuals (68 men and 70 women) aged from 18 to 60 years (median - 37 years), residents of Moscow and the Moscow region has been performed by means of determination of vitamin C, A, E, B2, B12 and folic acid level in blood serum. The nutrition was investigated by questionnaire method on frequency of food consumption. Both diet of men and women had excessive fat content (41.7 and 42.7% of total calories), saturated fatty acids (14.1 and 13.6%), added sugars (11.1 and 11.0%), sodium, and had lack of dietary fiber (2.5-fold reduced level comparing with RDA). Daily intake of vitamin B1 was 1.37±0.04 mg for men and 1.06±0.07 mg for women, vitamin B2 - respectively 1.72±0.06 and 1.62±0.07 mg, niacin - 18.5±0.72 and 14.8±0.88 mg and did not reach the optimal level. All persons were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, C, E and B12: mean and median of blood serum level of retinol, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and cobalamins were in the range of optimum values. The lack of vitamins A and B12 has not been found in any person. The frequency of vitamin C and E insufficiency was insignificant and amounted to 2 and 8% respectively. The lack of vitamin B2, and β-carotene was most pronounced and took place in about a half of individuals. Only 34% of healthy people of working age were sufficiently supplied with all vitamins. A combined lack of two vitamins was detected in 26%, of three vitamins - in 8%. Women were better supplied with riboflavin and β-carotene. The blood serum level of β-carotene and vitamin E was significantly higher in individuals older than 30 years compared with persons of younger age. Individuals with overweight or obesity were worse supplied with β-carotene and folate. A negative correlation was detected between the levels of serum folate and homocysteine concentration (r=-0.262, p<0.05). A positive correlation has been revealed between the concentration of folic acid and the level of HDL-C (r=0.356, p<0

  2. Model-based meta-analysis for comparing Vitamin D2 and D3 parent-metabolite pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Pelland, Alanna S; Gastonguay, Marc R; Riggs, Matthew M

    2017-08-01

    Association of Vitamin D (D3 & D2) and its 25OHD metabolite (25OHD3 & 25OHD2) exposures with various diseases is an active research area. D3 and D2 dose-equivalency and each form's ability to raise 25OHD concentrations are not well-defined. The current work describes a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for D2 and 25OHD2 and the use of a previously developed D3-25OHD3 PK model [1] for comparing D3 and D2-related exposures. Public-source D2 and 25OHD2 PK data in healthy or osteoporotic populations, including 17 studies representing 278 individuals (15 individual-level and 18 arm-level units), were selected using search criteria in PUBMED. Data included oral, single and multiple D2 doses (400-100,000 IU/d). Nonlinear mixed effects models were developed simultaneously for D2 and 25OHD2 PK (NONMEM v7.2) by considering 1- and 2-compartment models with linear or nonlinear clearance. Unit-level random effects and residual errors were weighted by arm sample size. Model simulations compared 25OHD exposures, following repeated D2 and D3 oral administration across typical dosing and baseline ranges. D2 parent and metabolite were each described by 2-compartment models with numerous parameter estimates shared with the D3-25OHD3 model [1]. Notably, parent D2 was eliminated (converted to 25OHD) through a first-order clearance whereas the previously published D3 model [1] included a saturable non-linear clearance. Similar to 25OHD3 PK model results [1], 25OHD2 was eliminated by a first-order clearance, which was almost twice as fast as the former. Simulations at lower baselines, following lower equivalent doses, indicated that D3 was more effective than D2 at raising 25OHD concentrations. Due to saturation of D3 clearance, however, at higher doses or baselines, the probability of D2 surpassing D3's ability to raise 25OHD concentrations increased substantially. Since 25OHD concentrations generally surpassed 75 nmol/L at these higher baselines by 3 months, there would be no

  3. Pharmacokinetics of alendronate in a combined Alendronate/Vitamin D3 tablet in healthy volunteers using plasma and urine data

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    Chalitpon Na nakorn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alendronate is indicated for treatment of a variety of bone metabolism disorders. In spite of quite low plasma concentrationsfollowing oral administration, pharmacokinetic study of alendronate based on plasma concentrations had normally been reported for up to 8 h. Due to much longer detectable periods in urine, a number of pharmacokinetic studies have been based upon urinary excretion data. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of alendronate following oral administration of combined Alendronate/Vitamin D3 tablet. Blood and urine samples were collected for 10 h after oral administration of a combined Alendronate/Vitamin D3 tablet to healthy volunteers. Alendronate levels in plasma and urine samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The analytical method involved co-precipitation of alendronate in plasma or urine samples with calcium and followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE process. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by the non-compartmental method using WinNonlin. Pharmacokinetics parameters, i.e. Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-10, T1/2, were 56.6±11.8 ng/mL, 1.29±0.39 h, 132.4±46.9 ng·h/mL, and 3.43±2.24 h,respectively. Amount excreted in 10 h urine and maximum excretion rate (Rmax were 578.59±308.9 μg and 143.3±72.8 μg/h, respectively. Although these parameters were different from previously reported values, Rmax obtained at 1.29±0.76 h agreed well with Tmax observed from plasma data. Based upon urinary excretion data, enhanced absorption of alendronate after administration of a combined Alendronate/Vitamin D3 tablet is suggested.

  4. The Correlation of Regulatory T (TReg and Vitamin D3 in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome

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    Yunika Nurtyas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome (NS is an autoimmune disease that correlates to the imbalance of regulatory T cells (TReg. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D as adjuvant therapy of TReg population in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. This study was designed randomized clinical trial, double blind, with pre- and post-test control groups involving 15 subjects newly diagnosed with NS. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely K1 for group treated with prednisone+vitamin D and K2 group for prednisone treatment only. The population of TReg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was analyzed using flowcytometry. Vitamin D serum level was measured through ELISA method. Results showed that there was a significant elevation of TReg (independent t-test, p = 0.010 in K1 group, which was higher than in K2 group. The Pearson test in the K1 group showed that vitamin D level was positively correlated with TReg (p = 0.039, r = 0.779.

  5. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and Bladder Cancer Risk According to Tumor Stage and FGFR3 Status: A Mechanism-Based Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] protects against several cancers. However, little is known regarding urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). We analyzed the association between plasma 25(OH)D3 and overall risk of UBC, as well as according to stage and FGFR3 molecular subphenotypes. Methods Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 in 1125 cases with UBC and 1028 control subjects were determined by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. FGFR3 mutational status and expression in tumor tissue were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were further stratified by tumor invasiveness and grade, FGFR3 expression, and smoking status. Cell proliferation was measured in human UBC cell lines cultured with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Results A statistically significantly increased risk of UBC was observed among subjects presenting the lowest concentrations of 25(OH)D3 (ORadj = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.82; P = .006), showing a dose–response effect (P trend = .004). The association was stronger for patients with muscle-invasive tumors, especially among low-FGFR3 expressers (ORadj = 5.94; 95% CI = 1.72 to 20.45; P = .005). The biological plausibility of these associations is supported by the fact that, in vitro, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates FGFR3 expression in UBC cell lines with low levels of wild-type FGFR3. Conclusion These findings support a role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of UBC and show that 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with FGFR3 expression in the tumor. Because FGFR3 mutation and overexpression are markers of better outcome, our findings suggest that individuals with low levels of plasma 25(OH)D3 may be at high risk of more aggressive forms of UBC. PMID:23108201

  6. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and bladder cancer risk according to tumor stage and FGFR3 status: a mechanism-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Muñoz, Alberto; Silverman, Debra T; Allory, Yves; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lloreta, Josep; Rothman, Nathaniel; Carrato, Alfredo; Rivas del Fresno, Manuel; Real, Francisco X; Malats, Núria

    2012-12-19

    Previous evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] protects against several cancers. However, little is known regarding urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). We analyzed the association between plasma 25(OH)D(3) and overall risk of UBC, as well as according to stage and FGFR3 molecular subphenotypes. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D(3) in 1125 cases with UBC and 1028 control subjects were determined by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. FGFR3 mutational status and expression in tumor tissue were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were further stratified by tumor invasiveness and grade, FGFR3 expression, and smoking status. Cell proliferation was measured in human UBC cell lines cultured with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). A statistically significantly increased risk of UBC was observed among subjects presenting the lowest concentrations of 25(OH)D(3) (OR(adj) = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.82; P = .006), showing a dose-response effect (P (trend) = .004). The association was stronger for patients with muscle-invasive tumors, especially among low-FGFR3 expressers (OR(adj) = 5.94; 95% CI = 1.72 to 20.45; P = .005). The biological plausibility of these associations is supported by the fact that, in vitro, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) upregulates FGFR3 expression in UBC cell lines with low levels of wild-type FGFR3. These findings support a role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of UBC and show that 25(OH)D(3) levels are associated with FGFR3 expression in the tumor. Because FGFR3 mutation and overexpression are markers of better outcome, our findings suggest that individuals with low levels of plasma 25(OH)D(3) may be at high risk of more aggressive forms of UBC.

  7. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  8. A Pathway for the Metabolism of Vitamin D3: Unique Hydroxylated Metabolites Formed during Catalysis with Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. Guryev; R. A. Carvalho; S. Usanov; A. Gilep; R. W. Estabrook

    2003-01-01

    Metabolites of vitamin D (D3) (cholecalciferol) are recognized as enzymatically formed chemicals in humans that can influence a wide variety of reactions that regulate a large number of cellular functions...

  9. A randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults comparing replenishment with oral vitamin D3 with narrow-band UV type B light: effects on cholesterol and the transcriptional profiles of skin and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponda, Manish P; Liang, Yupu; Kim, Jaehwan; Hutt, Richard; Dowd, Kathleen; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary M; Rodrick, Tori; Kim, Dong Joo; Barash, Irina; Lowes, Michelle A; Breslow, Jan L

    2017-05-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration vitamin D supplementation does not lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations or raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations. This uncoupling between association and causation may result from a failure of oral vitamin D to mimic the effect of dermally synthesized vitamin D in response to ultraviolet type B (UVB) light.Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, in vitamin D-deficient adults, the replenishment of vitamin D with UVB exposure would lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation.Design: We performed a randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults and compared vitamin D replenishment between subjects who received oral vitamin D3 (n = 60) and those who received narrow-band UVB exposure (n = 58) ≤6 mo.Results: There was no difference in the change from baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations between oral vitamin D3 and UVB groups (difference in median of oral vitamin D3 minus that of UVB: 1.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.0, 7.0 mg/dL). There were also no differences within groups or between groups for changes in total or HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Transcriptional profiling of skin and blood, however, revealed significant upregulation of immune pathway signaling with oral vitamin D3 but significant downregulation with UVB.Conclusions: Correcting vitamin D deficiency with either oral vitamin D3 or UVB does not improve the lipid profile. Beyond cholesterol, these 2 modalities of raising 25(OH)D have disparate effects on gene transcription. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01688102. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Anne-Thea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3 is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM. Vitamin D3 insufficiency has been linked to obesity, whether obesity is assessed by body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (waist. Central obesity, using waist as the surrogate, is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn, insulin resistance, TIIDM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD. We tested how vitamin D3 was related to measures of fat mass, MetSyn markers, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and MetSyn in a cross-sectional sample of 250 overweight and obese adults of different ethnicities. There were modest inverse associations of vitamin D3 with body weight (weight (r = -0.21, p = 0.0009, BMI (r = -0.18, p = 0.005, waist (r = -0.14, p = 0.03, [but not body fat % (r = -0.08, p = 0.24], and HbA1c (r = -0.16, p = 0.01. Multivariable regression carried out separately for BMI and waist showed a decrease of 0.74 nmol/L (p = 0.002 in vitamin D3 per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI and a decrease of 0.29 nmol/L (p = 0.01 per 1 cm increase in waist, with each explaining approximately 3% of the variation in vitamin D3 over and above gender, age, ethnicity and season. The similar relationships of BMI and waist with vitamin D3 may have been due to associations between BMI and waist, or coincidental, where different mechanisms relating hypovitaminosis D3 to obesity occur concurrently. Previously reviewed mechanisms include that 1 low vitamin D3, may impair insulin action, glucose metabolism and various other metabolic processes in adipose and lean tissue 2 fat soluble-vitamin D3 is sequestered in the large adipose compartment, and low in serum, 3 obese people may be sensitive about their body shape, minimising their skin exposure to view and sunlight (not tested. We showed evidence for the first theory but no evidence to support the second. In

  11. Vitamin D3 Adjuvant Treatment Stimulate Interleukin-10 Expression in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Without Affecting to Clinical Outcome and Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnul Asariati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS is the most glomerular disease that occurred in childhood with high rate morbidity. Glucocorticoid is drug of choice for INS and responsiveness to this drug determined prognosis.Glucocorticoid upregulate transcription of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has multiple role in immune response include modulate Th1/Th2 response. Vitamin D3 interact with glucocorticoid signaling. Administered active form of vitamin D3 increase dexamethasone-induced IL-10 expression by regulatory T cells in steroid resistant asthmatic patient. Here we showed increase of CD4+ IL10+ expression after treatment both prednisone only and combination prednison with vitamin D3. Both in new-onset NS or rare relaps NS, combination treatment prednisone + vitamin D3 increase CD4+ IL10+ expression significantly compared to prednisone-only treated group (p= 0.003, which first group (new-onset nephrotic syndrome + prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment showed the most CD4+ IL10+ expression enhancement (9.53±3.89. However this study failed to show a correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression after prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment with clinical outcome (linear regression test, p= 0,125. This study also showed that there was a no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression after prednison + vitamin D3 treatment (p= 0.088. CD4+ IL-10+ expression in new-onset and rarely relapsing nephrotic syndrome patients higher in prednisone + vitamin D3 treated group than prednisone-only treated group. There is no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression nor CD4+ IL-10+ expression and clinical outcome.

  12. Oral supplementation with 25(OH)D3 versus vitamin D3: effects on 25(OH)D levels, lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the effect of 25(OH)D3 (HyD) compared to vitamin D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D), lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity. Twenty healthy postmenopausal women with an average 25(OH)D level of 13.23.9 ng/mL (meanSD) and a mean age of 61.57.2 y...

  13. Effect of vitamin D3 on leukocyte infiltration into the brain of C57/BL6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghasem Mosayebi

    2006-11-01

    Material and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two therapeutic groups (n=8 per group with age and weight-matched as follow: Vitamin D3-treated EAE mice (5μg/kg/every two days of vitamin D3 given i.p. from day -3 until day +19 after disease induction. Non-treated EAE mice (EAE control received vehicle alone with same schedule. In addition, 5 age and weight-matched male C57BL/6 mice served as normal (non-EAE controls. Results: Vitamin D3-treated mice had significantly less clinical score of EAE (3.2±0.8 than non-treated mice (5.3±0.44, (p<0.001. Also, there was a significant difference between vitamin D3-trated and non treated mice (p<0.01 in relation to the number of the infiltrating cells in the brain. Conclusion: These results indicate that vitamin D3 treatment reduces infiltration of leukocytes into the brain of EAE mice, and ameliorate the disease. Thus, vitamin D3 treatment may be of therapeutic value against inflammatory disease processes associated with infiltration of activated mononuclear cells into the tissue.

  14. Dexamethasone Enhances 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Effects by Increasing Vitamin D Receptor Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Deeb, Kristin K.; Pike, J. Wesley; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, in combination with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) has been shown to increase the antitumor effects of calcitriol in squamous cell carcinoma. In this study we found that pretreatment with Dex potentiates calcitriol effects by inhibiting cell growth and increasing vitamin D receptor (VDR) and VDR-mediated transcription. Treatment with actinomycin D inhibits Vdr mRNA synthesis, indicating that Dex regulates VDR expression at transcriptional level. Real time PCR shows that treatment with Dex increases Vdr transcripts in a time- and a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Dex directly regulates expression of Vdr. RU486, an inhibitor of glucocorticoids, inhibits Dex-induced Vdr expression. In addition, the silencing of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) abolishes the induction of Vdr by Dex, indicating that Dex increases Vdr transcripts in a GR-dependent manner. A fragment located 5.2 kb upstream of Vdr transcription start site containing two putative glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) was evaluated using a luciferase-based reporter assay. Treatment with 100 nm Dex induces transcription of luciferase driven by the fragment. Deletion of the GRE distal to transcription start site was sufficient to abolish Dex induction of luciferase. Also, chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals recruitment of GR to distal GRE with Dex treatment. We conclude that Dex increases VDR and vitamin D effects by increasing Vdr de novo transcription in a GR-dependent manner. PMID:21868377

  15. Nutritional status of vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Na, Bomi; No, So-Jung; Han, Heon-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Wonkuk; Han, Younghee; Hyeun, Taisun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (Pvitamin D supplementation, BMD was lower in group B and S than in group A (Pvitamin D differed among 3 groups (PS>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (Pvitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D(3), but not bone mineral density.

  16. Integrated backscatter for the in vivo quantification of supraphysiological vitamin D(3)-induced cardiovascular calcifications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Bram; Droogmans, Steven; Hostens, Jeroen; Somja, Joan; Delvenne, Eléonore; Hernot, Sophie; Bala, Gezim; Degaillier, Céline; Caveliers, Vicky; Delvenne, Philippe; Lahoutte, Tony; Van Camp, Guy; Cosyns, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular calcifications are frequently found in the aging population and are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events. Integrated backscatter (IB) of ultrasound reflectivity can easily quantify calcifications. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats received 25,000 IU/kg/day of vitamin D(3) (group 1, n = 8), 18,800 IU/kg/day (group 2, n = 8), or injections with the vehicle only (group 3, n = 14), for 10 weeks. Echocardiographic calibrated IB (cIB) was measured and calculated at baseline and after 10 weeks, followed by ex vivo micro-CT and histopathology of the aortic valve, ascending aorta, and myocardium. After 10 weeks, the mean cIB value of the aortic valve was significantly higher for vitamin D(3)-dosed animals compared to controls. The mean cIB value of the ascending aorta and the myocardium was also significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 3. In vivo IB results were confirmed by ex vivo micro-CT and histopathology. In conclusion, IB is a non-ionizing, feasible, and reproducible tool to quantify cardiovascular calcifications in an in vivo rat model. The integration of IB in the standard echocardiographic examination for the quantification of cardiovascular calcifications could be useful for serial evaluation of treatment efficacy and for prognosis assessment.

  17. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  18. Role of vitamin D3 in modulation of ΔNp63α expression during UVB induced tumor formation in SKH-1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T Hill

    Full Text Available ΔNp63α, a proto-oncogene, is up-regulated in non-melanoma skin cancers and directly regulates the expression of both Vitamin D receptor (VDR and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN. Since ΔNp63α has been shown to inhibit cell invasion via regulation of VDR, we wanted to determine whether dietary Vitamin D3 protected against UVB induced tumor formation in SKH-1 mice, a model for squamous cell carcinoma development. We examined whether there was a correlation between dietary Vitamin D3 and ΔNp63α, VDR or PTEN expression in vivo in SKH-1 mice chronically exposed to UVB radiation and fed chow containing increasing concentrations of dietary Vitamin D3. Although we observed differential effects of the Vitamin D3 diet on ΔNp63α and VDR expression in chronically irradiated normal mouse skin as well as UVB induced tumors, Vitamin D3 had little effect on PTEN expression in vivo. While low-grade papillomas in mice exposed to UV and fed normal chow displayed increased levels of ΔNp63α, expression of both ΔNp63α and VDR was reduced in invasive tumors. Interestingly, in mice fed high Vitamin D3 chow, elevated levels of ΔNp63α were observed in both local and invasive tumors but not in normal skin suggesting that oral supplementation with Vitamin D3 may increase the proliferative potential of skin tumors by increasing ΔNp63α levels.

  19. High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Schmedes, Anne V

    2010-01-01

    in fishing populations, e.g. at the Faroe Islands. We examined the vitamin D status and its statistical determinants in a cross-sectional study of 713 elderly Faroese aged 70-74 years, about two-thirds of all the eligible residents in this age group. Clinical examination included measurement of body weight......-25(OH)D3 concentrations >80 nmol/l. In a logistic regression analysis, BMI sex were positively associated with vitamin D levels >80 nmol/l. The high prevalence of low vitamin D levels among...

  20. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R; Slow, Sandy; Chambers, Stephen T; Jennings, Lance C; Stewart, Alistair W; Priest, Patricia C; Florkowski, Christopher M; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert

    2012-10-03

    Observational studies have reported an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). However, results of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have been inconclusive. To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on incidence and severity of URTIs in healthy adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 322 healthy adults between February 2010 and November 2011 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an initial dose of 200,000 IU oral vitamin D3, then 200,000 IU 1 month later, then 100,000 IU monthly (n = 161), or placebo administered in an identical dosing regimen (n = 161), for a total of 18 months. The primary end point was number of URTI episodes. Secondary end points were duration of URTI episodes, severity of URTI episodes, and number of days of missed work due to URTI episodes. The mean baseline 25-OHD level of participants was 29 (SD, 9) ng/mL. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in an increase in serum 25-OHD levels that was maintained at greater than 48 ng/mL throughout the study. There were 593 URTI episodes in the vitamin D group and 611 in the placebo group, with no statistically significant differences in the number of URTIs per participant (mean, 3.7 per person in the vitamin D group and 3.8 per person in the placebo group; risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.11), number of days of missed work as a result of URTIs (mean, 0.76 days in each group; risk ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.30), duration of symptoms per episode (mean, 12 days in each group; risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.73-1.25), or severity of URTI episodes. These findings remained unchanged when the analysis was repeated by season and by baseline 25-OHD levels. In this trial, monthly administration of 100,000 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the incidence or severity of URTIs in healthy adults. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000486224.

  1. Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow, Sandy; Florkowski, Christopher M; Chambers, Stephen T; Priest, Patricia C; Stewart, Alistair W; Jennings, Lance C; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Murdoch, David R

    2014-12-15

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamin D improves resilience to the adverse effects of earthquakes. Opportunistic addition to an established randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Christchurch, New Zealand, where a prolonged series of catastrophic earthquakes beginning on 4 September 2010 occurred, which caused widespread destruction, fatalities, and extensive psychological damage. 322 healthy adults (241 women; 81 men) aged 18-67 who were already participating in the vitamin D and acute respiratory infections study (VIDARIS) between February 2010 and November 2011. Participants were randomised to receive an oral dose of either 200,000 IU vitamin D3 monthly for two months then 100,000 IU monthly (n=161) or placebo (n=161) for a total of 18 months. This is a post hoc analysis from the previously published VIDARIS trial. The primary endpoint in the current analysis was the self reported effects and overall adverse impact of the Christchurch earthquakes as assessed by questionnaire four months after the most destructive earthquake on 22 February 2011, which was used as the index event. The secondary end point was the number of "psychological" adverse events that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments as part of the original VIDARIS trial. 308 participants completed the earthquake impact questionnaire (n=152 in the vitamin D group and 156 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in the number of self reported adverse effects between those receiving vitamin D supplementation and those receiving placebo. There was also no difference in the overall adverse impact score between treatment groups (χ(2) P=0.44). The exception was that those in the vitamin D group experienced more adverse effects on family relationships (22% v 13%; χ(2) P=0.03). The number of psychological adverse events-such as fatigue, stress, anxiety, and insomnia-that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments was significantly

  2. Effect of intermittent vitamin D3 on vascular function and symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, M D; Adams, F; McSwiggan, S; Kennedy, G; Kabir, G; Belch, J J F; Khan, F

    2015-03-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome; such patients also manifest impaired vascular health. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy improved markers of vascular health and fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Parallel-group, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome according to the Fukuda (1994) and Canadian (2003) criteria were randomised to receive 100,000 units oral vitamin D3 or matching placebo every 2 months for 6 months. The primary outcome was arterial stiffness measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, blood pressure, cholesterol, insulin resistance, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and the Piper Fatigue scale. As many as 50 participants were randomised; mean age 49 (SD 13) years, mean baseline pulse wave velocity 7.8 m/s (SD 2.3), mean baseline office blood pressure 128/78 (18/12) mmHg and mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level 46 (18) nmol/L. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased by 22 nmol/L at 6 months in the treatment group relative to placebo. There was no effect of treatment on pulse wave velocity at 6 months (adjusted treatment effect 0.0 m/s; 95% CI -0.6 to 0.6; p = 0.93). No improvement was seen in other vascular and metabolic outcomes, or in the Piper Fatigue scale at 6 months (adjusted treatment effect 0.2 points; 95% CI -0.8 to 1.2; p = 0.73). High-dose oral vitamin D3 did not improve markers of vascular health or fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. www.controlled-trials.com, ISRCTN59927814. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroprotective and immune effects of active forms of vitamin D3 and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Fiala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer disease (AD, afflict an increasing proportion of the older population with aging. Decreased exposure to sunlight and decreased consumption of fish, fruits, and vegetables, are two epidemiological factors that appear to be related to the pandemic of AD. In addition to replacing simple with complex carbohydrates and avoiding saturated fat, two nutritional components, vitamin D (acting through the endogenous hormonal form 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25D and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (acting through the docosanoid lipidic modulators resolvins and neuroprotectins have high potential for prevention of Alzheimer disease. 1,25D is a neuroprotective, it acts both directly and indirectly in neurons by improving the clearance of amyloid-beta by macrophages/microglia. Resolvins and neuroprotectins inhibit amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-precursor protein, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis. It is likely that the increased consumption of vitamin D and fish oil could prevent neurodegeneration in some subjects by maintaining adequate endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine production of 1,25D and the DHA-derived lipidic modulators. Before firm recommendations of the dosage can be proposed, however, the in vivo effects of vitamin D3 and DHA supplementation should be investigated by prospective studies.

  4. A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J M; Kimball, S; Vieth, R; Bar-Or, A; Dosch, H-M; Cheung, R; Gagne, D; D'Souza, C; Ursell, M; O'Connor, P

    2010-06-08

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and risk, but the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in established MS has not been explored. Our aim was to assess the tolerability of high-dose oral vitamin D and its impact on biochemical, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in patients with MS prospectively. An open-label randomized prospective controlled 52-week trial matched patients with MS for demographic and disease characteristics, with randomization to treatment or control groups. Treatment patients received escalating vitamin D doses up to 40,000 IU/day over 28 weeks to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] rapidly and assess tolerability, followed by 10,000 IU/day (12 weeks), and further downtitrated to 0 IU/day. Calcium (1,200 mg/day) was given throughout the trial. Primary endpoints were mean change in serum calcium at each vitamin D dose and a comparison of serum calcium between groups. Secondary endpoints included 25(OH)D and other biochemical measures, immunologic biomarkers, relapse events, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. Forty-nine patients (25 treatment, 24 control) were enrolled [mean age 40.5 years, EDSS 1.34, and 25(OH)D 78 nmol/L]. All calcium-related measures within and between groups were normal. Despite a mean peak 25(OH)D of 413 nmol/L, no significant adverse events occurred. Although there may have been confounding variables in clinical outcomes, treatment group patients appeared to have fewer relapse events and a persistent reduction in T-cell proliferation compared to controls. High-dose vitamin D (approximately 10,000 IU/day) in multiple sclerosis is safe, with evidence of immunomodulatory effects. This trial provides Class II evidence that high-dose vitamin D use for 52 weeks in patients with multiple sclerosis does not significantly increase serum calcium levels when compared to patients not on high-dose supplementation. The trial, however, lacked statistical precision and the

  5. Impact of vitamin D status on statin-induced myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista D. Riche, Pharm.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Vitamin D status may be considered a modifiable risk factor for muscle-related adverse effects of statins, and supplementation of vitamin D (particularly when ⩽20 ng/mL may improve statin tolerance.

  6. The effect of calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) quantify the healing process of the human osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture (PHF) expressed in terms of callus formation over the fracture region using BMD scanning, and (2) quantify the impact of medical intervention with vitamin D3 and calcium...... demonstrated that it is possible to quantify callus formation of the PHF with sufficiently high precision to demonstrate the positive influence of vitamin D3 and calcium over the first 6 weeks after fracture. Whether this results in more stable fractures, extends to other fracture types, or applies to other...... scan, WHO criteria), and not taking any drugs related to bone formation, including calcium or vitamin D supplementation, were randomly assigned to either oral 800 IU vitamin D3 plus 1 g calcium or placebo, in a double-blind prospective study. We measured biochemical, radiographic, and bone mineral...

  7. Associations between vitamin D status and atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødesen, Camilla U; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    hypothesized that low vitamin D status could be associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis. METHODS: 756 adults from the Inuit Health in Transition (IHIT) study carried out in Greenland in the period 2005-2010 were included. A blood sample donated in 1987...... was available for a sub-sample of 102 individuals. Serum 25(OH)D3 from the IHIT study and the 1987 survey was used as a measure of vitamin D status. IMT measurements were conducted by ultrasound scanning. The prevalence of atherosclerosis was estimated, and the association between serum 25(OH)D3 and IMT...... measurements was examined by linear regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 20.1% (n = 152). The linear regression analyses indicated a weak positive association between serum 25(OH)D3 level and IMT measurements from the IHIT study, though not statistically significant...

  8. Synergistic effect of low K and D vitamin status on arterial stiffness in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Filipovský, Jan; Cífková, Renata; Černá, Václava; Kučerová, Alena; Pešta, Martin; Fuchsová, Radka; Topolčan, Ondřej; Jardon, Kelly M C; Drummen, Nadja E A; Vermeer, Cees

    2017-08-01

    Both vitamins K and D are nutrients with pleiotropic functions in human tissues. The metabolic role of these vitamins overlaps considerably in calcium homeostasis. We analyzed their potential synergetic effect on arterial stiffness. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) in 1023 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix γ-carboxyglutamate protein (dp-ucMGP), a biomarker of vitamin K status, was measured by sandwich ELISA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) by a commercial immunochemical assay. In a subsample of 431 subjects without chronic disease or pharmacotherapy, we detected rs2228570 polymorphism for the vitamin D receptor. After adjustment for confounders, aPWV was independently associated with both factors: dp-ucMGP [β-coefficient(S.E.M.)=13.91(4.87); P=.004] and 25-OH-D3 [0.624(0.28); P=.027]. In a further analysis, we divided subjects according to dp-ucMGP and 25-OH-D3 quartiles, resulting in 16 subgroups. The highest aPWV had subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP plus bottom quartile of 25-OH-D3 (i.e., in those with insufficient status of both vitamin K and vitamin D), while the lowest aPVW had subjects in the bottom quartile of dp-ucMGP plus top quartile of 25-OH-D3 [9.8 (SD2.6) versus 6.6 (SD1.6) m/s; Pvitamin K and D status, the adjusted odds ratio for aPWV≥9.3 m/s was 6.83 (95% CI:1.95-20.9). The aPWV was also significantly higher among subjects bearing the GG genotype of rs2228570, but only in those with a concomitantly poor vitamin K status. In conclusion, we confirmed substantial interaction of insufficient K and D vitamin status in terms of increased aortic stiffness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-course analysis of 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 shows markedly elevated levels in early life, particularly from vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nina; van Daal, Henny; Beijers, Antonius M; Gerrits, G Peter J M; Semmekrot, Ben A; van den Ouweland, Johannes M W

    2016-04-01

    An epimeric form of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) has recently been detected in clinical samples, with relatively high levels in infants. Little is known on 3-epi-25(OH)D3 formation and physiological function. Our objective was to study dynamics of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 formation during infancy. 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 22 preterm (aged 34-37 wk), 15 early preterm (aged epi-25(OH)D3 levels were 3 (1-7) nmol/l, epi-25(OH)D3 increased, with highest 3-epi-25(OH)D3 contribution in early preterm infants (up to 55% of total 25(OH)D3 vs. 36% in term infants, P epi-25(OH)D3 normalized to epi-25(OH)D3, increasing the week after starting vitamin D supplementation, until 3 mo of age. Highest levels of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were found in early preterm infants, supporting the hypothesis that hepatic immaturity plays a role in 3-epi-25(OH)D3 formation.

  10. Vitamin D3 and Monomethyl Fumarate Enhance Natural Killer Cell Lysis of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorate the Clinical Score in Mice Suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidoon Al-Jaderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a CD4+ T cell mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease that is induced in mice by administration of peptides derived from myelin proteins. We developed EAE in SJL mice by administration of PLP139–151 peptide. The effect of treating these mice with 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3, or with monomethyl fumarate (MMF was then examined. We observed that both vitamin D3 and MMF inhibited and/or prevented EAE in these mice. These findings were corroborated with isolating natural killer (NK cells from vitamin D3-treated or MMF-treated EAE mice that lysed immature or mature dendritic cells. The results support and extend other findings indicating that an important mechanism of action for drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS is to enhance NK cell lysis of dendritic cells.

  11. Access to outside areas during march and april in Denmark has negligible effect on the vitamin D3 status of organic dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Mikkelsen, Louise Karoline; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2008-01-01

    Use of artificial fat-soluble vitamins in feed for dairy cows does not conform to organic production principles. Therefore sunlight is the only natural source of vitamin D3 for organic dairy coes. In order to establish the effect of sunlight on the vitamin D3 status of high yielding dairy cows...... in spring when sunlight is scarce, 78 Danish Holstein cows from two different organic farms (farm 1 and farm 2) were blood sampled four times between November 2005 and April 2006. Use of artificial vitamin D3 supplements in feed was terminated prior to first blood sampling and the cows in each herd were...

  12. Laboratory assessment of vitamin B12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    The detection and correction of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and potentially irreversible neuropathy and neuropsychiatric changes. B12 status is commonly estimated using the abundance of the vitamin in serum, with ∼148 pmol/L (200 ng/L) typically set as the threshold for diagnosing deficiency. Serum B12 assays measure the sum of haptocorrin-bound and transcobalamin-bound (known as holotranscobalamin) B12 It is only holotranscobalamin that is taken up by cells to meet metabolic demand. Although receiver operator characteristic curves show holotranscobalamin measurement to be a moderately more reliable marker of B12 status than serum B12, both assays have an indeterminate range. Biochemical evidence of metabolic abnormalities consistent with B12 insufficiency is frequently detected despite an apparently sufficient abundance of the vitamin. Laboratory B12 status markers that reflect cellular utilisation rather than abundance are available. Two forms of B12 act as coenzymes for two different reactions. Methionine synthase requires methylcobalamin for the remethylation of methionine from homocysteine. A homocysteine concentration >20 µmol/L may suggest B12 deficiency in folate-replete patients. In the second B12-dependent reaction, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses adenosylcobalamin to convert methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. In B12 deficiency excess methylmalonyl-CoA is hydrolysed to methylmalonic acid. A serum concentration >280 nmol/L may suggest suboptimal status in young patients with normal renal function. No single laboratory marker is suitable for the assessment of B12 status in all patients. Sequential assay selection algorithms or the combination of multiple markers into a single diagnostic indicator are both approaches that can be used to mitigate inherent limitations of each marker when used independently. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  13. Oral supplementation with 25(OH)D3 versus vitamin D3: Effects on 25(OH)D levels, lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff-Ferrari HA Dawson-Hughes B Stöcklin E Sidelnikov E Willett WC Edel JO Stähelin HB W

    2012-01-01

    To test the effect of 25(OH)D3 (HyD) compared to vitamin D3 on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) lower extremity function blood pressure and markers of innate immunity. Twenty healthy postmenopausal women with an average 25(OH)D level of 13.2?±?3.9?ng/mL (mean?±?SD) and a mean age of 61.5?±?7.2 years were randomized to either 20?µg of HyD or 20?µg (800?IU) of vitamin D3 per day in a double blind manner. We measured on 14 visits over 4 months 25(OH)D serum levels blood pressure and se...

  14. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...... kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25......(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S...

  15. Vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality.......Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality....

  16. Maintenance vitamin D3 dosage requirements in Chinese women with post menopausal osteoporosis living in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Yogeswari; Hatta, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad; Musa, Nurbazlin; Rahman, Siti Abdul; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Paramasivam, Sharmila Sunita; Lim, Lee Ling; Ibrahim, Luqman; Choong, Karen; Tan, Alexander Tb; Chinna, Karuthan; Chan, Siew Pheng; Vethakkan, Shireene R

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics. 90 Chinese Malaysian PMO women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2°30'N) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels >=50 nmol/L were recruited. Prior vitamin D supplements were discontinued and subjects randomized to oral cholecalciferol 25,000 IU/4-weekly (Group-A) or 50,000 IU/4-weekly (Group- B) for 16 weeks, administered under direct observation. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, serum/urinary calcium were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Baseline characteristics, including osteoporosis severity, sun exposure (~3 hours/week), and serum 25(OH)D did not differ between treatment arms. After 16 weeks, 91% of women sufficient at baseline, remained sufficient on 25,000 IU/4-weekly compared with 97% on 50,000 IU/4-weekly with mean serum 25(OH)D 108.1±20.4 and 114.7±18.4 SD nmol/L respectively (p=0.273). At trial's end, 39% and 80% of insufficient women at baseline attained sufficiency in Group A and Group B (p=0.057). Neither dose was associated with hyperparathyroidism or toxicity. Despite pretrial vitamin D supplementation and adequate sun exposure, 25.6% Chinese Malaysian PMO women were vitamin D insufficient indicating sunshine alone cannot ensure sufficiency in the tropics. Both ~900 IU/day and ~1800 IU/day cholecalciferol can safely maintain vitamin D sufficiency in >90% of Chinese Malaysian PMO women. Higher doses are required with baseline concentration <75 nmol/L.

  17. Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Antibiotic Consumption - Results from a Prospective, Observational Study at an Immune-Deficiency Unit in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Carin Norlin

    Full Text Available Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed to improve clinical symptoms during respiratory tract infections (RTIs, but results from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT are inconclusive. Previously, we performed an RCT in patients with various immune-disorders and observed that supplementation with 4000 IU vitamin D/day during 12 months significantly reduced antibiotic consumption and RTIs. This formed the basis for new guidelines at our unit; i.e. patients with insufficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (≤75 nmol/L are now offered vitamin D supplementation. The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to evaluate the outcome of these new recommendations with regard to antibiotic consumption in our unit.277 patients with insufficiency were supplemented with vitamin D3, 1500-1600 IU/day for 12 months. Each patient was its own control and data on antibiotic consumption was monitored 12 months before and 12 months after initiation of vitamin D3 supplementation.Vitamin D3 supplementation resulted in a significantly reduced antibiotic consumption, from 20 to 15 days/patient (p<0.05. The number of antibiotic-free patients increased from 52 to 81 after vitamin D3 supplementation; OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66 (p<0.01. The number of antibiotic-prescriptions decreased significantly, a finding that mainly was attributed to a reduction of respiratory tract antibiotics (p<0.05. Subgroup analysis showed that only patients without immunoglobulin substitution (n = 135 had a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation.Vitamin D3 supplementation of 1600 IE /day is safe to use in immunodeficient patients with 25-OHD levels less than 75 nmol/L and significantly reduced the antibiotic consumption in patients without immunoglobulin substitution.

  18. Efficacy of 25-OH Vitamin D3 prophylactic administration for reducing lameness in broilers grown on wire flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Blankenship, J; Pevzner, I Y; Turner, B J

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is the most common cause of lameness in commercial broilers. Growing broilers on wire flooring provides an excellent experimental model for reproducibly triggering significant levels of lameness attributable to BCO. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of adding HyD (25-OH vitamin D3) to the drinking water as a preventative/prophylactic treatment for lameness. Broiler chicks were reared on 5 x 10 ft flat wire floor panels within 6 environmental chambers. Three chambers were supplied with tap water (Control group) and the remaining chambers were supplied with HyD (HyD group: 0.06 mL HyD solution/L water; dosing based on the HyD Solution label to provide 33.9 μg 25-OHD3/L) from d 1 through 56. Feed was provided ad libitum and was formulated to meet or exceed minimum standards for all ingredients, including 5,500 IU vitamin D3/kg. Lameness initially was detected on d 28, and the cumulative incidence of lameness on d 56 was higher in the Control group than in the HyD group (34.7 vs. 22.7%, respectively; P = 0.03; Z-test of proportions; chambers pooled). The most prevalent diagnoses for lame birds were osteochondrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) of the proximal femora (52%) and tibiae (79%), accompanied by minor incidences of tibial dyschondroplasia (0.33%), spondylolisthesis, or kinky back (0.67%), and twisted legs (1%). Broilers that survived to d 56 without developing lameness did not differ in BW when compared by group within a gender. The wire flooring model imposes a rigorous, sustained challenge that undoubtedly is much more severe than typically would be experienced by broilers under normal commercial conditions. Therefore the encouraging response to HyD supplementation in the present study supports the potential for 25-OH vitamin D3 to attenuate outbreaks of lameness caused by BCO in commercial broiler flocks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Evaluation of vitamin status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jongwon; Choi, Rihwa; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Hyun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kwon, O Jung; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2017-03-01

    Vitamins are known to be associated with immunity and nutrition. Moreover, vitamin deficiency can affect host immunity to various infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. Although patients with tuberculosis often have vitamin D deficiency, little is known about the levels of other vitamins. Here, we aimed to investigate the status of vitamins A, B 12 , D, and E in patients with tuberculosis. We also aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory variables related to vitamin status in patients with tuberculosis. We performed a case-control study to investigate the serum vitamin concentrations in 152 patients with tuberculosis and 137 control subjects. The concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Patient demographic data and other biochemical parameters were also analyzed. The serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly lower in patients with tuberculosis than in control subjects (1.4 vs. 2.0 μmol/L, P vitamin deficiencies were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis. Moreover, multiple vitamin deficiencies were only observed in patients with tuberculosis (22.4% of all patients with tuberculosis vs. 0% of all control subjects). Positive correlations among vitamin A, D, and E concentrations were observed (vitamins A and D, r = 0.395; vitamins D and E, r = 0.342; and vitamins A and E, r = 0.427, P vitamin A, D, and E concentrations. Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with tuberculosis. Further research investigating the clinical importance of vitamin and nutritional status in patients with tuberculosis is needed. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ¿Es equivalente la suplementación diaria con vitamina D2 o vitamina D3 en adultos mayores? Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Seijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la equivalencia entre colecalciferol (D3 y ergocalciferol (D2, como las dosis y forma de administración de ambos, son actualmente un tema controvertido. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la efectividad de 800 UI/día de D2 (gotas y D3 (comprimidos para alcanzar niveles adecuados de 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. Veintiún mujeres posmenopáusicas que vivían en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, edad promedio ( ± DS 77.1 ± 6.8 años fueron incluidas y asignadas en forma aleatoria a uno de los siguientes grupos: GD2 (n = 13: 800 UI (gotas y GD3 (n = 8: 800 UI (comprimidos. Se midió 25OHD sérica (RIA-DIASORIN basal y a los 7, 28 y 45 días del estudio. Basalmente, 19 de las 21 mujeres presentaron niveles de deficiencia de 25(OHD (The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3 and ergocalciferol (D2 as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops and D3 (pills on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD levels (= 30 ng/ml. Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean ( ± SD age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13: 800 IU (drops and GD3 (n = 8: 800 IU (pills. Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (< 20 ng/ml: GD2: 14.0 ± 4.8 ng/ml and GD3: 13.2 ± 4.9 ng/ml (NS. Whereas only GD3 exhibited an increase (~25% at 7 days, both groups showed a significant increase at the end of the study. However, neither attained adequate 25OHD levels (GD2: 17.4 ± 5.5 vs. GD3:22.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml; p < 0.001. Administration of 800 IU of vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. but neither

  1. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  2. Evidence That Loss-of-Function Filaggrin Gene Mutations Evolved in Northern Europeans to Favor Intracutaneous Vitamin D3 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Bikle, Daniel D; Elias, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Skin pigmentation lightened progressively to a variable extent, as modern humans emigrated out of Africa, but extreme lightening occurred only in northern Europeans. Yet, loss of pigmentation alone cannot suffice to sustain cutaneous vitamin D3 (VD3) formation at the high latitudes of northern...... UV-B penetration and intracutaneous VD3 formation, the latitude-dependent gradient in FLG mutations, likely together with other concurrent mutations in VD3 metabolic pathways, provide a non-pigment-based mechanism that sustains higher levels of circulating VD3 in northern Europeans. At the time...... that FLG mutations evolved, xerosis due to FLG deficiency was a lesser price to pay for enhanced VD3 production. Yet, the increase in FLG mutations has inadvertently contributed to an epidemic of atopic diseases that has emerged in recent decades....

  3. Four-year clinical remission of type 1 diabetes mellitus in two patients treated with sitagliptin and vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Maia Pinheiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a chronic disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and inadequate insulin production. Remission criteria in T1DM take into account serum levels of C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin, as well as the dose of insulin administered to the patient. However, remission of T1DM lasting longer than 1 year is rare. We describe here the cases of two young women who presented with positive glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD antibody and classic clinical manifestations of T1DM. Both patients had a prior history of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. They were initially treated with a basal-bolus regimen of insulin (glargine and lispro/glulisine. Once their blood glucose levels were controlled, they were started on oral sitagliptin 100 mg and vitamin D3 5000 IU daily. After this therapy, both patients achieved clinical diabetes remission for 4 years, along with a decrease in anti-GAD antibody levels. These benefits were probably associated with immunological effects of these medications. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 in animal models deregulates Th1 immune response, increases secretion of Th2 cytokines, activates CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells and prevents IL-17 production. Vitamin D3 also activates CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells, and these medications combined can improve the immune response in patients with new-onset T1DM and probably promote sustained clinical remission.

  4. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia: role of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, V; Luisetto, G; Mengozzi, G; Martimbianco, L; Vasile, A

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role and mechanism of action of calcitriol on glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia, 17 patients with severe chronic renal failure were studied. Glucose metabolism was investigated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) before and after treatment for 21 days with 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol and 500 mg/day of calcium (C+Ca) (6 cases) or 0.5 microgram/day of calcitriol alone (C) (11 cases). After these evaluations the patients on C+Ca were shifted to C and 6 patients on C were shifted to C+Ca, and IVGTT was repeated 21 days after the shift. For each test plasma glucose (G), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (C-p) were measured at -30, 0, 2, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 min, and baseline plasma values of 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3, C-terminal parathyroid hormone (PTH-C), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH-I), calcitonin, and serum values of total and ionized calcium were dosed. Also, glucose constant decay (K-G), insulin response (IRI area), C-p production (C-p area), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin resistance index (RI) were calculated. A historical group of 21 healthy volunteers formed the normal controls. 1 alpha,25(HO)2-vitamin D3 plasma levels in uremic patients before treatment were significantly lower than normal range. As compared to controls, uremic patients showed significantly lower K-G, IRI area and IGI values and significantly higher RI values. After treatment with C or C+Ca, the insulin response improved significantly at 2 and 5 min and G decrement was more marked at 30, 45 and 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Potential Role of Vitamin D Enhanced Foods in Improving Vitamin D Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stepien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D intake and status have been reported worldwide and many studies have suggested that this low status may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases. There are a limited number of natural dietary sources of vitamin D leading to a real need for alternatives to improve dietary intake. Enhancement of foods with vitamin D is a possible mode for ensuring increased consumption and thus improved vitamin D status. The present review examines studies investigating effects of vitamin D enhanced foods in humans and the feasibility of the approach is discussed.

  6. The effect of a single oral megadose of vitamin D provided as either ergocalciferol (D2) or cholecalciferol (D3) in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mikkel Malham; Jørgensen, S. P.; Lauridsen, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the effects of a single oral dose of 300 000 international units of either ergocalciferol (D2) or cholecalciferol (D3) on the plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Inclusion criteria for this stud...... cirrhosis, a single oral megadose of cholecalciferol was more effective than ergocalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Severe liver disease and low levels of vitamin D-binding protein were predictors for poor treatment outcomes.......=13). Plasma concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein were measured on days 0, 7, 30, and 90. Results: On days 7 and 30, patients from the D3 group had higher vitamin D levels than patients from the D2 group (Pvitamin D levels were found to correlate...... with Child–Pugh scores from patients in the D3 group. For patients in the D2 group, there was a positive correlation between vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein as indicated by the area under the concentration versus time curves (Spearmen’s ρ=0.64 P

  7. Oral supplementation with 25(OH)D3 versus vitamin D3: effects on 25(OH)D levels, lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike Annette; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Stöcklin, Elisabeth; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Willett, Walter Churchill; Edel, John Orav; Stähelin, Hannes Balthasar; Wolfram, Swen; Jetter, Alexander; Schwager, Joseph; Henschkowski, Jana; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Egli, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    To test the effect of 25(OH)D(3) (HyD) compared to vitamin D(3) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D), lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity. Twenty healthy postmenopausal women with an average 25(OH)D level of 13.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (mean ± SD) and a mean age of 61.5 ± 7.2 years were randomized to either 20 µg of HyD or 20 µg (800 IU) of vitamin D(3) per day in a double-blind manner. We measured on 14 visits over 4 months, 25(OH)D serum levels, blood pressure, and seven markers of innate immunity (eotaxin, interleukin [IL]-8, IL-12, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 kDa [IP-10], monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein beta [MIP-1β], and "Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted" [RANTES]). At baseline and at 4 months, a test battery for lower extremity function (knee extensor and flexor strength, timed up and go, repeated sit-to-stand) was assessed. All analyses were adjusted for baseline measurement, age, and body mass index. Mean 25(OH)D levels increased to 69.5 ng/mL in the HyD group. This rise was immediate and sustained. Mean 25(OH)D levels increased to 31.0 ng/mL with a slow increase in the vitamin D(3) group. Women on HyD compared with vitamin D(3) had a 2.8-fold increased odds of maintained or improved lower extremity function (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-6.58), and a 5.7-mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0002). Both types of vitamin D contributed to a decrease in five out of seven markers of innate immunity, significantly more pronounced with HyD for eotaxin, IL-12, MCP-1, and MIP-1 β. There were no cases of hypercalcemia at any time point. Twenty micrograms (20 µg) of HyD per day resulted in a safe, immediate, and sustained increase in 25(OH)D serum levels in all participants, which may explain its significant benefit on lower extremity function, systolic blood pressure

  8. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with kidney transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Louise Aarup; Nielsen, Pia Rude; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Brodersen LA, Nielsen PR, Thiesson HC, Marckmann P. Vitamin D status in children and adolescents with kidney transplants. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 384-389. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:  Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in adult kidney-transplanted patients. The knowledge...... of vitamin D status in kidney-transplanted children and adolescents is sparse. The present study investigated the vitamin D status of a cohort of kidney-transplanted children and adolescents, and the association between vitamin D status and plasma concentrations of PTH, ionized calcium, and phosphate...

  9. Vitamin D status and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is common among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether vitamin D affects the development and deterioration of COPD or is a consequence of the disease lacks clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent...

  10. Relationship between vitamin A status and anaemia among school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are two major public health problems affecting many developing countries world-wide. Vitamin A deficiency, in addition to other health problems, can contribute to anaemia. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the relationship between vitamin A status and ...

  11. Short-term vitamin D3 supplementation lowers plasma renin activity in patients with stable chronic heart failure : An open-label, blinded end point, randomized prospective trial (VitD-CHF trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroten, Nicolas F; Ruifrok, Willem P T; Kleijn, Lennaert; Dokter, Martin M; Silljé, Herman H; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kema, Ido; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; de Boer, Rudolf A

    Background Many chronic heart failure (CHF) patients have low vitamin D (VitD) and high plasma renin activity (PRA), which are both associated with poor prognosis. Vitamin D may inhibit renin transcription and lower PRA. We investigated whether vitamin D3 (VitD3) supplementation lowers PRA in CHF

  12. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  13. Low vitamin D3 and high anti-Müllerian hormone serum levels in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappy, Hélène; Giacobini, Paolo; Pigny, Pascal; Bruyneel, Aude; Leroy-Billiard, Maryse; Dewailly, Didier; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Low vitamin D serum level has been reported in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to controls. A few in vitro studies showed that the bioactive form of vitamin D is able to modulate the expression of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) gene. However, in vivo studies failed to demonstrate clearly whether low vitamin D3 serum level is involved in the AMH excess of PCOS. This prospective study evaluates serum vitamin D3 and AMH levels in women with PCOS and in controls, before and after vitamin D supplementation. Among vitamin D deficient patients, 23 patients with PCOS were compared to 27 women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR). The vitamin D deficient patients received a vitamin D supplementation according to the depth of their insufficiency. For the 23 patients with PCOS and the 27 controls, serum AMH assay and serum calciotropic hormone assays [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH] 2 D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH)] were performed before and after supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D levels before treatment were statistically lower in PCOS women than in NOR patients (PPCOS patients nor in NOR patients. In both groups, 25(OH)D serum levels were not related to serum AMH levels, serum 1,25(OH) 2 D and serum PTH levels, before and after treatment. We found no evidence that serum calciotropic hormones are linked to circulating AMH levels, particularly in PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculosk...

  15. Vitamin D status in Malaysian men and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Ibrahim, Suraya; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2014-11-26

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men.

  16. Vitamin D status in Greenland – dermal and dietary donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D status influences skeletal health, the risk of falls and fractures, and muscle health, and it has been associated with inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in addition to some cancers. Prevailing intracellular infections such as tuberculosis are speculated to relate to vitamin D status. The vitamin D sources are dietary and dermal, the latter depending on UVB radiation exposure from the sun. Life in the Arctic influences vitamin D status because of dietary peculiarities, the polar night, waning of the ozone layer and maybe ethnic differences between Inuit and non-Inuit. Objective and design. Data on vitamin D status as estimated by plasma 25OHD in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland are reviewed. Results. Decreasing intake of vitamin D-rich local food items associated with decreasing plasma 25OHD levels and insufficient vitamin D status is seen with low intake of traditional Inuit foods. Plasma 25OHD levels increase markedly during spring and summer in parallel with the high influx of sunlight while plasma 25OHD is not influenced by obesity in Greenland Inuit and no clear-cut association is seen between plasma 25OHD and the risk of tuberculosis. Conclusion. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in populations in Greenland rises with the dietary transition and diseases related to low vitamin D status should be monitored.

  17. Acute Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Judoka Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Wolman, Roger; Nevill, Alan M; Cloak, Ross; Metsios, George S; Gould, Douglas; Ingham, Andrew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2016-07-01

    Indoor athletes have been shown to be prone to vitamin D3 deficiency. The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry. Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Institutional. Adult male white national level judoka athletes (n = 22) who were involved in full-time training. Exclusion criteria were vitamin supplementation, overseas travel to sunny climes, and/or an injury incurred during the last 3 months before testing. Subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment (150 000IU vitamin D3) or placebo and given blinded supplements by an independent researcher. Participants were tested twice, 8 days apart, on a Monday morning before the start of judo training and after 2 days of rest. A 5 to 7 mL of blood sample was collected followed by isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle function assessments on the right leg at 30 and 200°·s. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze isokinetic muscle force and serum 25(OH)D3. Regression to the mean was used to examine changes in 25(OH)D3 levels over the study period. The treatment group demonstrated a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels (34%, P ≤ 0.001) and muscle strength (13%, P = 0.01) between days 1 and 8. No significant differences were found for the placebo group for the same period. A single bolus of 150 000IU vitamin D3 had a significant positive effect on serum 25(OH)D levels and muscle function in vitamin D insufficient elite indoor athletes. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels of indoor athletes should be monitored throughout the year and especially during winter months. Beneficial responses, in muscle strength and serum 25(OH)D3, to 1 dose of vitamin D3 supplementation can be observed within 1 week of ingestion. Muscle strength is linked to serum 25(OH)D levels.

  18. The lack of relationships between vitamin D3 metabolites and calcium-binding protein in the eggshell gland of laying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, A; Rosenberg, J; Hurwitz, S

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of the metabolism of vitamin D3 and calcium-binding protein (CaBP) to calcium transport by the eggshell gland (ESG) was assessed in chickens. Plasma or ESG 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and ESG CaBP were no different between periods of ESG inactivity and of shell calcification. A severe dietary calcium deficiency resulted in increased kidney 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase activity (542%), plasma and ESG 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations (193 and 274%, respectively), but in decreased ESG CaBP (34%), associated with the production of poorly calcified eggs. Significant correlations were found between 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase, plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 and ESG 1,25(OH)2D3, but not between ESG 1,25(OH)2D3 and CaBP. Hens with a low shell density had a significantly lower (55%) ESG CaBP than those with high shell density, without any significant change in ESG 1,25(OH)2D3. Significant correlations were found between ESG CaBP and shell calcium. Total receptors for 1,25(OH)2D3 were lower in ESG than in the intestine. The results suggest that CaBP level and calcium transport in the ESG are not regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3.

  19. Vitamin D3 protects against prednisolone-induced liver injury associated with the impairment of the hepatic NF-κB/iNOS/NO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakovska, Olha; Shymanskyy, Ihor; Mazanova, Anna; Khomenko, Anna; Veliky, Mykola

    2017-04-01

    The study was carried out to define whether prednisolone-induced damage to hepatic cells is accompanied by excessive nitric oxide (NO) levels associated with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation and evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with vitamin D3. Histopathological examination, activities of liver transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), and cell death assays consistently showed that prednisolone (5 mg/kg body weight, 30 days) induces chronic liver injury in female Wistar rats. Specifically, increased hepatocellular necrosis and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis were observed. Prednisolone enhanced iNOS protein expression, NO generation, and tyrosine nitration in liver cells. Despite unchanged hepatic level of the NF-κB/p65 protein, prednisolone increased inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) degradation, nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 at Ser311, indicating that NF-κB activation can be involved in the induction of iNOS/NO. All changes were associated with a 2.9-fold decrease in the serum content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and significant reduction of hepatic vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) expression that points reliably to vitamin D3 deficiency and failures in VDR signaling. Vitamin D3 co-administration (100 IU/rat, 30 days) prevented glucocorticoid-evoked abnormalities in hepatic tissue. In conclusion, prednisolone-induced liver disturbances were associated with the impairment of NF-κB/iNOS/NO responses that can be ameliorated by vitamin D3 treatment through VDR-mediated mechanisms.

  20. Vitamin D is not linked to folate status and mRNA expression of intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, C; Zibolka, J; Frommhagen, M; Lehmann, U; Dierkes, J; Kühne, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I

    2014-06-01

    In vitro studies discovered intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) as a vitamin D hormone-responsive gene. In vivo effects of vitamin D on PCFT and folate status are currently not available. Three experiments were conducted. At first, vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR(-/-)) mice and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were compared for their plasma and hepatic folate concentration and PCFT mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. In a second experiment with rats, we analyzed the folate status of offspring in response to a maternal vitamin D-adequate (1,000 IU/kg) or vitamin D-deficient (0 IU/kg) diet that was fed for 11 weeks. Finally, the plasma folate concentration of healthy individuals was studied at baseline (in winter) and in response to an oral treatment for 8 weeks with 2,000 IU vitamin D3 per day or a placebo, respectively. Here, we show that folate status and intestinal PCFT mRNA abundance did not differ between the VDR(-/-) and the WT mice. No effect of vitamin D on folate status was also found in rat dams and their offspring, and plasma folate levels of individuals did not change in response to vitamin D. Current data from studies with model animals and humans provide no indication for a vitamin D effect on intestinal uptake and status of folate.

  1. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...... kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25....... Low S-25(OH)D concentrations were associated with 1) increased S-PTH concentrations (P = 0.0002), independently of S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations, and 2) decreased S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations (P = 0.002), independently of graft function. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common among Danish kidney...

  2. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  3. The vitamin D analogue ED71 but Not 1,25(OH2D3 targets HIF1α protein in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuiko Sato

    Full Text Available Although both an active form of the vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH2D3, and the vitamin D analogue, ED71 have been used to treat osteoporosis, anti-bone resorbing activity is reportedly seen only in ED71- but not in 1,25(OH2D3 -treated patients. In addition, how ED71 inhibits osteoclast activity in patients has not been fully characterized. Recently, HIF1α expression in osteoclasts was demonstrated to be required for development of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Here we show that ED71 but not 1,25(OH2D3, suppress HIF1α protein expression in osteoclasts in vitro. We found that 1,25(OH2D3 or ED71 function in osteoclasts requires the vitamin D receptor (VDR. ED71 was significantly less effective in inhibiting M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis than was 1,25(OH2D3 in vitro. Downregulation of c-Fos protein and induction of Ifnβ mRNA in osteoclasts, both of which reportedly block osteoclastogenesis induced by 1,25(OH2D3 in vitro, were both significantly higher following treatment with 1,25(OH2D3 than with ED71. Thus, suppression of HIF1α protein activity in osteoclasts in vitro, which is more efficiently achieved by ED71 rather than by 1,25(OH2D3, could be a reliable read-out in either developing or screening reagents targeting osteoporosis.

  4. Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Gene Polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI) and their Relation to Vitamin D Status in Pediatrics βeta Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoseiny, Shereen Mohamed; Morgan, Dalia Saber; Rabie, Asmaa Mohamed; Bishay, Samer Tharwat

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is critical for calcium, phosphate homeostasis and for mineralization of the skeleton, especially during periods of rapid growth. Vitamin D Deficiency leads to rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults). Expression and activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are necessary for the effects of vitamin D, in which several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified especially (FokI, BsmI). In this study serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA], VDR (FokI, BsmI) gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay [PCR-RFLP].Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and ferritin were determined in 50 Pediatrics beta thalassemia major patients and 60 controls. Patients had significantly lower serum calcium (p 30 ng/ml). Patients harboring mutant (Ff,ff) and wild (BB) genotypes were associated with lower serum calcium (p = 0.08, 0.02) respectively, lower vitamin D3 levels (p  0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the VDR (FokI, BsmI) gene polymorphisms influence vitamin D status, (Ff,ff), BB genotypes had lower vitamin D levels, so they might influence risk of development of bone diseases in beta thalassemia major.

  5. Effect of vitamin D3 on bone turnover markers in critical illness: post hoc analysis from the VITdAL-ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, V; Schnedl, C; Urbanic-Purkart, T; Trummer, C; Dimai, H P; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Putz-Bankuti, C; Christopher, K B; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Pieber, T R; Dobnig, H; Amrein, K

    2017-12-01

    In this post hoc analysis of the VITdAL-ICU study, an RCT in critically ill adults with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≤20 ng/ml, vitamin D3 did not have a significant effect on β-Crosslaps and osteocalcin. Observational studies have shown accelerated bone loss in ICU survivors. A reversible contributor is vitamin D deficiency. In a post hoc analysis of the VITdAL-ICU study, we evaluated the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on the bone turnover markers (BTM) β-Crosslaps (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC). The VITdAL-ICU study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in critically ill adults with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≤20 ng/ml who received placebo or high-dose vitamin D3 (a loading dose of 540,000 IU and starting 1 month after the loading dose five monthly maintenance doses of 90,000 IU). In this analysis on 289 survivors (209 telephone, 80 personal follow-up visits), BTM were analyzed on days 0, 3, 7, 28, and 180; self-reported falls and fractures were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured after 6 months. At baseline, CTX was elevated; OC was low in both groups-after 6 months, both had returned to normal. There were no differences between groups concerning BTM, BMD, falls, or fractures. In linear mixed effects models, CTX and OC showed a significant change over time (p < 0.001, respectively), but there was no difference between the vitamin D and placebo group (p = 0.688 and p = 0.972, respectively). Vitamin D supplementation did not have a significant effect on BTM. Further studies should assess the effectiveness of vitamin D on musculoskeletal outcomes in ICU survivors.

  6. Vitamin D3 promotes the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells by the induction of E-cadherin and the inhibition of β-catenin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmer, Héctor G.; González-Sancho, José Manuel; Espada, Jesús; Berciano, María T.; Puig, Isabel; Baulida, Josep; Quintanilla, Miguel; Cano, Amparo; de Herreros, Antonio García; Lafarga, Miguel; Muñoz, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The β-catenin signaling pathway is deregulated in nearly all colon cancers. Nonhypercalcemic vitamin D3 (1α,25-dehydroxyvitamin D3) analogues are candidate drugs to treat this neoplasia. We show that these compounds promote the differentiation of human colon carcinoma SW480 cells expressing vitamin D receptors (VDRs) (SW480-ADH) but not that of a malignant subline (SW480-R) or metastasic derivative (SW620) cells lacking VDR. 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced the expression of E-cadherin and other adhesion proteins (occludin, Zonula occludens [ZO]-1, ZO-2, vinculin) and promoted the translocation of β-catenin, plakoglobin, and ZO-1 from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. Ligand-activated VDR competed with T cell transcription factor (TCF)-4 for β-catenin binding. Accordingly, 1α,25(OH)2D3 repressed β-catenin–TCF-4 transcriptional activity. Moreover, VDR activity was enhanced by ectopic β-catenin and reduced by TCF-4. Also, 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibited expression of β-catenin–TCF-4-responsive genes, c-myc, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, Tcf-1, and CD44, whereas it induced expression of ZO-1. Our results show that 1α,25(OH)2D3 induces E-cadherin and modulates β-catenin–TCF-4 target genes in a manner opposite to that of β-catenin, promoting the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells. PMID:11470825

  7. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Breast Density in Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Jacques; Bérubé, Sylvie; Diorio, Caroline; Mâsse, Benoît; Lemieux, Julie; Duchesne, Thierry; Delvin, Edgar; Vieth, Reinhold; Yaffe, Martin J; Chiquette, Jocelyne

    2017-08-01

    Background: This double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial assessed whether oral supplementation with 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 IU/day vitamin D3 over one year reduces percent mammographic breast density in premenopausal women.Methods: The trial was conducted between October 2012 and June 2015, among premenopausal female volunteers from Quebec City (Quebec, Canada). Women were randomized with ratio 1:1:1:1 to one of four study arms (1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 IU/day vitamin D3 or placebo). The primary outcome was mean change in percent mammographic breast density. Participants and research team were blinded to study arm assignment.Results: Participants (n = 405) were randomized to receive 1,000 (n = 101), 2,000 (n = 104), or 3,000 IU/day (n = 101) vitamin D3, or a placebo (n = 99). The primary analysis included 391 participants (96, 99, 100, and 96, respectively). After the one-year intervention, mean ± SE change in percent breast density in the arms 1,000 IU/day (-5.5% ± 0.5%) and 2,000 IU/day (-5.9% ± 0.5%) vitamin D3 was similar to that in the placebo arm (-5.7% ± 0.5%) (P values = 1.0). In the 3,000 IU/day vitamin D3 arm, percent breast density also declined but slightly less (-3.8% ± 0.5%) compared with placebo arm (P = 0.03). Adherence to intervention was excellent (92.8%), and reporting of health problems was comparable among study arms (P ≥ 0.95). All participants had normal serum calcium.Conclusions: In premenopausal women, one-year supplementation with 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 IU/day vitamin D3 resulted in a reduction of percent breast density no greater than that seen with the placebo.Impact: At doses of 1,000-3,000 IU/day, vitamin D supplementation will not reduce breast cancer risk through changes in breast density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1233-41. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Joint Association of Low Vitamin D and Vitamin K Status With Blood Pressure and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Cepelis, Aivaras; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; van Schoor, Natasja M; Beulens, Joline W

    2017-06-01

    Low vitamin D and K status are both associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. New evidence from experimental studies on bone health suggest an interaction between vitamin D and K; however, a joint association with vascular health outcomes is largely unknown. To prospectively investigate whether the combination of low vitamin D and K status is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 402 participants and with incident hypertension in 231 participants free of hypertension at baseline. We used data from a subsample of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population-based cohort of Dutch participants aged 55 to 65 years. Vitamin D and K status were assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and dp-ucMGP (dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein) concentrations (high dp-ucMGP is indicative for low vitamin K status) in stored samples from 2002 to 2003. Vitamin D and K status were categorized into 25-hydroxyvitamin D hypertension. The combination of low vitamin D and K status was associated with increased systolic 4.8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.1-9.5) and diastolic 3.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.5-5.7) blood pressure compared with high vitamin D and K status ( P for interaction =0.013 for systolic blood pressure and 0.068 for diastolic blood pressure). A similar trend was seen for incident hypertension: hazard ratio=1.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-2.73) for the low vitamin D and K group. The combination of low vitamin D and K status was associated with increased blood pressure and a trend for greater hypertension risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized...... based on 25[OH]D in serum into; vitamin D sufficiency (S-25[OH]D > 50 nmol/L), vitamin D insufficiency (25 nmol/L ≤ S-25[OH]D ≤ 50 nmol/L), vitamin D deficiency (S-25[OH]D education was obtained by self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: 700 subjects...... with a valid measurement of S-25[OH]D and a completed questionnaire was analysed. 238 had vitamin D insufficiency, 135 had vitamin D deficiency of which 13 had severe vitamin D deficiency (S-25[OH]D obese...

  10. Vitamin K status in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Książyk, Janusz; Kocielińska-Kłos, Małgorzata; Banaś, Elżbieta; Kaleta, Małgorzata; Popińska, Katarzyna; Szczapa, Tomasz; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-12-01

    Available evidence suggests that patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) might be at risk of vitamins A, D, E and B(1) deficiency. However, there is little clinical data describing the vitamin K status. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the body resources of vitamin K in a subset of SBS patients. The study comprised 33 patients aged 1 month to 16 years. PIVKA-II concentrations were determined in all subjects. In all studied subjects, coagulation parameters were normal. PIVKA-II levels indicative of vitamin K deficiency was found in 3 (9.1%) SBS patients. One patient had been receiving an additional intravenous vitamin K dose of 5 mg/week. In all SBS patients with cirrhosis and cholestasis, PIVKA-II concentrations were low (vitamin K several times a month. Vitamin K deficiency may appear in SBS patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Anju, Thoppil R; Smijin, Soman; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-secreting β cells, share common characteristics with neurons. Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and pancreas, and its action is mediated through glutamate receptors. In the present work, we analysed the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of AMPA receptor subunit and their functional role in insulin release. Radio receptor binding study in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density. Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells. We also found lowered IP3 content and decreased IP3 receptor in pancreas of diabetic rats. The alterations in AMPA and IP3 receptor resulted in reduced cytosolic calcium level concentration, which further blocks Ca(2+)-mediated insulin release. Vitamin D3 supplementation restored the alteration in vitamin D receptor expression, AMPA receptor density and AMPA and IP3 receptor expression in the pancreatic islets that helps to restore the calcium-mediated insulin secretion. Our study reveals the antidiabetic property of vitamin D3 that is suggested to have therapeutic role through regulating glutamatergic function in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design.Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls.A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y, female (n = 67; 58% and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y, female (n = 44; 80%. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  13. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls. A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y), female (n = 67; 58%) and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y), female (n = 44; 80%). Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  14. Nasal Levels of Antimicrobial Peptides in Allergic Asthma Patients and Healthy Controls: Differences and Effect of a Short 1,25(OH2 Vitamin D3 Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien Thijs

    Full Text Available Allergy is often accompanied by infections and lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. Vitamin D has been shown to increase expression of selected AMPs. In this study we investigated whether antimicrobial peptide levels in nasal secretions of allergic asthma patients are lower than in healthy controls, and whether administration of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH2D3 affects these antimicrobial peptide levels.The levels of antimicrobial peptides in nasal secretions were compared between 19 allergic asthma patients and 23 healthy controls. The effect of seven days daily oral treatment with 2 μg 1,25(OH2D3 on antimicrobial peptides in nasal secretions was assessed in a placebo-controlled cross-over clinical study.Levels of neutrophil α-defensins (human neutrophil peptides 1-3; HNP1-3 and lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL were significantly lower in asthmatics, but no differences in LL-37 and SLPI were detected. Treatment with a short-term 1,25(OH2D3 caused a small increase in HNP1-3, but not when the asthma and control groups were analyzed separately. LL-37, LCN2 and SLPI did not change after treatment with 1,25(OH2D3.Levels of the antimicrobial peptides HNP1-3 and LCN2 are lower in nasal secretions in asthmatics and are not substantially affected by a short-term treatment with active vitamin D.

  15. Exploring the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the anti-EBV antibody response in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Mathias, Amandine; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Koneczny, Inga; Disanto, Giulio; Kuhle, Jens; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Damoiseaux, Jan; Smolders, Joost; Hupperts, Raymond

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and vitamin D insufficiency are potentially interacting risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplements on antibody levels against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to explore any underlying mechanism affecting anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels. This study utilized blood samples from a randomized controlled trial in RRMS patients receiving either vitamin D3 (14,000 IU/day; n = 30) or placebo ( n = 23) over 48 weeks. Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, and anti-EBNA-1, anti-EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies were measured. EBV load in leukocytes, EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses, and anti-EBNA-1 antibody production in vitro were also explored. The median antibody levels against EBNA-1, but not VCA and CMV, significantly reduced in the vitamin D3 group (526 (368-1683) to 455 (380-1148) U/mL) compared to the placebo group (432 (351-1280) to 429 (297-1290) U/mL; p = 0.023). EBV load and cytotoxic T-cell responses were unaffected. Anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels remained below detection limits in B-cell cultures. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation selectively reduces anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels in RRMS patients. Our exploratory studies do not implicate a promoted immune response against EBV as the underlying mechanism.

  16. The Associations of Novel Vitamin D3 Metabolic Gene CYP27A1 Polymorphism, Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio, and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Taiwanese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hung Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS confers increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Both vitamin D3 and adipocytokines (especially adiponectin and leptin have a great impact on CVD and MetS. In vitamin D3 metabolism, the vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1 are two key enzymes. This study aimed to examine the influence of vitamin D3 CYP27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on adipocytokines and MetS. Cross-sectional data and DNA samples were collected from male volunteers (n=649, age: 55.7 ± 4.7 years. Two tagging SNPs, CYP27A1 rs4674344 and CYP27B1 rs10877012, were selected from the HapMap project. MetS was significantly associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP (P=0.04 and the ratio of adiponectin/leptin (A/L ratio was most correlated to the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, appearing to be significantly lower in T-carriers than in AA subjects (3.7 ± 4.0 versus 5.1 ± 6.0, P=0.001 and significantly negatively associated after adjustment. For each MetS component associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, the A/L ratios were significantly negative in preclinical stage (condition not meeting the individual criteria, except the blood pressure. In conclusion, CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, A/L ratio, and MetS are significantly associated and T-carriers might have a higher risk of developing MetS due to low A/L ratios in the preclinical stage.

  17. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to address the vitamin A deficiency problem, nutrition and healthy planners should put more efforts on food fortification especially of edible oil ... the packages and/or reading the label before buying the oil or other fortified foods. Keywords: Vitamin A status, ..... users) should be 20-40 mg/kg. The most popular oil in Manyara ...

  18. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem that the world is facing today. It is more prevalent in low income countries including Tanzania. This study was conducted to determine factors influencing Vitamin A status of lactating mothers in selected regions of Manyara and Shinyanga, Tanzania. Purposive and ...

  19. Efficacy of High-Dose Supplementation With Oral Vitamin D3 on Depressive Symptoms in Dialysis Patients With Vitamin D3 Insufficiency: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Lian, Yueying; Li, Ning; Liu, Hong; Li, Guanzeng

    2016-06-01

    Psychological problems are common among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis. We aim to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation has beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in dialysis patients. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind trial includes 746 dialysis patients with depression treated in 3 hospitals in Southeast China. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to 52-week treatment of oral 50,000 IU/wk VD3 (cholecalciferol) (test group) or a placebo (control group). The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II both before and after treatment. Sociodemographic data, clinical data, nutritional indexes, inflammatory biomarkers, and plasma VD3 concentrations were also determined. Finally, 726 patients completed the experiments, including 362 tested patients and 364 controls. After 52 weeks, the depressive symptoms were not significantly improved in the test group (mean BDI II scores changed from -1.1 ± 0.3 to -3.1 ± 0.6) versus the control group. Multivariable logistic regression showed BDI scores were not significantly improved in the test group versus the control group with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity index, dialysis modality, or (OH)D levels (multivariable-adjusted mean change or MAMC [95% confidence interval (CI)], -2.3 [-2.48 to -1.83]) in the whole dialysis population. After stratification by depression types, the findings do support a significant relationship between the VD3 supplementation and the improvement in BDI II scores in dialysis patients with vascular depression (MAMC [95% CI], -4.4 [-5.08 to -2.76]), but the effect was not significant for major depressive disorders (MAMC [95% CI], -0.9 [-1.52 to -0.63]). The high-dose VD3 supplementation did not significantly reduce the depressive symptoms in our total dialysis population, but

  20. Effect of vitamin-enriched bread on the vitamin status of an isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of vitamin-enriched bread on the vitamin status of an isolated rural community - a controlled clinical trial. W. B. Bishop, I. Laubscher, D. Labadarios,. P. Rehder, M. E. J. Louw, S. A. Fellingham. Malnutrition is an inclusive term that entails the lack, excess or imbalance of one or more nutrients required to maintain.

  1. Effect of vitamin D status on pharmacological treatment efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Karczmarewicz, Elżbieta; Czekuć-Kryśkiewicz, Edyta; Płudowski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    At least 80% of the whole Polish population, including prepubertal children and adolescents, adults and seniors, are vitamin D deficient, defined as 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L. 83% of Polish newborns start their lives at the state of vitamin D deficiency because 78% of their mothers are also deficient. It was observed that treating patient vitamin D deficiency to vitamin D status serum 25(OH)D) 75–100 nmol/L increased effectiveness of therapies in infectious diseases (chronic hepatitis C, tuberculos...

  2. Effect of vitamin D status on pharmacological treatment efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Czekuc-Kryskiewicz, Edyta; P?udowski, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    At least 80% of the whole Polish population, including prepubertal children and adolescents, adults and seniors, are vitamin D deficient, defined as 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L. 83% of Polish newborns start their lives at the state of vitamin D deficiency because 78% of their mothers are also deficient. It was observed that treating patient vitamin D deficiency to vitamin D status serum 25(OH)D) 75?100 nmol/L increased effectiveness of therapies in infectious diseases (chronic hepatitis C, tuberculos...

  3. Decrease in vitamin D status in the greenlandic adult population from 1987-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Jørgensen, Marit E; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D status may be pronounced in Arctic populations due to limited sun exposure and decreasing intake of traditional food. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status among adult Inuit in Greenland, predictors of low serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations...... (25[OH]D2 concentrations were negligible and not reported) in 2005-2010 was lowest among the 18-29 year old individuals (30.7 nmol/L; 95% CI: 29.7; 31.7) and increased with age. In all age-groups it decreased from 1987 to 2005-2010 (32%-58%). Low 25(OH)D3 concentrations (...% of the 18-29 year old and decreased with age. A characteristic seasonal variation in 25(OH)D3 concentrations was observed (range 33.2-57.1 nmol/L, pAge (2.0% per year increase; CI: 1.7, 2.2), female gender (7.1%; CI: 2.0; 12.5), alcohol intake...

  4. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichard Gysin, Danielle; Dao, Dyda; Gysin, Christian Michael; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation may be a simple preventive measure against respiratory tract infections (RTIs) but evidence from randomized controlled trials is inconclusive. We aimed to systematically summarize results from interventions studying the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on clinical and laboratory confirmed RTIs in healthy adults and children. Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were screened from inception until present (last updated in January 2016) completed by a search of the grey literature, clinical trial registers and conference abstracts. We included randomized trials comparing vitamin D versus placebo or no treatment. Two independent reviewers were responsible for study selection and data extraction. Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the GRADE approach were used for quality assessment. Estimates were pooled with random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored by sub-group and meta-regression analyses. Of 2627 original hits, 15 trials including 7053 individuals were ultimately eligible. All used oral cholecalciferol. We found a 6% risk reduction with vitamin D3 supplementation on clinical RTIs, but the result was not statistically significant (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.00). Heterogeneity was large (I-square 57%) and overall study quality was low. There were too few studies to reliably assess a potential risk reduction of laboratory confirmed RTI. Evidence was insufficient to demonstrate an association between vitamin D supplementation and risk of clinical RTI in sub-groups with vitamin D deficiency. In previously healthy individuals vitamin D supplementation does not reduce the risk of clinical RTIs. However, this conclusion is based on a meta-analysis where the included studies differed with respect to population, baseline vitamin D levels and study length. This needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Future trials should focus on vitamin D deficient individuals and apply more objective and standardized outcome

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Charles R; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Chambers, Christina D; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Chan, Priscilla H; Schafer, Jordan J; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Keen, Carl L

    2017-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption can alter vitamin D status; however, the relationships between alcohol consumption and vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D status in a population of alcohol-exposed (N = 180) and low/unexposed control (N = 179) Ukrainian pregnant women. Women who attended prenatal care facilities in 2 regions of Ukraine (Rivne and Khmelnytsky) for a routine prenatal visit were screened for the study. At the time of enrollment (20.4 ± 7.0 weeks of gestation), blood samples and alcohol consumption data (during a typical week around conception and the most recent 2 weeks) were collected. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. A high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant Ukrainian women was observed. Overall, 50.1% and 33.4% of the women were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D D ≥ 20 ng/mL and ≤30 ng/mL], respectively, based on 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines. Alcohol-exposed women had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than low/unexposed women in Spring (p = 0.006) and Winter (p = 0.022). When vitamin D concentrations were grouped into sunny season (Summer + Fall) compared to not sunny season (Winter + Spring), there was a significant ethanol by season interaction (p = 0.0028), with alcohol-drinking women having lower circulating vitamin D compared to low/unexposed women in seasons of low sun availability. These data suggest that when vitamin D concentrations are generally low (e.g., during seasons of low sun availability), alcohol consumption during pregnancy has a negative impact on vitamin D status.

  6. Levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM Receiving Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahyo Suryanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM has become a health problem in many countries. T1DM is the consequence of autoimmune destruction process of β cells. There was relationship between vitamin D deficiency with T1DM. The destruction process was caused by an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. One of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is IL-2. C-peptide examination to see the function of beta cells due to destruction of pancreatic beta cell. Administration of vitamin D3 supplementation still cause controversy and give varying results. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in people with T1DM who received vitamin D3 supplementation. The subjects were 26 children with T1DM, divided into K1 group (received vitamin D3 supplementation and K2 group (received placebo. The results showed higher levels of 25(OHD3 in the K1 group and statistically found a significant difference (p = 0.00. Higher levels of IL-2 and lower C-peptide were obtained in the K1 group and no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.76 and p= 0.26. The insignificant relationship and the negative correlation were found between 25(OHD3 and IL-2 (p = 0.71; r = - 0.12, 25(OHD3 and C-peptide (p = 0.59; r = -0.16, also levels of IL-2 and C-peptide (p = 0.13; r = -0.44 in children with type 1 diabetes who received vitamin D3 supplementation. From this study can be concluded that administration vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with T1DM can increase levels 25(OHD3 significantly. This increase has not significantly lowered levels of IL-2 and increased levels of C-peptide. However, there was an absolute decrease in the rate of slower C-peptide in the supplemented group than in the placebo group.

  7. Effects of the Administration of 25(OH) Vitamin D3 in an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease in Animals Null for 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremadé, Noelia; Bozic, Milica; Goltzman, David; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, José M

    2017-01-01

    The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals. The dose needed to decrease PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD was 50 ng/g. That dose restored blood calcium levels without modifying phosphate levels, and increased the expression of genes responsible for calcium absorption (TRPV5 and calbindinD- 28K in the kidney, TRPV6 and calbindinD-9k in the intestine). The same dose of 25(OH)D3 did not modify PTH in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD. Blood calcium remained normal, while phosphate increased significantly. Blood levels of 25(OH)D3 in CYP27B1-/- mice were extremely high compared to those in CYP27B1+/+ animals. CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD showed increases in TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindinD-28K and calbindinD-9K, which were not further elevated with the treatment. Furthermore, CYP27B1+/+ animals displayed an increase in vascular calcification. We conclude that the dose of 25(OH)D3 effective in decreasing PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD, has a potentially toxic effect in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD.

  8. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B6 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal. PMID:27005657

  9. Bioequivalence of Alendronate and Vitamin D3 in a Combination Tablet Versus Corresponding-Dose Individual Tablets in Healthy Taiwanese Volunteers, Determined Using a Novel Plasma Alendronate Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hamish Wright, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The combination tablet was considered bioequivalent to coadministration based on ALN AUC0–∞ and unadjusted vitamin D3 parameters. Slight differences for ALN AUC0–last and Cmax (upper 90% CIs outside the bounds were not considered clinically significant. The combination tablet was well tolerated. No serious adverse experiences were reported. © 2015. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eldecalcitol, an Active Vitamin D3Derivative, Prevents Trabecular Bone Loss and Bone Fragility in Type I Diabetic Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsuru; Sakai, Sadaoki; Yogo, Kenji; Marumo, Keishi; Endo, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to adversely affect the bones and be associated with increased fracture risk. We examined whether eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D 3 derivative, could inhibit the diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. ELD (10, 20, or 40 ng/kg), alfacalcidol (ALF; 25, 50, or 100 ng/kg), or vehicle was administered 5 times per week for 12 weeks from 1 week after diabetes induction. Normal control rats received the vehicle. Bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical strength of the lumbar spine and femur were measured, and bone histomorphometry was performed. Content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the femoral shaft was also determined. In diabetic rats, serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration was lower and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) tended to be higher than in normal rats. Areal BMD and maximum load of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral shaft were lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. All doses of ELD and the highest dose of ALF reduced urinary DPD excretion, but had no effect on serum OC. The 20 and 40 ng/kg doses of ELD prevented decreases in BMD and the highest dose of ELD prevented the reduction in maximum load of the lumbar vertebrae, while ALF did not change these parameters. ELD and ALF did not affect areal BMD or biomechanical strength of the femoral shaft. In diabetic rats, bone volume and trabecular thickness in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae decreased and trabecular separation increased compared to normal rats. ELD and ALF prevented diabetes-induced deterioration of trabecular microstructure. AGE content in the femoral cortical bone increased in the diabetic rats, and ELD and ALF did not change AGE content compared to the diabetic rats. These results indicated that ELD suppressed bone resorption and prevented trabecular bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microstructure, resulting in prevention of reduction in biomechanical

  11. Associations of Genetic Polymorphisms Relevant to Metabolic Pathway of Vitamin D3 with Development and Prognosis of Childhood Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhansheng; Ma, Tongshuai

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the correlation between genetic polymorphisms relevant to metabolic pathway of vitamin D3 (VD3) and susceptibility to childhood bronchial asthma. Altogether 143 childhood patients with bronchial asthma and 143 healthy children of Chinese Han ethnicity were enrolled in this study. The key single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by HaploView 4.2 software and selected from previous investigations. Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood samples by using TaqMan Blood DNA kits. The genotyping of SNPs was performed by TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the association between SNPs and susceptibility to bronchial asthma. Statistical analyses were conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Rs10766197 of CYP2R1, rs7041 and rs4588 of CG, rs4646536 of CYP27B1, rs2228570, rs7975232, and rs1544410 of VDR, as well as rs1805192 and rs10865710 of PPAR were shown to be significantly associated with increased risk of bronchial asthma. Besides, prognosis of childhood bronchial asthma, which was represented as Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scoring, was closely linked with CYP2R1 rs10766197, CYP27B1 rs4646536, VDR rs7975232, VDR rs1544410, PPAR rs1805192, and PPAR rs10865710. The haplotype analysis suggested that TA and CG of CG rs7041/rs4588, CA and AG of VDR rs7975232/rs1544410, and CC of PPAR rs1805192/rs10865710 were, respectively, correlated with levels of VD, IL-4, and IL-5. And only haplotypes of VDR showed associations with risk of bronchial asthma during childhood, whereas hardly any significance could be observed between the haplotypes and behavior of quality-of-life (SGRQ) scoring. Significant associations were found between rs10766197 of CYP2R1, rs7041 and rs4588 of CG, rs4646536 of CYP27B1, rs2228570, rs7975232, and rs1544410 of VDR, as well as rs1805192 and rs10865710 of PPAR and susceptibility to and prognosis of

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  13. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  14. Comparison of vitamin D3 serum levels in new diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis versus their healthy relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdeh, Mehrdokht; Seifirad, Soroush; Kazemi, Niloofar; Seifrabie, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Arash; Abbasi, Hamidreza

    2013-05-30

    Multiple risk factors are introduced for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have suggested a possible correlation between vitamin D deficiency and an increase risk of MS. This study was therefore undertaken to compare vitamin D levels in new cases of MS and their relatives as healthy controls. Seventy five new diagnosed MS patients and 100 matched healthy controls among their relatives were enrolled in this study. Two groups were matched for gender, age, season in which serum level of vitamin D was checked and region and diet. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured, recorded and analyzed. Seventy five patients (57 female and 18 male) and 100 healthy subjects (75 female and 25 male) were enrolled in this study. The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in case and control groups were 11.31 and 17.9 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.003). Compared to the healthy subject, serum levels of vitamin D were significantly lower in patients with MS. This difference was only significant in women. Observed difference of vitamin D levels of both groups were significant in summer. This study continues to support the role of vitamin D deficiency in MS.

  15. Comparison of Vitamin D3 Serum Levels in New Diagnosed Patients with Multiple Sclerosis versus Their Healthy Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abbasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple risk factors are introduced for Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Recent studies have suggested a possible correlation between vitamin D deficiency and an increase risk of MS. This study was therefore undertaken to compare vitamin D levels in new cases of MS and their relatives as healthy controls. Seventy five new diagnosed MS patients and 100 matched healthy controls among their relatives were enrolled in this study. Two groups were matched for gender, age, season in which serum level of vitamin D was checked and region and diet. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured, recorded and analyzed. Seventy five patients (57 female and 18 male and 100 healthy subjects (75 female and 25 male were enrolled in this study. The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in case and control groups were 11.31 and 17.9 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.003. Compared to the healthy subject, serum levels of vitamin D were significantly lower in patients with MS. This difference was only significant in women. Observed difference of vitamin D levels of both groups were significant in summer. This study continues to support the role of vitamin D deficiency in MS.

  16. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor-23 causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D binding proetin (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing biologic activity, and is elevated...

  17. The effect of a single high dose vitamin D3 on neutrophilic airway inflammation in nonatopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, J.C.; Van Roon, E.N.; Storm, H.; Bel, E.H.; Ten Brinke, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with asthma and increased risk of respiratory tract infections. An infectious origin in its turn, has been proposed for nonatopic asthma (Joseph Ann All Asthma Immun 2003) as well as neutrophilic asthma (Simpson Thorax 2007). Vitamin D enhances

  18. Vitamin D3 Decreases Parathyroid Hormone in HIV-Infected Youth Being Treated With Tenofovir: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephensen, Charles B.; Hazra, Rohan; Flynn, Patricia M.; Wilson, Craig M.; Rutledge, Brandy; Bethel, James; Pan, Cynthia G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Van Loan, Marta D.; Liu, Nancy; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge; Baker, Alyne; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background. The study goal was to determine the effect of vitamin D (VITD) supplementation on tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-telopeptide (CTX) in youth infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving and not receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Methods. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial enrolled HIV-infected youth 18–25 years based on stable treatment with cART containing TDF (n = 118) or no TDF (noTDF; n = 85), and randomized within those groups to vitamin D3, 50 000 IU (n = 102) or placebo (n = 101), administered at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Outcomes included change in TRP, PTH, BAP, and CTX from baseline to week 12 by TDF/noTDF; and VITD/placebo. Results. At baseline, VITD and placebo groups were similar except those on TDF had lower TRP and higher PTH and CTX. At week 12, 95% in the VITD group had sufficient serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD; ≥20 ng/mL), increased from 48% at baseline, without change in placebo (P vitamin D3 supplementation decreased PTH, regardless of baseline 25-OHD concentration. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00490412. PMID:22267714

  19. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N; Berry, Jacqueline L; Clements, Dylan N; Nussey, Daniel H; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-13

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe's fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild.

  20. Vitamin K intake and status are low in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranenburg, Ellen C M; Schurgers, Leon J; Uiterwijk, Herma H; Beulens, Joline W J; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W; Westerhuis, Ralf; Magdeleyns, Elke J; Herfs, Marjolein; Vermeer, Cees; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin K is essential for the activity of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including matrix Gla28 protein and osteocalcin; an inhibitor of vascular calcification and a bone matrix protein, respectively. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to the production of non-carboxylated, inactive proteins and this could contribute to the high risk of vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. To help resolve this, we measured vitamin K(1) and K(2) intake (4-day food record), and the vitamin K status in 40 hemodialysis patients. The intake was low in these patients (median 140 μg/day), especially on days of dialysis and the weekend as compared to intakes reported in a reference population of healthy adults (mean K(1) and K(2) intake 200 μg/day and 31 μg/day, respectively). Non-carboxylated bone and coagulation proteins were found to be elevated in 33 hemodialysis patients, indicating subclinical hepatic vitamin K deficiency. Additionally, very high non-carboxylated matrix Gla28 protein levels, endemic to all patients, suggest vascular vitamin K deficiency. Thus, compared to healthy individuals, hemodialysis patients have a poor overall vitamin K status due to low intake. A randomized controlled trial is needed to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduces the risk of arterial calcification and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

  1. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, Christian; Skovgaard, Lene T.

    2008-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim immigrants. The dose necessary to correct the deficiency and its consequence for bone health are not known for immigrants. The aim was to assess the effect of relatively low dosages of supplemental vitamin D on vitamin D and bone status...... D (S-25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers and bone mass. The study showed that supplementation with 10 and 20 mu g vitamin D-3 per d increased S-25OHD concentrations similarly in vitamin D-deficient Pakistani women (4-fold), and that 10 mu g increased S-25OHD concentrations 2-fold...... in Pakistani immigrants. This 1-year-long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention with vitamin D-3 (10 and 20 mu g/d) included girls (10.1 - 14.7 years), women (18.1 - 52.7 years) and men (17.9-63.5 years) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark. The main endpoints were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...

  2. Vitamin D3 deficiency differentially affects functional and disease outcomes in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Solomon

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neuromuscular disease characterized by motor neuron death in the central nervous system. Vitamin D supplementation increases antioxidant activity, reduces inflammation and improves motor neuron survival. We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D(3 supplementation at 10× the adequate intake improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of ALS. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences functional and disease outcomes in a mouse model of ALS. METHODS: At age 25 d, 102 G93A mice (56 M, 46 F were divided into two vitamin D(3 groups: 1 adequate (AI; 1 IU D(3/g feed and 2 deficient (DEF; 0.025 IU D(3/g feed. At age 113 d, tibialis anterior (TA, quadriceps (quads and brain were harvested from 42 mice (22 M and 20 F, whereas the remaining 60 mice (34 M and 26 F were followed to endpoint. RESULTS: During disease progression, DEF mice had 25% (P=0.022 lower paw grip endurance AUC and 19% (P=0.017 lower motor performance AUC vs. AI mice. Prior to disease onset (CS 2, DEF mice had 36% (P=0.016 lower clinical score (CS vs. AI mice. DEF mice reached CS 2 six days later vs. AI mice (P=0.004, confirmed by a logrank test which revealed that DEF mice reached CS 2 at a 43% slower rate vs. AI mice (HR= .57; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.74; P=0.002. Body weight-adjusted TA (AI: r=0.662, P=0.001; DEF: r=0.622, P=0.006 and quads (AI: r=0.661, P=0.001; DEF: r=0.768; P<0.001 weights were strongly correlated with age at CS 2. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D(3 deficiency improves early disease severity and delays disease onset, but reduces performance in functional outcomes following disease onset, in the high-copy G93A mouse.

  3. D3-??????????????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?2 ?????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ?????????, ????; ???????, ???????; ??????, ?????????; ?????????????, ????; ??????, ??????

    2011-01-01

    ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?2 ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? D3 ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? D3-????????????????? ???????.

  4. Results of daily oral dosing with up to 60,000 international units (iu) of vitamin D3 for 2 to 6 years in 3 adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Patrick; Amend, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    In the 1930's and 1940's, vitamin D was reported to be an effective treatment for a number of diseases, including asthma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, rickets and tuberculosis. High doses were used, 60,000 to 300,000 IU a day for asthma, and 200,000 to 600,000 IU a day for rheumatoid arthritis. Toxicity from hypercalcemia occurred after prolonged oral dosing with these supraphysiologic doses. Assays for measuring vitamin D in the blood were not available, and blood levels of vitamin D associated with hypercalcemia were unknown. A 2011 report on vitamin D toxicity showed that hypercalcemia resolved when 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) blood levels dropped below 400ng/ml in 2 patients with blood levels ranging from 645ng/ml to 1220ng/ml after accidental ingestion of massive doses of vitamin D. We now know that vitamin D is made in the skin in amounts ranging up to 25,000 IU a day with exposure to UVB radiation. There is little data on the safety and blood levels of 25OHD and calcium after prolonged daily intake of amounts of vitamin D in this range. In this report, one subject took increasing daily doses of vitamin D3 for 6 years starting in April 2009: 6500 IU for 6 months; increasing to 10,000 IU for 13 months; 20,000 IU for 24 months; 40,000 IU for 12 months; 50,000 IU for 10 months, and 60,000 IU since October 2014. 25OHD blood levels were 28, 81, 204, 216, 225, 166, and 218ng/ml. Subject 2 began 10,000 IU in Nov 2011, increased to 20,000 IU in Feb 2014, 25,000 IU in June 2014, and 30,000 IU in Oct 2014, and then decreased to 20,000 IU in June 2015. 25OHD blood levels were 96.6, 161.1 and 106.9ng/ml. He reported marked clinical improvement in his asthma. Subject 3 started on daily 10,000 IU in Sept 2013, increasing to 20,000 IU on Nov 2013. 25OHD blood levels were 31.4, 102, 164, 148, and 143ng/ml. No one developed hypercalcemia or any adverse events. The major finding of this case series is prolonged daily dosing of vitamin D3 with doses of 10,000 to 60,000 IU

  5. Patient preference and acceptability of calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomised, open, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, D.; Geusens, P.P.; van Berkum, F.N.; Houben, H.H.; Jebbink, M.C.; Lems, W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Preference for a drug formulation is important in adherence to long-term medication for chronic illnesses such as osteoporosis. We investigated the preference for and acceptability of chewable tablet containing calcium and vitamin D (Calci Chew D

  6. Independent and combined effects of calcium-vitamin D3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: an 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoff C; Seibel, Markus J; Salmon, Jo; Daly, Robin M

    2011-04-01

    Exercise and calcium-vitamin D are independently recognized as important strategies to prevent osteoporosis, but their combined effects on bone strength and its determinants remain uncertain. To assess whether calcium-vitamin D(3) fortified milk could enhance the effects of exercise on bone strength, structure, and mineral density in middle-aged and older men. An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial in which 180 men aged 50-79 years were randomized to the following: exercise + fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact activities performed 3 d/week. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 ml/d of 1% fat milk containing 1000 mg/d calcium and 800 IU/d vitamin D(3). Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and strength at the lumbar spine (LS), proximal femur, mid-femur, and mid-tibia measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and/or quantitative computed tomography. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Main effect analysis showed that exercise led to a 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-3.6) net gain in femoral neck section modulus, which was associated with an approximately 1.9% gain in areal BMD and cross-sectional area. Exercise also improved LS trabecular BMD [net gain 2.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-4.1)], but had no effect on mid-femur or mid-tibia BMD, structure, or strength. There were no main effects of the fortified milk at any skeletal site. A community-based multi-component exercise program successfully improved LS and femoral neck BMD and strength in healthy older men, but providing additional calcium-vitamin D(3) to these replete men did not enhance the osteogenic response.

  7. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  8. Vitamin D status and effects of food fortification in families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katja Howarth

    in a real-life setting. The aim was to investigate the effect of increasing vitamin D intake by fortification of milk and bread to the amount recommended in the Nordic Nutrition recommendations (NNR) on serum 25(OH)D concentration in families during winter in Denmark (paper 1). Secondly, the aim...... was to assess vitamin D status and its determinants at baseline of the study (paper 2). Further, to model the relationship between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D taking into account potential effect modifiers and estimate required vitamin D intake during winter (paper 3).Methods: The VitmaD study......)D concentration in winter was best fitted by a non-linear curve (paper 3). The effect of total vitamin D intake on serum 25(OH)D concentration was 4 % higher in men compared with women (P

  9. Association Between Vitamin D Status and COPD Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, M.; Ringbaek, T.; Roberts, N. B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that identifying phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) might improve treatment outcome and the accuracy of prediction of prognosis. In observational studies vitamin D deficiency has been associated with decreased pulmonary function, presence of emphysema...... and osteoporosis, upper respiratory tract infections, and systemic inflammation. This could indicate a relationship between vitamin D status and COPD phenotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between vitamin D levels and COPD phenotypes. In addition, seasonality of vitamin D levels....... The participants were 40-75-year-old patients with COPD and had a smoking history of > 10 pack-years. Fifty-six patients had 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured from blood samples from both visits. In the final model of the multivariate analyses, the factors that were associated with vitamin D deficiency at the first...

  10. Vitamin D3 levels and NLRP3 expression in murine models of obese asthma: association with asthma outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-H. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (25(OHD3 is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the immune system. Serum 25(OHD3 is found to be associated with asthma. However, the role of vitamin D in obese asthma remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between vitamin D levels and asthma outcomes in a murine model of obese asthma. We also evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome activity in the pathogenesis of obese asthma. We divided 20 male Balb/c mice (3–4 weeks old into 4 groups: normal control, asthma, obese, and obese asthma and developed an obese asthma mouse model. Airway hyperreactivity, cytokine concentrations, 25(OHD3 levels, NLRP3 mRNA and IL-1β mRNA expressions were measured. Lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell count were also determined. Obese asthma mice showed a significant increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and NLRP3 mRNA, IL-1β mRNA expression. Both asthma and obese groups had lower 25(OHD3 levels. Vitamin D levels in obese asthma were the lowest among all groups. Vitamin D levels correlated negatively with body weight, lung resistance levels at 25 mg/mL of methacholine, total inflammatory cells, and IL-1β and IL-17 concentrations in BALF. These data demonstrated an association between serum vitamin D levels and outcomes of obese asthma, and indicated that NLRP3 inflammasome may play a role in this disorder.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Influence of Vitamin D Status and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stepien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC could serve as a less invasive and more direct alternative to tissue biopsies or serum in metabolomic research. We conducted two exploratory independent studies in order to characterise PBMC’s metabolomic profile following short-term vitamin D3 supplementation and to determine gender effects. In the first study, eight healthy males and females aged 40–65 y were randomly selected for profiling of PBMCs after receiving either 15 µg of vitamin D3 or placebo for four weeks. In the second study, twenty younger healthy males and females were studied. Cell metabolites were extracted and deproteinised using methanol/chloroform/water method and analysed by GC-MS. Higher vitamin D status had no effect on the fatty acid profile of PBMCs, but inflammatory biomarkers and adipokines correlated positively with stearic acid levels. In the second study, no gender-specific metabolites were identified. Valine, leucine and aspartic acid were identified as potential BMI-sensitive amino acids. Larger studies are needed to confirm the influence of BMI on these parameters. This work clearly demonstrates the utility of metabolomics profiling of PBMCs and paves the way for future applications of metabolomics in identifying metabolic profiles of blood cells as a measure for dietary intakes or physiological status.

  12. Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, C T; Stonehouse, W; Conlon, C A; Grant, C C; McDonald, B; Houghton, L A; Eyles, D; Camargo, C A; Coad, J; von Hurst, P R

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has adverse health effects in young children. Our aims were to determine predictors of vitamin D status and then to use these factors to develop a practical tool to predict low 25(OH)D concentrations in preschool New Zealand children. A cross-sectional sample of 1329 children aged 2 to  75 nmol/L in 146(11%) of children. Factors independently associated with the risk of 25(OH)D Children who drank toddler milk (vitamin D fortified cow's milk formula marketed to young children) had a zero risk of 25(OH)D children at risk of 25(OH)D children. The tool had insufficient predictive ability for use in clinical situations, and suggests a need to promote safe, inexpensive testing to determine vitamin D status in preschool children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vitamin D status and age of onset of demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Koenig, Scott; Goldman, Myla D

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors impacting vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in childhood versus adult-onset demyelinating disease. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional, chart-review, cohort study on geographically-similar pediatric, young adult, and adult patients with a diagnosis of demyelinating disease identified at the University of Virginia from 2008 to 2013. Group prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as relevant factors associated with vitamin D status was analyzed and compared. We identified 24 childhood-onset (CO), 33 young adult-onset (Y-AO), and 59 adult-onset (AO) cases. There was no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency between the cohorts. Non-Caucasian race and elevated body mass index were significantly associated with low vitamin D levels, regardless of age of onset. In regression models, race and obesity were independent predictors of vitamin D status. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in the childhood-onset cohort (CO=58.5%; Y-AO=31%; AO=34%; p=0.02). Our findings demonstrate no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency between childhood and adult-onset demyelinating disease, suggesting age at disease onset is irrelevant to vitamin D status in demyelinating disease. Both race and obesity are independent factors associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, regardless of age of disease onset. Obesity, independent of gender, is significantly higher in children compared to adult patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and may have a role in the development of childhood-onset demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D Status, Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin

    2018-02-01

    This review was conducted to assess the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in humans: Prospective cohort studies indicate a multivariable-adjusted non-linear increase in CVD events at levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of less than 50 nmol/l. However, Mendelian randomization studies do not support these findings. Although meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) do not rule out small beneficial vitamin D effects on surrogate parameters of CVD risk, such as arterial stiffness, at vitamin D doses equivalent to 1,000-5,333 IU daily, other meta-analyses of RCTs show no reduction in CVD events by vitamin D supplementation. Notably, some cohort studies and a recent RCT provide evidence for harmful effects of vitamin D on CVD outcomes at 25(OH)D levels in excess of 100 nmol/l. In conclusion, more studies in individuals with a deficient 25(OH)D level (i.e. D doses achieving a 25(OH)D level which exceeds 100 nmol/l. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D Status in Blount Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenda, Laughter; Simmons, Dina; Firth, Gregory B; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Kebashni, Thandrayen; Robertson, Anthony J F

    2016-01-01

    Blount disease can be defined as idiopathic proximal tibial vara. Several etiologies including the mechanical theory have been described. Obesity is the only causative factor proven to be associated with Blount disease. The aim of this study is to assess if there is an association of vitamin D deficiency and Blount disease. This a retrospective study of preoperative and postoperative patients with Blount disease who were screened for vitamin D deficiency. Patients with genu varum due to confirmed vitamin D deficiency and rickets were excluded. The study patients had the following blood tests done: calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) hormones. We recruited 50 patients. The mean age of these patients was 10.4 years (SD±3.88) with average body mass index of 28.7 kg/m (±10.2). Thirty (60%) patients were diagnosed with infantile, 4 (8%) juvenile, and 16 (32%) adolescent Blount disease. Eight (16%) patients were found to be vitamin D deplete (25(OH)D levels children with Blount disease was similar to that of healthy children living in Johannesburg. There is no evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a factor in causing Blount disease. Level III-retrospective study.

  16. 1(OH vitamin D3 supplementation improves the sensitivity of the immune-response during Peg-IFN/RBV therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients-case controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuteru Kondo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 can affect immune cells. However, the mechanism responsible for the favorable effects of 1(OH vitamin D3, which becomes 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 in the liver, is not clear. The aim of this study is to analyze the immunological response of 1(OH vitamin D3 supplementation in CH-C patients. DESIGN: Forty-two CH-C patients were treated with 1(OH vitamin D3/Peg-IFNα/RBV. Forty-two case-matched controls were treated with Peg-IFNα/RBV. The expression of Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs-mRNA in the liver biopsy samples and JFH-1 replicating Huh-7 cells were quantified by real-time PCR. Ten kinds of cytokines in the plasma were quantified during treatment by using a suspension beads array. A trans-well co-culture system with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and Huh-7 cells was used to analyze the effect of 1(OH vitamin D3. The activities of the Th1 response were compared between subjects treated with 1(OH vitamin D3/Peg-IFN/RBV and those treated with Peg-IFN/RBV therapy alone. RESULTS: 1(OH vitamin D3/Peg-IFN/RBV treatment could induce rapid viral reduction, especially in IL28B T/T polymorphism. Several kinds of cytokines including IP-10 were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of 1(OH vitamin D3 treatment (p<0.05. Th1 responses in the subjects treated with 1(OH vitamin D3/Peg-IFN/RBV were significantly higher than those treated with Peg-IFN/RBV at 12 weeks after Peg-IFN/RBV therapy (p<0.05. The expression of ISGs in the patient's liver biopsy samples was significantly lower than in those treated without 1(OH vitamin D3 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: 1(OH vitamin D3 could improve the sensitivity of Peg-IFN/RBV therapy on HCV-infected hepatocytes by reducing the IP-10 production from PBMCs and ISGs expression in the liver.

  17. Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin A status of their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers

  18. Vitamin B12 status in pregnant women and their infants in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, J L; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T; Srinivasan, K; Duggan, C

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, few studies have investigated the burden and determinants of vitamin B12 status in young infants. This study was conducted to determine the associations between maternal and infant vitamin B12 status. Pregnant women participating in a vitamin B12 supplementation trial in Bangalore, India, were randomized to receive vitamin B12 (50 μg) or placebo supplementation daily during pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. All women received 60 mg of iron and 500 μg of folic acid daily during pregnancy, as per standard of care. This prospective analysis was conducted to determine the associations between maternal vitamin B12 biomarkers (that is, plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid (MMA) and tHcy) during each trimester with infant vitamin B12 status (n=77) at 6 weeks of age. At baseline (⩽14 weeks of gestation), 51% of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (vitamin B12B12 status (vitamin B120.26 μmol/l); 44% of infants were vitamin B12 deficient at 6 weeks of age. After adjusting for vitamin B12 supplementation, higher vitamin B12 concentrations in each trimester were associated with increased infant vitamin B12 concentrations and lower risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants (PB12 supplementation, infants born to women with vitamin B12 deficiency had a twofold greater risk of vitamin B12 deficiency (PB12 deficiency in infants (PB12 status, which combined both circulating and functional biomarkers, was the single best predictor of infant vitamin B12 status. Impaired maternal vitamin B12 status throughout pregnancy predicted higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants, after adjusting for vitamin B12 supplementation. Future interventions are needed to improve vitamin B12 status periconceptionally, and to ensure optimal vitamin B12 status and health outcomes in pregnant women and their children.

  19. The role of receptor topology in the vitamin D3 uptake and Ca{sup 2+} response systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrill, Gene A., E-mail: gene.morrill@einstein.yu.edu; Kostellow, Adele B.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-09-02

    The steroid hormone, vitamin D{sub 3}, regulates gene transcription via at least two receptors and initiates putative rapid response systems at the plasma membrane. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds vitamin D{sub 3} and a second receptor, importin-4, imports the VDR-vitamin D{sub 3} complex into the nucleus via nuclear pores. Here we present evidence that the Homo sapiens VDR homodimer contains two transmembrane (TM) helices ({sup 327}E – D{sup 342}), two TM “half-helix” ({sup 264}K − N{sup 276}), one or more large channels, and 16 cholesterol binding (CRAC/CARC) domains. The importin-4 monomer exhibits 3 pore-lining regions ({sup 226}E – L{sup 251}; {sup 768}V – G{sup 783}; {sup 876}S – A{sup 891}) and 16 CRAC/CARC domains. The MEMSAT algorithm indicates that VDR and importin-4 may not be restricted to cytoplasm and nucleus. VDR homodimer TM helix-topology predicts insertion into the plasma membrane, with two 84 residue C-terminal regions being extracellular. Similarly, MEMSAT predicts importin-4 insertion into the plasma membrane with 226 residue extracellular N-terminal regions and 96 residue C-terminal extracellular loops; with the pore-lining regions contributing gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. The PoreWalker algorithm indicates that, of the 427 residues in each VDR monomer, 91 line the largest channel, including two vitamin D{sub 3} binding sites and residues from both the TM helix and “half-helix”. Cholesterol-binding domains also extend into the channel within the ligand binding region. Programmed changes in bound cholesterol may regulate both membrane Ca{sup 2+} response systems and vitamin D{sub 3} uptake as well as receptor internalization by the endomembrane system culminating in uptake of the vitamin D{sub 3}-VDR-importin-4 complex into the nucleus.

  20. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Corwin D; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Powell, Jessi L; Drewnoski, Mary E; O'Neil, Matthew; Beitz, Donald C; Weiss, William P

    2016-12-01

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the typical serum 25(OH)D concentrations of dairy cattle across various dairy operations. The serum 25(OH)D concentration of 702 samples collected from cows across various stages of lactation, housing systems, and locations in the United States was 68±22ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation), with the majority of samples between 40 and 100ng/mL. Most of the 12 herds surveyed supplemented cows with 30,000 to 50,000 IU of vitamin D3/d, and average serum 25(OH)D of cows at 100 to 300 DIM in each of those herds was near or above 70ng/mL regardless of season or housing. In contrast, average serum 25(OH)D of a herd supplementing with 20,000 IU/d was 42±15ng/mL, with 22% below 30ng/mL. Cows in early lactation (0 to 30d in milk) also had lower serum 25(OH)D than did mid- to late-lactation cows (57±17 vs. 71±20ng/mL, respectively). Serum 25(OH)D of yearling heifers receiving 11,000 to 12,000 IU of vitamin D3/d was near that of cows at 76±15ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of calves, on the other hand, was 15±11ng/mL at birth and remained near or below 15ng/mL through 1mo of age if they were fed pasteurized waste milk with little to no summer sun exposure. In contrast, serum 25(OH)D of calves fed milk replacer containing 6,600 and 11,000 IU of vitamin D2/kg of dry matter were 59±8 and 98±33ng/mL, respectively, at 1mo of age. Experimental data from calves similarly indicated that serum 25(OH

  1. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  2. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  3. Vitamin D3-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Potential Approach for Fortifying Food Beverages; in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs composed of solid lipid and oil are a new generation of lipid nanoparticles which have exhibited some merits over traditional used lipid nanoparticles in fortifying food and beverages and nutraceuticals delivery systems such as liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, Precirol and Compritol as solid lipids, Miglyol and Octyloctanoat as liquid lipids, Tween80, Tween20 and Poloxamer407 as surfactants were used to prepare vitamin D3-loaded NLC dispersion using hot homogenization method. The particle size and size distribution for all formulations were evaluated by immediately after production and during a storage period of 60 days. Results: The Precirol-based NLC showed superiority over Compritol-based NLC in the point of physical stability. Results clearly suggested that an optimum concentration of 3% of Poloxamer407 or 2% of Tween20 was sufficient to cover the surface of nanoparticles effectively and prevent agglomeration during the homogenization process. Octyloctanoat was introduced for the first time as a good substituent for Miglyol in the preparation of NLC formulations. The vitamin D3 Intestinal absorption enhanced by the incorporating in NLCs. Conclusion: It was concluded that NLC showed a promising approach for fortifying beverages by lipophilic nutraceuticals such as vitamin D.

  4. Selective upregulation of the expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms upon differentiation and 1,25(OH)2D3-vitamin treatment of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribiczey, Polett; Papp, Béla; Homolya, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Kovács, Tünde

    2015-08-14

    We have previously presented co-expression of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms 4b (PMCA4b) and 1b (PMCA1b) in colon carcinoma cells, and selective upregulation of PMCA4b during differentiation initiated by short chain fatty acids or post-confluent growth. Here we show that the induction of PMCA4b expression is a characteristic feature of the post-confluency-induced differentiation of both enterocyte-type and goblet cell-type colon cancer cells. Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known regulator of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and of basic cell functions such as growth and differentiation in various cell types. As PMCA proteins are involved both in intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and adenocarcinoma cell differentiation, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PMCA expression in enterocyte-like colon carcinoma cells, and monitored its effect on the expression of various differentiation markers. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated PMCA1b, but not PMCA4b expression without modulating the expression of the majority of the differentiation markers examined. Caco-2 cells differentiated in post-confluent cultures present normal enterocyte-like intestinal epithelial phenotype. To better understand the role of PMCA proteins in vectorial Ca(2+) transport by enterocytes, we also studied their subcellular localization in mature polarized Caco-2 cells. Both PMCA isoforms were located to the basolateral membrane, and the PMCA-specific immunofluorescent signal was significantly higher in vitamin D3-treated cells, underlining the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced upregulation of PMCA (presumably 1b isoform) expression in differentiated Caco-2 cells. We suggest that while PMCA1b has a housekeeping function in colon cancer cells, PMCA4b participates in the reorganization of the Ca(2+) signalling machinery during cell differentiation. The subcellular localization of PMCA1b and its selective 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent upregulation indicate that this isoform may have a specific role in 1,25(OH)2D3

  5. Vitamin Status of the Healthy Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The interest in nutrition and the effect it has on health and disease has gained increasing interest during the last years. Still remarkably little is known about some of the basic concepts concerning vitamin metabolism in dogs. No reference values have been set for the concentration of vitamins in the dog blood or tissues. The requirements for the daily intake of nutrients have been established, but the studies on which they are based on are not at all as comprehensive as might be expected. ...

  6. The Role of Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    van Ballegooijen, A. J.; Beulens, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. Recent Findings Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated unca...

  7. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th-95th...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  8. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; Psupplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 12 months had no significant effect (P>0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Psupplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily (with Ca and vitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  9. Vitamin C status in Sudanese camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhidir, Hassab Elrasoul Hussein Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is a potent antioxidant, recently has received a great deal of attention because of its positive action on the immune response and disease resistance of animals. Brief reviews are presented on ascorbic acid metabolism in animals and its relation with stressful

  10. Stability in the rumen and effect on plasma status of single oral doses of vitamin D and vitamin E in high-yielding dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    from high-yielding dairy cows. Changes in plasma concentrations of the vitamins relative to the amount of vitamin introduced to the rumen indicated a lower effect on plasma status of ergocalciferol than of cholecalciferol, and an even lower effect of α-tocopherol. The limited plasma response after......The ruminal fate of the fat-soluble vitamins D and E was studied in dairy cows. Ten to 15 kg of ruminal contents was taken from each cow through a ruminal fistula. A sample was taken out (0-h sample) and the rest of the contents were mixed with 4,360 mg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E......; study 1) or 4,360 mg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate, 250 mg of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), and 250 mg of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; study 2). After mixing, the ruminal contents were returned to the respective cows. Blood was collected 0, 6, 24, and 30 h after introducing the vitamins into the rumen...

  11. Clinical review: Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Jennifer C; Mitri, Joanna; Colmers, Isabelle N; Majumdar, Sumit R; Davidson, Mayer B; Edwards, Alun L; Hanley, David A; Pittas, Anastassios G; Tjosvold, Lisa; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies report consistent associations between low vitamin D concentration and increased glycemia and risk of type 2 diabetes, but results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are mixed. The objective of the study was to systematically review RCTs that report on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis or diabetes prevention. Sources of data for the study were MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment, and Science Citation Index from inception to June 2013. Study selection was trials that compared vitamin D3 supplementation with placebo or a non-vitamin D supplement in adults with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers collected data and assessed trial quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random-effects models were used to estimate mean differences (MDs) and odds ratios. The main outcomes of interest were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, hemoglobin A1c levels, fasting blood glucose, incident diabetes, and adverse events. Thirty-five trials (43 407 patients) with variable risk of bias were included. Vitamin D had no significant effects on insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: MD -0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.30 to 0.22, I-squared statistic (I(2)) = 45%], insulin secretion (homeostasis model of β-cell function: MD 1.64; 95% CI -25.94 to 29.22, I(2) = 40%), or hemoglobin A1c (MD -0.05%; 95% CI -0.12 to 0.03, I(2) = 55%) compared with controls. Four RCTs reported on the progression to new diabetes and found no effect of vitamin D (odds ratio 1.02; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.10, I(2) = 0%). Adverse events were rare, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Evidence from available trials shows no effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on glucose homeostasis or diabetes prevention

  12. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Amanda

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adults, vitamin D intake of 100 mcg (4000 IU/day is physiologic and safe. The adequate intake (AI for older adults is 15 mcg (600 IU/day, but there has been no report focusing on use of this dose. Methods We compared effects of these doses on biochemical responses and sense of wellbeing in a blinded, randomized trial. In Study 1, 64 outpatients (recruited if summer 2001 25(OHD Results In Study 1, basal summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] averaged 48 ± 9 (SD nmol/L. Supplementation for more than 6 months produced mean 25(OHD levels of 79 ± 30 nmol/L for the 15 mcg/day group, and 112 ± 41 nmol/L for the 100 mcg/day group. Both doses lowered plasma parathyroid hormone with no effect on plasma calcium. Between December and February, wellbeing score improved more for the 100-mcg/day group than for the lower-dosed group (1-tail Mann-Whitney p = 0.036. In Study 2, 25(OHD averaged 39 ± 9 nmol/L, and winter wellbeing scores improved with both doses of vitamin D (two-tail p Conclusion The highest AI for vitamin D brought summertime 25(OHD to >40 nmol/L, lowered PTH, and its use was associated with improved wellbeing. The 100 mcg/day dose produced greater responses. Since it was ethically necessary to provide a meaningful dose of vitamin D to these insufficient patients, we cannot rule out a placebo wellbeing response, particularly for those on the lower dose. This work confirms the safety and efficacy of both 15 and 100 mcg/day vitamin D3 in patients who needed additional vitamin D.

  13. Long-term follow-up for mortality and cancer in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D(3) and/or calcium (RECORD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenell, Alison; MacLennan, Graeme S; Jenkinson, David J; McPherson, Gladys C; McDonald, Alison M; Pant, Puspa R; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K; Anderson, Frazer H; Cooper, Cyrus; Francis, Roger M; Gillespie, William J; Robinson, C Michael; Torgerson, David J; Wallace, W Angus

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin D or calcium supplementation may have effects on vascular disease and cancer. Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D or calcium supplementation affects mortality, vascular disease, and cancer in older people. The study included long-term follow-up of participants in a two by two factorial, randomized controlled trial from 21 orthopedic centers in the United Kingdom. Participants were 5292 people (85% women) aged at least 70 yr with previous low-trauma fracture. Participants were randomly allocated to daily vitamin D(3) (800 IU), calcium (1000 mg), both, or placebo for 24-62 months, with a follow-up of 3 yr after intervention. All-cause mortality, vascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and cancer incidence were evaluated. In intention-to-treat analyses, mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-1.02], vascular disease mortality (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.79-1.05), cancer mortality (HR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.68-1.06), and cancer incidence (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.92-1.25) did not differ significantly between participants allocated vitamin D and those not. All-cause mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.94-1.13), vascular disease mortality (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.92-1.24), cancer mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.91-1.40), and cancer incidence (HR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.91-1.23) also did not differ significantly between participants allocated calcium and those not. In a post hoc statistical analysis adjusting for compliance, thus with fewer participants, trends for reduced mortality with vitamin D and increased mortality with calcium were accentuated, although all results remain nonsignificant. Daily vitamin D or calcium supplementation did not affect mortality, vascular disease, cancer mortality, or cancer incidence.

  14. In Vitro Differentiation of Preosteoblast-Like Cells, MC3T3-E1, to Adipocytes Is Enhanced by 1,25(OH2 Vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Pendleton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts and adipocytes originate from common mesenchymal progenitor cells and are controlled by specific transcription factors. While 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D is known to be an important factor for osteoblast differentiation, there are conflicting reports regarding its effect on adipogenesis. In this study, we attempted to understand the effect of exposure of preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 to adipogenic media with and without vitamin D and determined the expression of adipogenic genes during this process. Our studies show that while transdifferentiation of preosteoblasts occurred on exposure to adipogenic media, the effect of vitamin D treatment was synergistic resulting in several hundred fold increase in adipocyte transcription factors C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (P < 0.001 along with an increase in markers of adipogenesis and accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Vitamin D treatment was also accompanied by 100-fold to 700-fold increases in vitamin D receptor expression during the treatment period (P < 0.001. To determine how the effect of vitamin D might compare to other genetic manipulations that promote adipogenic differentiation, we stably knocked down retinoblastoma expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Recent studies have suggested retinoblastoma (Rb1 tumor suppressor gene function to be critical to maintain osteoblasts function and inhibit adipocyte differentiation. We exposed MC3T3-E1 cells with reduced Rb1 expression to adipogenic media and found an increase in adipogenic differentiation when compared to cells with a full complement of Rb dosage. However, the extent of the change was not as dramatic as seen with vitamin D. These studies show that preosteoblasts are sensitive and respond to these manipulations that favor the adipocytic phenotype. While vitamin D is not known to directly affect targets in adipogenesis, our observations may have resulted from the malleability of preosteoblast

  15. Supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D3 and uridine in combination with six weeks of cognitive and motor training in prepubescent children: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Solvejg Lis; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    program with dietary supplementation consisting of 500 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 10 μg vitamin D3 and 1000 mg uridine (DDU-supplement) in 16 prepubescent children (age 8–11 years). Methods We designed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study lasting 6 weeks in which DDU-supplement...... tests were performed. Results Fourteen of the 16 children completed the intervention and ingested the supplement as required. 6 weeks DDU-supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the blood concentration of vitamin D2+3 and DHA (p = 0.023 and p ...Background Learning and memory have been shown to be influenced by combination of dietary supplements and exercise in animal models, but there is little available evidence from human subjects. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of combining a motor- and cognitive exercise...

  16. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, Guido; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  17. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Wal, van de M.D.; Bosch, G.; Stumpel, J.B.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  18. Moderate Amounts of Vitamin D3 in Supplements are Effective in Raising Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D from Low Baseline Levels in Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Whiting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy surrounding the designation of vitamin D adequacy as defined by circulating levels of the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. Depending on the cutoff level chosen, dietary intakes of vitamin D may or may not provide sufficient impact upon vitamin D status measured as improvement in serum levels of 25(OHD. We sought to examine whether modest daily doses (5–20 μg as found in fortified foods or multivitamin supplements had a measureable impact on vitamin D status, defined as moving from below to above 50 nmol/L, or from less than 30 nmol/L to above 30 nmol/L. Published literature was searched for relevant articles describing randomized controlled trials. Exclusion criteria were: studies not involving humans; review articles; studies lacking blood level data pre- and post-treatment; no control group; bolus treatments (weekly, monthly, yearly; vitamin D <5 μg or >20 μg; baseline 25(OHD ≥75 nmol/L; subjects not defined as healthy; studies <8 weeks; and age <19 years. Of the 127 studies retrieved, 18 publications with 25 separate comparisons met criteria. The mean rate constant, defined as change in 25(OHD in nmol/L per μg vitamin D administered, was calculated as 2.19 ± 0.97 nmol/L per μg. There was a significant negative correlation (r = −0.65, p = 0.0004 between rate constant and administered dose. To determine impact of the dose reflecting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR of 10 μg administered in nine studies (10 comparisons, in every case mean 25(OHD status rose either from “insufficient” (30–50 nmol/L to “sufficient” (>50 nmol/L or from “deficient” (<30 nmol/L to “insufficient” (>30 but <50 nmol/L. Our study shows that when baseline levels of groups were <75 nmol/L, for every microgram of vitamin D provided, 25(OHD levels can be raised by 2 nmol/L; and further, when groups were deficient or insufficient in vitamin D, there was significant value in providing additional 10 μg per day of

  19. Vitamin D status, liver enzymes, and incident liver disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with liver diseases. Both cholestatic and non-cholestatic liver diseases can cause vitamin D deficiency. Whether vitamin D status can also affect liver function is poorly understood. To investigate the association between vitamin D status, liver enzym...

  20. Nuclear xenobiotic receptor pregnane X receptor locks corepressor silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) onto the CYP24A1 promoter to attenuate vitamin D3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Kodama, Susumu; Moore, Rick; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Negishi, Masahiko

    2009-02-01

    We have studied the molecular mechanism by which the nuclear xenobiotic receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) regulate transcription of the vitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) gene. In the absence of vitamin D(3), PXR activates the CYP24A1 gene by directly binding to and transactivating vitamin D-response elements (VDREs) within its promoter. Vitamin D(3) activates the CYP24A1 promoter by dissociating the corepressor silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) from the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on those VDREs. PXR strongly represses vitamin D(3) activation of the CYP24A1 gene, in which PXR indirectly binds to and prevents vitamin D(3)-dependent dissociation of SMRT from the CYP24A1 promoter. The degree of the PXR-mediated locking of SMRT depends on the relative concentration of vitamin D(3) to the human PXR activator rifampicin; SMRT increased its dissociation as this ratio increased. CAR is also found to prevent dissociation of SMRT from the CYP24A1 promoter. Thus, our present study defines the novel molecular mechanism by which PXR and CAR mediate drug interactions with vitamin D(3) to regulate the CYP24A1 gene. Pxr(+/+) and Pxr(-/-) mice were continuously treated with mouse PXR activator PCN to evaluate the hypothesis that induction of the Cyp24a1 gene is responsible for the loss of bone mineral density often observed in patients treated continuously with PXR-activating drugs. PCN-dependent loss of mineral density is observed in the metaphyseal bones of only the Pxr(+/+) mice. This loss, however, does not correlate with the expression levels of the Cyp24a1 gene in these mice.

  1. Interspecies differences in plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dermal Vitamin D synthesis of kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Madhumita S; Dittmer, Keren E; Roe, Wendi D; Gartrell, Brett D

    2017-07-28

    Vitamin D plays a central role in calcium homeostasis of most vertebrates, and is obtained in different species through diet, dermal synthesis, or a combination of both. The aim of this study was to determine the predominant routes of Vitamin D synthesis in three disparate species, brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). We surveyed plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, analysed environmental conditions and life history factors, and determined the ability of skin samples to synthesise Vitamin D3 on exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. There was variation in the plasma/serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations between and within the species studied, with wild kiwi having the lowest concentrations and NZ sea lions the highest. Kiwi skin produced small but measurable amounts of Vitamin D3, while tuatara skin produced Vitamin D3 concentrations higher than that of kiwi. New Zealand sea lion skin produced the highest amount of Vitamin D3 and differed from the other two species in this study in that Vitamin D3 was present in skin before UV-B exposure. The results from this study show that all three species studied retained the ability to use both dietary and dermal sources of Vitamin D, although there was interspecies variation in the magnitude of dermal synthesis. Comparisons between these species show that there are differences in their Vitamin D pathways, but suggest that there are more factors contributing to these pathways than might be expected solely from life history characteristics.

  2. Vitamin K status in cystic fibrosis patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Skorupa, Wojciech; Bober, Lyudmyla; Sapiejka, Ewa; Oralewska, Beata; Rohovyk, Nataliya; Moczko, Jerzy; Nowak, Jan; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Rachel, Marta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    The available data on the influence of liver cirrhosis on vitamin K status in CF patients is scarce. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in cirrhotic CF subjects and to determine whether it correlates with liver cirrhosis. The study group comprised of 27 CF patients with and 63 without liver cirrhosis. Vitamin K status was assessed using prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II) and the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (u-OC). PIVKA-II concentrations were higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic CF patients (median [1st-3rd quartile]: 3.2ng/ml [1.0-10.0] vs. 1.3ng/ml [0.2-2.6], p=0.0029). However, the differences in u-OC percentages between the studied groups did not reach the level of significance (49.4% [7.0-73.8] vs. 8.0% [2.6-59.1], p=0.0501). Based on multiple linear regression analysis the dose of vitamin K and F508del mutation were potentially defined as determinants of vitamin K deficiency. Liver cirrhosis was not documented to be an independent risk factor. In CF patients with liver cirrhosis vitamin K deficiency is not only more frequent, but also more severe. However, not liver cirrhosis, but the presence of a F508del CFTR mutation constitutes an independent risk factor for vitamin K deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D status and hypertension: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Liang Ke,1 Rebecca S Mason,2 Maina Kariuki,3 Elias Mpofu,1 Kaye E Brock2 1Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, 3Biostatistical Officer Training Program, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Vitamin D is a steroid prohormone synthesized in the skin following ultraviolet exposure and also achieved through supplemental or dietary intake. While there is strong evidence for its role in maintaining bone and muscle health, there has been recent debate regarding the role of vitamin D deficiency in hypertension based on conflicting epidemiological evidence. Thus, we conducted a scoping systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all observational studies published up to early 2014 in order to map trends in the evidence of this association. Mixed-effect meta-analysis was performed to pool risk estimates from ten prospective studies (n=58,262 (pooled risk for incident hypertension, relative risk [RR] =0.76 (0.63–0.90 for top vs bottom category of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] and from 19 cross-sectional studies (n=90,535 (odds ratio [OR] =0.79 (0.73–0.87. Findings suggest that the better the assessed quality of the respective study design, the stronger the relationship between higher 25OHD levels and hypertension risk (RR =0.67 (0.51–0.88; OR =0.77 (0.72–0.89. There was significant heterogeneity among the findings for both prospective and cross-sectional studies, but no evidence of publication bias was shown. There was no increased risk of hypertension when the participants were of older age or when they were vitamin D deficient. Younger females showed strong associations between high 25OHD levels and hypertension risk, especially in prospective studies (RR =0.36 (0.18–0.72; OR =0.62 (0.44–0.87. Despite the accumulating evidence of a consistent link between vitamin D and blood pressure, these data are observational, so questions still remain in relation to the causality of this

  4. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among Jordanians: Effect of biological and habitual factors on vitamin D status

    OpenAIRE

    Mallah, Eyad M; Hamad, Mohammad F; ElManaseer, Mays A; Qinna, Nidal A; Idkaidek, Nasir M; Arafat, Tawfiq A; Matalka, Khalid Z

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin D is cutaneously synthesized following sun exposure (vitamin D3) as well as it is derived from dietary intake (vitamin D3 and D2). Vitamin D2 and D3 are metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). This metabolite is considered the functional indicator of vitamin D stores in humans. Since Jordan latitude is 31°N, cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 should be sufficient all year round. However, many indications reveal that it is not the case. Thus, this ...

  5. Association of Maternal Vitamin C Status with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of antioxidants in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been given limited attention. Vitamin C is a nutrient with radical quenching property and has been claimed to influence glucose tolerance. Aim: To study the association between vitamin C status (dietary intake and plasma concentrations and GDM. Material and Methods: Using a case-control design with 1:3 ratio we examined 42 pregnant women with GDM and 158 normal glucose tolerant (NGT gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women at an average of 26 weeks of gestation. Maternal vitamin C intake was determined using detailed semi food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ and 24 hour diet recall. Plasma vitamin C was determined using a spectrophotometric method in non-fasting samples. GDM was diagnosed by 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥92mg%, 1hour ≥180mg%, 2 hour ≥153mg %. Results: GDM women had lower median intake of vitamin C (35.0 mg/day vs. 66.7; p<0.001 and lower median plasma vitamin C concentration (45.9 µmol/L vs. 95.2; p<0.001 compared to NGT women. Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely related to fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour post glucose plasma glucose concentrations (p<0.001. The associations remained significant after adjustment for age, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and stress. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low vitamin C intake as well as low plasma vitamin C concentration is associated with GDM. This association needs to be tested in a large prospective study and subsequently in a clinical trial

  6. Association between vitamin D status and COPD phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Mia; Ringbaek, Thomas; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2014-08-01

    It has been suggested that identifying phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) might improve treatment outcome and the accuracy of prediction of prognosis. In observational studies vitamin D deficiency has been associated with decreased pulmonary function, presence of emphysema and osteoporosis, upper respiratory tract infections, and systemic inflammation. This could indicate a relationship between vitamin D status and COPD phenotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between vitamin D levels and COPD phenotypes. In addition, seasonality of vitamin D levels was examined. A total of 91 patients from a Danish subpopulation of the "Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points" cohort took part in a biomarker substudy. Vitamin D concentration was measured from blood samples taken at two visits, approximately 6 months apart. The participants were 40-75-year-old patients with COPD and had a smoking history of >10 pack-years. Fifty-six patients had 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured from blood samples from both visits. In the final model of the multivariate analyses, the factors that were associated with vitamin D deficiency at the first visit were age (OR: 0.89, p = 0.02) and summer season (OR: 3.3, p = 0.03). Factors associated with vitamin D level also at the first visit were age (B: 0.9, p = 0.02) and 6 min walking distance (B: 0.05, p = 0.01). Vitamin D was not associated with COPD phenotypes and season did not seem to be a determinant of vitamin D levels in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

  7. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amerongen, B.M.; Feron, F.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed

  8. VITAMIN D STATUS IN WOMEN WITH POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Milenković

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The perturbation status of vitamin D can be manifested as insufficiency, deficiency and excessiveness. Vitamin D status within the organism is determined by measuring the level of 25(OHD in the serum.The aim of this paper was to determine the vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed osteoporosis as well as to correlate vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD and bones' fractures.The research included 58 postmenopausal women who have recently been given the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. All the examinees were determined with the level of 25(OHD as well as the levels of unspecific markers of the bone metabolism. All of the examinees were defined with their bone mineral density on the lumbar spine and hip, measured with DEXA densitometer.The average age of the examinees was 60,46±6,55 years, average duration of menopause 15,02±9,25 years and average concentration of 25(OHD 46,45±14,68 nmol/L. Our results has shown the deficiency of vitamin D in 89,76% of the examinees with postmenopausal osteoporosis, positive correlation of the level of 25(OHD and bone mineral density (BMD and a significantly lower initial concentration of 25(OHD with the examines with prior bone fractures opposed to those without fractures (37,57±13,08 vs. 51,22±17,26 nmol/L; p<0,02. The obtained results show that vitamine D deficiency in postmenopausal women with osteporosis present important risk factors for bones fractures as well as factors for decreasing the bone mineral density.

  9. Vitamin A status of healthy children in Manisa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansuğ Nermin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health nutrition problem in the developing world. Even subclinical Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased childhood mortality. Severe maternal vitamin A deficiency may cause increased mortality in the first months of life. There have been a limited number of studies regarding vitamin A status in Turkey. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin A status of healthy children in Manisa, Turkey. Methods Vitamin A status of 100 healthy children aged 36-48 months is evaluated. The children were seen during routine examination. Serum retinol concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Duration of breast feeding, age solid foods introduced, use of supplementary vitamins, weight and height, and intake of specific groups of nutrients on a daily, weekly and monthly basis were collected from a questionnaire completed by the mothers. Height and weight z-scores were calculated according to national standards. Mothers of 20 of the 100 children were known to have normal serum and breast milk retinol concentrations. Children with normal serum retinol concentration were compared with the children with VAD. Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare independent variables. The Pearson correlation analysis test was used to test relation between numeric variables. Results Mean retinol concentration was 0.98 ± 0.32 μmol/L in the whole study group. Serum retinol concentrations were normal (>0.70 μmol/L in 89% of the children. When children with normal serum retinol concentrations were compared with those with retinol concentrations lower than 0.70 μmol/L, there was no difference in terms of age, gender, weight and height at the time of study, z-scores, birth weight, birth length, duration of breast feeding, time to begin solid food, rate of supplementary vitamin use, and rate of infections (P > 0.05. There was not any relation between vitamin A

  10. Polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3 and vitamin B12 in the treatment of Sjogren's syndrome in a vegetarian with stomatitis, glossodynia, xerostomia, and elevated antinuclear antibodies: Case report
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Clemens; Vaerst, Barbara; Gabrielpillai, Jennis; Tahtali, Aykut; Balster, Sven; Lissner, Reinhard; Woodcock, Barry G

    2018-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome, involving sicca symptoms with xerostomia, stomatitis, and considerable pain is a difficult-to-treat autoimmune disease where the treatment options are limited and, as in the case of methotrexate, have a low therapeutic index. This case report concerns a male patient, aged 75 years and vegetarian, with Sjogren's syndrome subsequently confirmed by salivary gland biopsy. Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were elevated (1 : 320). Low serum vitamin B12 and iron levels could be improved after 20 days using vitamin B12 and iron oral supplements. Despite symptomatic treatment, xerostomia, glossitis, and glossodynia were still present, at times marked, after 12 months when the ANA titer was unchanged. Following treatment with an anti-inflammatory polyvalent immunoglobulin formulation (Lactobin®N, 7 g daily), a bovine colostrum concentrate given orally in combination with oral vitamin D3 (2,000 IU daily), sicca symptoms and xerostomia progressively decreased and at day 750 were confined to occasional and minor glossitis of the upper lip. This case report demonstrates the satisfactory control of Sjogren's syndrome using oral polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3. In contrast to treatment options involving antimalarial drugs and methotrexate, there are no safety issues in patients tolerant to milk products.
.

  11. Vitamin D status of older South Africans | Charlton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detennine the vitamin D status of older 'coloured' South Africans who had not sustained a fracture. Design: Cross-sectional analytic study. Methods: A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised subjects in Cape Town aged ≥65 years was drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained fieldworkers ...

  12. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and glucose intolerance, and its impact on pregnant women and their newborns. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women were divided into three groups: women with gestational diabetes mellitus, ones with normal results both after the 50 gr and 100 ...

  13. Anthropometric, vitamin A, iron and immunisation coverage status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective and design. To establish the anthropometric, vitamin A, iron and immunisation coverage status of children 6 - 71 months of age in South Africa by means of a national survey. Setting. South Africa. Participants. The study population consisted of all children in the country aged 6 - 71 months. A total of.

  14. Network of nuclear receptor ligands in multiple sclerosis: Common pathways and interactions of sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Linda; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond; Huitinga, Inge; Smolders, Joost

    2016-09-01

    Sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3-derived molecules have all been subject to experimental studies and clinical trials in a plethora of autoimmune diseases. These molecules are all derived from cholesterol metabolites and are ligands for nuclear receptors. Ligation of these receptors results in direct regulation of multiple gene transcription involved in general homeostatic and adaptation networks, including the immune system. Indeed, the distinct ligands affect the function of both myeloid and lymphoid cells, eventually resulting in a less pro-inflammatory immune response which is considered beneficial in autoimmune diseases. Next to the immune system, also the central nervous system is prone to regulation by these nuclear receptor ligands. Understanding of the intricate interactions between sex-steroids, corticosteroids and vitamin D3 metabolites, on the one hand, and the immune and central nervous system, on the other hand, may reveal novel approaches to utilize these nuclear receptor ligands to full extent as putative treatments in multiple sclerosis, the prototypic immune-driven disease of the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis present local alteration in vitamin D3, testosterone and estradiol levels as well as estrogen receptor 2 (beta) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Praes, Lílian C; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-09-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a reproductive dysfunction of roosters that is associated with loss of fertility and is characterized by the formation of calcium stones in the lumen of the efferent ductules of the epididymal region. The efferent ductules of birds are responsible for the reabsorption of the fluid coming from the testis as well as luminal calcium. It has been hypothesized that the epididymal stone formation may be related to the impairment of local fluid or calcium homeostasis, which depends on hormones such as estradiol (E(2)). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate possible alterations in the expression of ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) in the epididymal region of roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis. The study was performed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays. In addition, the concentrations of E(2), vitamin D3, and testosterone, which are also key hormones in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, were determined in the plasma and epididymal region, by ELISA. It was observed that ESR2 expression is increased in all segments of the epididymal region of affected roosters, whereas ESR1 levels are not altered. Moreover, the hormone concentration profiles were changed, as in the epididymal region of roosters with lithiasis the E(2) levels were increased and vitamin D3 as well as testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased. These results suggest that a hormonal imbalance may be involved with the origin and progression of the epididymal lithiasis, possibly by affecting the local fluid or calcium homeostasis.

  16. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  17. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.J.F.M.; Peelen, E.; Thewissen, M.; Menheere, P.; Damoiseaux, J.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. METHODS: We compared DBP

  18. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Menheere, Paul; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. METHODS: We compared DBP

  19. Vitamin D Status in South Asian Populations - Risks and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-08-17

    Human body acquires a significant amount of vitamin D by cutaneous synthesis under the action of sunlight and less is supplied through nutritional sources. Diversified sociocultural and economic determinants have been identified that limit the dietary intake of vitamin D and enough distribution of sunlight to maintain optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Consequently, the world has witnessed a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in resource-limited South Asian countries. The purpose of this review is to provide a South Asian perspective of vitamin D status, critically examining India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, and to shed light on potential determinants (latitude and season, sunshine exposure habits, age, gender, and genetic factors) leading to hypovitaminosis D among a variety of population groups. Literature search was carried out using bibliographic databases "PubMed," "Google Scholar," and "ScienceDirect.com." Serum 25(OH)D level, 20-50 nmol/L, was mainly taken as vitamin D deficiency, and determinants of low serum 25(OH)D concentration of the population under study were also considered. The review concludes that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among South Asian populations and global efforts are needed to overcome hypovitaminosis in the region. In addition, dietary diversification, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D, adequate exposure to sunlight, and consumption of animal foods were suggested as viable approaches to maintain 25(OH)D levels for optimal health.

  20. Dynamics of Bone Metabolism Markers Serum Level in Children with Bronchial Asthma on the Background of Vitamin D3 and Calcium Salt Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Vertehel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to optimize the diagnosis of the calcium-phosphorus metabolism disorders and to control the effectiveness of therapeutic and prophylactic use of vitamin D and calcium in children with bronchial asthma. Materials and methods. A total of 120 children in 2 groups, 60 subjects in each, were examined: 1 — children with bronchial asthma; 2 — apparently healthy children (control group. Two courses of therapy with solution of vitamin D3 and calcium carbonate/citrate were applied: 4 weeks — 2,000 IU and 1,000 mg per day, respectively; 8 weeks — 1,000 IU and 500 mg a day, respectively. Results. Among children with bronchial asthma, there was a decrease in the number of patients with normal serum levels of total calcium (P < 0.05, osteocalcin (P < 0.05, parathyroid hormone (P < 0.05, collagen type 1 C-telopeptides (P < 0.05, 25(OHD (P < 0.05, alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05. After 1 month of therapy, the number of children with normal alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05, osteocalcin (P < 0.05, collagen type 1 C-telopeptides (P < 0.05 increased; in 3 months — total calcium (P < 0.05, 25(OHD (P < 0.05. Conclusions. The use of vitamin D3 and calcium solution normalizes bone metabolism parameters in children with bronchial asthma. The optimal time to control the effectiveness of medical recovery of bone metabolism in children with bronchial asthma is 3 months.

  1. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  2. The Associations of Serum Lipids with Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Wang, Zongye; Jia, Haiying; Feng, Kai; Sun, Lili; Song, Shu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults. The study was carried out using 1475 participants from the Center for Physical Examination, 306 Hospital of PLA in Beijing, China. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. AIP was calculated based on the formula: log [TG/HDL-C]. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between serum 25(OH)D and lipids. The association between the occurrences of dyslipidemias and vitamin D levels was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Confounding factors, age and BMI, were used for the adjustment. The median of serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47 (27-92.25) nmol/L in all subjects. The overall percentage of 25(OH)D ≦ 50 nmol/L was 58.5% (males 54.4%, females 63.7%). The serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with TG (β coefficient = -0.24, p lipids and AIP. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the increased risk of dyslipidemias, especially in men. The association between vitamin D status and serum lipids may differ by genders.

  3. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD preeclampsia (FDR preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D-associated transcriptomes implicated the emergence of an early pregnancy, distinctive immune response in women who went on to develop preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621. Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation and Genome Canada Innovation Network. This trial was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For details see Acknowledgments.

  4. Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin A status of their infants

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C. E.; Schultink, W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers of these infants from five villages had been randomly assigned on an individual basis, supervised and double-blind, to receive supplementation once weekly from approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy ...

  5. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... in the interval (P = 0.009), particularly in girls (P for interaction = 0.01) and in vitamin A recipients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, VAS at birth had no effect on vitamin A status. However VAS may temporarily improve vitamin A status in the subgroup of children of noneducated mothers. In vitamin...

  6. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Peffect of body fat was seen on the vitamin D status response following the intervention with vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no baseline association between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....

  7. Vitamin D status and biomarkers of inflammation in runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis KS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kentz S Willis1, Derek T Smith2, Kenneth S Broughton3, D Enette Larson-Meyer2,31Extension, 2Division of Kinesiology and Health, 3Department of Family and Consumer Sciences (Human Nutrition, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USABackground and purpose: The extra-skeletal functions of vitamin D – including its role in inflammatory modulation – are now well recognized but have not yet been investigated in an athletic population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (as markers of inflammation and immune system function in endurance athletes.Patients and methods: We analyzed fasting blood samples from 19 healthy, endurance-trained male and female runners (following a standardized diet and exercise regimen for vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and specific plasma cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin [IL]-4, and IL-10. Serum/plasma concentrations were log-transformed and simple regression analysis was used to determine significant associations between 25(OHD and cytokine concentrations.Results: Forty-two percent of participants had insufficient vitamin D status [25(OHD < 32 ng/mL], whereas 11% were deficient [25(OHD , 20 ng/mL]. TNF-α and IL-4 were variable, ranging from 2.9 to 36.4 pg/mL and 0 to 252.1 pg/mL, respectively. Concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-10 were minimal, with means of 6.7 ± 7.0 pg/mL and 4.8 ± 5.1 pg/mL, respectively. Regression analysis revealed a significant inverse association between 25(OHD and TNF-α concentrations (R2 = 56.5, P < 0.001 but not between 25(OHD and the remaining cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 (P = 0.477, 0.694, and 0.673, respectively.Conclusion: These results call further attention to the epidemic of vitamin D insufficiency, even in outdoor athletes, and support a possible link between decreased vitamin D status and one

  8. Medium doses of daily vitamin D decrease falls and higher doses of daily vitamin D3 increase falls: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynette M; Gallagher, J Christopher; Suiter, Corinna

    2017-10-01

    Falls are a serious health problem in the aging population. Because low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased fall rates, many trials have been performed with vitamin D; two meta-analyses showed either a small effect or no effect of vitamin D on falls. We conducted a study of the effect of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and data on falls was collected as a secondary outcome. In a 12-month double blind randomized placebo trial, elderly women, mean age 66 years, were randomized to one of seven daily oral doses of vitamin D or placebo. The main inclusion criterion for study was a baseline serum 25OHDvitamin D on falls followed a U-shaped curve whether analyzed by dose or serum 25OHD levels. There was no decrease in falls on low vitamin D doses 400, 800 IU, a significant decrease on medium doses 1600, 2400,3200 IU (p=0.020) and no decrease on high doses 4000, 4800 IU compared to placebo (p=0.55). When compared to 12-month serum 25OHD quintiles, the faller rate was 60% in the lowest quintile <25ng/ml (<50nmol/L), 21% in the low middle quintile 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmo/L), 72% in the high middle quintile 38-46ng/ml (95-115nmo/L) and 45% in the highest quintile 46-66ng/ml (115-165nmol/L). In the subgroup with a fall history, fall rates were 68% on low dose, 27% on medium doses and 100% on higher doses. Fall rates on high doses were increased compared to medium doses (Odds Ratio 5.6.95% CI: 2.1-14.8). In summary, the maximum decrease in falls corresponds to a 12- month serum 25OHD of 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmol/L) and faller rates increase as serum 25OHD exceed 40-45ng/ml (100-112.5nmol/L). The Tolerable upper limit (TUL) recently increased in 2010 from 2000 to 4000 IU/day may need to be reduced in elderly women especially in those with a fall history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 on the Expression of Interleukin-17 and -21 in an Asthma Mice Model

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    RJ Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 on the expression of interleukin (IL-17 and IL-21 in asthma by establishing an asthma mice model. Methods: Forty female Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control group (group A, n = 10, asthma group (group B, n = 10, 1,25(OH2D3 intervention group (group C, n = 10 and dexamethasone treatment group (group D, n = 10. Asthma mice model was established and subsequently treated with different intervention. The airway lesions in mice were observed and the serum IL-17, IL-21 and immunoglobulin E (IgE levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of IL-17 and IL-21 in lung tissues. Results:Serum IL-17 and IgE levels in groups B, C and D were remarkably higher than those in group A, especially in group B (F = 31.276, 18.677, p < 0.01. However, serum IL-21 level in group A was the highest, significantly higher than the other three groups (F = 22.406, p < 0.01. Immunohistochemical test revealed that the expression of IL-17 in group B was significantly higher than that in groups A, C and D, while IL-21 was strongly expressed in groups A and D but weakly expressed in group B. Conclusion: In the pathogenesis of asthma, 1,25(OH2D3 intervention can reduce the expression of IL-17 but elevate the expression of IL-21, suggesting it has a certain effect on asthma.

  10. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

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    Louise Hansen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L; for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L. Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L. Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI of 1.68 (1.25–2.35 of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children.

  11. Noncalcemic adverse effects and withdrawals in randomized controlled trials of long-term vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malihi, Zarintaj; Wu, Zhenqiang; Mm Lawes, Carlene; Scragg, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide evidence for a possible beneficial impact of vitamin D supplementation on health outcomes beyond bone health, but there are few reviews of noncalcemic adverse effects from long-term supplementation. The aims of this systematic review of vitamin D supplementation in RCTs were as follows: to determine whether all adverse effects, when combined, are reported equally between treatment arms; to identify the most common noncalcemic adverse effects reported; and to ascertain whether withdrawal rates, as a marker of clinical adverse effects, differ between treatment arms. The MEDLINE Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically up to May 2016. Randomized controlled trials that met the following criteria were selected: administered vitamin D2 or D3 supplements for a minimum supplementation or follow-up period of 24 weeks, had a placebo/control group, and were conducted among adults (≥ 18 y). Two researchers independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data, and carried out quality assessment of selected studies. A total of 128 studies with 52 297 participants were identified. A random-effects model was used to calculate risk ratios in a meta-analysis. Long-term vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation, compared with placebo, did not increase all adverse effects, when combined, as reported in 62 studies with 19 389 participants (relative risk [RR] = 0.97; 95%CI, 0.92-1.02). Vitamin D also did not increase the risk of the most common noncalcemic adverse effects: gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 27 studies with 9189 participants (RR = 1.01; 95%CI, 0.87-1.17), and dermatological symptoms were reported in 8 studies with 1695 participants (RR = 1.33; 95%CI, 0.82-2.15). Vitamin D did not increase withdrawals from 123 studies with 41 861 participants (RR = 1.03; 95%CI, 0.96-1.09). However, participants given vitamin D were more likely to report withdrawals than

  12. Determinação de 25-hidroxivitamina D2 e D3 em plasma por CLAE-DAD Determination of 25-hidroxy-vitamin D2 and D3 in plasma by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Manuele Kich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O interesse pela vitamina D nos últimos anos teve aumento significativo. Estudos epidemiológicos realizados têm demonstrado um crescente aumento da deficiência de vitamina D entre a população. O marcador diagnóstico de escolha para determinar os níveis de vitamina D é a concentração de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OHD, com suas frações D2 (25(OHD2 e D3 (25(OHD3. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma metodologia analítica empregando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD para a determinação de 25(OHD3 e 25(OHD2 em plasma. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 25(OHD3 e 25(OHD2 foram extraídos das amostras de plasma com hexano, utilizando-se dodecafenona como padrão interno (PI. Utilizou-se coluna analítica ACE 5 C18 com partículas de 5 µm e dimensões de 150 × 4,6 mm, fase móvel metanol-água (80:20; v/v e quantificação em 265 nm. RESULTADOS: A exatidão foi entre 98,4 e 107,5%. A precisão intraensaios esteve entre 6,5% e 9,2% para 25(OHD3 e entre 3,7% e 8,7% para 25(OHD2. A precisão interensaios esteve entre 2,9% e 6% para 25(OHD3 e entre 4% e 4,5% para 25(OHD2. O limite inferior de quantificação foi 10 ng/ml. As concentrações encontradas em amostras de 32 pacientes idosos estiveram entre 10,1 e 32,4 ng/ml, caracterizando deficiência de vitamina D nesse grupo. DISCUSSÃO O método foi capaz de quantificar 25(OHD2 e 25(OHD3 com uma preparação de amostra relativamente simples e rápida. O método foi seletivo, com separação adequada dos metabólitos e do padrão interno e sem presença de interferentes. CONCLUSÃO: O método desenvolvido apresenta desempenho analítico adequado e pode ser aplicado em condições clínicas.INTRODUCTION: The interest in vitamin D has increased significantly in recent years. Epidemiological studies conducted over the past 25 years have shown a steady increase in vitamin D deficiency. The diagnostic marker of choice to determine vitamin D levels is the

  13. Vitamins K and D status in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Vitamin K, vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins and vitamin D may be involved in the regulation of calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design, setting, participants and measurements: Vitamin K and D status was measured as dietary intake, plasma phylloquinone, se...

  14. The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status

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    Patricia H. C. Rondó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and iron deficiencies are important nutritional problems, affecting particularly preschool children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA literature review was carried out to search for clinical trials published from 1992 to 2013 that assessed the influence of vitamin A supplementation on iron status. Simultaneous use of iron and vitamin A supplements seemed to be more effective to prevent iron deficiency anemia than the use of these micronutrients alone. Some studies did not include a placebo group and only a few of them assessed vitamin A status of the individuals at baseline. Moreover, the studies did not consider any inflammatory marker and a reasonable number of iron parameters. Another important limitation was the lack of assessment of hemoglobin variants, especially in regions with a high prevalence of anemia. Assessment of hemoglobin variants, inflammatory markers and anemia of chronic inflammation would be important to the studies investigated. Studies involving different populations are necessary to elucidate the interaction between the two micronutrients, especially regarding iron absorption and modulation of erythropoiesis.

  15. Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.

  16. Monochromatic excimer light versus combination of topical steroid with vitamin D3 analogue in the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo: a randomized blinded comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Azmy Ahmed; Ibrahim, Shady Mahmoud Attia

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a difficult disease to treat, socially stigmatizing its patients. Monochromatic excimer light (MEL) was developed for use in dermatology and adapted for the treatment of vitiligo. Comparing the efficacy of MEL versus topical combination therapy of vitamin D3 analogue and steroid in the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo. Forty-four patients with localized and stable nonsegmental vitiligo participated in the present study. In each patient, two lesions were selected and divided randomly into two groups, group A was treated with daily topical combination of calcipotriol and betamethasone and group B was treated with biweekly sessions of MEL for 3 months. Efficacy based on repigmentation percentages were blindly evaluated by two independent physicians and patient's satisfaction. There was significant improvement in both treatment modalities at the end of the study, but without significant differences in both groups. There was a significant difference between both groups regarding the onset of repigmentation (p-value vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

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    François Feron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  18. Vitamin B-12 supplementation improves arterial function in vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T; Chook, P; Qiao, M; Tam, L; Poon, Y K P; Ahuja, A T; Woo, J; Celermajer, D S; Woo, K S

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarians are more vascular-healthy but those with subnormal vitamin B-12 status have impaired arterial endothelial function and increased intima-media thickness. We aimed to study the impact of vitamin B-12 supplementation on these markers, in the vegetarians. Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised crossover study. Community dwelling vegetarians. Fifty healthy vegetarians (vegetarian diet for at least 6 years) were recruited. Vitamin B-12 (500 µg/day) or identical placebo were given for 12 weeks with 10 weeks of placebo-washout before crossover (n=43), and then open label vitamin B-12 for additional 24 weeks (n=41). Flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were measured by ultrasound. The mean age of the subjects was 45±9 years and 22 (44%) were male. Thirty-five subjects (70%) had serum B-12 levels vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 levels, proposing a novel strategy for atherosclerosis prevention.

  19. Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Gene Polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI) and their Relation to Vitamin D Status in Pediatrics ��eta Thalassemia Major

    OpenAIRE

    Elhoseiny, Shereen Mohamed; Morgan, Dalia Saber; Rabie, Asmaa Mohamed; Bishay, Samer Tharwat

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is critical for calcium, phosphate homeostasis and for mineralization of the skeleton, especially during periods of rapid growth. Vitamin D Deficiency leads to rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults). Expression and activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are necessary for the effects of vitamin D, in which several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified especially (FokI, BsmI). In this study serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked ...

  20. Subclinical inflammation influences the association between Vitamin A-And iron status among schoolchildren in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, Abdul Razak; Azupogo, Fusta; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective In resource-poor settings, micronutrient deficiencies such as Vitamin A deficiency may coexist with iron-deficiency. In this study we assessed the iron and Vitamin A status of schoolchildren and the association between Vitamin A and iron status. Methods A cross-sectional

  1. Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Anne-Kathrin; Obeid, Rima; Weder, Stine; Awwad, Hussain M; Sputtek, Andreas; Geisel, Juergen; Keller, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier. Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status. Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo ( n = 34) or vitamin B-12 ( n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects ( n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements. Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02679833. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Regulatory multitasking of tolerogenic dendritic cells – lessons taken from Vitamin D3-treated tolerogenic dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana eNikolic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs work through silencing of differentiated antigen-specific T cells, activation and expansion of naturally occurring T regulatory cells (Tregs, transfer of regulatory properties to T cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs. Due to an operational definition based on T cell activation assays, the identity of tolerogenic DCs has been a matter of debate and it need not represent a specialized DC subset. Human tolerogenic DCs generated in vitro using inhibitory cytokines, growth factors, natural immunomodulators or genetic manipulation have been effective and several of these tolerogenic DCs are currently being tested for clinical use. Ex vivo generated tolerogenic DCs reduce activation of naïve T cells using various means, promote a variety of regulatory T cells and most importantly, frequently show stable inhibitory phenotypes upon repetitive maturation with inflammatory factors. Yet, tolerogenic DCs differ with respect to the phenotype or the number of regulatory mechanisms they employ to modulate the immune system. In our experience, tolerogenic DCs generated using the biologically active form of vitamin D (VD3-DCs, alone or combined with dexamethasone are proficient in their immunoregulatory functions. These tolerogenic DCs show a stable maturation-resistant semi-mature phenotype with low expression of activating co-stimulatory molecules, no production of the IL-12 family of cytokines and high expression of inhibitory molecules and IL-10. VD3-DCs induce increased apoptosis of effector T cells and induce antigen-specific regulatory T cells, which work through linked suppression ensuring infectious tolerance. Lessons learned on VD3-DCs help understanding the contribution of different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and secondary signals to the tolerogenic function and how a cross-talk between DCs and T cells translates into immune regulation.

  3. Plasma 3-Epi-25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Can Alter the Assessment of Vitamin D Status Using the Current Reference Ranges for Pregnant Women and Their Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajafari, Fariba; Field, Catherine J; Rabi, Doreen; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Maggiore, Jack A; O'Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Ross, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is critical for healthy pregnancies and normal fetal development. It is important to accurately ascertain vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns to establish the optimal vitamin D concentration during pregnancy. There are many different metabolites and epimers of vitamin D in peripheral blood and controversy as to the importance of epimers in estimating vitamin D status in maternal and infant health. We undertook this study to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites and epimers and their relations in maternal and cord blood and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion of epimers on assessing vitamin D status. We performed a substudy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada [APrON (Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition) Study]. Maternal and cord blood plasma collected at the time of newborn delivery was stored at -70°C until testing and assayed for 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], and 3-epi-25-hydroxycholecalciferol [3-epi-25(OH)D3] by using LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 on estimates of vitamin D adequacy was explored by using McNemar's chi-square test at both recommended thresholds of 50 and 75 nmol/L. Ninety-two pairs of maternal and cord blood samples were obtained. 3-Epi-25(OH)D3 was detected in all samples, comprising 6.0% and 7.8% of 25(OH)D3 in maternal and cord blood, respectively. Positive correlations were found between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 for both maternal and cord blood (maternal blood: r = 0.34, P = 0.01; cord blood: r = 0.44, P = 0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed a significant association between vitamin D supplementation and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in maternal and cord blood (β: 0.423; 95% CI: 0.173, 0.672). When 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was not included in plasma vitamin D estimations, 38% of women and 80% of neonates were classified as having an insufficient concentration (women and neonates, respectively. Using LC

  4. Short-term vitamin D3 supplementation lowers plasma renin activity in patients with stable chronic heart failure: an open-label, blinded end point, randomized prospective trial (VitD-CHF trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroten, Nicolas F; Ruifrok, Willem P T; Kleijn, Lennaert; Dokter, Martin M; Silljé, Herman H; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kema, Ido P; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2013-08-01

    Many chronic heart failure (CHF) patients have low vitamin D (VitD) and high plasma renin activity (PRA), which are both associated with poor prognosis. Vitamin D may inhibit renin transcription and lower PRA. We investigated whether vitamin D3 (VitD3) supplementation lowers PRA in CHF patients. We conducted a single-center, open-label, blinded end point trial in 101 stable CHF patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Patients were randomized to 6 weeks of 2,000 IU oral VitD3 daily or control. At baseline, mean age was 64 ± 10 years, 93% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 35% ± 8%, and 56% had VitD deficiency. The geometric mean (95% CI) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 48 nmol/L (43-54) at baseline to 80 nmol/L (75-87) after 6 weeks in the VitD3 treatment group and decreased from 47 nmol/L (42-53) to 44 nmol/L (39-49) in the control group (P CHF patients had VitD deficiency and high PRA levels. Six weeks of supplementation with 2,000 IU VitD3 increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and decreased PRA and plasma renin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Vitamin K and Association with Hepatic Vitamin K Status in a Yup'ik Study Population from Southwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Nicholas T; Ryman, Tove; Rettie, Allan E; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; Black, Jynene; Philip, Jacques; Yracheta, Joseph; Fohner, Alison E; Reyes, Morayma; Thornton, Timothy A; Austin, Melissa A; Thummel, Kenneth E

    2017-11-02

    The relationship between dietary vitamin K and plasma PIVKA-II concentration, a biomarker of hepatic vitamin K status, in a Yup'ik study population in southwestern Alaska is investigated. A total of 659 male and female, self-reported Yup'ik people, ≥14 years of age, were enrolled. Blood is collected for genotyping and plasma PIVKA-II biomarker analysis. A Yup'ik-specific dietary food frequency questionnaire is used to assess vitamin K intake. Among the participants, 22% report not consuming foods rich in vitamin K during the past year and 36% have a PIVKA-II concentration ≥ 2 ng mL-1 , indicating vitamin K insufficiency. The odds of an elevated PIVKA-II concentration are 33% lower in individuals reporting any versus no consumption of vitamin-K-rich foods. The association is significant after adjusting for CYP4F2*3 genotype. Tundra greens are high in vitamin K1 content, but an exploratory analysis suggests that subsistence meat sources have a greater effect on vitamin K status. A substantial proportion of the Yup'ik population exhibits vitamin K insufficiency, which is associated with low consumption of vitamin K rich foods and which might affect an individual's response to anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin that target the vitamin K cycle. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. [Estimation of vitamin status of moscow student according to data on vitamins intake and their levels in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Solntseva, T N; Pogozheva, A V; Khanferyan, R A; Berketova, L V; Lipatova, L P

    Supply with vitamins C, A, E and B2 of 61 high school students (38 girls and 23 boys, aged 18–22 years, body mass index – 23.0±0.6 kg/m2) by means of determination of blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid, retinol and carotenoids, tocopherols and riboflavin has been investigated in the period from May to September. All students were well supplied with vitamin C (only 2 boys had a reduced level of ascorbic acid) and vitamin A. Decreased level of carotenoids was more common in boys (48 versus 24% in girls). 20% of the students were insufficiently supplied with vitamin E, 38% – with vitamin B2. 39% of students (50% girls and 22% boys) were adequately provided with all studied vitamins. 5% of the students had a combined deficiency of 3 vitamins, 20% – 2 vitamins. Student’s sufficiency with vitamins B2, C, A, E, carotenoids did not depend on the season. Diet intake of vitamins C, A, carotenoids and vitamin B2 has been calculated basing on the data on the frequency of food consumption during the previous month. Reduced consumption relatively to the Russia RDA of vitamins В2, C and А took place in 63, 54 and 46% of the students respectively. The lack of vitamin B2 in the diet was most pronounced, the value of probabilistic risk corresponded to the average level in 34% of students. Average probabilistic risk of inadequate intake of vitamin A was present in 17% of students, vitamin C – 6%. Coincidence of the results of vitamin C and A status assessment obtained by calculation of vitamin diet intake and by biochemical methods (concentration of vitamins in the blood plasma) was 94 and 83%. These methods are interchangeable if you select the value of the average probability of risk failure intake of these vitamins as a criterion. Proportion of coinciding results of the estimation of vitamin B2 status was 56%. Special well-designed studies on larger sample surveyed are needed for the final output of the interchangeability of methods to assess riboflavin

  7. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  8. Vitamin D status among pulmonary TB patients and non-TB controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Range, Nyagosya; Changalucha, John

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about vitamin D status in low-income populations burdened with infectious diseases. Hence, there is a need for data on correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and its validity during infections.......Little is known about vitamin D status in low-income populations burdened with infectious diseases. Hence, there is a need for data on correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and its validity during infections....

  9. Associations between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes measures among Inuit in Greenland may be affected by other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Rønn, Pernille F

    2016-01-01

    to the increase in type 2 diabetes, and therefore investigated associations between serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status and glucose homeostasis and glucose intolerance in an adult Inuit population. METHODS: 2877 Inuit (≥18 years) randomly selected for participation in the Inuit Health in Transition...... study were included. Fasting- and 2hour plasma glucose and insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c were measured, and associations with serum 25(OH)D3 were analysed using linear and logistic regression. A subsample of 330 individuals who also donated a blood sample in 1987, were furthermore included. RESULTS......: After adjustment, increasing serum 25(OH)D3 (per 10 nmol/L) was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.004), 2hour plasma glucose (0.05 nmol/L, p = 0.002) and HbA1c (0.39%, p

  10. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  11. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among Jordanians: Effect of biological and habitual factors on vitamin D status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Tawfiq A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is cutaneously synthesized following sun exposure (vitamin D3 as well as it is derived from dietary intake (vitamin D3 and D2. Vitamin D2 and D3 are metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. This metabolite is considered the functional indicator of vitamin D stores in humans. Since Jordan latitude is 31°N, cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 should be sufficient all year round. However, many indications reveal that it is not the case. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the 25(OHD status among Jordanians. Methods Three hundred healthy volunteers were enrolled in a cross sectional study; 201 females and 99 males. 25(OHD and calcium concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and spectroscopy techniques, respectively. All participants filled a study questionnaire that covered age, sex, height, weight, diet, and dress style for females. Females were divided according to their dress style: Western style, Hijab (all body parts are covered except the face and hands, and Niqab (all body parts are covered including face and hands. Results The average plasma 25(OHD levels in males and females were 44.5 ± 10.0 nmol/l and 31.1 ± 12.0 nmol/l, respectively. However, when female 25(OHD levels were categorized according to dress styles, the averages became 40.3, 31.3 and 28.5 nmol/l for the Western style, Hijab and Niqab groups, respectively. These 25(OHD levels were significantly less than those of males (p Conclusions Very low plasma 25(OHD levels in females wearing Hijab or Niqab are highly attributed to low sunlight or UVB exposure. In addition, most of males (76% and Western style dressed females (90% have 25(OHD concentrations below the international recommended values (50 nmol/l, suggesting that although sun exposure should be enough, other factors do play a role in these low concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of vitamin D supplementation especially among

  12. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among Jordanians: Effect of biological and habitual factors on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallah, Eyad M; Hamad, Mohammad F; Elmanaseer, Mays A; Qinna, Nidal A; Idkaidek, Nasir M; Arafat, Tawfiq A; Matalka, Khalid Z

    2011-08-04

    Vitamin D is cutaneously synthesized following sun exposure (vitamin D3) as well as it is derived from dietary intake (vitamin D3 and D2). Vitamin D2 and D3 are metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). This metabolite is considered the functional indicator of vitamin D stores in humans. Since Jordan latitude is 31°N, cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 should be sufficient all year round. However, many indications reveal that it is not the case. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the 25(OH)D status among Jordanians. Three hundred healthy volunteers were enrolled in a cross sectional study; 201 females and 99 males. 25(OH)D and calcium concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and spectroscopy techniques, respectively. All participants filled a study questionnaire that covered age, sex, height, weight, diet, and dress style for females. Females were divided according to their dress style: Western style, Hijab (all body parts are covered except the face and hands), and Niqab (all body parts are covered including face and hands). The average plasma 25(OH)D levels in males and females were 44.5 ± 10.0 nmol/l and 31.1 ± 12.0 nmol/l, respectively. However, when female 25(OH)D levels were categorized according to dress styles, the averages became 40.3, 31.3 and 28.5 nmol/l for the Western style, Hijab and Niqab groups, respectively. These 25(OH)D levels were significantly less than those of males (p Hijab and Niqab groups (p Hijab and Niqab-dressed females have significantly less plasma calcium levels than males (p Hijab or Niqab are highly attributed to low sunlight or UVB exposure. In addition, most of males (76%) and Western style dressed females (90%) have 25(OH)D concentrations below the international recommended values (50 nmol/l), suggesting that although sun exposure should be enough, other factors do play a role in these low concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of vitamin D supplementation

  13. Long-term remission of adenoid cystic tongue carcinoma with low dose naltrexone and vitamin D3--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Naltrexone (ReVia®) is a long-acting oral pure opiate antagonist which is approved for the treatment of alcohol addiction as a 50mg per day tablet. The mechanism of action is complete opiate blockade, which removes the pleasure sensation derived from drinking alcohol (created by endorphins). Low Dose Naltrexone ("LDN") in the range of 3-4.5 mg per day has been shown to have the opposite effect - brief opiate receptor blockade with resulting upregulation of endogenous opiate production. Through the work of Bihari and Zagon, it has been determined that the level of the endogenous opiate methionine-enkephalin is increased by LDN. Met-enkephalin is involved in regulating cell proliferation and can inhibit cancer cell growth in multiple cell lines. Increased met-enkepahlin levels created by LDN thus have the potential to inhibit cancer growth in humans. Phase II human trials of met-enkephalin, case reports published by Berkson and Rubin, and the clinical experience of Bihari confirmed the potential role of LDN in treating pancreatic and other cancers. However, large scale trials are lacking and are unlikely to be funded given the current non-proprietary status of naltrexone. A case report is presented of successful treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma as further evidence of LDN's potential as a unique non-toxic cancer therapy.

  14. Vitamin D Status in Patients Operated for Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Comparison of Patients from Southern and Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Nordenström

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The interaction between vitamin D deficiency and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with PHPT from Spain and Sweden differed in vitamin D status and PHPT disease activity before and after surgery. Methods. We compared two cohorts of postmenopausal women from Spain (n=126 and Sweden (n=128 that had first-time surgery for sporadic, uniglandular PHPT. Biochemical variables reflecting bone metabolism and disease activity, including levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OHD and bone mineral density, BMD, were measured pre- and one year postoperatively. Results. Median preoperative 25(OHD levels were lower, and adenoma weight, PTH, and urinary calcium levels were higher in the Spanish cohort. The Spanish patients had higher preoperative levels of PTH (13.5 versus 11.0 pmol/L, P<0.001, urinary calcium (7.3 versus 4.1 mmol/L, P<0.001, and heavier adenomas (620 versus 500 g, P<0.001. The mean increase in BMD was higher in patients from Spain and in patients with vitamin D deficiency one year after surgery. Conclusion. Postmenopasual women with PHPT from Spain had a more advanced disease and lower vitamin 25(OHD levels. Improvement in bone density one year after surgery was higher in patients with preoperative vitamin D deficiency.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D status in children of immigrant background in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ahmed A; Gundersen, Thomas E; Haug, Anne M; Meyer, Haakon E

    2017-11-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status during infancy is important for child health and development. Several initiatives for improving vitamin D status among immigrant children have been implemented in Norway. The present study aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status and its determinants in children of immigrant background in Oslo. Cross-sectional study. Child health clinics in Oslo. Healthy children with immigrant background (n 102) aged 9-16 months were recruited at the routine one-year check-up from two child health clinics with high proportions of immigrant clients. Blood samples were collected using the dried blood spot technique and analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration using LC-MS/MS. Mean s-25(OH)D was 52·3 (sd 16·7) nmol/l, with only three children below 25 nmol/l and none below 12·5 nmol/l. There was no significant gender, ethnic or seasonal variation in s-25(OH)D. However, compared with breast-fed children, s-25(OH)D concentration was significantly higher among children who were about 1 year of age and not breast-fed. About 38 % of the children were anaemic, but there was no significant correlation between s-25(OH)D and Hb (Pearson correlation, r=0·1, P=0·33). Few children in the study had vitamin D deficiency, but about 47 % of the children in the study population were under the recommended s-25(OH)D sufficiency level of ≥50 nmol/l.

  16. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sadanand; Bhide, Vijayshri; Babhulkar, Ashish; Mahalle, Namita; Parab, Sonali; Thakre, Ravi; Kulkarni, Mohan

    2013-10-09

    Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status.

  17. Associations of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related polymorphisms with sex hormones in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; van Schoor, Natasja M; Sohl, E.; Zillikens, M Carola; Oosterwerff, M.M.; Schaap, L; Lips, P; de Jongh, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with sex hormones and gonadotropin concentrations remains inconsistent. Polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may underly these relationships. Our aim was to examine the relationship of vitamin D status and

  18. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  19. [Vitamin A and D status among child participants in a food supplementation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihayashi, Aline Yukari; Augusto, Rosangela Aparecida; Escaldelai, Fernanda Martins Dias; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A and D serum concentrations and risk factors for their deficiencies were investigated in children participating in a government-sponsored fortified milk program. The study used multivariate linear regression analysis with hierarchical selection of independent variables: socio-demographic conditions, children's health, food consumption, breastfeeding, fortified milk, exposure to sunlight, anthropometric measurements, and serum concentration of retinol and 25(OH)D. Vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency values were defined as Vitamin A and D intake was inadequate. Prevalence rates for vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were 19%, 6%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. Factors associated with low serum vitamin A were exclusive breastfeeding for less than 120 days, low maternal schooling, maternal unemployment, more consumers of fortified milk in the family, and low serum vitamin D. Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were low exposure to sunlight and low serum vitamin A. Nutritional education is needed to improve children's nutritional status.

  20. Application of dried blood spots to determine vitamin D status in a large nutritional study with unsupervised sampling: the Food4Me project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Ulrich; Baur, Manuela; Roos, Franz F; Brennan, Lorraine; Daniel, Hannelore; Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Mike; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hartwig, Kai; Kolossa, Silvia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Macready, Anna L; Manios, Yannis; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Saris, Wim H M; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Mathers, John C; Weber, Peter

    2016-01-28

    An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (Pvitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.

  1. Relationship between methylation status of vitamin D-related genes, vitamin D levels, and methyl-donor biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Beckett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is known for its role in the regulation of gene expression via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. More recently, a role for vitamin D in regulating DNA methylation has been identified as an additional mechanism of modulation of gene expression. How methylation status influences vitamin D metabolism and response pathways is not yet clear. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OHD and the methylation status of vitamin D metabolism enzyme genes (CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 and the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR. This analysis was conducted in the context of dietary vitamin D, and background methyl donor related biochemistry, with adjustment for several dietary and lifestyle variables. Percentage methylation at CpG sites was assessed in peripheral blood cells using methylation sensitive and dependent enzymes and qPCR. Standard analytical techniques were used to determine plasma 25(OHD and homocysteine, and serum folate and B12, with the relationship to methylation status assessed using multi-variable regression analysis. CYP2R1 and VDR methylation were found to be independent predictors of plasma 25(OHD, when adjusted for vitamin D intake and other lifestyle variables. CYP24A1 was related to plasma 25(OHD directly, but not in the context of vitamin D intake. Methyl-group donor biochemistry was associated with the methylation status of some genes, but did not alter the relationship between methylation and plasma 25(OHD. Modulation of methylation status of CYP2R1, CYP24A1 and VDR in response to plasma 25(OHD may be part of feedback loops involved in maintaining vitamin D homeostasis, and may explain a portion of the variance in plasma 25(OHD levels in response to intake and sun exposure. Methyl-group donor biochemistry, while a potential independent modulator, did not alter this effect.

  2. Vitamin D(3) at 50x AI attenuates the decline in paw grip endurance, but not disease outcomes, in the G93A mouse model of ALS, and is toxic in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianforcaro, Alexandro; Solomon, Jesse A; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that dietary vitamin D(3) at 10x the adequate intake (AI) attenuates the decline in functional capacity in the G93A mouse model of ALS. We hypothesized that higher doses would elicit more robust changes in functional and disease outcomes. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D(3) at 50xAI on functional outcomes (motor performance, paw grip endurance) and disease severity (clinical score), as well as disease onset, disease progression and lifespan in the transgenic G93A mouse model of ALS. Starting at age 25 d, 100 G93A mice (55 M, 45 F) were provided ad libitum with either an adequate (AI; 1 IU D(3)/g feed) or high (HiD; 50 IU D(3)/g feed) vitamin D(3) diet. HiD females consumed 9% less food corrected for body weight vs. AI females (P = 0.010). HiD mice had a 12% greater paw grip endurance over time between age 60-141 d (P = 0.015), and a 37% greater score during disease progression (P = 0.042) vs. AI mice. Although HiD females had a non-significant 31% greater CS prior to disease onset vs. AI females, they exhibited a significant 20% greater paw grip endurance AUC (P = 0.020) when corrected for clinical score. Dietary D(3) supplementation at 50x the adequate intake attenuated the decline in paw grip endurance, but did not influence age at disease onset, hindlimb paralysis or endpoint in the transgenic G93A mouse model of ALS. Furthermore, females may have reached the threshold for vitamin D(3) toxicity as evidence by reduced food intake and greater disease severity prior to disease onset.

  3. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  4. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Peter; Rafatnia, Farshid; Bäärnhielm, Maria; Fröbom, Robin; Korzunowicz, Greg; Lönnerbro, Ragnar; Hedström, Anna Karin; Eyles, Darryl; Olsson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Low vitamin D status at birth may be associated with risk of adult onset multiple sclerosis, but this link has not been studied directly. We assessed the relation between neonatal vitamin D concentrations, measured in stored blood samples, and risk of multiple sclerosis. This was a population-based case-control study in Sweden including 459 incident cases of multiple sclerosis and 663 controls, randomly drawn from a national population registry and frequency matched on sex, age, and residential area. There was no association between neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintile and risk of multiple sclerosis (crude odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.68-1.44, for the highest quintile compared to the lowest). Adjusting for a number of potential confounding factors in early life (month of birth, latitude of birth, breastfeeding) and in adult life (25-hydroxyvitamin D, sun exposure, vitamin D intake from dairy products, fatty fish consumption, smoking, body mass index at 20 years of age) as well as ancestry, multiple sclerosis heredity, and socioeconomic group did not considerably affect the result. At a broad population level, 25-hydroxyvitamin D at birth was not associated with risk of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  5. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  6. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  7. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, Fatimah M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Taha A. Kumosani; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking.

  9. Vitamin d status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who participate in pulmonary rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Durakovic, Amal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; however, no study has evaluated the influence of vitamin D status on effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). METHODS: We studied 311 patients, who participated in a 7-week outpatient PR. Vitamin D...

  10. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Increases Spine Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents and Young Adults with HIV Infection Being Treated with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Peter L; Stephensen, Charles B; Van Loan, Marta D; Schuster, Gertrud U; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Flynn, Patricia M; Gordon, Catherine M; Pan, Cynthia G; Rutledge, Brandy; Harris, D Robert; Price, Georgine; Baker, Alyne; Meyer, William A; Wilson, Craig M; Hazra, Rohan; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2017-08-21

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in youth receiving TDF. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 vs. placebo every 4 weeks for 48 weeks in youth ages 16-24 years with HIV, viral load <200 copies/mL, taking TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (TDF-cART) for ≥180 days. Participants (N=214) received a daily multivitamin containing VITD3 400 IU and calcium 162 mg, plus monthly randomized VITD3 50,000 IU (N=109) or placebo (N=105). Outcome was change from baseline to week 48 in lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD). Data presented are median (Q1, Q3). Participants were age 22.0 (21.0, 23.0) years, 84% male, and 74% black/African American. At baseline 62% had 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-OHD] <20 ng/mL. Multivitamin adherence was 49 (29, 69)%, and VITD3/placebo adherence 100 (100, 100)%. Vitamin D intake was 2020 (1914, 2168) and 284 (179, 394) IU/day, and serum 25-OHD concentration was 36.9 (30.5, 42.4) and 20.6 (14.4, 25.8) ng/mL at 48 weeks in VITD3 and placebo groups, respectively (P<0.001). From baseline to week 48, LSBMD increased by 1.15 (-0.75, 2.74)% in the VITD3 group (N=99; P<0.001) and 0.09 (-1.49, 2.61)% in the placebo group (N=89; P=0.25), without between-group difference (P=0.12). VITD3 group changes occurred with baseline 25-OHD <20 ng/mL (1.17 (-0.82, 2.90)%; P=0.004) and ≥20 ng/mL (0.93 (-0.26, 2.15)%; P=0.033). For youth taking TDF-cART, LSBMD increased through 48 weeks with VITD3 plus multivitamin, but not with placebo plus multivitamin, independent of baseline vitamin D status.

  11. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-09-01

    For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 microg/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150-999 microg/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 microg/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6-21 y. In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) micro g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required.

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vitamin D3-Supplemented Yogurt Drink Improves Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profiles in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Xing, Baoheng

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of vitamin D3-supplemented yogurt (VDY) drink on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. Participants aged 24-32 years in their second trimester were randomly assigned to consume either plain yogurt or VDY daily for 16 weeks. Metabolic and lipid profiles including levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were assessed at baseline (week 0) and end of trial (week 16). After 16 weeks of intervention, insulin-related variables including FPG and serum insulin levels were markedly lower in VDY group participants. Insulin resistance parameters, such as homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and β cell function, were also significantly reduced in VDY group participants. Moreover, levels of TAG, TC and LDL, as well as the TC to high-density lipoprotein ratio, had also significantly decreased in the VDY group. Daily consumption of VDY drink improves insulin resistance and lipid profiles in women with GDM. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Development of a validated UPLC method for simultaneous estimation of both free and entrapped (in solid lipid nanoparticles) all-trans retinoic acid and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and its pharmacokinetic applicability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Gaurav; Singla, Dinesh; Singh, Sukhjeet; Sahwney, Sudhir; Chauhan, Anurag S; Singh, Gagandeep; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in rat plasma. The method was validated over the linear range of 1.0-5000ng/ml (r(2)=0.999) for both vitamins with a limit of detection of 0.5ng/ml. Chromatographic separation was achieved using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) on an Acquity BEH RP 18 column (2.1mm×50mm, I.D. 1.7μm), with mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile:methanol:water (90:8:2, v/v/v), at a flow rate of 0.20ml/min and a total run time of 5min. Intra and inter-day variability (RSD) was ≤3.1%, and the accuracy varied between 95.4-99.9% and 95.3-101.1% respectively, for ATRA and 98.5-100.8% and 99.3-101.7%, respectively for vitamin D3. High recovery of ≥96.0% for ATRA and ≥87.80% for vitamin D3 was achieved. ATRA and vitamin D3 were stable in plasma under different storage and processing conditions. The method was applied to estimate the total drug content and entrapment efficiency of ATRA and vitamin D3 loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Concentration of these two agents was determined in rat plasma after simultaneous subcutaneous administration in free form or when loaded into SLNs thus establishing pharmacokinetic application of the developed procedure. Results indicated an improvement in AUC0-∞ by 5.4 times and 29.4 times for ATRA and vitamin D3, respectively, upon their incorporation into SLNs. Simultaneous administration of these two vitamins and their improved and prolonged bioavailability has scope for their use in treatment and control of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Whey protein isolate improves vitamin B12 and folate status in elderly Australians with subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Almond, Theodora; Cavuoto, Paul; James-Martin, Genevieve; Fenech, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) contains vitamin B12 and folate. However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B12 was not previously tested. We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and genome integrity biomarkers in elderly individuals with low vitamin B12 status. The effect of WPI was compared to soy protein isolate (SPI). In this randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial, 56 subclinically vitamin B12 -deficient participants received 50 g WPI or 50 g SPI as a control for 8 wk followed by 16-wk washout phase and then cross-over to alternative supplement for next 8 wk. Consumption of WPI resulted in significant increase in serum active B12 (p B12 and folate status. Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B12 status. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation for chronic liver diseases in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Bjelakovic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is often reported in people with chronic liver diseases. Therefore, improving vitamin D status could have a beneficial effect on people with chronic liver diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation in people...... that compared vitamin D at any dose, duration, and route of administration versus placebo or no intervention in adults with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D could have been administered as supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)), or an active form of vitamin D (1α...... in the remaining nine trials were vitamin D insufficient (less than 20 ng/mL). All trials administered vitamin D orally. Mean duration of vitamin D supplementation was 0.5 years and follow-up was 0.6 years. Eleven trials (831 participants; 40% women; mean age 52 years) tested vitamin D3, one trial (18 men; mean...

  17. Low serum vitamin D-status, air pollution and obesity: A dangerous liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Savastano, Silvia; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Nappi, Francesca; Albanese, Lidia; Orio, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the possible associations among the vitamin D status, air pollution and obesity. Sunlight exposure accounts in humans for more than 90 % of the production of vitamin D. Among emerging factors influencing sunlight-induced synthesis of vitamin D, prospective and observational studies proved that air pollution constitutes an independent risk factor in the pathogenesis of vitamin D hypovitaminosis. In addition, environmental pollutants can affect risk of obesity when inhaled, in combination with unhealthy diet and lifestyle. In turn, obesity is closely associated with a low vitamin D status and many possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. The associations of air pollution with low vitamin D status on the hand and with obesity on the other hand, could provide a rationale for considering obesity as a further link between air pollution and low vitamin D status. In this respect, a vicious cycle could operate among low vitamin D status, air pollution, and obesity, with additive detrimental effects on cardio-metabolic risk in obese individuals. Besides vitamin D supplementation, nutrient combination, used to maximize the protective effects against air pollution, might also contribute to improve the vitamin D status by attenuating the "obesogen" effects of air pollution.

  18. Efeitos do Ácido L-Glutâmico e da Vitamina D3 nos Fêmures e Tibiotarsos de Pintos de Corte Effects of L-Glutamic Acid and Vitamin D3 on Femur and Tibiotarsus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alvares da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de três níveis (5, 10 e 15% de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu e quatro níveis (0, 5000, 10.000 e 15.000 UI/kg de vitamina D3 (VD nos parâmetros ósseos de pintos de corte machos, Hubbard. Os animais foram criados em baterias aquecidas e alimentados, à vontade, com dietas de aminoácidos purificados de 1 a 14 dias de idade. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado 3 x 4, com quatro repetições de sete aves cada. Observaram-se comprimentos máximos (37,61 e 50,36 mm, com 9,51% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD e 9,99% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD, para o fêmur e tibiotarso, respectivamente. O diâmetro do fêmur (3,62 mm e tibiotarso (3,17 mm aumentou até o nível máximo estimado, de 10,49% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD, e 11,04% de L-Glu e 15.000 UI de VD, respectivamente. A resistência máxima estimada para o fêmur (52,47 kgf/mm foi determinada com 7,57% de L-Glu e 8.978 UI, e a do tibiotarso (43,35 kgf/mm com 6,24% de L-Glu e 12.591 UI de VD. Não foi observado efeito de tratamento nas concentrações de proteínas colagenosas (PC no fêmur, que foi constante e igual a 23,44 mg/100 g. As menores concentrações de proteínas não-colagenosas (PNC (2,5 mg/100 g e 2,15 mg/100 g foram obtidas com 9,32% e 9,73% de L-Glu, no fêmur e tibiotarso, respectivamente. As maiores concentrações de proteínas totais (PT no fêmur e tibiotarso foram de 30,04 mg/100 g e 30,03 mg/100 g. As aves alimentadas com 10% de L-Glu apresentaram adequado desenvolvimento dos ossos, baixas concentrações de PNC nos ossos e menor incidência de problemas de pernas.An experiment was conducted to study the effects of three levels (5, 10 and 15% of L-Glutamic Acid (L-Glu and four levels (0, 5000, 10,000 and 15,000 IU/kg of diet of vitamin D3 (VD on bone parameters of 14 days male broilers, Hubbard. They were fed purified amino acid diets and reared in electrically

  19. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2014-06-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ∑PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ∑PCB/day). Mean level of ∑PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (pwildlife. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  1. Investigation of the vitamin D nutritional status in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Jin, Qiaer; Bao, Yuanyuan; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ling

    2017-01-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, which has relation with GDM, during the pregnant period. To study the Vitamin D nutritional status of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the middle and late pregnancy and analyze the different sources of Vitamin D intake. A total of ninety-eight pregnant women with GDM were enrolled voluntarily in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, Vitamin D supplement intake and control group. The level of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D) and the sources of Vitamin D intake and the frequency of food consumption rich in Vitamin D were investigated. The incidence rate of Vitamin D deficiency (nutritional balance of Vitamin D.

  2. Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status is associated with better lower extremity function: a prospective analysis of two knee osteoarthritis cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Loeser, Richard F; McAlindon, Timothy E; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-17

    Vitamins K and D are important for the function of vitamin K-dependent proteins in joint tissues. It is unclear if these nutrients are mutually important to functional outcomes related to knee osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the association of vitamin K and D sufficiency with lower-extremity function in the Health, Aging Body Composition Knee OA Sub-study (Health ABC) and conducted a replication analysis in an independent cohort, the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). In Health ABC (60% female, 75±3 years) baseline nutrient status was measured using circulating vitamin K and 25(OH)D. Lower-extremity function was assessed using the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and usual 20-meter gait speed. In the OAI (58% female, 61±9 years), baseline nutrient intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. Lower-extremity function was assessed using usual 20-meter gait speed and chair stand completion time. Multivariate mixed models were used to evaluate the association of vitamin K and D status and intake with lower-extremity function over 4-5 years. Health ABC participants with sufficient plasma vitamin K (≥1.0 nmol/L) and serum 25(OH)D (≥50 nmol/L) generally had better SPPB scores and faster usual gait speed over follow-up (p≤0.002). In the OAI, sufficient vitamin K and vitamin D intake combined was associated with overall faster usual gait speed and chair stand completion time over follow-up (p≤0.029). Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status was associated with better lower-extremity function in two knee OA cohorts. These findings merit confirmation in vitamin K and D co-supplementation trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  4. The vitamin D status in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Elizabeth Veit

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no consensus on the vitamin D status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. AIM: To determine the vitamin D status of patients with IBD by comparing their serum 25(OHD concentration to that of healthy controls. HYPOTHESIS: Serum 25(OHD concentration will be lower in patients with IBD compared to controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-controlled retrospective study of subjects with IBD (n = 58 of 2-20 years (male n = 31, age 16.38±2.21 years; female n = 27, age 16.56±2.08 years and healthy controls (n = 116; male n = 49, age 13.90±4.59 years; female n = 67, age 15.04±4.12 years. Study subject inclusion criteria: diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD or ulcerative colitis (UC. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD of (<20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/L, overweight as BMI of ≥85th but <95th percentile, and obesity as BMI ≥95th percentile. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: Patients with CD, UC, and their controls had mean serum 25(OHD concentrations of 61.69±24.43 nmol/L, 53.26±25.51, and 65.32±27.97 respectively (ANOVA, p = 0.196. The overweight/obese controls had significantly lower 25(OHD concentration compared to the normal-weight controls (p = 0.031; whereas 25(OHD concentration was similar between the normal-weight and overweight/obese IBD patients (p = 0.883. There was no difference in 25(OHD between patients with UC and CD, or between subjects with active IBD and controls. However, IBD subjects with elevated ESR had significantly lower 25(OHD than IBD subjects with normal ESR (p = 0.025, as well as controls (65.3±28.0 nmol/L vs. 49.5±25.23, p = 0.045. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in mean serum 25(OHD concentration between children and adolescents with IBD and controls. However, IBD subjects with elevated ESR have significantly lower 25(OHD than controls. Therefore, IBD subjects with elevated ESR should be monitored for vitamin D

  5. Vitamin A status affects the efficacy of iron repletion in rats with mild iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, A.J.C.; West, C.E.; Beynen, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    In populations with vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A administration in addition to supplemental iron has been shown to further improve blood indicators of iron status. To obtain clues to associated changes at the level of organ indicators of iron status, we have attempted to mimic previous human

  6. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency occur frequently in youth with HIV infection, particularly among those receiving the antiretroviral drug efavirenz. Optimal vitamin D dosing for treatment is unclear. Objective: Measure change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) concentration from basel...

  7. Vitamin D status among families in Denmark: Baseline data from the vitmad study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katja Howarth; Mejborn, Heddie; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The beneficial effect of vitamin D in bone health is acknowledged and the vitamin has also been associated with several chronic diseases. It is therefore relevant to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in different groups, and vitamin D statuses within...... families have not been studied previously. The objective of the present study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among families in Denmark (56 °N) after seasonal UVB peak and to ascertain determining factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 755 children and adults (4......-60 y) recruited as families in the VitmaD study. Blood samples were collected in September-October 2010, and vitamin D status was measured as serum 25(OH)D concentration by LC-MS/MS. Vitamin D intake and life style factors were assessed in self-administered questionnaires. Determinants of vitamin D...

  8. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E

    2016-06-01

    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal relationship between vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Kroll

    Full Text Available Interpretation of parathyroid hormone (iPTH requires knowledge of vitamin D status that is influenced by season.Characterize the temporal relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels [25(OHD3] and intact iPTH for several seasons, by gender and latitude in the U.S. and relate 25-hydrovitamin D2 [25(OHD2] levels with PTH levels and total 25(OHD levels.We retrospectively determined population weekly-mean concentrations of unpaired [25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3] and iPTH using 3.8 million laboratory results of adults. The 25(OHD3 and iPTH distributions were normalized and the means fit with a sinusoidal function for both gender and latitudes: North >40, Central 32-40 and South 65 pg/mL. The percentage of patients deficient in 25(OHD3 seasonally varied from 21% to 48% and the percentage with elevated iPTH reciprocally varied from 28% to 38%. Patients with detectable 25(OHD2 had higher PTH levels and 57% of the samples with a total 25(OHD > 50 ng/mL had detectable 25(OHD2.25(OHD3 and iPTH levels vary in a sinusoidal pattern throughout the year, even in vitamin D2 treated patients; 25(OHD3, being higher in the summer and lower in the winter months, with iPTH showing the reverse pattern. A large percentage of the tested population showed vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations held across three latitudinal regions, both genders, multiple-years, and in the presence or absence of detectable 25(OHD2, and thus are applicable for patient care.

  10. Vitamin K and other markers of micronutrient status in morbidly obese patients before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, M; Harrington, D J; Botha, A; McGowan, B; Wierzbicki, A S

    2015-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur in morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin deficiencies prior to bariatric surgery including vitamin K about which there is little data in this population. A prospective assessment of 118 consecutive patients was performed. Clinical allied with haematological and biochemical variables were measured. Micronutrients measured included vitamins K1 , PIVKA-II (protein-induced in vitamin K absence factor II), vitamin D, vitamin B12 (holotranscobalamin), iron, transferrin and folate. Patients were aged 49 ± 11 [mean (SD, standard deviation)] years, body mass index (BMI) 50 ± 8 kg/m(2), 66% female and 78% Caucasian. Hypertension was present in 47% and type 2 diabetes in 32%. Vitamin D supplements had been prescribed in 8%. Micronutrient insufficiencies were found for vitamin K (40%), vitamin D (92%) and vitamin B12 (25%), and also iron (44%) and folate (18%). Normocalcaemic vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism was present in 18%. Iron and transferrin levels were associated with age, sex and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Vitamin K levels were associated with age, and inversely with BMI and diabetes mellitus; and PIVKA-II with smoking, triglycerides and liver function markers. Vitamin D levels were associated with statin use and prescription of supplements and inversely with BMI. Vitamin B12 levels were associated with ethnicity and HbA1c. Micronutrient status shows differing relationships with age, gender and BMI. Vitamin K insufficiency was present in 40% and not related to deficiencies in other vitamins or micronutrients. Vitamin D and vitamin K supplementation should be considered prebariatric surgery in patients with diabetes or severe insulin resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  12. Vitamin D status in the first 9 months of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Súsanna við Streym

    2012-01-01

    1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), og i sidste ende kræft. For at uddybe disse forhold har jeg gennemført fire studier: 1) Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life – a cohort study, 2) Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) of tibia in 9 month old infants......: Relations to gender and to maternal and infant plasma 25OHD and PTH levels, 3) The effect of season of birth on the later risk of infections and selected chronic diseases like MS, T1DM, cancer, schizophrenia, and acute myocardial infarct og 4) The stability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in human blood during...

  13. [The vitamin status of pregnant women in Moscow: effect of multivitamin-mineral supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Sokolnikov, A A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Gmoshinskaya, M V

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the vitamin status of 102 pregnant women (19-41 years old) from Moscow (gestational age 6-38 weeks) in winter and spring 2015 has been conducted. The lack of vitamin B2 (blood serum level of riboflavin vitamin B6 (vitamin A (vitamins C (>0.4 mg/dL) and B12 (>150 ng/L). The frequency of the combined deficiency of two vitamins was 29%, of three vitamins - 21%, four - 10%, five - 5%. Only 8% of women were sufficiently supplied with all 8 studied vitamins and β-carotene. A positive correlation (pvitamin E and gestation term occurred. β-Carotene blood serum level raised with increasing gestation term in women receiving multivitamin-mineral supplements (VMS) and directly correlated (pvitamin E serum level. In 63 women who were not taking VMS, blood serum level of vitamins A, D, C, B2, B6, B12, folic acid and β-carotene was lower, and the frequency of inadequate supply, on the contrary, was significantly higher, compared to 39 women receiving VMS. Blood serum concentration of vitamins C, A, D, B6 and folic acid in women who were not taking VMS was significantly reduced (pvitamin blood serum level was maintained at a constant level. The data obtained demonstrate advisability of VMS intake during pregnancy to maintain vitamin status of pregnant women at a satisfactory level and to reduce the risk of birth defects in infants.

  14. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

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    Brian Gushulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OHD for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OHD than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health.

  15. The relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis

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    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relation between Vitamin D deficiency with depressive and fatigue symptoms in both Multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy population have been reported. To represent our regional achievement in this field we investigated the relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms in MS patients. Materials and Methods: In two hundred MS patients, depressive symptoms and fatigue were measured using Beck PC (BDI-PC and FFS scale, respectively. Venous blood sample was obtained from all participants and serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Mean score of FSS, BDI-PC and EDSS were compared in patients with normal and low level of Vitamin D. The relation between FSS, BDI-PC score, EDSS and low Vitamin D status was determined. Results: There was a moderate significant correlation between MS disability evaluated by EDSS and fatigue (r = 0.37, P < 0.001 and depression (r = 0.26, P < 0.001. The prevalence of low Vitamin D status was 48.5%. Low Vitamin D status was inversely associated with depressive symptoms of patients with MS (P = 0.02 rs = -0.16, but there was not significant correlation between Vitamin D and fatigue symptoms (P = 0.2. Conclusion: More interventional studies for determining the role of Vitamin D supplements in this regard is recommended.

  16. National immunisation days and vitamin A distribution in Mali: has the vitamin A status of pre-school children improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schémann, J F; Banou, A; Malvy, D; Guindo, A; Traore, L; Momo, G

    2003-05-01

    The impact on vitamin A status of the distribution of vitamin A during national immunisation days (NIDs) has not been well established despite strong promotion by international agencies and donors. Using a pre-post design, the change in prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was examined in pre-school children in Mali. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Mopti region, the first in March 1997 before this strategy was adopted and the second in March 1999, four-and-a-half months after a mass distribution of vitamin A during NIDs. We compared the vitamin A status of children aged 12 to 66 months targeted in 1999 by NIDs with the status of children in the same age group in 1997. Infectious events of the previous two weeks were concurrently recorded. Within the 1999 sample, the status of recipient and non-recipient children was also compared. In 1997, the prevalence of xerophthalmia (defined by the presence of night blindness and/or Bitot spots) was 6.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-9.2) and the modified retinol dose response (MRDR) test proved abnormal in 77.8% of 12-66-month-old children (95% CI 68.27-85.17). In 1999 this picture had improved significantly, both for xerophthalmia prevalence, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1-5.2), and abnormal MRDR test response, 63.1% (95% CI 54.25-71.23). The infectious morbidity rates between 1997 and 1999 tended to decrease. No significant improvement was found among children older than those targeted by NIDs. In 1999, children who received vitamin A had a lower risk for xerophthalmia (3.0% for recipients vs. 8.7% for non-recipients) and experienced fewer infectious events. The clinical and biological vitamin A status of pre-school children improved between 1997 and 1999. Mass distribution of vitamin A appears to reduce the occurrence of xerophthalmia and would seem to be associated with a decrease in other related illnesses. Vitamin A supplementation during NIDs should be given a high priority when vitamin A deficiency remains a public

  17. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy

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    Birna Thorisdottir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139 and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OHD level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9 and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L. A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.08–1.49, blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83–43.23 or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16–27.32 compared to winter/spring, and 25(OHD at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002–1.04 were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OHD at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003. Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  18. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-08-09

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts.

  19. Gastric status and vitamin B12 levels in cardiovascular patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Sipponen, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Proper absorption of vitamin B12 requires gastric corpus mucosa that functions appropriately and secretes intrinsic factor needed as an essential cofactor for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12 in the small bowel. Here we describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and atrophic corpus

  20. Gastric status and vitamin B12 levels in cardiovascular patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Sipponen, Pentti; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Proper absorption of vitamin B12 requires gastric corpus mucosa that functions appropriately and secretes intrinsic factor needed as an essential cofactor for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12 in the small bowel. Here we describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and atrophic corpus

  1. Roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and Vitamin D Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Regulating the Activation of CD4+ T Cells and the PKCδ/ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jie He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Density gradient centrifugation was performed to separate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. CD4+ T cells were separated using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS. CD4+T cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected and assigned into 9 groups: the normal control group, the normal negative control (NC group, the VDR siRNA group, the RA control group, the RA NC group, the VDR over-expressed RA group, the SLE control group, the SLE NC group, and the VDR over-expressed SLE group. The mRNA and protein expressions of VDR, PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was conducted to monitor the methylation status of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L. Results: Compared with healthy controls, serum 1,25(OH2D3 level and VDR mRNA expression in peripheral blood were decreased in SLE patients and RA patients. With the increase of concentrations of 1,25(OH2D3 treatment, the VDR mRNA expression and DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were declined, while the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were elevated in SLE, RA and normal CD4+T cells. Compared with the SLE contro, RA control, SLE NC and RA NC groups, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased in the VDR over-expressed SLE group and VDR over-expressed RA group. However, compared with the normal

  2. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  3. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-11-16

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  4. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  5. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  6. Determining vitamin D status: a comparison between commercially available assays.

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    Greta Snellman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is not only important for bone health but can also affect the development of several non-bone diseases. The definition of vitamin D insufficiency by serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D depends on the clinical outcome but might also be a consequence of analytical methods used for the definition. Although numerous 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays are available, their comparability is uncertain. We therefore aim to investigate the precision, accuracy and clinical consequences of differences in performance between three common commercially available assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from 204 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS, a radioimmunoassay (RIA and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA. High inter-assay disagreement was found. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were highest for the HPLC-APCI-MS technique (85 nmol/L, 95% CI 81-89, intermediate for RIA (70 nmol/L, 95% CI 66-74 and lowest with CLIA (60 nmol/L, 95% CI 56-64. Using a 50-nmol/L cut-off, 8% of the subjects were insufficient using HPLC-APCI-MS, 22% with RIA and 43% by CLIA. Because of the heritable component of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, the accuracy of each method could indirectly be assessed by comparison of within-twin pair correlations. The strongest correlation was found for HPLC-APCI-MS (r = 0.7, intermediate for RIA (r = 0.5 and lowest for CLIA (r = 0.4. Regression analyses between the methods revealed a non-uniform variance (p<0.0001 depending on level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are substantial inter-assay differences in performance. The most valid method was HPLC-APCI-MS. Calibration between 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays is intricate.

  7. Determining Vitamin D Status: A Comparison between Commercially Available Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellman, Greta; Melhus, Håkan; Gedeborg, Rolf; Byberg, Liisa; Berglund, Lars; Wernroth, Lisa; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is not only important for bone health but can also affect the development of several non-bone diseases. The definition of vitamin D insufficiency by serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D depends on the clinical outcome but might also be a consequence of analytical methods used for the definition. Although numerous 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays are available, their comparability is uncertain. We therefore aim to investigate the precision, accuracy and clinical consequences of differences in performance between three common commercially available assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from 204 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS), a radioimmunoassay (RIA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). High inter-assay disagreement was found. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were highest for the HPLC-APCI-MS technique (85 nmol/L, 95% CI 81–89), intermediate for RIA (70 nmol/L, 95% CI 66–74) and lowest with CLIA (60 nmol/L, 95% CI 56–64). Using a 50-nmol/L cut-off, 8% of the subjects were insufficient using HPLC-APCI-MS, 22% with RIA and 43% by CLIA. Because of the heritable component of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, the accuracy of each method could indirectly be assessed by comparison of within-twin pair correlations. The strongest correlation was found for HPLC-APCI-MS (r = 0.7), intermediate for RIA (r = 0.5) and lowest for CLIA (r = 0.4). Regression analyses between the methods revealed a non-uniform variance (pmethod was HPLC-APCI-MS. Calibration between 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays is intricate. PMID:20644628

  8. Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes are both determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations after UVB irradiation and after consumption of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk during winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how the genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes influences ultraviolet (UV)B–induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. In the Food with vitamin D (VitmaD) study, we showed that common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in 25-hydroxylase...... or 7.5 standard erythema doses during a 10-d period in winter. The VitmaD study included 201 healthy Danish families who were given vitamin D3–fortified bread and milk or placebo for 6 mo during the winter. Results: After UVB treatments, rs10741657 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 in GC predicted UVB-induced 25(OH...

  9. Baseline Selenium Status and Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Prostate Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, AR; Darke, AK; Morris, JS; Tangen, CM; Goodman, PJ; Thompson, IM; Meyskens, FL; Goodman, Ge; Minasian, LM; Parnes, HL; Lippman, SM; Klein, EA

    2014-01-01

    Background The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial found no effect of selenium supplementation on prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a 17% increased risk from vitamin E supplementation. This case-cohort study investigates effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation conditional upon baseline selenium status. Methods There were 1739 total and 489 high-grade (Gleason 7-10) PCa cases and 3117 men in the randomly selected cohort. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  10. The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, E.M.P.; Tieland, M.; Maase, K.; Kies, A.K.; Mensink, M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch athletes and to define the required dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency over the course of a year.Subjects/Methods:Blood samples were collected from 128 highly trained

  11. Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at

  12. The Effect of Vitamin D3 Alone and Mixed with IFN-γ on Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma Gondii (RH Strain Proliferation and Nitric Oxide (NO Production in Infected Macrophages of BALB/C Mice

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    E Al-Kawaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory interacelullar parasite that infects nucleated cells in its intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 on the multiplication of T. gondii in peritoneal macrophage of Balb/c mice and nitric oxide production by macrophages. Methods: According to usage of vitamin D3 (one dose or seven doses and INFγ in vitro and in vivo, this study was divided into four experiments. In all experiments, the macrophages were col­lected from peritoneum and cultured in RPMI-1640. Then the supernatants were collected after 24 h and their nitric oxide was measure. After 96 h, the macrophages were collected and stained and the number of tachyzoites was measured. Results: The first experiment (the mice were infected with tachyzoites and after 2 h, got one dose vita­min D3 intraperitonealy showed the best results. The mean of tachyzoites per macrophages was 2.37, and mean ± SD of nitric oxide was 187.8 ± 9.Discussion: High-level production of nitric oxide may be related to the only one injection of vita­min D3. The injection in long time might suppress the immune system.

  13. Vitamin D status in healthy Romanian caregivers and risk of respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojnicu, Alina C; Moroti-Constantinescu, Ruxandra; Laslau, Andrei; Lagunova, Zoya; Dahlback, Arne; Hristea, Adriana; Moan, Johan

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the vitamin D status during winter of a healthy population of hospital employees and to assess the correlation between vitamin D status and risk of infections in the upper respiratory tract. One hundred and ten healthy volunteers answered a questionnaire on their solar exposure habits and vitamin D intake and delivered one blood sample for quantification of vitamin D level (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration) during December 2007-January 2008. At the end of the winter we screened for the occurrence of respiratory infections and sought associations with vitamin D status. Bucharest, Romania, 45°N. One hundred and ten healthy hospital employees. Eighty per cent of participants were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D level below 50 nmol/l). The main determinant of serum 25(OH)D was sun exposure during the summer previous to the study (P = 0·02 in multivariate analysis). Intake of vitamin D, BMI and age played no significant role for the level of 25(OH)D. Overall we found a non-significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D level and new cases of infection (Spearman correlation coefficient of -0·12, P = 0·2). Vitamin D status is alarmingly poor in active, relatively young women residing in Romania. If our results are reproduced by other investigations, action to improve vitamin D status at the population level is necessary. We were not able to show a statistically significant relationship between vitamin D status and infection risk in our material.

  14. Relative importance of summer sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and genes to vitamin D status in Dutch older adults: The B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Vaes, A.M.M.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Swart, K.M.A.; Ham, A.C.; Dijk, van S.C.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among seniors is high. Whereas sun exposure, vitamin D intake, genes, demographics, and lifestyle have been identified as being important determinants of vitamin D status, the impact of these factors is expected to differ across

  15. Adulthood obesity is positively associated with adipose tissue concentrations of vitamin K and inversely associated with circulating indicators of vitamin K status in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased adiposity is associated with increased storage of several fat-soluble nutrients. However, the extent to which vitamin K is stored in fat and the association between vitamin K status and adiposity are unknown. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) if vitamin K is stored in huma...

  16. Vitamin D intake and status in Irish elderly women and adolescent girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, D.; Collins, A.; O’Brien, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess vitamin D status during summer and winter in Irish girls and elderly women, and to estimate vitamin D intake in these two age-groups. Methods Ambulatory free-living, elderly Irish women (aged 70-76 years; n = 43) and girls (aged 11-13 years; n = 17) were recruited. Fasting serums we...

  17. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Szczecinska, A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Souverein, O.W.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 µg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and

  18. Vitamin D Status and Optimal Supplementation in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen-Loisa, P.; Arvio, M.; Ilvesmaki, V.; Makitie, O.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disability (ID) have several risk factors for osteoporosis. Feeding problems with consequent nutritive deficiencies, and lack of sunshine exposure may lead to vitamin D deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status in adults with ID living in nursing homes and to compare two different…

  19. Concepts and controversies in estimating vitamin K status in population based studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of vitamin K's role in health and disease requires the assessment of vitamin K nutritional status in population and clinical studies. This is primarily accomplished using dietary questionnaires and/or biomarkers. Because food composition databases in the U.S. are most complete...

  20. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  1. Three-year follow-up of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and bone mineral density in nursing home residents who had received 12 months of daily bread fortification with 125 μg of vitamin D3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a single-arm clinical trial in institutionalized seniors, on the effects of high-dose vitamin D3-fortified bread daily intake (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT00789503). Methods At 1 and 3 years after the dietary fortification was stopped, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone mineral density were measured in 23 of the original study subjects, aged 60-82 years who had consumed bread buns (100 g) fortified with 320 mg elemental calcium and 125 μg (5,000 IU) vitamin D3 daily for one year. Results At the end of the 1-year supplementation phase (receiving vitamin D3 fortified bread daily), mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D was 127.3 ± 37.8 nmol/L (baseline for this follow-up). At 1-year follow-up, the serum 25(OH)D was 64.9 ± 24.8 nmol/L (p = 0.001, vs. baseline); and at 3-year follow-up it was 28.0 ± 15.0 nmol/L (p = 0.001 vs. baseline). Serum PTH was 18.8 ± 15.6 pg/ml at baseline while at Year 3 it was 48.4 ± 18.4 pg/ml (p = 0.001 vs. baseline). Lumbar spine BMD did not change from baseline to Year 3. However, by Year 3, hip BMD had decreased (0.927 ± 0.130 g/cm2 vs. 0.907 ± 0.121 g/cm2, p = 0.024). Conclusion Vitamin D nutritional status exhibits a long half-life in the body, and a true steady-state plateau may not even be reached 1 year after a discontinuation in dose. Furthermore, once the need for vitamin D has been established, based on a low baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the appropriate action is to maintain corrective vitamin D supplementation over the long term. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: NCT00789503 PMID:24120120

  2. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana; Stoian, Dana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy.

  3. Haemoglobin level in relation to vitamin D status in infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD is defined as the level of 25(OHD in the serum < 30 ng/ml. According to the contemporary research, even the slight vitamin D deficiency can adversely affect our body in many ways. Numerous studies indicate that vitamin D def