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Sample records for vitamin b-6 nutrition

  1. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Sources Vitamin B6 is found in: Avocado Banana Legumes (dried beans) Beef and pork Nuts Poultry ... Alternative Names Pyridoxal; Pyridoxine; Pyridoxamine Images Vitamin B6 benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food ...

  2. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  3. Determination of vitamin B-6 estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance for children aged 7-12 years using vitamin B-6 intake, nutritional status and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hsiao, Li-Ju; Lee, Yi-Chun; Hsuen, Shou-Ying

    2002-10-01

    The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin B-6 for children were recently estimated by extrapolating from adult values because of limited available information. To determine vitamin B-6 requirements and provide recommendations for intakes, vitamin B-6 intake, nutritional status and anthropometry of 168 healthy children (79 boys and 89 girls) were studied in Tainan, Taiwan. Direct and indirect vitamin B-6 status indicators were measured in plasma, erythrocytes and urine. Anthropometric data of children in this study were similar to those of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted in 1993-1996. The plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) concentration of each child was >/=30 nmol/L, indicating an adequate vitamin B-6 status. Daily dietary vitamin B-6 intakes of boys and girls were 0.80 +/- 0.16 and 0.74 +/- 0.16 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary vitamin B-6 intakes of children who had adequate urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) (>3.0 micro mol/L), erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficient (EALT-AC) (children who had adequate plasma PLP, although the percentages of adequacy for urinary 4-PA, EALT-AC and EAST-AC ranged from 20 to 91%. Vitamin B-6 status indicators were strongly correlated with vitamin B-6 intake. Adequate values of PLP, EALT-AC, EAST-AC and urinary 4-PA were used to determine the EAR according to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) committee methodology. We determined the vitamin B-6 EAR (RDA) for boys and girls aged 7-12 y to be 0.84 (1.01) and 0.75 (0.89) mg/d, respectively.

  4. Effects of vitamin B-6 nutrition on benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding in the developing rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, J.P.; Guilarte, T.R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1990-02-26

    A dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 promotes seizure activity in neonatal animals and human infants. Previous studied have shown that neonatal vitamin B-6 deprivation results in reduced levels of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased binding at the GABA site of the GABA/BDZ receptor complex. Since the GABA and BDZ receptors are allosterically linked, this study was undertaken to determine if vitamin B-6 deprivation had an effect on BDZ receptor binding. Benzodiazepine receptor binding isotherms using {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam as ligand were performed in the presence and absence of 10 {mu}M GABA. The results indicate a significant increase in the binding affinity (Kd) in the presence of GABA in cerebellar membranes from deficient rat pups at 14 days of age with no effect on receptor number (Bmax). By 28 days of age, the increase in Kd was no longer present. No change in Kd or Bmax was observed in cortical tissue from deficient animals at 14 or 28 days of age. Preliminary studies of GABA-enhancement of {sup 3}H-flunitrazepam binding indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency also induces alterations in the ability of GABA to enhance BZD receptor binding. In summary, these results indicate that the effects of vitamin B-6 deprivation on BDZ receptor binding are region specific and age related.

  5. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  6. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this effect. Taking a specific supplement containing garlic, amino acids (part of proteins), and vitamins such as folic ... a combination of fatty acids commonly found in fish oil (EPA and DHA) along with B vitamins, ...

  7. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  8. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer. Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Vitamin B 6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B 6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. ... African Health Sciences ... Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and homocysteine in different genotypes of ...

  10. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Halkjaer, J.; van Gils, C. H.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Ericson, U.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Waaseth, M.; Skeie, G.; Khaw, K. T.; Travis, R.; Ferrari, P.; Sanchez, M. J.; Agudo, A.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Weikert, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Evangelista, A.; Zylis, D.; Tsiotas, K.; Manjer, J.; van Guelpen, B.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods:

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  12. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  13. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  14. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

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    Sutton Mooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content varies in tubers of different genotypes. The results demonstrate that potato is an excellent resource for this vitamin and that strong natural variation in vitamin B6 content among the tested cultivars indicates high potential to fortify vitamin B6 nutrition in potato-based foods.

  15. Vitamin B6 is essential for serine de novo biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Rúben J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970590; Pras-Raves, Mia L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970345; Gerrits, Johan; van der Ham, Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810533; Willemsen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993833; Prinsen, Hubertus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250628228; Burgering, Boudewijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081474547; Jans, Judith J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256345732; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, plays an essential role in brain metabolism as a cofactor in numerous enzyme reactions. PLP deficiency in brain, either genetic or acquired, results in severe drug-resistant seizures that respond to vitamin B6

  16. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

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    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  17. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, Floris C; van Hasselt, Peter M; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated. The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL)) differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine). Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF. We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy), which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  18. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Low GABA is also associat- ... However, as vitamin B6 helps in synthesis of. GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter and whereas ..... (A)) receptor subunits and benzodiazepine binding: Sig- nificance to clinical syndromes and their treatment.

  19. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  20. Metabolomic analysis reveals extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jesse F; Park, Youngja; Lamers, Yvonne; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Lee, Kichen; Kim, Steven; da Silva, Vanessa; Hove, Nikolas; Ranka, Sanjay; Kahveci, Tamer; Muller, Keith E; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Jones, Dean P

    2013-01-01

    Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23) were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD) to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (Pvitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1)H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (Pvitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted Pvitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.

  1. Metabolomic analysis reveals extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency in healthy human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse F Gregory

    Full Text Available Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23 were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001 and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001. Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001 and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05. Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05, but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.

  2. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P G; Colombo, V E; Gerber, F; Howell, D S; Weiser, H

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of vitamin B6 would produce morphological characteristics of osteochondral lathyrism. To accomplish this goal, morphological characteristics of chick cartilage in which lathyrism was produced by two separate dietary regimens was compared to morphological changes encountered in vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 deficiency should reduce activity of lysyloxidase needed for producing intermolecular cross-links. The question to be addressed was: would this latter deficiency impair collagen morphological features and secondarily other structures indirectly by reducing collagen molecular assembly? Failure of cross-linking of collagen in the positive controls was related to a lack of functional aldehyde cross-link intermediates which are blocked by homocysteine and aminoacetonitrile. Day-old-male Lohmann chicks were fed adequate (6 mg/kg) or vitamin B6-deficient diets. Cross-link defects were induced by homocysteine-rich diets (0.6% w/w) or a diet containing aminoacetonitrile (0.1% w/w). Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age and Ossa tarsalia articular cartilage specimens, as well as the proximal end of tarsometatarsus were dissected from the tibial metatarsal joint, a major weight-bearing site. Light microscopic observations revealed reduction of subarticular trabecular bone formation, concurrent with overexpansion of the hypertrophic cell zone. Ultrastructural electron microscopy observation of articular fibro-cartilage indicated significant thickening of collagen fibers in vitamin B6 deficient birds, as well as the positive controls in comparison to that of cage-matched control birds. It was concluded that vitamin B6 deficient cross-linking may be responsible for the observed delay in bone development and aforementioned cartilage histological alterations.

  3. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  4. A multicenter comparison of whole blood vitamin B6 assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelst, Bertrand D.; de Beer, Roseri J. A. C. Roelofsen; Neele, Marjolein; Kos, Snjezana; Kema, Ido P.; Tegelaers, Frans P. W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Weykamp, Cas W.; de Jonge, Robert

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare different analytical methods that are currently in use in the Netherlands for the measurement of whole blood vitamin B6. Methods: This method comparison study consisted of two separate parts. (1) Four laboratories participated in a pilot study in

  5. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 and concentration of vitamin B6 in blood samples of German vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, A; Dörr, B; Koschizke, J W; Leitzmann, C; Hahn, A

    2006-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the dietary vitamin B6 intake and determine the vitamin B6 concentration in blood samples of German vegans. Cross-sectional study with 33 examination sites all over Germany. Subjects Ninety-three vegans (50 females) with a mean (+/- standard deviation (SD)) age of 43.7 +/- 15.7 years who took no vitamin supplements. Dietary intake was assed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) was calculated as the ratio of stimulated (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate added) to unstimulated activity in blood samples that were provided after an overnight fast. Mean +/- SD vitamin B6 intake was 2.83 +/- 0.98 mg day(-1) and mean +/- SD protein intake was 56.6 +/- 21.7 g day(-1). Of the participants 4% showed vitamin B6 intakes lower than daily recommended intakes for Germany, 16% showed EAST-AC > 1.85, and a further 58% showed EAST-AC of 1.5-1-85. Moderate vegans were affected to a lesser extent than strict vegans. None of the established confounders was a significant predictor of EAST-AC. In logistic regression analyses the contribution of nutriments and cereals to pyridoxine intake was the only predictor of EAST-AC classified as 1.85, respectively. In spite of the high total intake of vitamin B6, an adequate concentration in blood samples could not be realised for a majority of the participants. Due to the health implications of a marginal pyridoxine status, vegans should be encouraged to include foods with a high bioavailability of pyridoxine, such as beans, lentils and bananas, in the daily diet.

  6. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

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    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  7. Vitamins B2 and B6 and Genetic Polymorphisms Related to One-Carbon Metabolism as Risk Factors for Gastric Adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Agudo, Antonio; Sala, Nuria; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buechner, Frederike L.; Carneiro, Fatima; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goeran; Martinez, Carmen; Arrizola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Plebani, Mario; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  8. Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.; Vollset, S.E.; Hustad, S.; Midttun, O.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Agudo, A.; Sala, N.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Carneiro, F.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Arrizola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C; Rodriguez, L.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Morois, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Plebani, M.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  9. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  10. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  11. Increased concentrations of 3-hydroxykynurenine in vitamin B6 deficient neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, T R; Wagner, H N

    1987-12-01

    Increased concentrations of the endogenous tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) were measured in the brains of vitamin B6 deficient neonatal rats. Mean concentrations of 3-HK in B6 deficient cerebellum, corpus striatum, frontal cortex, and pons/medulla ranged from 9.7 to 18.6 and 102 to 142 nmol/g of wet tissue at 14 and 18 days of age, respectively. 3-HK was not significantly increased in control neonatal or adult rat brain, vitamin B6 deficient rat brain at 7 days of age, or in brains from adult rats deprived of vitamin B6 for 58 days. The administration of daily intraperitoneal injections of vitamin B6 from the 14th to the 18th day of age decreased the concentration of 3-HK to control levels. 3-HK has been shown by other investigators to produce seizures when injected into the cerebral ventricles of adult rodents. Thus, our studies show the accumulation in brain of a putative endogenous convulsant as the result of a nutritional deficiency.

  12. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338879250

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and,

  13. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338879250; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for

  14. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  15. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  16. Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muñoz, Xavier; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56–0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53–0.87, vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80–1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥ 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

  17. Anemia attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hajime; Fujiwara, Noriko; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, and selenium have been known to occur as a consequence of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but vitamin B6 deficiency has not been previously reported. We report two post-PD patients who developed anemias attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency. Oral supplementations of vitamin B6 significantly improved anemias in both cases. Micronutrients including vitamin B6 should be monitored in post-PD patients, and supplementations should be carried out when necessary. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  19. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Liyuan Chen; Christina Kühn; Roy Navarre; N. Richard Knowles; Hanjo Hellmann

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  20. Vitamin B-6 deficiency is common and associated with poor long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minović, Isidor; Riphagen, Ineke J; van den Berg, Else; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; van Faassen, Martijn; Gomes Neto, Antonio W; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gans, Reinold Ob; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Navis, Gerjan J; Kema, Ido P; Bakker, Stephan Jl

    2017-06-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported low circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5-phospate (PLP) in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). It is unknown whether this is because of low intake or altered handling, and it is also unknown whether variation in circulating concentrations of PLP influences long-term outcome.Objective: We compared vitamin B-6 intake and circulating PLP concentrations of RTRs with those of healthy controls and investigated long-term clinical implications of vitamin B-6 deficiency in stable outpatient RTRs.Design: In a longitudinal cohort of 687 stable RTRs (57% male; mean ± SD age: 53 ± 13 y) with a median (IQR) follow-up of 5.3 y (4.8-6.1 y) and 357 healthy controls (47% male; age 54 ± 11 y), baseline vitamin B-6 was measured as plasma PLP by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin B-6 deficiency was defined as PLP vitamin B-6 intakes in RTRs and healthy controls were 1.77 ± 0.49 and 1.85 ± 0.56 mg/d, respectively (P = 0.23). In these groups, the median plasma PLP concentrations were 29 nmol/L (17-50 nmol/L) and 41 nmol/L (29-60 nmol/L), respectively (P deficiency was present in 30% of RTRs compared with 11% of healthy controls. PLP concentrations were inversely associated with glucose homeostasis variables and inflammation variables (all P vitamin B-6 deficiency was associated with considerably higher mortality risk (HR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.48, 3.08) than a sufficient vitamin B-6 status, independent of potential confounders. No associations were observed for graft failure (P = 0.18).Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency is common in RTRs and does not seem to be a consequence of inadequate intake. In addition, this deficient state is clinically relevant and independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in RTRs. The cohort on which the study was based [TransplantLines Food and Nutrition Biobank and Cohort Study (TxL-FN)] was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02811835. © 2017 American Society for

  1. New ionophores for vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 potentiometric sensors for multivitaminic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana Rita; Araújo, Alberto N; Montenegro, M Conceição B S M; Chocholous, Petr; Solich, Petr

    2008-03-13

    The construction, evaluation and analytical application of potentiometric sensors sensitive to vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 are reported. The solid contact electrodes were produced using beta-cyclodextrins as ionophores in a carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) support matrix. Near Nernstian slopes (mV/decade) of 51.7+/-0.8, 60.6+/-0.6 and 61.1+/-1.4, within the intervals (M) of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-1), 5.8 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-1) and 4.3 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-1) were obtained, for thiamine and pyridoxine I and II prepared membranes, respectively. A pH operational range of 6.5-8.5 for thiamine and 2-4.5 for pyridoxine electrodes was found. Assessment of selectivity coefficients toward a large number of inorganic cations and organic cations usually present in multivitamin formulations revealed good performance. Analysis of vitamins B1 and B6 in complex multivitamin drugs was achieved with recoveries within the intervals of 95.1-99.6% for thiamine and 95.1-102% for pyridoxine. Furthermore, the results enabled by the proposed procedure revealed good agreement with those provided by HPLC.

  2. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  3. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  4. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  5. Relationships between Pregnancy and Vitamin B-6 Nutriture on Brain 3-Hydroxykynurenine Concentrations in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, J L; Smolen, A

    2000-01-01

    The kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan metabolism produces several neuroactive metabolites, including 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK). The pathway is subject to regulation by a number of effectors including pregnancy and availability of vitamin B-6. Vitamin B-6 depleted humans and animals excrete abnormally high concentrations of KYN metabolites in urine. In pregnancy, vitamin B-6 deficiency is commonly seen, and tryptophan metabolism is often found to be altered. We measured concentrations of 3HK in brains of DBA/2Ibg and A/Ibg mice as functions of pregnancy and dietary level of vitamin B-6. Pregnant DBA mice are more susceptible to flurothyl-induced seizures than controls, pregnant A mice are not. Significant elevations of 3HK were found in brains of pregnant mice, and the increases were greater in the pregnancy-associated seizure prone DBA, than in the A mice. In the A mice, brain 3HK concentrations were negatively correlated with dietary vitamin B-6 levels, as expected; however, in the DBA mice these correlations were positive, indicating an unusual response to vitamin B-6 restriction. The accumulation of a cytotoxic, excitatory metabolite, 3HK, in brain may contribute to the increased seizure susceptibility of susceptible pregnant mice, perhaps though its effects as an endogenous modulator of excitatory amino acid receptor systems.

  6. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  7. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  8. Efficacy of Vitamin B6 in the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maaroofi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many etiological factors have been proposed for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PDD and different drugs and techniques have been suggested for its treatment. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of PDD. Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study, 121 Women, aged 20-45 years, who according to DSM-4 criteria, had PDD were randomly divided into two groups to receive orally either vitamin B6 (group A 40 mg twice daily during luteal phase of their menstrual cycle or starch as placebo. Vitamin B6 and starch both were prepared in gelatin capsules with the same shape and color. Emotional and somatic scores for the severity of PDD symptoms were determined and compared between the two groups. Results: Emotional score decreased significantly in group A compared to group B and basal value. No changes in somatic scores were observed. Conclusion: It seems that vitamin B6 is an effective drug for relief of emotional symptoms in PDD. Keywords: Premenstrual Dysphric Disorder, Vitamin B6, Premenstrual Tension.

  9. [Studies on the state of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in Down's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F; Christeller, S; Rehm, W

    1975-09-11

    In 110 children-between 0-16 years of age-, 90 children with Down-syndrome and 20 controls the following metabolic parameter were analyzed: ETK (vitamin-B1-activating coefficient), EGR (vitamin B2), P-5'-P, EGOT (vitamin B6), GOT, GPT, pH, K, Na, Ca, Cl, uric-acid (HS). Among some important correlations between the different parameters it could be demonstrated-for the first time to our knowledge-that in Mongoloids a disturbance of the vitamin-B1-metabolism exists, certified by the so-called transketolase-test.

  10. Effects of excess vitamin B6 intake on cerebral cortex neurons in rat: an ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Agar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether excess of vitamin B6 leads to ultrastructural changes in cerebral cortex of forty-eight healthy albino rats which were included in the study. Saline solution was injected to to the control groups (CG-10, n=12 for 10 days; CG-15, n=12 for 15 days; CG-20, n=12 for 20 days. The three experimental groups (EG-10, n=12; EG-15, n=12; EG-20, n=12 were treated with 5 mg/kg vitamin B6 daily for 10 days (EG-10, 15 days (EG-15 and 20 days (EG-20. Brain tissues were prepared by glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide double fixation for ultrastructural analysis. No significant changes were observed in the control groups. The ultrastructural analysis revealed that the numbers of damaged mitochondria, lipofuscin granules and vacuoles were significantly higher in all the experimental groups than in the control groups (p<0.05. However, synaptic density was significantly decreased in the experimental groups as compared to the control groups (p<0.05. The results suggest that the excess of vitamin B6 intake causes damage to the cerebral cortex due to cellular intoxication and decreased synaptic density. Thus, careful attention should be paid to the time and dose of vitamin B6 recommended for patients who are supplemented with this vitamin

  11. Paternal intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 before conception and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Miller, Margaret; Greenop, Kathryn R; Bower, Carol; Attia, John; Marshall, Glenn M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    We investigated whether paternal dietary intake of folate before conception is associated with the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a nationwide case-control study. Data on dietary folate intake during the 6 months before the child's conception were collected from 285 case fathers and 595 control fathers using a dietary questionnaire. Nutrient intake was quantified using a customized computer software package based on Australian food composition databases. Data on folate intake were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for study-matching variables, total energy, and potentially confounding variables. In a subset of 229 cases and 420 controls, data on vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake were also analyzed. No consistent associations were seen with paternal dietary intake of folate or vitamin B6. Higher levels of paternal dietary vitamin B12 were appeared to be associated with an increased risk of childhood ALL, with those in the highest tertile of consumption having an OR of 1.51 (0.97, 2.36). The use of supplements containing folate and vitamins B6 or B12 was rare. We did not find any biologically plausible evidence that paternal nutrition in the period leading up to conception was associated with childhood ALL. Our finding for vitamin B12 may be a chance finding, given the number of analyses performed, or be attributable to participation bias because parents with a tertiary education had the lowest level of B12 intake and tertiary education was more common among control than case parents.

  12. Lung collagen and elastin after ozone exposure in vitamin B-6-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.A.; Dubick, M.A.; Gerriets, J.E.; Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A.; Rucker, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency and ozone exposure on selected features of connective tissue metabolism in lung were investigated in groups of weanling male rats fed one of three diets: B-6-supplemented, fed ad lib; B-6-deficient, fed ad lib; or B-6-supplemented, restricted to the food intake of deficient rats for 5 weeks. Also, perinatal rat pups were studied that were nursed from dams fed one of the 3 diets from parturition to day 15 of lactation. During the final week of each experiment, half of the rats in each of the groups were exposed to 0.64 ppm of ozone (23.5 h per day). The collagen and elastin content, collagen synthesis rate, total protein synthesis rate, and lysyloxidase activity of lungs were measured. Perinatal pups rendered vitamin B-6-deficient were particularly sensitive to ozone exposure (65% died as compared to fewer than 5% of the ad lib or food-restricted controls). When L-proline incorporation into collagen and total protein was investigated using lung minces, food restriction and B-6-deficiency resulted in about one-half the incorporation normally observed. Total lung lysyl oxidase activity was also decreased in B-6-deficient and food-restricted rats compared to B-6-supplemented rats fed ad lib. Exposure to ozone resulted in increased lysyl oxidase activity and collagen synthesis in lungs from B-6-supplemented rats, but such responses were not observed in B-6-deficient or food-restricted (FR) rats exposed to ozone.

  13. Vitamin B6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; van der Beek, E.J.; Orlebeke, J.F.; van den Berg, H.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation (20 mg pyridoxine HCL daily for 3 months) on mood and performance in 38 self-supporting healthy men, aged between 70-79 years. Effects were compared with 38 controls who received placebo and were matched for age, plasma

  14. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G

    1985-09-01

    In anesthetized dogs with chronically implanted cortical electrodes somatic sensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were produced by electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation of the tibial nerve at the calcaneus or of the short flexor muscles of the hind paw caused SEPs having characteristics following activation of rapidly conducting afferents from muscle spindles. Stimulation of the glabrous skin of the central pad resulted in SEPs arriving after a more protracted latency evidently related to activation of afferents from Merkel cells, Krause and Pacinian corpuscles known to be located at these sites. Stimulation of the hairy skin from the dorsal surface of the hindpaw produced a further type of SEP presumably resulting from activation of afferents from receptors of tylotrich hair follicles. Vitamin B6-induced neuropathy involves the selective degeneration of the largest neurons in the spinal ganglia and of associated long peripheral and central neurites performing rapid impulse transmission. In the course of vitamin B6 neuropathy the relatively slow impulse transmission following stimulation of the central pad was more severely impaired than the faster one after activation of afferents from muscle spindles or receptors from hair follicles. This allows us to conclude that in the dog afferents from the glabrous skin of the central pad conduct centrally via the dorsal columns, susceptible to vitamin B6 intoxication, while muscle and hair receptor afferents ascend in the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinocervical tract, respectively, which are vitamin B6 resistant.

  15. Vitamin B6 status of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemane Berhane

    alterations, and superimposed fetal metabolism and its needs. Vitamin B6 has been recognized as an essential micronutrient involved in normal fetal development, and positive pregnancy outcomes. It is essential for homocysteine metabolism. Its deficiency may lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia (2), which is an established.

  16. [Secondary cystathioninuria due to vitamin B 6 deficiency in familial neuroblastoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöchl, E

    1976-01-01

    In this study numerous amino acid analyses were performed in a family with increased incidence of tumors of the sympathetic nervous system. Since in 9 respectively 10 of a total of 13 surveyed persons an elevated urinary excretion of cystathionine was demonstrated with thin layer and column chromatographic methods, this constitutes the first report on cystathioninuria in familial neuroblastoma. Two family members also presented a homocystinuria in the spontaneously voided 24-hours urine. The only person whose plasma amino acids were analysed showed nearly normal levels. After oral loading with L-methionine the urinary excretion of cystathionine raised considerably. The different reaction of the two vitamin B6-dependent enzymes, cystathionine-synthetase and cystathionase, points at a different methionine induced sensitivity. The determination of pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxal kinase detected a vitamin B6-deficiency, which corresponded well with an increased excretion of oxalic acid and a low normal urinary taurin excretion. Therefore these alterations of the amino acids are explained and thus urinary excretion of cystathionine can be interpreted as secondary cystathioninuria. Furthermore it was possible to provoke corresponding biochemical changes by oral administration of vitamin B6 such as reduction of the cystathioninuria and disappearance of the homocystinuria. In an infant the cystathioninuria could be observed over a period for 5 months, by which a transitory deficiency of the apoenzyme appears to be unlikely. The analysis of 24 hours urine samples of a gravida showed the persistance of cystathioninuria also during pregnancy. After radiation of a 5 year old girl with ganglioneuroblastoma an increase of the urinary cystathionine excretion and a first occurrence of homocystinuria was noted. These observations give rise to various considerations. The vitamin-B6-deficiency in familial neuroblastoma supports the assumption, that also the cystathioninuria in

  17. Dietary folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer's disease: the cache county memory, health and aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C; Wengreen, H J; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C D

    2009-12-01

    To examine associations between dietary and supplemental folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) among elderly men and women. Data collected were from participants of the Cache County Memory, Health and Aging Study, a longitudinal study of 5092 men and women 65 years and older who were residents of Cache County, Utah in 1995. Multistage clinical assessment procedures were used to identify incident cases of AD. Dietary data were collected using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox Proportional Hazards (CPH) modeling was used to determine hazard ratios across quintiles of micronutrient intake. 202 participants were diagnosed with incident AD during follow-up (1995-2004). In multivariable CPH models that controlled for the effects of gender, age, education, and other covariates there were no observed differences in risk of AD or dementia by increasing quintiles of total intake of folate, vitamin B-12, or vitamin B-6. Similarly, there were no observed differences in risk of AD by regular use of either folate or B6 supplements. Dietary intake of B-vitamins from food and supplemental sources appears unrelated to incidence of dementia and AD. Further studies examining associations between dietary intakes of B-vitamins, biomarkers of B-vitamin status and cognitive endpoints are warranted.

  18. Vitamin B6 intake and the risk of incident kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-07-03

    Higher vitamin B6 intake might reduce urinary excretion of oxalate, one of the major determinants of risk for calcium oxalate kidney stones. Previous studies investigating the association between intake of vitamin B6 and risk of stones found conflicting results. We sought to investigate the association in three large prospective cohorts. We prospectively examined the association in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; n = 42,919 men), Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I; n = 60,003 older women), and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II; n = 90,629 younger women). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident stones across categories of total vitamin B6 intake (kidney stones were confirmed. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no association between intake of vitamin B6 and incident stones. The HR for stones in the highest category compared with the lowest was 1.05 (95% CI 0.85, 1.30; p value for trend = 0.61) for HPFS, 0.95 (95% CI 0.76, 1.18; p value for trend = 0.42) for NHS I, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.91, 1.24; p value for trend = 0.34) for NHS II. The pooled adjusted HR for the highest category compared with the lowest was 1.03 (95% CI 0.92, 1.15; p value for trend = 0.60). Intake of vitamin B6 is not associated with risk of incident kidney stones.

  19. The effects of vitamin B6 on lens antioxidant system in valproic acid-administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, S

    2014-06-01

    Valproic acid (VPA, 2-propyl pentanoic acid) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) and is commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorders and epilepsy. AEDs are known to result in vascular disturbances. Vitamin B6 (Vit B6) is water soluble vitamin essential for normal growth, development, and metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Vit B6 against VPA-induced lens damage in experimental animals. In this study, male 4-month-old, Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I was intact control animals. Group II rats were administered with Vit B6 (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Group III rats were administered with only VPA (500 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Group IV was given VPA + Vit B6 (in a same dose and time). Vit B6 was given to rats by gavage and VPA was given by intraperitoneally. On the 8th day of experiment, all of the animals were fasted overnight and then killed under ether anesthesia. Lens tissues were taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up a 10% homogenate. The homogenates was used for glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein levels, and enzyme analysis. In VPA groups, levels of lens GSH and LPO and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and aldose reductase were increased, while superoxide dismutase activity was decreased. Treatment with Vit B6 reversed these effects. These results demonstrated that administration of Vit B6 is potentially beneficial agent to reduce the lens damage in VPA toxicity, probably by decreasing oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Effect of D-penicillamine on vitamine B6 and collagen metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, T

    1979-11-01

    Although D-Penicillamine (D-PeA) administration is getting popular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the mechanism by which D-PeA produced therapeutic effect has not been fully elucidated. D-PeA had been shown to exert an antivitamine B6 effect. However, it has not been precisely confirmed if clinical dose of D-PeA induces vitamine B6 (VB6) deficiency. In order to clarify these questions, biochemical analyses of bone and skin collagens and determination of VB6 content in soft tissues have been performed in the rats administrated therapeutic dose of D-PeA. VB6 deficiency was not observed in the brain and skin from rats fed on normal diet containing D-PeA (13.0--33.5 mg/kg wt). There were no significant changes in the stability of collagen from bone and skin. On the other hand, significant VB6 deficiency and reduced stability of collagen were observed in rats fed on VB6 deficient diet containing the same amount of D-PeA. Aldehyde formation of collagen molecule and cross-link formation of collagen were also found to be suppressed. The same results were obtained from analyses in rats fed on VB6 deficient diet without D-PeA administration. These data indicate that D-PeA is not capable of producing VB6 deficiency in the dosage employed in patients. However, in the treatment for patients who are not taking enough nutrition, the possibility of VB6 deficiency can not be neglected. Once VB6 deficiency is induced by D-PeA administration, severe connective tissue disorder may be produced, since VB6 is required for enzymic activity of lysyl oxidase. It is unlikely that the therapeutic effects of D-PeA in the treatment of RA are produced the the disturbance of collagen cross-link formation as discussed before. Immunologic reactions of D-PeA may play more important role in the improvement of clinical symptoms of this disease.

  1. The triple synergy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, magnesium, and vitamin B6: Molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the triple effect of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS, organic magnesium salt (magnesium lactate, and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine.Material and methods. A systematic analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the triple synergic action of EMHPS, magnesium, and vitamin B6 was carried out. For chemoinformational analysis, the investigators developed a new mathematical method based on the combinatorial theory of solvability, which allows one to obtain quantitative estimates of the affinity constants of proteome proteins.Results. The pharmacological effects of the EMHPS molecule characterized by nootropic and antioxidant properties are shown to work in synergy with magnesium and vitamin B6. A systematic analysis of synergy interactions indicated 46 biological roles, in which the synergy of EMHPS, magnesium, and pyridoxine could be manifested. The main goals of this synergy are to protect neurons from damage, by combating excitotoxicity in the cells and to neutralize excess homocysteine (to reduce the risk of ischemic and thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary heart disease; to improve cognitive functions and neuromuscular transmission, to reduce anxiety, by activating acetylcholine, GABA, and dopamine receptors; to normalize lipid and glucose metabolism, by lowering hyperglycemia and improving the processing of fats.

  2. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  3. Drosophila selenophosphate synthetase 1 regulates vitamin B6 metabolism: prediction and confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two selenophosphate synthetases (SPSs in higher eukaryotes, SPS1 and SPS2. Of these two isotypes, only SPS2 catalyzes selenophosphate synthesis. Although SPS1 does not contain selenophosphate synthesis activity, it was found to be essential for cell growth and embryogenesis in Drosophila. The function of SPS1, however, has not been elucidated. Results Differentially expressed genes in Drosophila SL2 cells were identified using two-way analysis of variance methods and clustered according to their temporal expression pattern. Gene ontology analysis was performed against differentially expressed genes and gene ontology terms related to vitamin B6 biosynthesis were found to be significantly affected at the early stage at which megamitochondria were not formed (day 3 after SPS1 knockdown. Interestingly, genes related to defense and amino acid metabolism were affected at a later stage (day 5 following knockdown. Levels of pyridoxal phosphate, an active form of vitamin B6, were decreased by SPS1 knockdown. Treatment of SL2 cells with an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate synthesis resulted in both a similar pattern of expression as that found by SPS1 knockdown and the formation of megamitochondria, the major phenotypic change observed by SPS1 knockdown. Conclusions These results indicate that SPS1 regulates vitamin B6 synthesis, which in turn impacts various cellular systems such as amino acid metabolism, defense and other important metabolic activities.

  4. Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A; Coats, Bonnie S; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E; Bain, James R; Shankar, Meena N; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2012-10-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fed a 28-d, low-vitamin B-6 diet. Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6-adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6-restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency. Plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, FFA concentrations, and erythrocyte and PBMC membrane fatty acid compositions did not significantly change from baseline after the 28-d restriction. Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean ± SD) 548 ± 96 to 490 ± 94 μmol/L, 37 ± 13 to 32 ± 13 μmol/L, and 121 ± 28 to 109 ± 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency.

  5. Vitamin B1 and B6 method harmonization: comparison of performance between laboratories enrolled in the RCPA Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Kirsten E; Johnson, Lambro A; Woollard, Gerald A; Walmsley, Trevor A; Briscoe, Scott; Jolly, Lisa M; Gill, Janice P; Greaves, Ronda F

    2013-06-01

    The RCPA Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) offers monthly proficiency testing for vitamins A, B1, B6, β-carotene, C and E to laboratories worldwide. A review of the results submitted for the whole blood vitamin B1/B6 sub-program revealed a wide dispersion. Here we describe the results of a methodology survey for vitamins B1 and B6. A questionnaire was sent to thirteen laboratories. Eleven laboratories were returning QAP results for vitamin B1 (thiamine diphosphate) and five were returning results for vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). All nine respondents provided a clinical service for vitamins B1 and B6. HPLC with fluorescence detection was the most common method principle. For vitamin B1, six respondents used a commercial assay whilst three used in-house methods; whole blood was the matrix for all. For vitamin B6, five respondents used commercial assays and four used in-house assays. The choice of matrix for vitamin B6 varied with three respondents using whole blood and five using plasma for analysis. Sample preparation incorporated protein precipitation and derivatization steps. An internal standard was employed in sample preparation by only one survey respondent. The immediate result of this survey was the incorporation of plasma vitamin B6 into the RCPA QAP vitamin program. The absence of an internal standard in current vitamin B1 and B6 assays is a likely contributor to the wide dispersion of results seen in this program. We recommend kit manufacturers and laboratories investigate the inclusion of internal standards to correct the variability that may occur during processing. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-07-01

    The effects of irradiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (-20°C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooking procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4°C or -20°C. Irradiation at 4°C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20°C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction.

  7. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1, B6, B12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜR, Mahmure Üstün; KOYUNCU, İkbal

    2002-01-01

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1, B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 m gml-1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin B12 at 361.7 nm (r=0.9998). The method was successfully applied for analyzing synthetic mixtures and c...

  8. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  9. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70% and +61%, respectively than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. In both muscles of female rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32% ~ +226% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. We also found that compared to the 1 mg group, β-alanine concentrations in the 7 and 35 mg groups were markedly elevated in gastrocnemius muscles of male (+153% and +148%, respectively, P<0.05 and female (+381% and +437%, respectively, P<0.05 rats. Noteworthy, the concentrations of ornithine in the 7 and 35 mg groups were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of male rats (−46% and −54%, respectively, P<0.05, which strongly inversely correlated with β-alanine concentration (r=−0.84, P<0.01. In humans, 19% lower muscle carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle

  10. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions dependent, which is discussed in detail. The study revealed that the germinated chickpea grains can be used for human consumption with value addition of vitamin B-group in the diet of vegetarians.

  11. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutation carriers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shana J; Zuchniak, Anna; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Lubinski, Jan; Demsky, Rochelle; Eisen, Andrea; Akbari, Mohammad R; Kim, Young-In; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    B vitamins [vitamins B-6, B-9 (folate), and B-12] play important roles in nucleotide biosynthesis and biological methylation reactions, aberrancies of which have all been implicated in carcinogenesis. In the general population, evidence has suggested that high circulating folate and folic acid (synthetic form of folate) supplement use may increase breast cancer risk, but the role of folate in BRCA-associated breast cancer is not clear. We prospectively evaluated the relation between plasma folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the biologically active form of vitamin B-6), and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. Baseline blood samples and biennial follow-up questionnaires were available for 164 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers with no previous history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer. Plasma folate, PLP, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were categorized dichotomously as high compared with low based on the upper 25% and the lower 75% of distribution, respectively. Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the HR and 95% CI for the association between plasma biomarkers of each B vitamin and incident breast cancer. Over a mean follow-up of 6.3 y, 20 incident primary invasive breast cancers were observed. Women with high plasma folate concentrations (>24.4 ng/mL) were associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk (HR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.03, 9.92; P = 0.04, P-trend across quintiles = 0.07) compared with that of women with low plasma folate concentrations (≤24.4 ng/mL). Plasma PLP and vitamin B-12 concentrations were not associated with breast cancer risk. Our data suggest that elevated plasma folate concentrations may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. Additional studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up periods are warranted to clarify the relation between folate status and breast cancer risk in high-risk women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  13. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Presoto,Ana Elisa F; Rios,Magda D. G; Almeida-Muradian,Ligia B. de

    2004-01-01

    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  14. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, P G; Ziv, I; Cole, D E; Mahuren, J D; Donovan, S M; Yamauchi, M; Howell, D S

    1998-01-01

    A vitamin B6-deficiency-induced disorder in avian articular cartilage resembling osteoarthritis has been further characterized. We measured several parameters of proteoglycan (PG) metabolism, i.e., fixed charge density and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG) content in PN-deficient versus control articular cartilage and synovial fluid from the knee joint. Statistically significant changes were: 1) decreased content and increased extractability of total sulfated PGs from articular cartilage with guanidine HCl; 2) elevation of S-GAG concentration in synovial fluid; 3) increased plasma cystathionine (sulfur amino acid) levels. PG synthesis as assessed by 35SO4 incorporation into S-GAGs was not impaired. A lack of cartilage swelling in 0.15 M saline and the normal water content indicated that although disturbed, the collagen network was not disrupted. This finding was in agreement with a previous microscopic study that revealed no fissures in the articular cartilage. Previous findings of a normal aggregating PG size-distribution and absence of elevated metalloproteases made a disturbance of aggregating PG metabolism unlikely. Escape into the synovial fluid of small PGs, normally bound to articular collagen, was believed to result from an alteration in collagen molecular organization that could be secondary to elevated circulating SH-compounds.

  15. Lack of Association between Serum Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin D Levels with Different Types of Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although vitamins play a major role in health, and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of optic-nerve dysfunction, the association between serum vitamin levels and glaucoma in humans remains controversial. In this study, articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched up to 25March 2017. Nine studies on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, four studies on normal tension glaucoma (NTG, and six studies on exfoliative glaucoma (EXG were retrieved. The combined results showed no differences in the levels of serum vitamin B6 between POAG (p = 0.406 and EXG (p = 0.139 patients and controls. The weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 2.792 ng/mL (−3.793 to 9.377 and 1.342 ng/mL (−3.120 to 0.436, respectively. There was no difference between POAG (p = 0.952, NTG (p = 0.757, or EXG (p = 0.064 patients and controls in terms of serum vitamin B12. The WMDs with 95% CIs were 0.933 pg/mL (−31.116 to 29.249, 6.652 pg/mL (−35.473 to 48.777, and 49.946 pg/mL (−102.892 to 3.001, respectively. The serum vitamin D levels exhibited no differences (p = 0.064 between POAG patients and controls; the WMD with 95% CI was 2.488 ng/mL (−5.120 to 0.145. In conclusion, there was no association found between serum vitamin B6, vitamin B12, or vitamin D levels and the different types of glaucoma.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  17. EFFET DES VITAMINES B12, B9 ET B6 ET LEURS INTERACTIONS SUR LA FRAGILITE OSMOTIQUE DES ERYTHROCYTES HUMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B HOUCHER

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  18. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  19. DIETARY FOLATE, VITAMIN B-12, VITAMIN B-6 AND INCIDENT ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: THE CACHE COUNTY MEMORY, HEALTH, AND AGING STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    NELSON, C.; WENGREEN, H.J.; MUNGER, R.G.; CORCORAN, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between dietary and supplemental folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among elderly men and women. Design, Setting and Participants Data collected were from participants of the Cache County Memory, Health and Aging Study, a longitudinal study of 5092 men and women 65 years and older who were residents of Cache County, Utah in 1995. Measurements Multistage clinical assessment procedures were used to identify incident cases of AD. Dietary data were collected using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox Proportional Hazards (CPH) modeling was used to determine hazard ratios across quintiles of micronutrient intake. Results 202 participants were diagnosed with incident AD during follow-up (1995–2004). In multivariable CPH models that controlled for the effects of gender, age, education, and other covariates there were no observed differences in risk of AD or dementia by increasing quintiles of total intake of folate, vitamin B-12, or vitamin B-6. Similarly, there were no observed differences in risk of AD by regular use of either folate or B6 supplements. Conclusion Dietary intake of B-vitamins from food and supplemental sources appears unrelated to incidence of dementia and AD. Further studies examining associations between dietary intakes of B-vitamins, biomarkers of B-vitamin status and cognitive endpoints are warranted. PMID:19924351

  20. A Complex Interplay of Vitamin B1 and B6 Metabolism with Cognition, Brain Structure, and Functional Connectivity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jannusch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks. We thus assessed the relation between blood levels of vitamins B1 and B6 and cognitive performance, cortical folding, and functional resting-state connectivity in a large sample of older adults (N > 600; age: 55–85 years, drawn from the population-based 1000BRAINS study. In addition to blood sampling, subjects underwent structural and functional resting-state neuroimaging as well as extensive neuropsychological testing in the domains of executive functions, (working memory, attention, and language. Brain regions showing changes in the local gyrification index as calculated using FreeSurfer in relation to vitamin levels were used for subsequent seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis. For B6, a positive correlation with local cortical folding was found throughout the brain, while only slight changes in functional connectivity were observed. Contrarily, for B1, a negative correlation with cortical folding as well as problem solving and visuo-spatial working memory performance was found, which was accompanied by pronounced increases of interhemispheric and decreases of intrahemispheric functional connectivity. While the effects for B6 expand previous knowledge on beneficial effects of B6 supplementation on brain structure, they also showed that additional effects on cognition might not be recognizable in

  1. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Chun; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Li, Xin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Yu; Li, Xian-Feng; Liu, Ying-Ming; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Tian-Chang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations were performed. The feasibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and safety of cTTE and TEE for PFO recognition were compared. Evidence of PFO was found in 49 (39.20%) patients with cTTE, more than were detected with TEE (39, 31.20%) (χ 2 =5.0625, P=0.0244). cTTE had a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 84.88% for diagnosing PFO, showing high concordance with TEE for PFO recognition (κ=0.72). Further, results of a semi-quantitative evaluation of PFO-RLS by cTTE were better than those with TEE (Z=-2.011, P=0.044). No significant adverse reaction was discovered during cTTE examination. cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents has relatively good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RLS caused by PFO when compared with those for TEE. Using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents to perform cTTE is recommended for detecting and diagnosing the PFO due to its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost, and high feasibility.

  3. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  4. Simultaneous measurement of whole blood vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen-de Beer, R J A C; van Zelst, B D; Wardle, R; Kooij, P G; de Rijke, Y B

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin B1 and B6 have recently been included in the Dutch clinical guidelines for the general practitioner in the differential diagnosis of dementia. To keep up with the sharp rise in the number of requests, an LC-MS/MS method using stable isotopes as internal standards was developed. The active vitamers thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in whole blood are simultaneously measured with a short run time of 2min. Whole blood is mixed with internal standard solution containing both TPP-d3 and PLP-d3, followed by deproteinization with a trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution. A UPLC-MS/MS system from Waters™ was used for chromatographic separation and subsequent detection by electrospray ionization in the positive mode with mass transitions of 425.1>121.85 for TPP and 247.9>149.9 for PLP. The method is linear across the range of 12-4870 nmol/L for TPP and 6-4850 nmol/L for PLP. The mean intra-assay and inter-assay precision are 3.5% and 7.6% respectively for TPP and 3.4% and 6.1% for PLP. The relative matrix effect (TPP 97%, PLP 93%), recovery (TPP 99%, PLP 94%) and lower limit of quantification (TPP 12 nmol/L, PLP 6 nmol/L) meet the applied acceptance criteria. The comparison of the new LC-ESI-MS/MS method for TPP with our current HPLC-Fluorescence method for total thiamine yields the following equation: TPP LC-MS/MS=0.97×total thiamine HPLC - 10.61 (r2=0.94). The comparison of the new LC-ESI-MS/MS method for PLP with our current LC-ESI-MS/MS method results in PLP LC-MS/MS new=1.01×PLP LC-MS/MS old - 1.58 (r2=0.99). In conclusion, this LC-MS/MS based assay is characterized by simple sample processing with a short run time and comparison with the current methods is excellent. The new LC-MS/MS method is a convenient method to determine TPP and PLP in whole blood for both clinical routine and research applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Heru Yuniati; Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM) in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb), two types of eggs (chicken, duck), an...

  6. Kandungan Vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan E Beberapa Jenis Daging, Telur, Ikan dan Udang Laut di Bogor dan Sekitarnya (Vitamin B6, B9, B12 And E Content Of Several Types Of Meats, Eggs, Fishes And Marine Shrimps In Bogor And Surrounding Areas)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniati, Heru; Almasyhuri, Almasyhuri

    2012-01-01

    Food Composition Table (DKBM) in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb), two types of eggs (chicken, duck), and four spe...

  7. Antimutagenic evaluation of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in vitro and in vivo, with the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy Janett; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; de Angel, Beatriz López; Flores-Lozada, Jorge; Blasco, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate vitamins B antimutagenic effect against alkylatings methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), ethyl-N-nitro-N'- nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), frameshift mutagens 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 2-acetyl-amino-fluorene (2AF) and ROS-generating antibiotics norfloxacin (NOR) and nalidixic acid (NLX), using the in vitro Ames test. In vivo antimutagenesis studies were performed against urinary mutagens induced by NOR (70 mg/kg) or NLX (100 mg/kg) in CD1 mice. Vitamin B1 was antimutagenic against alkylatings MNNG (P<0.05) or ENNG (P<0.001). In fact as per the results observed during the current study, none of the vitamins reduced mutagenesis caused by frameshift mutagens. All of them reduced mutagenesis of NOR or NLX (P<0.001). In vivo studies showed that vitamins B1 and B6 (10 or 100 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens from NOR (P<0.001) or NLX (P<0.02) either free or β-glucoronidase-conjugates. None of the studied samples were toxic for the employed antimutagenic system. Vitamin B12 (4 mg/kg) reduced urinary mutagens of NOR or NLX (P<0.02). Vitamins B inhibited DNA mutations induced by ROS generated by NLX or NOR, both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamin B1is antimutagenic against mutations induced by the alkylating MNNG or ENNG. Based on the observations, employment of vitamins B in vivo can be a promising alternative to reduce genotoxic risk exposure to ROS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Combination Folic Acid, Vitamin B6 , and Vitamin B12 Supplementation on Fracture Risk in Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Katie L; Lui, Li-Yung; Christen, William G; Troen, Aron M; Bauer, Douglas C; Kado, Deborah; Schambach, Christopher; Cummings, Steven R; Manson, JoAnn E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association of elevated plasma homocysteine levels with greater bone resorption and fracture risk. Vitamins B12 , B6 , and folic acid are cofactors in homocysteine metabolism, and supplementation with B vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine levels in humans. However, randomized trials of supplemental B vitamins for reduction of fracture risk have been limited. Therefore, we performed an ancillary study to the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study (WAFACS), a large randomized trial of women with preexisting cardiovascular disease or three or more coronary risk factors, to test whether a daily B vitamin intervention including folic acid (2.5 mg/day), vitamin B6 (50 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/day) reduces nonspine fracture risk over 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up. Among 4810 women, we confirmed 349 nonspine fracture cases by centralized review of medical records. In a substudy of 300 women (150 in treatment group and 150 controls) with paired plasma samples at randomization and follow-up (7.3 years later), we measured two bone turnover markers, including C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and intact type I procollagen N-propeptide (P1NP). In Cox proportional hazards models based on intention-to-treat, we found no significant effects of B vitamin supplementation on nonspine fracture risk (relative hazard = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.34). In a nested case-cohort analysis, there were no significant effects of B vitamins on fracture risk among women with elevated plasma homocysteine levels, or low levels of vitamins B12 or B6 , or folate at baseline. Furthermore, treatment with B vitamins had no effect on change in markers of bone turnover. We found no evidence that daily supplementation with B vitamins reduces fracture risk or rates of bone metabolism in middle-aged and older women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American

  10. Methionine and vitamin B6 intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: a prospective study of Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary factors involved in methyl group metabolism, such as methionine, folate, and vitamin B(6), may modify cancer risk. We have previously reported an inverse association between folate intake and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective population-based cohort of Swedish women and men. In the present study, we used data from this prospective study to examine whether methionine and vitamin B(6) intakes were associated with the incidence of exocrine pancreatic cancer. Our study population comprised 81,922 Swedish women and men, aged 45-83 years, who were free from cancer and completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in 1997. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and intakes of total energy and dietary folate. During a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, through June 2005, 147 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed. Methionine intake was significantly inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas no significant association was observed for dietary or total vitamin B(6) intake. The multivariate rate ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of methionine intake were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.26-0.73; P for trend = .0005) in women and men combined, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.28-1.21; P for trend = .07) in women, and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.15-0.65; P for trend = .002) in men. These findings suggest that higher methionine intake may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  12. Nutrition Assessment of B-Vitamins in Highly Active and Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Hahn, Nicole L; Christensen, Megan M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda; Hansen, Christine M

    2017-03-26

    Female athletes and active women require adequate nutrition for optimal health and performance. Nutrition assessments are needed to identify potential nutrients of concern. Folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 function in important pathways used during physical activity and female athletes may be at risk for poor status of these micronutrients. This cross-sectional study described a comprehensive nutrition assessment of the B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) using both dietary (food and dietary supplements) and biochemical assessments among highly active and sedentary women. Highly active ( n = 29; age 20 ± 2 years; body mass index (BMI) 23.8 ± 3.5 kg/m²) and sedentary ( n = 29; age 24 ± 3 years; BMI 22.6 ± 3.0 kg/m²) women were recruited for this study. Participants completed 7-day weighed food records and a fasting blood draw. Although the highly active women reported higher intakes of energy ( p vitamin B6 ( p vitamin B12 ( p vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. All of the highly active women had biomarkers within the desired reference ranges, suggesting good status. In general, most participants were able to meet the 1998 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) from food alone. For the women that reported using dietary supplements, micronutrient intakes met the 1998 RDA and in some cases, exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. This nutrition assessment documented good status for folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in the highly active women. Similar assessment approaches (food, dietary supplements, and biomarkers) should to completed with other nutrients of concern for the female athlete.

  13. Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Combination and Age-Related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G; Glynn, Robert J; Chew, Emily Y; Albert, Christine M; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the incidence of cataract and cataract extraction in a trial of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12. In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, 5442 female health professionals aged 40 years or older with preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) or three or more CVD risk factors were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/day), vitamin B6 (50 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/day), or placebo. A total of 3925 of these women did not have a diagnosis of cataract at baseline and were included in this analysis. The primary endpoint was age-related cataract, defined as an incident age-related lens opacity, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Extraction of incident age-related cataract was a secondary endpoint of the trial. During an average of 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up, 408 cataracts and 275 cataract extractions were documented. There were 215 cataracts in the combination treatment group and 193 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, HR, 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.90-1.33; p = 0.36). For the secondary endpoint of cataract extraction, there were 155 in the combination treatment group and 120 in the placebo group (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.63; p = 0.04). In this large-scale randomized trial of women at high risk of CVD, daily supplementation with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no significant effect on cataract, but may have increased the risk of cataract extraction.

  14. Serious adverse drug reaction in a woman with hyperemesis gravidarum after first exposure to vitamin B complex containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Yoshimine; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Izumi, Akio; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2009-08-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman who suffered from hypotension after first exposure to intravenous administration of a combination drug containing vitamins B1, B6 and B12 (Vitamedin; Daiichi-Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan). A 27-year-old Japanese woman received an intravenous infusion of fluid containing a vitamin B complex due to hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty minutes after the start of infusion she was found to be in hypotension. The patient had stupor, general sweating, blood pressure of 82/50 mmHg, and low percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) of 88%. We immediately stopped the infusion, lifted her legs and administered oxygen. Three minutes after these treatments, she quickly recovered to a good general condition. A skin prick test for vitamin B12 was positive, but tests for B1, B6, mannitol and saline were negative, indicating this adverse reaction was one of drug hypersensitivity due to the vitamin B12 in Vitamedin. Patients should be observed carefully immediately after the administration of Vitamedin.

  15. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  16. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Lin, Ping-Ting; Liu, Hsiao-Tien; Peng, Yi-Shan; Huang, Shih-Chien; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n = 16) group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n = 17) group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β = -2.4, p = 0.02) but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β = -162.0, p = 0.03). Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  17. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Bin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n=16 group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n=17 group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β=-2.4, p=0.02 but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β=-162.0, p=0.03. Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  18. Dietary intake of B6-9-12 vitamins, serum homocysteine levels and their association with depressive symptoms: the Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Low B-vitamin status and high levels of serum homocysteine are found in depressed inpatients, but results of population-based studies of this association are inconclusive. We investigated whether a low dietary intake of B6-9-12 vitamins and high levels of serum homocysteine are associated

  19. Industrial fuel ethanol yeasts contain adaptive copy number changes in genes involved in vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambuk, Boris U; Dunn, Barbara; Alves, Sergio L; Duval, Eduarda H; Sherlock, Gavin

    2009-12-01

    Fuel ethanol is now a global energy commodity that is competitive with gasoline. Using microarray-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), we have determined gene copy number variations (CNVs) common to five industrially important fuel ethanol Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains responsible for the production of billions of gallons of fuel ethanol per year from sugarcane. These strains have significant amplifications of the telomeric SNO and SNZ genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of vitamins B6 (pyridoxine) and B1 (thiamin). We show that increased copy number of these genes confers the ability to grow more efficiently under the repressing effects of thiamin, especially in medium lacking pyridoxine and with high sugar concentrations. These genetic changes have likely been adaptive and selected for in the industrial environment, and may be required for the efficient utilization of biomass-derived sugars from other renewable feedstocks.

  20. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey -- the OTAP2009 study. III. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Bakacs, Márta; Zentai, Andrea; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Martos, Eva

    2012-07-15

    For the healthy status the adequate intake of vitamins is essential. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. This work presents the vitamins intake. The intake of all water soluble vitamins, vitamin E and D were significantly higher in men than in women. Favourable phenomena were the increased β-carotene and vitamin C intakes in men and women compared to the earlier data. Intakes of vitamin C, B1-, B2-, B6- and B12, and niacin meet the recommendations. Crucially low intakes of vitamin D and folate were calculated in both genders, particularly in the elders, mainly in case of vitamin D. Imperfect intakes of panthotenic acid and biotin were also observed. For maintaining the adequate vitamin supply and for prevention of vitamin deficiency, diversified nutrition, information of the population on the basic principles of healthy nutrition and availability of healthy food are essential.

  1. Effects of isolated vitamin B6 supplementation on oxidative stress and heart function parameters in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hack Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolated vitamin B6 (VB6 supplementation on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhe induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to their treatment. Animals received water and food ad libitum and an intragastric probe was used to administer water for 60 days (groups: CB6, HcyT, and HB6. On the 30th day of treatment, two groups were supplemented with VB6 in the drinking water (groups: CB6 and HB6. After 60 days of treatment, homocysteine (Hcy, cysteine, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST immunocontent, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and GST activities were measured. Results: The HcyT group showed an increase in Hcy concentration (62% in relation to the CB6 group. Additionally, GST immunocontent was enhanced (51% in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. Also, SOD activity was lower (17% in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group, and CAT activity was higher in the HcyT group (53% compared to the CB6 group. Ejection fraction (EF was improved in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. E/A ratio was enhanced in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group. Correlations were found between CAT activity with myocardial performance index (MPI (r = 0.71; P = 0.06 and E/A ratio (r = 0.6; P = 0.01, and between EF and GST activity (r = 0.62; P = 0.02. Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated VB6 supplementation may lead to the reduction of Hcy concentration and promotes additional benefits to oxidative stress and heart function parameters.   Keywords: Homocysteine; oxidative stress; vitamin B6.

  2. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    In this study different simulated meal-service systems were compared with respect to vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 retention, and cooking yield in pork roasts. Initially the roasts were cooked traditionally or sous vide. No significant differences were observed between cooking methods. Further...... processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  3. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  4. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  5. Nutritional Composition, Vitamins, Minerals And Toxic Heavy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TONUKARI

    This study aimed at analyzing the nutritional potential of a wild edible plant, Trianthema portulacastrum. L. widely used in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and heavy elements were analyzed following the standard methods of Association of Official. Analytical ...

  6. Intake of niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 through young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Xun, Pengcheng; Jacobs, David R; Zhu, Na; Daviglus, Martha L; Reis, Jared P; Steffen, Lyn M; Van Horn, Linda; Sidney, Stephen; He, Ka

    2017-10-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife.Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later in life.Design: This study comprised a community-based multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 y in 1985-1986 (year 0, i.e., baseline) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 3136). We examined participants' CARDIA diet history at years 0, 7, and 20 to assess nutrient intake, including dietary and supplemental B vitamins. We measured cognitive function at year 25 (mean ± SD age: 50 ± 4 y) through the use of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) for psychomotor speed, and a modified Stroop interference test for executive function. Higher RAVLT and DSST scores and a lower Stroop score indicated better cognitive function. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regressions to estimate mean differences in cognitive scores and 95% CIs.Results: Comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1), cumulative total intake of niacin was significantly associated with 3.92 more digits on the DSST (95% CI: 2.28, 5.55; P-trend < 0.01) and 1.89 points lower interference score on the Stroop test (95% CI: -3.10, -0.68; P-trend = 0.05). Total folate was associated with 2.56 more digits on the DSST (95% CI: 0.82, 4.31; P-trend = 0.01). We also found that higher intakes of vitamin B-6 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.62; 95% CI: 0.97, 4.28; P-trend = 0.02) and vitamin B-12 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.08; 95% CI: 0.52, 3.65; P-trend = 0.02) resulted in better psychomotor speed measured by DSST scores.Conclusion: Higher intake of B vitamins throughout young adulthood was associated with better cognitive function in

  7. A significant correlation between the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 and a reduced risk of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bor-Jen; Yen, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jui-Yuan; Hsia, Simon; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2012-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 and the risk of CAD. Patients with at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery identified by cardiac catheterization were assigned to the case group (n = 45). The control group (n = 89) comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemistry. The plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) and the lipid profiles of the participants were measured. Subjects with CAD had significantly lower plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 compared to the control group. The plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration (β = 1.06, P = .02) and the ratio of coenzyme Q10 to total cholesterol (β = .28, P = .01) were positively correlated with vitamin B-6 status. Subjects with higher coenzyme Q10 concentration (≥516.0 nmol/L) had a significantly lower risk of CAD, even after adjusting for the risk factors for CAD. Subjects with higher pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration (≥59.7 nmol/L) also had a significantly lower risk of CAD, but the relationship lost its statistical significance after adjusting for the risk factors of CAD. There was a significant correlation between the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 and a reduced risk of CAD. Further study is needed to examine the benefits of administering coenzyme Q10 in combination with vitamin B-6 to CAD patients, especially those with low coenzyme Q10 level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between maternal vitamins B2 and B6 status and the levels of these vitamins in milk at different stages of lactation. A study in a low-income group of Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, M S; Prema, K; Jacob, C M; Ramalakshmi, B A; Madhavapeddi, R

    1986-03-01

    Riboflavin and vitamin B6 status of mothers from a low-income group were assessed by erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation and erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activation tests respectively, at different stages of lactation. Levels of these vitamins in milk were also measured. The majority of the women had biochemical evidence of vitamins B2 and B6 deficiency. There was a bizarre reduction in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation from 6 to 30 d post partum. Levels of riboflavin in milk were in general satisfactory, but vitamin B6 levels were lower than the values reported from developed countries. Clear-cut correlations between the enzymatic indices of vitamin status evaluation and milk levels of the corresponding vitamins were not apparent.

  9. Vitamin B-6 vitamer levels in plasma and related symptoms in hemodialysis subjects taking low- and high-dose renal multivitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Louise; Boylan, Mallory; Miller, Virginia; Driskell, Judy; Giraud, David; Subih, Hadil

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the B-6 vitamers in plasma and related symptoms in hemodialysis subjects taking high- or low-dose vitamins. A total of 24 hemodialysis (HD) subjects were divided into two groups. Twelve subjects received a high-dose vitamin supplement [50 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride (PN-HCl) /tablet] and 12 received a low-dose vitamin supplements containing (10 mg PN-HCl/tablet) for 6+ months. Plasma B-6 vitamers were analyzed using HPLC. Other data were obtained from subjects' medical records. Subjects were assessed for vitamin B-6 related symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to form symptom groups. Student t-tests and analysis of variance were used to determine differences (p < 0.05) in group means. The mean ± SD plasma B-6 vitamer and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations (nmol/L) were as follows in the 10-mg and 50-mg PN-HCl groups, respectively: pyridoxal- 5'-phosphate (PLP) 10 ± 3 and 16 ± 8 (p = 0.04); pyridoxal (PL) 50 ± 96 and 68 ± 06; pyridoxine (PN) 26 ± 50 and 191 ± 107; and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) 43 ± 64 and 99 ± 361. The cluster group with a significantly higher (p = 0.04) plasma 4-PA concentration of 167 ± 697 nmol/L reported more tingling hands, tachycardia, and diarrhea. Plasma PLP levels and symptoms related to B-6 in HD subjects are impacted by dose of PN-HCl.

  10. Montmorillonite-alginate nanocomposites as a drug delivery system: intercalation and in vitro release of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevadiya, Bhavesh D; Joshi, Ghanshyam V; Patel, Hasmukh A; Ingole, Pravin G; Mody, Haresh M; Bajaj, Hari C

    2010-08-01

    Sustained intestinal delivery of thiamine hydrochloride (Vitamin B(1); VB(1)) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B(6); VB(6)) seems to be a feasible alternative to existing therapy. The vitamins (VB(1)/VB(6)) intercalated in montmorillonite (MMT) and intercalated VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT hybrid is further used for synthesis of VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT-alginate nanocomposite beads by gelation method and in vitro release in the intestinal environment. The structure and surface morphology of the synthesized VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT hybrid, VB(1)/VB(6)-alginate and VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT-alginate nanocomposite beads were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TGA and SEM. In vitro release experiments revealed that the VB(1)/VB(6) releases suddenly from VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT hybrid and is pH dependent. The controlled release of VB(1)/VB(6) from VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT-alginate nanocomposite beads was observed to be controlled as compared to their release from VB(1)/VB(6)-MMT hybrid and VB(1)/VB(6)-alginate beads.

  11. The role of the pyridoxine (vitamin B6) biosynthesis enzyme PDX1 in ultraviolet-B radiation responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristilä, Mikael; Strid, Hilja; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Ake; Sävenstrand, Helena

    2011-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation regulates plant growth and morphology at low and ambient fluence rates but can severely impact on plants at higher doses. Some plant UV-B responses are related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) has been reported to be a quencher of ROS. UV-B irradiation of Arabidopsis Col-0 plants resulted in increased levels of PDX1 protein, compared with UV-A-exposed plants. This was shown by immunoblot analysis using specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant PDX1.3 protein and confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitated PDX1. The protein was located mainly in the cytosol but also to a small extent in the membrane fraction of plant leaves. Immunohistochemical analysis performed in pea revealed that PDX1 is present in UV-B-exposed leaf mesophyll and palisade parenchyma but not in epidermal cells. Pyridoxine production increased in Col-0 plants exposed to 3 days of UV-B, whereas in an Arabidopsis pdx1.3 mutant UV-B did not induce pyridoxine biosynthesis. In gene expression studies performed after UV-B exposure, the pdx1.3 mutant showed elevated transcript levels for the LHCB1*3 gene (encoding a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of the photosystem II light-harvesting antenna complex) and the pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR-5) gene, compared with wild type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  13. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  14. Comparing Neonatal Outcome Following the Use of Ondansetron versus Vitamin B6 in Pregnant Females with Morning Sickness: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahraki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting or morning sickness with an overall prevalence rate of 80% is commonly appeared at the eighth week and frequently disappeared in most pregnant females at the 16th week of gestation. The severe form of the condition named hyperemesis occurs in one per 200 to 300 pregnancies; it is accompanied by dehydration, electrolyte instability and nutritional deficits and needs medical interventions. Limited data are available on harmful effects of common antiemetic medications used within pregnancy on human neonates. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the effects of ondansetron and vitamin B6 on neonatal outcome in pregnant females with pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting. Neonatal outcome included the probable difference in neonates’ gestational age, weight, height, head circumference and frequency of apparent congenital anomalies. Methods This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 188 primipara singleton pregnant females with pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting who referred to state healthcare centers of Zabol, Iran, in 2014. The pregnant females were randomly assigned to receive drug packages including ondansetron tablets (4 mg or vitamin B6 tablets (40 mg and patients were instructed to take one tablet twice daily. Females were followed up until delivery and neonatal outcomes including any congenital anomaly, weight, height and head circumference at birth were assessed. Results There was no difference between the groups in the mean age of mother and the mean age of gestation. No differences were found between the groups regarding birth weight (3006.93 ± 441.86 versus 2949.65 ± 457.36 g, P= 0.67, height at birth (49.50 ± 1.45 versus 48.97 ± 1.47 cm, P= 0.75 and head circumference at birth (34.23 ± 1.22 versus 33.88 ± 1.26 cm, P = 0.56. No neonatal anomaly was observed in the two groups. Conclusions No significant differences were observed between the groups based

  15. Intake of fish oil, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E for 1 year decreases plasma C-reactive protein and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors in male patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Fonollá, Juristo; Marti, José Luis; Jiménez, Jesús; Boza, Julio J; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2007-02-01

    Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E. The control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk with added vitamins A and D. The patients received supervised exercise training, lifestyle and dietary recommendations, and they were instructed to consume the products in addition to their regular diet. Blood extractions and clinical examinations were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation (Pprotein concentrations decreased in the supplemented group (P<0.05), and plasma total homocysteine decreased in both groups. There were no changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac electrocardiographic parameters in either group. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, effected through a CR program comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  16. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L Keene

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  17. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  18. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  19. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a-ketoglutarate (AKG), at pH 2 or 5, combined with vitamin B6 (AKG 2B, AKG 5B) or C (AKG 2C, AKG 5C), on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats. Eighty rats were divided into 5 treatment groups and stayed on trial...

  20. Methionine + cystine levels and vitamin B6 supplementation on performance and enzyme expression of methionine metabolism of gilts from 75 to 100 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Pagliari Sangali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of standardized ileal digestible (SID methionine + cystine (Met+Cys and vitamin B6 supplementation on the performance, blood variables, and gene expression of enzymes involved in methionine metabolism in female pigs between 75 and 100 kg. Fifty six female pigs were used (Talent × Topigs 20, averaging 75.06±1.68 kg in initial weight, allotted in a completely randomized block design arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme, composed of two vitamin B6 supplementation levels (1.58 and 3.58 mg/kg and four levels of SID Met+Cys (0.370, 0.470, 0.570, and 0.670%, with seven replicates and one animal per experimental unit. No interactions between vitamin B6 supplementation and SID Met+Cys levels were observed. The levels of SID Met+Cys and vitamin B6 supplementation did not affect animal performance. Triacylglycerols showed a quadratic response to the SID Met+Cys levels, in which the lowest plasma concentration was estimated as 0.575%. Treatments did not affect the expression of the methionine synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase enzymes or serum homocysteine levels. The SID Met+Cys requirement for female pigs from 75 to 100 kg is equal to or lower than 10.60 g/day, which corresponds to the level of 0.370% Met+Cys in the diet and a relationship 0.48% with the SID lysine.

  1. Urine 3-hydroxykynurenine is higher during the postovulatory phase than in the preovulatory phase indicating a higher vitamin B6 requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between l-tryptophan to nicotinamide metabolism and the menstrual cycle of Japanese women was investigated. Nine metabolism intermediates from urine samples collected during the preovulatory and postovulatory phases were measured. Only urine 3-hydroxykynurenine was higher in the postovulatory phase than in the preovulatory phase. This increase in 3-hydroxykynurenine suggests a decreased reaction of 3-hydroxykynurenine → 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid catalyzed by kynureninase, a vitamin B6 enzyme.

  2. Intake of folate, vitamins B6, B12 and methionine and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2009-10-01

    Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may play a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through their effects on DNA integrity. We examined the association between pancreatic cancer and intake of folate, vitamins B(6), B(12) and methionine in a large population-based case-control study. Risk factor data were collected during in-person interviews with 532 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed in 1995-1999 and 1,701 frequency-matched controls in the San Francisco Bay Area. Dietary history and supplement use were obtained using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire developed at Harvard University. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as estimates of the relative risk. Total folate intake was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (5th vs. 1st quintile: OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.93, p (trend) = 0.04). Increased vitamin B(12) from food was positively associated with pancreatic cancer although risk estimates for quintiles 3-5 were similar (5th vs. 1st quintile: OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.6, p (trend) = 0.001). Intake of vitamin B(6) or methionine was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Our study provided some support for an inverse association between folate intake and pancreatic cancer risk. The increased pancreatic cancer risk with vitamin B(12) intake from food warrants further investigation.

  3. Follow-up efficacy of integrative Chinese and Western drugs on localized scleroderma with vitamine B6 and Xuefu Zhuyu decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ling; Su, You-ming; Yang, Rong-ya; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yang

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of vitamine B(6) (Vit B(6)) and Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (XFZY, for activating blood circulation to remove stasis) in patients with localized scleroderma(LSD). Thirty-three patients were treated with XFZY and Vit B(6), with 15 cases taking orally prednisone acetate and 20 healthy volunteers as the control. Their level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the patients with LSD before and after treatment were observed. The level of sIL-2R and TNF-alpha in the serum from the patients with LSD were higher than those of healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). After treatment with Vit B(6) and XFZY, the level of sIL-2R and TNF-alpha from the patients with LSD decreased significantly (P < 0.01), but there were no difference between the group taking Vit B(6) plus XFZY and the group given prednisone. The activating blood circulation to remove stasis approach in treating LSD with integrative Chinese and Western drugs got better results, and metabolic disorder of tryptophan might be correlated with the etiology of LSD.

  4. Genes of the de novo and salvage biosynthesis pathways of vitamin B6 are regulated under oxidative stress in the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil eSamsatly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B6 is recognized as an important cofactor required for numerous metabolic enzymes, and has been shown to act as an antioxidant and play a role in stress responses. It can be synthesized through two different routes: salvage and de novo pathways. However, little is known about the possible function of the vitamin B6 pathways in the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Using genome walking, the de novo biosynthetic pathway genes; RsolPDX1 and RsolPDX2 and the salvage biosynthetic pathway gene, RsolPLR were sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three genes had high degree of similarity to other fungal PDX1, PDX2, and PLR proteins and are closely related to other R. solani anastomosis groups. We also examined their regulation when subjected to ROS stress inducers, the superoxide generator paraquat, or H2O2, and compared it to the well-known antioxidant genes, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The genes were differentially regulated with substantial transcript levels as high as 33 fold depending on the gene and type of stress reflecting that differences in the type of damage induced by ROS. Exogenous addition of the vitamers PN or PLP in culture medium significantly induced the transcription of the vitamin B6 de novo encoding genes as early as 0.5 hour post treatment (HPT. On the other hand, transcription of RsolPLR was vitamer-specific; a down regulation upon supplementation of PN and upregualtion with PLP. Our results suggest that accumulation of ROS in R. solani mycelia was linked to transcriptional regulation of the three genes and R. solani vitamin B6 biosynthesis machinery could be implicated similar to catalases and GST as an antioxidant stress protector against oxidative stress.

  5. Salmonella typhimurium PtsJ is a novel MocR-like transcriptional repressor involved in regulating the vitamin B6 salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Angela; Milano, Teresa; Nardella, Caterina; di Salvo, Martino L; Pascarella, Stefano; Contestabile, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The vitamin B6 salvage pathway, involving pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPOx) and pyridoxal kinase (PLK), recycles B6 vitamers from nutrients and protein turnover to produce pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the catalytically active form of the vitamin. Regulation of this pathway, widespread in living organisms including humans and many bacteria, is very important to vitamin B6 homeostasis but poorly understood. Although some information is available on the enzymatic regulation of PNPOx and PLK, little is known on their regulation at the transcriptional level. In the present work, we identified a new MocR-like regulator, PtsJ from Salmonella typhimurium, which controls the expression of the pdxK gene encoding one of the two PLKs expressed in this organism (PLK1). Analysis of pdxK expression in a ptsJ knockout strain demonstrated that PtsJ acts as a transcriptional repressor. This is the first case of a MocR-like regulator acting as repressor of its target gene. Expression and purification of PtsJ allowed a detailed characterisation of its effector and DNA-binding properties. PLP is the only B6 vitamer acting as effector molecule for PtsJ. A DNA-binding region composed of four repeated nucleotide sequences is responsible for binding of PtsJ to its target promoter. Analysis of binding stoichiometry revealed that protein subunits/DNA molar ratio varies from 4 : 1 to 2 : 1, depending on the presence or absence of PLP. Structural characteristics of DNA transcriptional factor-binding sites suggest that PtsJ binds DNA according to a different model with respect to other characterised members of the MocR subgroup. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... of vegetarians. Key words: Cicer arietinum L., water-soluble vitamins, in vitro and in vitro culture. INTRODUCTION. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is grown in different coun- tries of Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America. It is mostly produced and consumed in South East Asia,. Middle East and some ...

  7. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Solange

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and methionine synthase (MTR in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated. Methods A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010. The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801, and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024 or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043, and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043 or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022. Conclusion MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR

  8. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and vitamin B2 intake, genetic polymorphisms of related enzymes, and risk of colorectal cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Ishihara, Junko; Natsukawa, Syusuke; Shaura, Kozo; Koizumi, Yoichi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yoshimura, Kimio; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of nutrient intake involved in the one-carbon pathway of folate for DNA methylation and DNA synthesis and the related enzyme genetic polymorphisms with colorectal cancer. Cases were 107 patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Controls were 224 subjects matched with cases by sex, age, and residential area. Nutrient intake was assessed by a self-administered, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Four genetic polymorphisms-MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and ALDH2 Glu487Lys-were determined using blood samples. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake. Although folate intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, this association was attenuated after further controlling for dietary fiber intake. Neither vitamin B6, vitamin B12, nor vitamin B2, nor any genetic polymorphism was significantly associated with colorectal cancer. MTRR polymorphism interacted with the association of folate (P for interaction = 0.04) or vitamin (P for interaction = 0.02) with colorectal cancer, although the other polymorphisms did not interact with any nutrient intake. In conclusion, the study did not support the existing hypothesis of gene-nutrient interaction in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  9. Consequences of a Deficit in Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis de Novo for Hormone Homeostasis and Root Development in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Dominguez, Ana; Rolcik, Jakub; Boller, Thomas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) is an essential cofactor of many metabolic enzymes. Plants biosynthesize the vitamin de novo employing two enzymes, pyridoxine synthase1 (PDX1) and PDX2. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), there are two catalytically active paralogs of PDX1 (PDX1.1 and PDX1.3) producing the vitamin at comparable rates. Since single mutants are viable but the pdx1.1 pdx1.3 double mutant is lethal, the corresponding enzymes seem redundant. However, the single mutants exhibit substantial phenotypic differences, particularly at the level of root development, with pdx1.3 being more impaired than pdx1.1. Here, we investigate the differential regulation of PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 by identifying factors involved in their disparate phenotypes. Swapped-promoter experiments clarify the presence of distinct regulatory elements in the upstream regions of both genes. Exogenous sucrose (Suc) triggers impaired ethylene production in both mutants but is more severe in pdx1.3 than in pdx1.1. Interestingly, Suc specifically represses PDX1.1 expression, accounting for the stronger vitamin B6 deficit in pdx1.3 compared with pdx1.1. Surprisingly, Suc enhances auxin levels in pdx1.1, whereas the levels are diminished in pdx1.3. In the case of pdx1.3, the previously reported reduced meristem activity combined with the impaired ethylene and auxin levels manifest the specific root developmental defects. Moreover, it is the deficit in ethylene production and/or signaling that triggers this outcome. On the other hand, we hypothesize that it is the increased auxin content of pdx1.1 that is responsible for the root developmental defects observed therein. We conclude that PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 play partially nonredundant roles and are differentially regulated as manifested in disparate root growth impairment morphologies. PMID:25475669

  10. Determination of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine in pharmaceutical preparations by cyclic voltammetry at a copper(II hexacyanoferrate(III modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcos F. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper(II hexacyanoferrate(III (CuHCF modified carbon paste electrode was used for the electroanalytical determination of pyridoxine (vitamin B6 in pharmaceutical preparations, using cyclic voltammetry. Diverse parameters were investigated for the optimization of the sensor response, such as composition of the electrode, electrolytic solution, effect of pH, scan rate of potential and interferences. The optimum conditions were found at an electrode composition of 20% CuHCF, 55% graphite and 25% mineral oil (m/m in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 containing 0.05 mol L-1 of NaCl. The range of determination of pyridoxine was from 1.2 x 10-6 to 6.9 x 10-4 mol L-1. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin B6 in formulation preparations. The CuHCF modified carbon paste electrode gave results comparable to those obtained using spectrophotometry.

  11. PERBANDINGAN ANALISIS KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI ELUASI GRADIEN DENGAN ISOKRATIK PADA PENENTUAN VITAMIN B1, B2 DAN B6 DALAM SEDIAAN SIRUP MULTIVITAMIN SECARA SIMULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Kasih Ariani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Vitamin B terutama B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, dan B6 (Piridoksin sering terkandung dalam sirup multivitamin sehingga diperlukan analisis untuk mendeteksi secara simultan dalam campuran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan analisis vitamin B1, B2, dan B6 dalam sirup multivitamin secara simultan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi eluasi gradien dan isokratik, menggunakan kolom C18, panjang 15 cm, dan dengan pelarut campuran metanol: air : asam asetat glasial (10:90:1. Fase gerak adalah campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dalam asam asetat glasial 0,5% dengan metanol yang dicampur secara gradien. Kondisi optimum metode gradien diperoleh pada laju alir 2,0 mL/menit, panjang gelombang 280 nm dengan waktu retensi 3,441 menit untuk piridoksin; 4,985 menit untuk riboflavin dan 7,393 menit untuk tiamin dengan resolusi 2,272 antara riboflavin dan piridoksin. Hasil uji presisi riboflavin dan piridoksin menggunakan metode isokratik (campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dengan metanol dengan perbandingan 70 : 30 masing-masing dengan RSD adalah 1,377 dan 1,376 sedangkan metode gradien adalah 0,693 dan 0,825. Uji linearitas ketiga vitamin menggunakan dua metode isokratik dan gradien memenuhi persyaratan dengan R2 = 0,999. Kata kunci : Vitamin B, sirup multivitamin, kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to compare the simultaneous analytical results of B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, and B6 (Piridoxin in multivitamin syrup between gradient and isocratic methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The separation was performed on 15 cm length of C18 column and a mixture of methanol, water and glacial acetate acid with ratio of 10:90:1 was used as solvent. The eluent was a mixture of methanol and 5 mM sodium hexane sulfonate in 0.5% glacial acetate acid and gradually mixed using 2 different pumps. The optimal analytical conditions for gradient method were found to be 2,0 mL/min of flow rate and

  12. An Escherichia coli K-12 tktA tktB mutant deficient in transketolase activity requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Winkler, M E

    1994-01-01

    We show that a tktA tktB double mutant, which is devoid of the two known transketolase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12, requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth. This pyridoxine requirement can also be satisfied by 4-hydroxy-L-threonine or glycolaldehyde. These results provide direct evidence that D-erythrose-4-phosphate is a precursor of the pyridine ring of pyridoxine. In addition, they show that the two major E. coli transketolase isoenzymes are not required for the biosynthesis of D-1-deoxyxylulose, which is thought to be another precursor of pyridoxine. PMID:7928977

  13. An Escherichia coli K-12 tktA tktB mutant deficient in transketolase activity requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, G; Winkler, M E

    1994-01-01

    We show that a tktA tktB double mutant, which is devoid of the two known transketolase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12, requires pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as the aromatic amino acids and vitamins for growth. This pyridoxine requirement can also be satisfied by 4-hydroxy-L-threonine or glycolaldehyde. These results provide direct evidence that D-erythrose-4-phosphate is a precursor of the pyridine ring of pyridoxine. In addition, they show that the two major E. coli transketolase iso...

  14. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  15. B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-04-09

    To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.

  16. Folate and vitamin B-6 status are not associated with homocysteine, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S-B; Liu, H-T; Lin, P-T; Lai, C-Y; Huang, Y-C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effects of serum folate and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) on plasma homocysteine, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in 44 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 56 healthy controls. The responses of folate, vitamin B-6, homocysteine, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in HCC patients before and after tumor resection were also determined. Patients with HCC before tumor resection had significantly lower folate, PLP, homocysteine, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, but higher malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione S-transferase activity when compared with healthy controls. Oxidative stress was significantly decreased to a level similar to that of healthy controls after tumor resection in the HCC group. There were no associations of folate and PLP with plasma homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities. Serum folate and plasma PLP were not significant factors affecting plasma homocysteine, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in patients with HCC.

  17. Applications of vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate and pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate crowned gold nanoparticles for optical sensing of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothra, Shilpa; Upadhyay, Yachana; Kumar, Rajender; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate (PLP) and PLP crowned gold nanoparticles (PLP-AuNPs) was applied for the optical chemosensing of metal ions in aqueous medium. PLP showed a visually detectable colour change from colourless to yellow and 'turn-off' fluorescence in the presence of Fe3 +. The fluorescence intensity of PLP at 433 nm was also blue-shifted and enhanced at 395 nm upon addition of Al3 +. When the PLP was functionalized over AuNPs surface, the wine red colour of PLP-AuNPs was turned to purplish-blue and the SPR band at 525 nm was red-shifted upon addition of Al3 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 + due to the complexation-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The developed sensing systems exhibited good selectivity and specificity for the detected analytes (Fe3 +, Al3 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 +).

  18. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration.

  19. [Comparative analysis of four kinds of vitamin B of milk of lactating mothers and maternal and infant nutritional status in Chinese urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Han, Xiuxia; Liu, Liegang; Jiang, Dianchen; Yi, Mingji; Zheng, Yanfeng; Ma, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    To understand the nutritional level of lactating mothers and infant by detecting the content of the vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotinic of milk of urban and rural areas and to provide the basis for improving vitamin nutritional status of lactating women and their babies. Totally 92 pairs of breastfeeding healthy mothers and their children in Shandong Province were selected. 34 pairs were in a urban area and 58 pairs were in a rural area. Collect the milk of selected lactating mothers and the urine of the lactating mothers and their children. Detect the content of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotinic of milk of lactating mothers and the content of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, nicotinic of urine of lactating mothers and their children. The content of vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and niacin of milk of urban lactating mothers were significantly higher than that of rural lactating mothers. The results of detection showed the vitamin B2 of milk of urban lactating mothers was 149.77 microg/100 g, which was significantly higher than that of rural women in 85.09 microg/100 g (P Vitamin B6 and niacin contents were 15.29 microg/100 g, 40.83 microg/100 g, which were also higher than that in rural lactating milk (6.69 microg/100 g and 24.48 microg/100 g) (All values P vitamin B1 of milk of urban and rural lactating mothers were 5.54 microg/100 g and 4.80 microg/100 g respectively, which had no significant difference. Urine analysis showed vitamin B2 and niacin of urban mothers and children were significantly higher than that in rural area (P vitamin B1 of rural children was higher than that of urban children (P vitamin B1 between urban and rural mothers. The insufficient percentages of vitamin B1, vitamin B2. niacin in urban mothers was 23.5%, 32.3% and 17.6%, and that in rural mothers were 29.3%, 82.8% and 53.4%. The deficiency percentage of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin in urban children were 2.9%, 2.9% and 11.8%, and that in rural children were 5.1%, 51.8% and 25

  20. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit takes a critical look at the claims being made for vitamin C and it introduces students to the other water-soluble vitamins, the B-complex. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for…

  1. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  2. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - The OTAP2014 study. V. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Nagy-Lőrincz, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Barbara; Bakacs, Márta; Kis, Orsolya; Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Martos, Éva

    2017-08-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey was implemented on a sub-sample of the European Health Interview Survey. In this paper, the authors present the data on the vitamin intake of the Hungarian population. The survey represents the vitamin intake of the Hungarian non-institutionalised adult population of 18 years and older. There are significant differences between men's and women's vitamin intake. The intake of all water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin C is higher in men than in women, and the difference between the genders regarding the intake of vitamin E and D is significant. The intake of vitamin B 1, B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , niacin and vitamin C is in line with the recommendations, however, there is an unfavourable decrease in the intake of vitamin A and β-carotene in the case of men compared to the previous survey. Vitamin D and folic acid intakes are critically low, particularly in the elderly, and mainly in case of vitamin D. The population's intake of panthotenic acid and biotin did not reach the recommendations. In order to reach the dietary reference intakes and to prevent deficiencies, it is necessary to inform the population and to make healthy food choices available. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(33): 1302-1313.

  3. Nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and toxic heavy metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at analyzing the nutritional potential of a wild edible plant, Trianthema portulacastrum L. widely used in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and heavy elements were analyzed following the standard methods of Association of Official Analytical ...

  4. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monday, March 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older ... lack of B vitamins can lead to serious consequences for older adults. B vitamins include B6, B12, ...

  5. Solvation behavior and sweetness response of carbohydrates, their derivatives and sugar alcohols in thiamine HCl (vitamin B1) and pyridoxine HCl (vitamin B6) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Parampaul K; Sharma, Mousmee; Banipal, Tarlok S

    2017-12-15

    Volumetric properties are important tools to study the solvation behavior of solutes and reveal valuable information about solute-solute/cosolute interactions. Therefore, standard partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been calculated from density measurements for monosaccharides, their methoxy and deoxy derivatives, disaccharides and sugar alcohols in (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35)molkg(-1) thiamine HCl(aq) and pyridoxine HCl(aq) solutions over temperature range (288.15-318.15)K at pressure, p=0.1MPa. The corresponding transfer volumes, expansibilities and apparent massic volumes have been evaluated to examine the solvation behavior and the basic taste quality of studied solutes. UV-Vis absorption study of these solutes has also been carried out in 1.0×10(-4)molkg(-1) thiamine HCl and pyridoxine HCl solutions. Results have been compared with our previously reported studies carried out in l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Stereochemical effects on hydration controlled by dominant conformations of studied solutes have also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)-Vitamin A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Russell, Robert M; Stephensen, Charles B; Gannon, Bryan M; Craft, Neal E; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lietz, Georg; Schulze, Kerry; Raiten, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readers who want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin A's use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serum retinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. A Mathematical Model of Tryptophan Metabolism via the Kynurenine Pathway Provides Insights into the Effects of Vitamin B-6 Deficiency, Tryptophan Loading, and Induction of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase on Tryptophan Metabolites123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Avila, Luisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Sitren, Harry S.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations. PMID:23902960

  8. Comparing the Effect of Auriculotherapy and Vitamin B6 on the Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome among the Students who Lived in the Dorm of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleini, Sharareh; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2017-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a series of physical and psychological symptoms before menstruation which its prevalence around the world has been reported to be 80%. Consumption of vitamin B6 is a common treatment for this syndrome, and this study was conducted to compare the effect of auriculotherapy and vitamin B6 on the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. This study was a clinical trial. Eighty-four female students who lived at the university dorm were randomly selected and allocated into two groups of 42. The first group received auriculotherapy (10 sessions) for two menstrual cycles and the second group consumed 40 mg of vitamin B6 daily from a week before their menstruation for two menstrual cycles. The severity of symptoms was recorded for both groups during two cycles before the intervention and two cycles after the intervention. Data gathering tool was a 28-question, questionnaire to assess the severity of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome based on DSM-IV. The mean score of symptoms in the auriculotherapy group in the first and second cycles was 26.70 (19.49) and 24.76 (17.07), respectively, and in the vitamin B6 group, was 22.60 (10.87) and 24.17 (14.15), respectively, which showed a significant difference compared to before the intervention (P = 0.001). However, comparing the total score of symptoms in the first and second cycles after the intervention between both groups showed no significant difference. Auriculotherapy, similar to vitamin B6, decreases the severity of PMS symptoms.

  9. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  10. Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional compounds of banana flower of two cultivars grown in China. Z-W Sheng, W-H Ma, Z-Q Jin, Y Bi, Z-G Sun, H-T Dou, J-Y Li, L-N Han ...

  11. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Fayed, Ahmed S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  13. TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION (TPN: ROLE OF RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2 AND CYANOCOBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Shiekh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Total parenteral nutrition (TPN replaces and maintains essential nutrients in patients in whom oral or tube feedings are contraindicated or inadequate. A nutritional assessment must be carried out before initiating TPN in order to determine nutritional needs and any metabolic changes due to the patient’s underlying condition, medications or concurrent therapies. In addition to carbohydrates, proteins and fats, certain amounts of micronutirents are also added to TPN solutions. These micronutrients include electrolytes, vitamins, and trace minerals. This review highlights some basic concepts regarding the use and formulation of TPNs along with their advantages and disadvantages and the importance of water soluble vitamins B2 and B12 in human nutrition.

  14. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  15. Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Bogner, M; Kickinger, A; Wagner, K H; Elmadfa, I

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population. An observational study. State of Burgenland, Austria. A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited. Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA. The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels. These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.

  16. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  18. The PAr index, an indicator reflecting altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis, is associated with long-term risk of stroke in the general population: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tell, Grethe S; Ueland, Per M; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein E; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 homeostasis is altered during inflammation and immune activation. It is unknown whether altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis is associated with the risk of stroke. We investigated the relation between the ratio plasma 4-pyridoxic acid: (pyridoxal + pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) (PAr) as an indicator of altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis and the risk of stroke in the general population. We conducted a prospective analysis of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in 6891 adults (born during 1925-1927 and 1950-1951) without known stroke at baseline (1998-1999). Participants were followed via linkage to the CVDNOR (Cardiovascular Disease in Norway) project and the Cause of Death Registry. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analyses. A total of 390 participants (193 men and 197 women) developed stroke over a median follow-up period of 11 y. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced a higher risk of incident stroke in an essentially linear dose-response fashion. The HR (95% CI) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of PAr was 1.97 (1.42, 2.73; P-trend trend <0.001) for ischemic stroke after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, education, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, and statin use. PAr had greater predictive strength than did C-reactive protein, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity. The associations were similar in subgroups stratified by age group, sex, BMI, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and statin use at baseline. Higher plasma PAr was independently associated with increased risk of incident stroke in all participants and across all subgroups stratified by conventional risk predictors. Our novel findings point to and expand the range of inflammation and immune activation processes that may be relevant for the pathogenesis and prevention of stroke

  19. Investigation of the vitamin D nutritional status in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Jin, Qiaer; Bao, Yuanyuan; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ling

    2017-01-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, which has relation with GDM, during the pregnant period. To study the Vitamin D nutritional status of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the middle and late pregnancy and analyze the different sources of Vitamin D intake. A total of ninety-eight pregnant women with GDM were enrolled voluntarily in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, Vitamin D supplement intake and control group. The level of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D) and the sources of Vitamin D intake and the frequency of food consumption rich in Vitamin D were investigated. The incidence rate of Vitamin D deficiency (nutritional balance of Vitamin D.

  20. Determination of Optimum Vitamin D Nutrition in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    2009 10/1/2009 No 60017 crampinq in leqs 10/1/2009 11/1/2009 No 60018 headaches 10/5/2009 No 65 60019 sleep apnea ( obstructive & central...completed the study one year later. The final results show the response to oral vitamin D is the same in both Caucasian and African American young women. The...recommendations. Below is the background to the IOM Part of science standard for federal nutrition guidance HHS/USDA [Department of Health and Human Services

  1. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    were eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile (0.5-15%) in a potassium phosphate buffer with 1-octanesulfonic acid and triethylamine, pH 2.16. The concentration of the vitamers was determined with fluorescence detector (328 nm excitation, 393 nm emission) after postcolumn derivatization with phosphate...... vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers...... buffer containing 1 g/L sodium bisulfite. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analyzing six plasma samples with interrelated concentration and two control samples (unspiked and vitamer spiked) over a 3-months period. The HPLC method was able to identify PLP, 4-PA, PM, PL, PN, and PMP from all...

  2. The use of vitamin supplements among adults in Warsaw: is there any nutritional benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Sygnowska, Elzbieta; Broda, Grazyna; Chwojnowska, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intake. However, it also generates some potential risks in the case of unreasonable and excessive use of such products. To estimate the prevalence of supplementation and the vitamin supplement contribution to total intake among Warsaw population aged 20-74 years. Nutrient intake and supplement use were studied in a representative sample of Warsaw population in years 2011/12 (486 men and 421 women) and in 2001 (658 and 671 respectively). The vitamin levels were analyzed in reference to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the tolerable upper intake level (UL). In the years 2011/12 the use of dietary supplements (vitamins and minerals) was reported by 31% men and 40% women. Vitamin intake from food showed the deficiency of vitamins D, B1 and folates and adequate intake of vitamins A, C, E, B2, B6, B12. Supplementing with vitamins D and B1 as well as folic acid contributed to better RDA fulfillment. Supplementing with vitamins A, C, E, B2, B6 and B12 was not justified because these vitamins were taken in sufficient amounts with food. In 1.3%-14.9% supplement users, the total intake of vitamins A, C, E and B6 exceeded the UL. The prevalence of supplementation of vitamins A, C and E did not change between 2001 and 201 1/12, but the total intake of vitamin A in both sexes and vitamins C, E in women was significantly higher in 2001. The use of dietary supplements in Warsaw population was widespread and in case of some vitamins- unreasonable.

  3. Dietary vitamin D₂--a potentially underestimated contributor to vitamin D nutritional status of adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kinsella, Michael; McNulty, Breige A; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-07-28

    It has been suggested that vitamin D₂ is not very prevalent in the human food chain. However, data from a number of recent intervention studies suggest that the majority of subjects had measurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ (25(OH)D₂) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D₂, unlike 25(OH)D₃, is not directly influenced by exposure of skin to sun and thus has dietary origins; however, quantifying dietary vitamin D₂ is difficult due to the limitations of food composition data. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterise serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations in the participants of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) in Ireland, and to use these serum concentrations to estimate the intake of vitamin D₂ using a mathematical modelling approach. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS method, and information on diet as well as subject characteristics was obtained from the NANS. Of these participants, 78.7 % (n 884) had serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations above the limit of quantification, and the mean, maximum, 10th, 50th (median) and 90th percentile values of serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were 3.69, 27.6, 1.71, 2.96 and 6.36 nmol/l, respectively. To approximate the intake of vitamin D₂ from these serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations, we used recently published data on the relationship between vitamin D intake and the responses of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The projected 5th to 95th percentile intakes of vitamin D₂ for adults were in the range of 0.9-1.2 and 5-6 μg/d, respectively, and the median intake ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 μg/d. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that 25(OH)D₂ concentrations are present in the sera of adults from this nationally representative sample. Vitamin D₂ may have an impact on nutritional adequacy at a population level and thus warrants further investigation.

  4. Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential.

  5. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional

  6. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation in dialysis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Ishir; Dobens, Dorothy; Tamez, Hector; Deferio, Joseph J; Li, Yan Chun; Warren, H Shaw; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Tucker, J Kevin; Trottier, Caitlin; Pathan, Fridosh; Kalim, Sahir; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Thadhani, Ravi

    2015-04-07

    Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25[OH]D) deficiency is common in patients initiating long-term hemodialysis, but the safety and efficacy of nutritional vitamin D supplementation in this population remain uncertain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial compared two doses of ergocalciferol with placebo between October 2009 and March 2013. Hemodialysis patients (n=105) with 25(OH)D levels ≤32 ng/ml from 32 centers in the Northeast United States were randomly assigned to oral ergocalciferol, 50,000 IU weekly (n=36) or monthly (n=33), or placebo (n=36) for a 12-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) at the end of the 12-week treatment period. Survival was assessed through 1 year. Baseline characteristics were similar across all arms, with overall mean±SD 25(OH)D levels of 21.9±6.9 ng/ml. At 12 weeks, vitamin D sufficiency (25[OH]D >32 ng/ml) was achieved in 91% (weekly), 66% (monthly), and 35% (placebo) (Pvitamin D treatment did not differ between groups. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations and adverse events were similar between groups during the intervention period. Lower all-cause mortality among ergocalciferol-treated participants was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 1.19). Oral ergocalciferol can increase 25(OH)D levels in incident hemodialysis patients without significant alterations in blood calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone during a 12-week period. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Interaction between vitamin B6 and source of selenium on the response of the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase system to oxidative stress induced by oestrus in pubertal pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Roy, Mélanie; Audet, Isabelle; Palin, Marie-France; Guay, Frédéric; Lapointe, Jérôme; Matte, J Jacques

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the interaction between vitamin B6 and selenium (Se) for the flow of Se towards the Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system in response to oxidative stress naturally induced by oestrus in a pubertal pig model. At first oestrus, forty-five gilts were randomly assigned to the experimental diets (n=9/group): basal diet (CONT); CONT+0.3mg/kg of Na-selenite (MSeB60); MSeB60+10mg/kg of HCl-B6 (MSeB610); CONT+0.3mg/kg of Se-enriched yeast (OSeB60); and OSeB60+10mg/kg of HCl-B6 (OSeB610). Blood samples were collected at each oestrus (long-term profiles), and daily from day -4 to +3 (slaughter) of the fourth oestrus (peri-oestrus profiles) after which liver, kidneys, and ovaries were collected. For long-term profiles, CONT had lower blood Se than Se-supplemented gilts (p<0.01) and OSe was higher than MSe (p<0.01). Lower erythrocyte pyridoxal-5-phosphate was found in B60 than B610 (p<0.01). No treatment effect was observed on GPX activity. For peri-oestrus profiles, treatment effects were similar to long-term profiles. Treatment effects on liver Se were similar to those for long-term blood Se profiles and OSe had higher renal Se concentrations than MSe gilts (p<0.01). Gene expressions of GPX1, GPX3, GPX4, and selenocysteine lyase in liver and kidney were greatest in OSeB610 gilts (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary B6 modulate the metabolic pathway of OSe towards the GPX system during the peri-oestrus period in pubertal pigs. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M

    2006-09-01

    While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pwhole-grain cereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pwhole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

  9. New therapeutic approach to Tourette Syndrome in children based on a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase IV study of the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Jose L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurological condition presenting chronic motor and phonic tics, and important degree of comorbidity. Considered an uncommon illness, it first becomes apparent during childhood. Current standard treatment only achieves partial control of the condition, and provokes frequent, and sometimes severe, side effects. Methods and design Main aim: To show that, with respect to placebo treatment, the combination of 0.5 mEq/Kg magnesium and 2 mg/Kg vitamin B6 reduces motor and phonic tics and incapacity in cases of exacerbated TS among children aged 7–14 years, as measured on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. Secondary aims: Assess the safety of the treatment. Describe metabolic changes revealed by PET. Measure the impact of the experimental treatment on family life. Methodology Randomized, blinded clinical trials. Phase IV study (new proposal for treatment with magnesium and vitamin B6. Scope: children in the geographic area of the study group. Recruitment of subjects: to include patients diagnosed with TS, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria (307.23, during a period of exacerbation, and provided none of the exclusion criteria are met. Instrumentation: clinical data and the YGTSS score will be obtained at the outset of a period of exacerbation (t0. The examinations will be made after 15 (t1, 30 (t2, 60 (t3 and 90 days (t4. PET will be performed at the t0 and t4. We evaluated decrease in the overall score (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, PET variations, and impact made by the treatment on the patient's life (Psychological General Well-Being Index. Discussion Few clinical trials have been carried out on children with TS, but they are necessary, as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. The difficulty of dealing with an uncommon illness makes designing such a study all the more complicated. The present study seeks to overcome possible methodological problems by

  10. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  11. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results.

  12. Vitamin D status in infants: relation to nutrition and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergard, M.; Arnberg, K.; Michaelsen, K. F.

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the primary objective was to assess the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in healthy 9-month-old infants (n = 255). The secondary objective was to evaluate nutritional variables and season in relation to 25(OH) D. The concentration of 25(OH) D was 77.......2 +/- 22.7 nmol/l (mean +/- s.d.), ranging from 12 to 151 nmol/l. During the first 9 months, 97% received vitamin D supplementation (10 mu g/day) and 89% had sufficient levels of 25(OH) D (50-250 nmol/l). In multiple regression analysis, controlled for body mass index (BMI) and intake of infant formula......, it was positively associated with 25(OH) D (P = 0.001). There was a significant seasonal difference in 25(OH) D, with higher levels during summer-autumn compared with winter-spring (P = 0.021) after control for BMI. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 657-660; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.285; published...

  13. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (<10%) and high intra-day precision (defined as <15% for compounds with an isotopologue and <20% for compounds without an isotopologue as internal standard) in plasma, maternal milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30μL plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in

  14. Vitamin-fortified complementary foods for infant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kodentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of modern nursing women consisting of natural foods is adequate for the consumption of energy and sometimes excessively caloric can not to provide the organism with the necessary amounts of vitamins. The content of vitamins in breast milk of insufficiently supplied women is less than in nursing mothers, adequate supply of vitamins. The needs of the growing breast-fed child by women with multivitamin deficiency can not to satisfied by means breast milk. Based on the analysis of the vitamin status of pregnant and lactating women, as well as the content of vitamins in breast milk of mothers with various vitamins sufficiency conclusion for inclusion in the diet of infants enriched with vitamins and minerals weaning cereal-based products (cereals had been made. Vitamin and mineral supplements or vitamin enriched foods must be included in the diet to maintain the vitamin status of lactating women. 

  15. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  16. Nutrition, vitamin D, and health outcomes in hemodialysis: time for a feeding frenzy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Daniel E; Kapoian, Toros; Johnson, Douglas S

    2015-11-01

    The role of nutrition and nutritional supplementation in dialysis recently has been reinvigorated, with small clinical trials exploring surrogate outcomes and larger epidemiologic studies generating treatment hypotheses requiring further study. The present review focuses on major aspects of nutrition and outcomes in hemodialysis patients: protein and calorie intake and nutritional vitamin D supplementation. Building on data from small studies, two large, quasi-experimental cohort studies showed significant mortality benefits associated with oral nutritional supplements provided during dialysis, suggesting potential options for ameliorating the protein-energy wasting that is common in dialysis patients and associated with poor outcomes. Multiple cohort studies suggest, both in the general population and in dialysis, that higher 25(OH) vitamin D levels are associated with improved outcomes; however, no major mortality trials exist in dialysis, and the smaller, surrogate studies conducted to date have been disappointing, showing no consistent benefits in surrogate outcomes including inflammation and anemia, despite appropriate responses of vitamin D levels to repletion. Nutritional interventions are attractive options for improving outcomes in dialysis patients. Nutritional protein supplements have considerable promise, but require further study, preferably in a large, generalizable pragmatic trial. Small nutritional vitamin D supplementation trials in dialysis have had disappointing results. In the absence of new data, there appears to be no role for routine assessment or repletion of 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in dialysis.

  17. Nutritional B₁₂ deficiency in infants of vitamin B₁₂-deficient mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halicioglu, Oya; Asik Akman, Sezin; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Atabay, Berna; Turker, Meral; Akbay, Sinem; Yaprak, Isin

    2011-09-01

    Nutritional vitamin B₁₂ deficiency in infants may occur because the maternal diet contains inadequate animal products. Clinical presentations of the infants who had nutritional vitamin B₁₂ deficiency were analyzed in this study. Patients with nutritional vitamin B₁₂ deficiency were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2010. The diagnosis was based on a nutritional history of mothers and infants, clinical findings, hematological evaluation, and low level of serum vitamin B₁₂. Thirty children aged 1 - 21 months constituted the study group. Poverty was the main cause of inadequate consumption of animal products of the mothers. All infants had predominantly breastfed. The most common symptoms were developmental delay, paleness, apathy, lethargy, anorexia, and failure to thrive. Hematological findings were megaloblastic anemia (83.3 %), thrombocytopenia (30 %), and severe anemia (13.3 %). All of the mothers had low serum B₁₂ levels; eight of them had megaloblastic anemia. The unusual clinical manifestations of vitamin B₁₂ deficiency may also be seen apart from neurological and hematological findings. Nutritional vitamin B₁₂ deficiency due to maternal deficiency might be a serious health problem in infants. Therefore, screening and supplementation of pregnant and lactating women to prevent infantile vitamin B₁₂ deficiency should be considered.

  18. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  19. [Increase of nutritive value of poultry egg by of vitamin fortification of laid-hens diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Bekenova, N A; Kodentsova, O V

    2005-01-01

    Real content of vitamins A, E, B1 and B2 in hen's eggs from different poultry farms and personal farm varies in wide range and differs from the data of national food chemical tables. Elevated nutritive value eggs with maximal vitamin content may be obtained from hens fed diets with optimal vitamin level. Such way fortified one egg contributes 30% of recommended daily intake of vitamin E, about 10% of vitamins A and B2, 3% of vitamin B1. Intensification of egg yolk pigmentation by means of carotenoids additives to hens ration leads to their 10-fold increase comparing with the data of food chemical tables. Coloured egg provides for 5-10% of carotenoids adequate daily intake.

  20. New Advances about the Effect of Vitamins on Human Health: Vitamins Supplements and Nutritional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    García Uribe, Noelia; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a crucial period for the identification and biological-chemical-physical characterisation of vitamins. From then until now, many studies have attempted to clarify into detail the biological role of the vitamins in humans and their direct connection with certain diseases, either in a negative way (appearance of deficiency diseases due to vitamin deficiency) or a positive way (use of vitamins to treat diseases and/or to improve human health). The aim of this work...

  1. [Vitamin-mineral supplements in nutrition of adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Pogozheva, A V; Gromova, O A; Shikh, E V

    2015-01-01

    The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.

  2. Production and Testing of the VITAMIN-B6 Fine Group and the BUGLE-93 Broad-Group Neutron/Photon Cross-Section Libraries Derived from ENDF/B-VI Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.E.

    2001-04-19

    A revised multigroup cross-section library based on Release 3 of ENDF/B-VI data has been produced and tested for light-water-reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. This new broad-group library, which is designated BUGLE-96, represents an improvement over the BUGLE-93 data library released in February 1994 and replaces the data package for BUGLE-93 in the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (formerly RSIC). The processing methodology is the same as that used for producing BUGLE-93 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. The ENDF data were first processed into a fine-group, pseudo-problem-independent format and then collapsed into the final broad-group format. The fine-group library, which is designated VITAMIN-B6, contains 120 nuclides. The BUGLE-96 47-neutron-group/20-gamma-ray-group library contains the same 120 nuclides processed as infinitely dilute and collapsed using a weighting spectrum typical of a concrete shield. Additionally, nuclides processed with resonance self-shielding and weighted using spectra specific to BWR and PWR material compositions and reactor models are available. As an added feature of BUGLE-96, cross-section sets having upscatter data for four thermal neutron groups are included. The upscattering data should improve the application of BUGLE-96 to the calculation of more accurate thermal fluences, although more computer time will be required. Several new dosimetry response functions and kerma factors for all 120 nuclides are also included in the library. The incorporation of feedback from users has resulted in a data library that addresses a wider spectrum of user needs.

  3. Water Soluble Vitamins Enhance the Growth of Microorganisms in Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions contain amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes, with or without some water soluble vitamins. Peripheral venous catheters are one of the causes of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI), which requires infection control. In Japan, PPN solutions have rarely been prepared under aseptic conditions. However, in recent years, the necessity of adding vitamins to infusions has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water solub...

  4. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—Vitamin A Review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Russell, Robert M; Stephensen, Charles B; Craft, Neal E; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lietz, Georg; Schulze, Kerry; Raiten, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readers who want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin A’s use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serum retinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described. PMID:27511929

  5. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  6. Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuvar, Tolga; Buyukgebiz, Atilla

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets continues to be a public health problem in many countries despite the presence of cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. Deficiency of vitamin D is associated with rickets in growing children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D deficiency is attributed to a variety of causes including diet, atmospheric pollution, religious practices that restrict sunlight exposure (clothing), geographic latitude and altitude, season, and time of the day. The clinical findings of rickets can vary among stages of the disease. It is recommended that healthy infants, children and adolescents take at least 400 IU vitamin D per day to prevent rickets and vitamin D deficiency. Pediatricians and other healthcare professionals should try to ensure that children and adolescents receive daily vitamin D requirements appropriate for their risk factors, traditions, and customs. Additionally, it is important to use every opportunity to ensure that effective preventive strategies are put in practice.

  7. Correlation of vitamin A nutritional status on alpha-tocopherol in the colostrum of lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Lima, Mayara Santa Rosa; de Medeiros, Jovilma Maria Soares; da Silva, Isabelle Ferreira; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The adequate supply of vitamins A and E to newborns is essential. However, factors such as maternal nutritional status and nutrient interaction may limit its bioavailability. The aim of this study was to establish nutritional status for vitamins A and E and evaluate the correlation of retinol on colostrum alpha-tocopherol in lactating women. A total of 103 lactating women were recruited at a Brazilian public maternity hospital. Fasting serum and colostrum samples were collected in the immediate post-partum. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and nutritional status for these vitamins was defined from specific cut-off points for serum and colostrum. Mean serum and colostrum retinol (1.49 µmol L(-1) , 2.18 µmol L(-1) ) and alpha-tocopherol (26.4 µmol L(-1) , 26.1 µmol L(-1) ) indicated satisfactory biochemical status. However, we found a prevalence of subclinical deficiency of vitamin A and vitamin E in serum (15.5% and 16%) and colostrum (50% and 60%). Lactating women with serum retinol ≥ 1.05 µmol L(-1) showed an inverse correlation between serum retinol and alpha-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum (P = 0.008, r = -0.28). This association was not observed in serum level nutritional status of lactating women for vitamins A and E was adequate, although there is a risk of subclinical deficiency. The negative correlation of serum retinol on alpha-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum must be carefully evaluated in situations of vitamin A supplementation, because alpha-tocopherol bioavailability in maternal milk may be compromised. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Efficacy of Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia G; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Akoğlu, Handan A; Özdemir, Gül N

    2017-11-17

    Standard treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been well established in childhood, the ideal amount of supplemental vitamin B12 is not clear. Vitamin B12 deficiency is classically treated with intramuscular injections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral therapy in children with vitamin B12 deficiency. Patients with serum cobalamin concentrations B12 ampules. Serum specimens were obtained at the end of first and third months of treatment for vitamin B12 levels. A total of 79 patients were included in the study. The mean pretreatment vitamin B12 level increased from 182±47.6 pg/mL to 482±318 pg/mL after 1 month of treatment in the whole cohort. Comparison of the pretreatment vitamin B12 levels with first and third month posttreatment values showed significant difference (P-value, 0.001 and 0.028, respectively). In this study, oral cyanocobalamin was found effective for the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in children.

  9. Experimental, computational and chemometrics studies of BSA-vitamin B6 interaction by UV-Vis, FT-IR, fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation and hard-soft modeling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Izadmanesh, Yahya; Aghaee, Elham; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated under pseudo-physiological conditions by UV-Vis, fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA was quenched by VB6, which was rationalized in terms of the static quenching mechanism. According to fluorescence quenching calculations, the bimolecular quenching constant (kq), dynamic quenching (KSV) and static quenching (KLB) at 310K were obtained. The efficiency of energy transfer and the distance between the donor (BSA) and the acceptor (VB6) were calculated by Foster's non-radiative energy transfer theory and were equal to 41.1% and 2.11nm. The collected UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra were combined into a row-and column-wise augmented matrix and resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). MCR-ALS helped to estimate the stoichiometry of interactions, concentration profiles and pure spectra for three species (BSA, VB6 and VB6-BSA complex) existed in the interaction procedure. Based on the MCR-ALS results, using mass balance equations, a model was developed and binding constant of complex was calculated using non-linear least squares curve fitting. FT-IR spectra showed that the conformation of proteins was altered in presence of VB6. Finally, the combined docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to estimate the binding affinity of VB6 to BSA. Five-nanosecond MD simulations were performed on bovine serum albumin (BSA) to study the conformational features of its ligand binding site. From MD results, eleven BSA snapshots were extracted, at every 0.5ns, to explore the binding affinity (GOLD score) of VB6 using a docking procedure. MD simulations indicated that there is a considerable flexibility in the structure of protein that affected ligand recognition. Structural analyses and docking simulations indicated that VB6 binds to site I and GOLD score values depend on the conformations of both BSA and ligand

  10. Dietary intakes of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin D and vitamin E in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, M.; Salvini, S.; van Gils, C. H.; Brustad, M.; Shakya-Shrestha, S.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Touvier, M.; Biessy, C.; Wallstrom, P.; Bouckaert, K.; Lund, E.; Waaseth, M.; Roswall, N.; Joensen, A. M.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Dilis, V.; Sieri, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Ferrari, P.; Manjer, J.; Nilsson, S.; Welch, A. A.; Travis, R.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Niravong, M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Tormo, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of the fat-soluble nutrients retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin D and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and

  11. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency throughout a natural year in a pediatric population with normal nutrition status. cross sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) in 413 caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), all of them in a normal nutrition status, during the year 2014. Vitamin D deficiency was defined according to the United States Endocrine Society guidelines. calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/ml) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/ml); PTH levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/ml) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/ml). Vitamin D deficiency prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. PTH levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 8 individuals (1.9%). There was a negative correlation between calcidol and PTH levels (p nutrition status shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during the months of autumn and winter and, especially, in spring; the addition of vitamin supplements and/ or an increase in the ingestion of their natural dietary sources should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. [Vitamin A in Gabonese children not receiving supplements: relation to ocular and nutritional diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessolo, Felix Ovono; Kuissi, Eliane; Nguele, Jean Calvin; Lémamy, Guy Joseph; Ndong, Zue; Ngou-Milama, Edouard

    2009-01-01

    To define vitamin A status in Gabonese children before the supplementation campaigns by UNICEF and the Gabonese Ministry of Health. We conducted an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory study at two of the main child health centers of Libreville and included 150 children aged from 0 to 156 months. We assessed their nutritional and ophthalmological status, their consumption of food rich in vitamin A and their blood levels of vitamin A (retinol). The latter was below the normal level (0.76 mmol/l) for 70% of the children. We observed the following eye diseases correlated with retinol levels: nyctalopia (16%), conjunctiva xerosis (6.7%), Bitot's spots (1.3%), corneal xerosis (3.3%), leukoma (0.7%) and blindness (1.3%). Moreover, 48.7% of the children had delayed growth, positively correlated with low retinol concentrations (0.643 mmol/l), 10% kwashiorkor and 19.9% marasmus. Among the mothers interviewed, 56% were unemployed and 69.3% knew little about vitamin A-rich food, which indeed is a rare part of the population's diet. This prospective study showed that the vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in Libreville. Supplementation campaigns are certainly necessary to fight it, but also and especially improved nutrition, including regular consumption of the vitamin A-rich food available in Gabonese market places.

  13. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Obesity is a major public health problem and great risk for not only cardiovascular diseases but also cancer, musculoskeletal, and gynecological diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum Vitamin B12 (vitB12), body mass index (BMI), and nutritional status among obese women.

  14. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  15. [Impact of supplementation of vitamins and minerals on nutritional status of women in suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Sishun; Jia, Jianbin; Jia, Fengmei; Liu, Changqing; Liu, Aidong; Ping, Bo; Zhai, Fengying

    2003-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of vitamins-minerals supplementation on the nutritional status of Chinese women, 252 villagers aged 20-50 years old were selected as the participants in the study in Longli County, Guizhou Province. Within Twenty two weeks, half of the participants received the supplements and half had placebo. The results showed that in comparison with the control, the women with supplementation represented a higher urine excretion of vitamin B1 and B2 after a loading dosage and, a higher concentration of serum iron and zinc and a lower prevalence of anemia. They kept their facial moisture and grease better than those of the controls. They also felt better in sleeping, having appetite, and doing physical activities. The results indicated that the supplementation of vitamins-minerals might improve the nutritional status of rural Chinese women.

  16. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development – Vitamin A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation...

  17. Vitamina K: metabolismo e nutrição Vitamin K: metabolism and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Custódio das DÔRES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir aspectos que envolvem a compreensão do metabolismo da vitamina K e os recentes avanços quanto ao papel da vitamina na nutrição humana. São abordadas questões sobre as fontes da vitamina, sua absorção, distribuição e metabolismo, recomendações dietéticas, avaliação do estado nutricional relacionado à vitamina K e ainda fatores que afetam sua concentração plasmática. Diante das novas evidências sobre a participação da vitamina K no metabolismo ósseo, pesquisas adicionais são necessárias a fim de identificar as possíveis conseqüências à saúde, a longo prazo, de deficiência subclínica desta vitamina. Pesquisadores e comitês futuros encontram um desafio no que se refere a investigar novos requerimentos nutricionais da vitamina.The aim of this study was to discuss the aspects that involve the understanding of vitamin K metabolism and recent advances of its role in human nutrition. The paper presents dietary sources, absorption, distribution in the body and metabolism of vitamin K, nutritional recommendations, evaluation of nutritional status related to the vitamin and factors influencing its plasmatic concentration. In the light of evidences about vitamin K role in bone metabolism, further studies are needed to identify the possible long-term consequences to health of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. A great challenge for researchers and further scientific committees will be certainly concerned with investigation of new nutritional requirements of the vitamin.

  18. Serum vitamin A and other nutritional parameters in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the weight for age, the serum albumin and vitamin A of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) with those of age and sex matched controls without CHD. Methods: Consecutive children diagnosed to have CHD by echocardiography who were afebrile two weeks prior were recruited. Subjects ...

  19. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease References Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 2000. ...

  20. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Water Soluble Vitamins Enhance the Growth of Microorganisms in Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, Sachiko; Tani, Katsuji; Nagai, Katsuhito; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Mukai, Junji; Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions contain amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes, with or without some water soluble vitamins. Peripheral venous catheters are one of the causes of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI), which requires infection control. In Japan, PPN solutions have rarely been prepared under aseptic conditions. However, in recent years, the necessity of adding vitamins to infusions has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water soluble vitamins on growth of microorganisms in PPN solutions. AMINOFLUID® (AF), BFLUID® (BF), PARESAFE® (PS) and PAREPLUS® (PP) PPN solutions were used. Water soluble vitamins contained in PP were also used. Causative microorganisms of CRBSI were used. Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased after 24 hours or 48 hours in all solutions. On the other hand, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans increased, especially in PP. When each water soluble vitamin was added to BF and PS, growth of S. aureus was greater in solutions that contained nicotinamide than in solutions that contained other vitamins. As for C. albicans, they grew in all test solutions. C. albicans grew especially well in solutions that contained biotin. When commercial amino acids and glucose solutions with electrolytes are administered, in particular those containing multivitamins or water soluble vitamins, efforts to control infection must be taken to prevent proliferation of microorganisms.

  2. Evaluation of Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and High-Throughput Quantitative Determination of B-Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for rapid and high-throughput mass spectral analysis of selected B-vitamins, viz. B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6, in nutritional formulations was demonstrated. A simple and rapid (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed by adding extraction solvent to a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Automated flow injection introduced 1 L of the extracts directly into the mass spectrometer ion source without chromatographic separation. Sample-to-sample analysis time was 60 s representing significant improvement over conventional liquid chromatography approaches which typically require 25-45 min, and often require more significant sample preparation procedures. Quantitative capabilities of the flow-injection analysis were tested using the method of standard additions and NIST standard reference material (SRM 3280) multivitamin/multielement tablets. The quantity determined for each B-vitamin in SRM 3280 was within the statistical range provided for the respective certified values. The same sample preparation and analysis approach was also applied to two different commercial vitamin supplement tablets and proved to be successful in the quantification of the selected B-vitamins as evidenced by an agreement with the labels values and the results obtained using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B- ... vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B- ...

  4. Roles of Vitamins D and K, Nutrition, and Lifestyle in Low-Energy Bone Fractures in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Michał; Popko, Janusz; Maresz, Katarzyna; Badmaev, Vladimir; Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-01

    The research on skeletal system health in children and young adults, while recognizing the important role of calcium and vitamin D, goes beyond these nutritional standards. This review focuses on the role of vitamin K in combination with vitamin D and other factors in bone health. The current understanding is that maintaining bone health and prevention of low-energy fractures in any pediatric population includes nutritional factors combined with an active lifestyle. Calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K supplementation contribute independently and collectively to bone health. The beneficial role of vitamin K, particularly vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), in bone and cardiovascular health is reasonably well supported scientifically, with several preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical studies published over the last decade. Osteocalcin and matrix-Gla (glutamate-containing) protein (MGP) exemplify vitamin K-dependent proteins involved in building bone matrix and keeping calcium from accumulating in the arterial walls, respectively. An important part of the mechanism of vitamin K involves carboxylation and posttranslational activation of the family of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which prevent expression of pro-inflammatory factors and support improvement in bone mineral concentration, bone mineral density, and the quality of bone matrix. Understanding the combined approach to a healthy skeletal system in children and young adults, including the roles of vitamins D and K, calcium, healthy diet, and exercise, is particularly important in view of reports of subclinical insufficiency of vitamins D and K in otherwise healthy pediatric populations with low-energy bone fractures.

  5. Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Helena P Y; Liu, David T L; Lam, Dennis S C

    2013-02-01

    To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded. Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye. Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. [Study on anemia and vitamin A and vitamin D nutritional status of Chinese urban pregnant women in 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y C; Chen, J; Li, M; Wang, R; Li, W D; Yang, Y H; Yang, C; Yun, C F; Yang, L C; Yang, X G

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and the nutritional status of vitamins A and D by analyzing hemoglobin, serum retinol, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Chinese urban pregnant women during 2010-2012. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using multi-stage stratified sampling and population proportional stratified random sampling, 2 250 pregnant women from 34 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities were included in this study. Information was collected using a questionnaire survey. The blood hemoglobin concentration was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method, and anemia was determined using the World Health Organization guidelines combined with the elevation correction standard. The serum retinol level was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was judged by the related standard recommended by the World Health Organization. The vitamin D level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and vitamin D deficiency was judged by the recommendation standards from the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies. The hemoglobin, serum retinol, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were compared, along with differences in the prevalence of anemia, VAD, and the vitamin D deficiency rate (including deficiency and serious deficiency). Results: A total of 1 738 cases of hemoglobin level, 594 cases of serum retinol level, and 1 027 cases of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were available for analysis in this study. The overall blood hemoglobin level ( P (50) ( P (25)- P (75))) was 122.70 (114.00-131.10) g/L; 123.70 (115.21-132.00) g/L for metropolis and 122.01 (113.30-130.40) g/L for middle-sized and small cities. The blood hemoglobin level of metropolis residents was significantly higher than that of middle-sized and small city residents ( P= 0.027). The overall prevalence of anemia was 17.0% (295/1 738). The overall serum retinol level ( P

  7. [Enteral nutrition in neurological patients: is there enough vitamin D content in commonly used formulas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Romero, F; Alfaro Martínez, J J; Luna López, V; Galicia Martín, I

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency produces inadequate bone mineralization, proximal muscle weakness, abnormal gait and increased risk of falls and fractures. Moreover, in epidemiological studies, has been associated with increased risk of cancer, autoimmune diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and depression. When synthesis through the skin by sun exposure is not possible and the patient can not eat by mouth, as in the advanced stages of various neurological diseases, the supply of vitamin D has to be done by enteral nutrition. The aim of this study is to review the role of vitamin D in a common group of neurological conditions that often require artificial nutrition and analyze whether the vitamin D of different enteral nutrition formulas is adequate to meet the needs of this group of patients. Numerous studies have shown the association between vitamin D deficiency and increased incidence of dementia, stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. Interventions aimed to increase levels of vit. D and its effects on functional (falls, pain, quality of life) and cardiovascular goals (cardiovascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular risk factors) have obtained as highlight data a clear reduction of falls and fractures, while the evidence for the other parameters studied is still limited and inconsistent. The content of calcium and vitamin D of enteral formulas is legislated in our country. The total amount of vitamin D for a daily intake of 1,500-2,000 kcal ranges between 300 and 1,600 IU/d (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 8.5 mg/100 kcal) in the complete formulas for enteral nutrition most commonly used. 50% of the diets studied, for an intake of 2,000 kcal/d, and 90% for an intake of 1,500 kcal/d, provide less than 600 IU/d of vitamin D. Some revised recently guidelines published recommendations of daily intake of vitamin D. The document published by the U.S. Institute of Medicine

  8. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  9. Vitamin E content of different animal products: influence of animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, M; Gebert, S; Wenk, C

    1997-03-01

    The alpha-tocopherol content of different meat cuts was examined. Chicken thigh had the highest vitamin E content, followed by chicken breast and pork shoulder (p meat consumption (105 g) in Switzerland, recommendation for daily vitamin E intake was met to 3%. Supplementation of 200 mg alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg feed to pigs and laying hens significantly increased the alpha-tocopherol content in all examined products. The alpha-tocopherol accumulation differed according to the following ranking: egg yolk > liver > adipose tissue > musculus longissimus dorsi. The alpha-tocopherol:energy ratios were 28.8, 7.3, 0.9 and 1.2 mg/MJ for egg yolk, liver, adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi muscle of the vitamin E supplemented groups, respectively. The results showed that meat, with the exception of chicken thigh, is not an important supplier of vitamin E, not even from animals fed a vitamin E enriched diet. Egg yolk became a good source of vitamin E for human nutrition by dietary modification.

  10. Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    nutritional composition of this material. Recently, more attention has been focused on the utilization of agricultural by-products. Over 1,442,134 tons of bananas have been produced in Hainan annually. (data provided by Ministry of Agriculture of the People's. Republic of China). The amount of banana flowers, which.

  11. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  12. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2011-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-o...

  13. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Silvia; Cereda, Emanuele; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Cameletti, Barbara; Albertini, Riccardo; Magno, Daniela; Caraccia, Marilisa; Turri, Annalisa; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2016-12-23

    Background: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed. Methods: In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL) are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index vitamin B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%). The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56-3.08; p vitamin B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS) than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15-41) versus 23 days (IQR 14-36); p = 0.014), and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (p = 0.027). Conclusions: An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation.

  14. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cappello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed. Methods: In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index <97.5, admitted to medical and surgical departments. Results: Three hundred and ninety-six (28.8% patients presented vitamin B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%. The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56–3.08; p < 0.001; it was independent of age, gender, body mass index, six-month previous unintentional weight loss, admission ward, presence of malignancy, renal function, C-reactive protein and prealbumin. Patients with high vitamin B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15–41 versus 23 days (IQR 14–36; p = 0.014, and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (p = 0.027. Conclusions: An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation.

  15. Vitamin D nutritional status and antenatal depressive symptoms in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Johnson, Dayna A; Li, Jia; Rao, D Sudhaker

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; CES-D≥16 equates with criteria for clinical depression. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D≥16). Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4 ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHDvitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.

  16. What's the Scoop on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2009-01-01

    There is much discussion among families about the relationship between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are claims of diets that will "cure" ASD: gluten-free, casein-free, specific carbohydrate diet (SCD). There are claims of benefits by adding nutrients to the diet, such as vitamin B-6 and magnesium, vitamin B-12, or essential…

  17. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  18. The Vitamin Nicotinamide: Translating Nutrition into Clinical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhong Chong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3 (niacin, is changed to its mononucleotide compound with the enzyme nicotinic acide/nicotinamide adenylyltransferase, and participates in the cellular energy metabolism that directly impacts normal physiology. However, nicotinamide also influences oxidative stress and modulates multiple pathways tied to both cellular survival and death. During disorders that include immune system dysfunction, diabetes, and aging-related diseases, nicotinamide is a robust cytoprotectant that blocks cellular inflammatory cell activation, early apoptotic phosphatidylserine exposure, and late nuclear DNA degradation. Nicotinamide relies upon unique cellular pathways that involve forkhead transcription factors, sirtuins, protein kinase B (Akt, Bad, caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase that may offer a fine line with determining cellular longevity, cell survival, and unwanted cancer progression. If one is cognizant of the these considerations, it becomes evident that nicotinamide holds great potential for multiple disease entities, but the development of new therapeutic strategies rests heavily upon the elucidation of the novel cellular pathways that nicotinamide closely governs.

  19. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E

    2016-06-01

    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D status of Irish adults: findings from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Muldowney, Siobhan; McNulty, Breige; Nugent, Anne; FitzGerald, Anthony P; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2013-04-14

    Previous national nutrition surveys in Irish adults did not include blood samples; thus, representative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data are lacking. In the present study, we characterised serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Irish adults from the recent National Adult Nutrition Survey, and determined the impact of vitamin D supplement use and season on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Of the total representative sample (n 1500, aged 18+ years), blood samples were available for 1132 adults. Serum 25(OH)D was measured via immunoassay. Vitamin D-containing supplement use was assessed by questionnaire and food diary. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were compared by season and in supplement users and non-users. Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentration Supplement users had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to non-users. However, 7.5 % of users had winter serum 25(OH)D 125 nmol/l. These first nationally representative serum 25(OH)D data for Irish adults show that while only 6.7 % had serum 25(OH)D vitamin D deficiency) throughout the year, 40.1 % had levels considered by the Institute of Medicine as being inadequate for bone health. These prevalence estimates were much higher during winter time. While vitamin D supplement use has benefits in terms of vitamin D status, at present rates of usage (17.5 % of Irish adults), it will have only very limited impact at a population level. Food-based strategies, including fortified foods, need to be explored.

  1. Vitamin D and nutritional status are related to bone fractures in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Alvisa-Negrín, Julio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Candelaria Martín-González, M; Hernández-Betancor, Iván; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino M; Viña-Rodríguez, J; González-Díaz, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    Bone fractures are common in alcoholics. To analyse which factors (ethanol consumption; liver function impairment; bone densitometry; hormone changes; nutritional status, and disrupted social links and altered eating habits) are related to bone fractures in 90 alcoholic men admitted to our hospitalization unit because of organic problems. Bone homoeostasis-related hormones were measured in patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Whole-body densitometry was performed by a Hologic QDR-2000 (Waltham, MA, USA) densitometer, recording bone mineral density (BMD) and fat and lean mass; nutritional status and liver function were assessed. The presence of prevalent fractures was assessed by anamnesis and chest X-ray film. Forty-nine patients presented at least one fracture. We failed to find differences between patients with and without fractures regarding BMD parameters. Differences regarding fat mass were absent, but lean mass was lower among patients with bone fracture. The presence of fracture was significantly associated with impaired subjective nutritional evaluation (χ² = 5.79, P = 0.016), lower vitamin D levels (Z = 2.98, P = 0.003) and irregular eating habits (χ² = 5.32, P = 0.02). Reduced lean mass and fat mass, and altered eating habits were more prevalent among patients with only rib fractures (n = 36) than in patients with multiple fractures and/or fractures affecting other bones (n = 13). These last were more closely related to decompensated liver disease. Serum vitamin D levels showed a significant relationship with handgrip strength (ρ = 0.26, P = 0.023) and lean mass at different parts of the body, but not with fat mass. By logistic regression analysis, only vitamin D and subjective nutritional evaluation were significantly, independently related with fractures. Prevalent fractures are common among heavy alcoholics. Their presence is related more closely to nutritional status, lean mass and vitamin D levels than to BMD. Lean mass is more reduced

  2. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food

  3. Can Composite Nutritional Supplement Based on the Current Guidelines Prevent Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency After Weight Loss Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Stephen G; Goriparthi, Richie; Clark, Jennifer; Cameron, Krystal; Roslin, Mitchell S

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional deficiencies occur after weight loss surgery. Despite knowledge of nutritional risk, there is little uniformity of postoperative vitamin and mineral supplementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a composite supplement based on the clinical practice guidelines proposed in 2008 regarding vitamin and mineral supplementation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The composite included iron (Fe) and calcium as well. A retrospective chart review of 309 patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) was evaluated for the development of deficiencies in iron and vitamins A, B1, B12, and D. Patients were instructed to take a custom vitamin and mineral supplement that was based on society-approved guidelines. The clinical practice guidelines were modified to include 1600 international units (IU) of vitamin D3 instead of the recommended 800 IU. The compliant patients' deficiency rates were significantly lower than those of the noncompliant patients for iron (p = 0.001), vitamin A (p = 0.01), vitamin B12 (p ≈ 0.02), and vitamin D (p guidelines proposed by the AACE, TOS, and the ASMBS appears to be effective for preventing iron and vitamins A, B1, B12, and D deficiencies in the LRYGB patients during the first postoperative year. Separation of calcium and Fe does not need to be mandatory. Even with simplification, compliance is far from universal.

  4. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  5. Bone mineral density, vitamin D, and nutritional status of children submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Denise Johnsson; Boguszewski, César Luiz; Funke, Vaneuza Araujo Moreira; Bonfim, Carmem Maria Sales; Kulak, Carolina Aguiar Moreira; Pasquini, Ricardo; Borba, Victória Zeghbi Cochenski

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on bone mineral density (BMD), serum vitamin D levels, and nutritional status of 50 patients between ages 4 and 20 y. We conducted pre-HSCT and 6-mo post-HSCT evaluations. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); body composition by bioimpedance analysis, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D using the 24-h recall and semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire methods. We observed a significant reduction in BMD 6 mo post-HSCT. Nearly half (48%) of patients had reductions at the LS (average -9.6% ± 6.0%), and patients who developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) had the greatest reductions (-5.6% versus 1.2%, P nutritional status, and vitamin D levels. We suggest that early routine assessment be done to permit prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin Variation in Capsicum Spp. Provides Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Value of Human Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B; Anderson, Justin E; Lucht, Sarah A; Mercer, Kristin; Bernau, Vivian; Case, Kyle A; Le, Nina C; Frederiksen, Matthew K; DeKeyser, Haley C; Wong, Zen-Zi; Hastings, Jennifer C; Baumler, David J

    2016-01-01

    Chile peppers, native to the Americas, have spread around the world and have been integrated into the diets of many cultures. Much like their heat content, nutritional content can vary dramatically between different pepper types. In this study, a diverse set of chile pepper types were examined for nutrient content. Some pepper types were found to have high levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, or folate. Correlations between nutrient content, species, cultivation status, or geographic region were limited. Varietal selection or plant breeding offer tools to augment nutrient content in peppers. Integration of nutrient rich pepper types into diets that already include peppers could help combat nutrient deficiencies by providing a significant portion of recommended daily nutrients.

  7. Vitamin Variation in Capsicum Spp. Provides Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Value of Human Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Kantar

    Full Text Available Chile peppers, native to the Americas, have spread around the world and have been integrated into the diets of many cultures. Much like their heat content, nutritional content can vary dramatically between different pepper types. In this study, a diverse set of chile pepper types were examined for nutrient content. Some pepper types were found to have high levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, or folate. Correlations between nutrient content, species, cultivation status, or geographic region were limited. Varietal selection or plant breeding offer tools to augment nutrient content in peppers. Integration of nutrient rich pepper types into diets that already include peppers could help combat nutrient deficiencies by providing a significant portion of recommended daily nutrients.

  8. Vitamin K-independent warfarin resistance after concurrent administration of warfarin and continuous enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Garmon, Wesley M; Kuhl, David A; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2008-03-01

    To assess the influence of withholding continuous enteral nutrition for 1 hour before and after warfarin administration compared with the coadministration of warfarin with continuous enteral nutrition on changes in international normalized ratios (INRs). Retrospective, crossover case series. Intensive care units of a university-affiliated medical center. Six adults who required nutritional support for at least the first 10 consecutive days of warfarin therapy; during that 10-day period, they had a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which the enteral feeding was withheld for 1 hour before and after warfarin administration, and had a period of at least 3 consecutive days when feedings were not withheld during warfarin administration. Patients with advanced liver disease and those who received therapies, during the observation period, that significantly alter warfarin metabolism were omitted from the study. The change in INR during the 3-day observation period when feedings were withheld for 1 hour before and after warfarin administration was significantly different versus the change in INR during coadministration of warfarin with continuous feeding (mean +/- SD 0.74 +/- 0.66 vs -0.13 +/- 0.81, p 0.05). Also noted was a clinically irrelevant, but statistically significant, difference in vitamin K intake between treatment periods (77 +/- 36 mug/day when feedings were withheld vs 102 +/- 28 microg/day when feedings were not withheld, p enteral nutrition should be withheld for 1 hour before and after warfarin administration to prevent enteral nutrition-associated warfarin resistance.

  9. Hypertension and Nutrition: Fat-soluble Vitamins A, D and E

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension and nutrition: Fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E Weber J1 , Vlcek J1 , Suarez-Varella MM2 1 Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic 2 Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Spain Arterial hypertension (AH) is a disease affecting population globally, and thus considered as a problem of public health and socioeconomic. Studies are trying t...

  10. Nutritional status, dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin C upon diagnosis of cancer in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Araújo, L; Maciel Barbosa, J; Gomes Ribeiro, A P; Oliveira dos Santos, A C; Pedrosa, F

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition upon diagnosis, together with reduced food intake secondary to disease and treatment, make the periodic assessment of nutritional status (including the intake of antioxidant nutrients) of considerable importance to the follow up of patients with cancer. Assess the nutritional status and frequency of inadequate vitamin C levels among children and adolescents with cancer at the beginning of treatment and determine associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 30 patients under 18 years. Nutritional status was assessed using laboratory methods and anthropometric measurements. Vitamin C adequacy was assessed through its serum concentration and dietary intake. In the sample, 10% were short for their age and 13.3% were underweight. The triceps skinfold measurement revealed fat depletion in 68% and the arm muscle circumference measurement revealed muscle depletion in 32.0%. Seventy percent of the patients had vitamin C deficiency and had greater weight loss, lower Z scores for all anthropometric indicators analyzed, lower serum albumin and higher C-reactive protein than those without vitamin C deficiency, but these differences were not statistically significant. Children with cancer may have nutritional deficits upon diagnosis. Further studies are needed on the association between serum levels of antioxidant and nutritional status in order to offer safe, effective nutritional support.

  11. Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Roberta A

    2013-07-14

    Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol\\/l (20 ng\\/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol\\/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol\\/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol\\/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol\\/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.

  12. Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Roberta A; McKenna, Malachi J; Oyefeso, Oyinkansola; Uduma, Ogenna; Murray, Barbara F; Brady, Jennifer J; Kilbane, Mark T; Murphy, John F; Twomey, Anne; O' Donnell, Colm P; Murphy, Nuala P; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2013-07-14

    Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P125 nmol/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.

  13. ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

  14. Self-reported use of vitamins and other nutritional supplements in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Is daily practice in concordance with recommendations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Dopheide, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In cystic fibrosis (CF), prophylactic supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K is recommended. Limited data is available describing vitamin prescription adherence by adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the use of prescribed vitamins and other nutritional

  15. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Shil Kwak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status.

  16. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  17. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  18. Dietary vitamin intake correlates with hearing thresholds in the older population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Choi, Hyun Seung; Kim, Kyubo; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-06-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that vitamins may prevent age-related hearing loss. However, no concrete conclusions have been reached about the association between vitamin intake and presbycusis in humans. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin intake and hearing thresholds in adults between 50 and 80 y of age by using data from a large population-based survey. We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A pure-tone audiogram and physical examination of the ear were performed, and vitamin intake was calculated by using the 24-h recall method. Data from 1910 participants were analyzed through univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and exposure to occupational and explosive noise, intake of vitamin C correlated with better hearing at midfrequency (2000 and 3000 Hz) (coefficient: -0.012; 95% CI: -0.022, -0.002). Dietary supplement use was positively associated with better hearing at all frequencies. The univariate analysis indicated that dietary intakes of retinol, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were positively correlated with better hearing at most frequencies. In contrast, serum concentrations of vitamin D were associated with worse hearing at mid and high (4000 and 6000 Hz) frequencies. Dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with better hearing in the older population. Because less than one-half of elderly participants in this study consumed a sufficient amount of vitamins, and vitamin intake decreased with age, we should consider proper diet counseling to prevent hearing decline. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Vitamin E in new Generation Lipid Emulsions Protects Against Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver disease in Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Ng; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Hypothesis: Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composi...

  20. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  1. Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.

  2. [The vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese urban women of child-bearing age from 2010 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J X; Liu, X B; Chen, J; Hu, Y C; Yun, C F; Li, W D; Wang, R; Yang, Y H; Mao, D Q; Piao, J H; Yang, X G; Yang, L C

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese women of child-bearing age by analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in 2010-2012. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using cluster sampling and proportional stratified random sampling, 1 514 women of child-bearing age (18-44 years old) from 34 metropolis and 41 small and medium-sized cities were included in this study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaire and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, in accordance with the 2010 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies standards. We compared differences in vitamin D levels, specifically serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess. Results: The overall serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of Chinese urban women of child-bearing age ( P (50) ( P (25)- P (75))) was 20.1 (15.1-26.3) ng/ml; minorities had a significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 22.0 (15.9-27.5) ng/ml compared with women of Han nationality (19.8 (14.9-26.2) ng/ml) (χ(2)=7.02, P= 0.008). The proportions of women with serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess vitamin D were 11.6% ( n= 175), 37.9% ( n= 574), 35.1% ( n= 531), and 0.3% ( n= 5), respectively. Only 15.1% ( n= 229) of women of child-bearing age had normal vitamin D nutritional status. No significant differences in vitamin D nutritional status were observed according to age, body mass index, city, nationality, educational level, marital status, or household income per capita ( P> 0.05). Conclusion: Most Chinese urban women of child-bearing age have poor vitamin D levels and require vitamin D supplementation.

  3. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  4. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation and health-related outcomes in hemodialysis patients: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, Anita; Leung, Wai-Yin; Joson, Tannia

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients is high. While most hemodialysis patients are treated with activated vitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) to prevent renal osteodystrophy, clinical practices of the screening and treatment of 25(OH)2D deficiency are highly variable. It is unclear if nutritional vitamin D supplementation with D2 or D3 provides an additional clinical benefit beyond that provided by activated vitamin D treatment in this population. Methods/design We wi...

  5. Vitamin D Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms of vitamin D that are important for nutrition: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 mainly comes ... from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-d National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ...

  6. Self-reported use of vitamins and other nutritional supplements in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Is daily practice in concordance with recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Francis M; de Roos, Nicole M; Dopheide, Janneke; Hoekstra, Tiny; van Berkhout, Ferdinand Teding

    2010-12-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), prophylactic supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K is recommended. Limited data is available describing vitamin prescription adherence by adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the use of prescribed vitamins and other nutritional supplements by adult CF patients. All adult CF patients (n=111) registered at the Utrecht CF Center were invited to participate in a telephone survey on supplement use. Supplemental vitamin intakes were compared with recommendations. In a subsample, associations between supplemental intake and serum vitamin D and E values were assessed. In this study 80% of the patients reported the use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements. Fat-soluble vitamins were used by 43% of pancreatic-sufficient (PS) and 81% of pancreatic-insufficient (PI) patients. Of PI patients reporting supplemental vitamin use, only 9% met the recommendations for vitamin A, 32% for vitamin D, 59% for vitamin E, and 81% for vitamin K. Multivitamin supplements were used by 42% of PI and by 29% of PS patients. Other nutritional supplements were rarely used. A high percentage of PI patients use fat-soluble vitamins below recommendations. Therefore adequate monitoring of vitamin supplementation and status is warranted.

  7. The role of nutrition, nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals in the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in the general population and may be even more common in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease due to genetic or environmental causes and prescription drug use. These deficiencies will have an enormous impact on present and future cardiovascular health and outcomes, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and renal disease, and on overall health costs. The diagnosis and treatment of these nutrient deficiencies can reduce blood pressure; improve vascular health, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular biology; and decrease cardiovascular events. Vascular biology assumes a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension and target organ damage (TOD). Endothelial activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autoimmune vascular dysfunction, and vascular smooth-muscle dysfunction are initial events in hypertension. Nutrient gene interactions determine a broad array of phenotypic consequences, such as vascular problems and hypertension. In addition to other lifestyle modifications, optimal nutrition, nutraceutical supplements, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation, and moderate restriction of alcohol and caffeine can prevent and control hypertension in many patients. An integrative approach combining these lifestyle suggestions with the correct pharmacologic treatment will best achieve new goals for blood pressure levels, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve vascular biology and vascular health, reduce cardiovascular TOD, and reduce health care expenditures. In this article, the expanded scientific role for nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of essential hypertension will be discussed. It is the purpose of this article to review only the hypertension clinical trials that have evaluated the clinical use and efficacy of nutrition, weight loss, exercise, and nutritional supplements, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

  8. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  9. Esmond E. Snell--the pathfinder of B vitamins and cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanase, Sumio; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2010-04-01

    Esmond E. Snell (1914-2003) was a giant of B-vitamin and enzyme research. His early research in bacterial nutrition had lead to the discovery of vitamins such as lipoic acid and folic acid, and an anti-vitamin avidin. He developed microbiological assay methods for riboflavin and other vitamins and amino acids, which are still used today. He also investigated the metabolism of vitamins, discovered pyridoxal and pyridoxamine as the active forms of vitamin B(6) and revealed the mechanism of transamination and other reactions catalysed by vitamin B(6) enzymes. His research in later years on pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase unveiled the biogenesis mechanism of this first built-in cofactor. Throughout his career, he was a great mentor of many people, all of whom are inspired by his philosophy of science.

  10. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and

  11. Short-term oral nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D decreases falls in malnourished older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Lips, Paul; Bosmans, Judith E; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a short-term nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D on falls in malnourished older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: From hospital admission until 3 months after discharge. PARTICIPANTS: Malnourished older adults (≥ 60) newly

  12. STOSS THERAPY AND WEEKLY VITAMIN D THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL RICKETS IN CHILDREN- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhava Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Aim of the study is to study the risk factors of nutritional rickets in children of age 1-5 years and to compare the effectiveness of classical single mega dose vitamin D administration (stoss therapy and weekly cholecalciferol administration. METHODS 50 children of age group 1-5 year with clinical, biochemical and radiological features of nutritional rickets and an equal number of age and gender matched control were included in the study. Their risk factors were compared. Those children with rickets were divided randomly into two groups of equal numbers. For one group, single oral dose of 6,00,000 IU of vitamin D and for the other group, weekly oral dose of 60,000 IU of vitamin D was administered for 8 weeks. All children were given calcium supplementation. Regular follow up was done at 1, 2, 6, 9 and 12 months and the improvement was assessed clinically, radiologically and as per the laboratory results. RESULTS Major risk factors for the development of nutritional rickets were prematurity, low birth weight, high birth order, consumption of complementary feeds poor in calcium, lack of adequate sunlight exposure and prolonged exclusive breast feeding. Response to treatment was comparable both clinically and as per the investigation results among those who received single massive dose and those on weekly vitamin D therapy. CONCLUSION Increased birth order, prematurity and low birth weight were important risk factors for rickets. Inadequate dietary calcium and inadequate sunlight exposure increased chance of getting rickets. Supplementation of vitamin D and calcium were protective. Inadequate maternal sunlight exposure, lack of antenatal and post-natal calcium and vitamin D supplementation showed a significant association with rickets. The most common clinical feature of rickets was bow legs. Both massive single dose therapy and weekly vitamin D administration were equally effective and revealed no significant difference in clinical

  13. Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation for 28 days before slaughter maximises muscle vitamin E concentration in finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Jose, C G; Trezona, M; Moore, K L; Pluske, J R; Mullan, B P

    2015-12-01

    A 4 × 3 factorial experiment (n=8 pigs per treatment combination) was conducted with 96 female Landrace × Large White pigs to examine the required level of dietary vitamin E and optimum feeding duration before slaughter to maximise muscle vitamin E content in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. The respective factors were four dietary levels of vitamin E (supplemented as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; 35, 300, 500, and 700 IU/kg) and three feeding durations (14, 28 and 42 days before slaughter). Vitamin E concentration in the LTL was maximised at 6 mg/kg, which was achieved by feeding a 700 IU vitamin E diet for 28 days before slaughter (Pvitamin E content of the LTL by feeding the high vitamin E diet more than 28 days before slaughter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin E in new Generation Lipid Emulsions Protects Against Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver disease in Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Ng; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Hypothesis: Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E...... composition of soy and fish oil lipid emulsions affects development of PNALD in preterm pigs. Methods: We measured markers of PNALD in preterm pigs that received 14 days of PN that included 1 of the following: (1) Intralipid (IL, 100% soybean oil), (2) Intralipid + vitamin E (ILE, d-α-tocopherol), (3...

  15. Routine supplementation does not warrant the nutritional status of vitamin d adequate after gastric bypass Roux-en-Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Cintia Leticia; Dames Olivieri Saubermann, Ana Paula; Jacqueline, Jacqueline; Pereira, Silvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies, including those related to bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D and PTH in obese adults before and six months after gastric bypass surgery in Roux-en-Y (RYGB) and evaluate the doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery. Retrospective longitudinal study of adult patients of both sexes undergoing RYGB. We obtained data on weight, height, BMI and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium and PTH. Following surgery, patients received dietary supplementation daily 500 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D. We studied 56 women and 27 men. Preoperative serum concentrations of vitamin D were inadequate in 45% of women and 37% of men, while in the postoperative period 91% of women and 85% of men had deficiency of this vitamin. No change in serum calcium was found before and after surgery. Serum PTH preoperatively remained adequate in 89% of individuals of both sexes. After surgery serum concentrations remained adequate and 89% women and 83% men evaluated. Obesity appears to be a risk factor for the development of vitamin D. The results show that supplementation routine postoperative was unable to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency in obese adults undergoing RYGB. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin intake in Japanese women college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Hayakawa, Fumiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2003-06-01

    The Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods was newly revised in 2000, and contains information on all of the vitamins except biotin. Thus, we carried out a survey of vitamin intake in Japanese women who were university seniors majoring a dietitian course. The subjects (n = 33) consumed self-selected foods, and food intake was recorded by the weight method. We calculated the vitamin intake except for biotin from the food records using the Standard Food Tables of Japanese Foods. In terms of daily intake, vitamin A was 705+/-435 microg (mean+/-SD), vitamin D 6+/-8 microg, vitamin E 7.7+/-3.0 mg, vitamin K 191+/-156 microg, vitamin B1 0.7+/-0.3 mg (0.43+/-0.15 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B2 1.1+/-0.4 mg (0.65+/-0.18 mg/1,000 kcal), vitamin B6 0.9+/-0.4 mg (0.017+/-0.005 mg/g protein), vitamin B12 4.4+/-4.1 microg, niacin equivalent 23+/-7 mg (14.4+/-4.9 mg/1,000 kcal), pantothenic acid 4.6+/-1.4 mg, folic acid 267+/-115 microg, and vitamin C 73+/-38 mg. All of these averages were around the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for level "III (preferable)" of physical activity. Major vitamin A resources were vegetables; vitamin D resources, fish; vitamin E resources, fats and oils and vegetables; vitamin K resources, vegetables; vitamin B1 resources, cereals and animal meats; vitamin B2 resources, various foods; vitamin B6 resources, cereals, vegetables, fish, and animal meats; vitamin B12 resources, fish; niacin equivalent resources, fish, animal meats, and cereals; pantothenic acid resources, various foods; folic acid resources, vegetables; and vitamin C resources, vegetables and potatoes. From this survey, it was found that Japanese women college students consumed many kinds of food, and therefore, their vitamin nutrition was good as compared to the RDA values for level III of physical activity; however, their energy intake (1,622+/-377 kcal) was lower than the RDA for level III (2,050 kcal/d). Their strength of physical activity would be level I. Therefore, in

  17. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D ... leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this ...

  18. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus) Dark leafy vegetables (spinach, kale, collards, and turnip greens) Fish, liver, beef, and eggs WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Biotin: Chocolate Cereal Egg yolk Legumes ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  1. Nutritional status of vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Na, Bomi; No, So-Jung; Han, Heon-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Wonkuk; Han, Younghee; Hyeun, Taisun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (Pvitamin D supplementation, BMD was lower in group B and S than in group A (Pvitamin D differed among 3 groups (PS>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (Pvitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D(3), but not bone mineral density.

  2. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, ...

  3. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) and GABRG2 (C588T, C315T) genes were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Seizure ... ed with CNS disorders such as epilepsy, anxiety and de- pression9. On the other hand, .... Homocysteine levels were also determined using enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay ...

  4. Immunochemical Methods for Quantitation of Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    mmoles) of compound XVIII - Figure 5 in 0.4 g potassium bicarbonate in 10 mL of H20. After 30 minutes, 5 mL of acetone was added and the solvents were...3 H-pyridoxamine 3 H-pyridoxamine was custom synthesized commercially by catalytic reduction of the oxime of pyridoxal. 26 0142014 ON (XXI) 0 0 HOH...5 mL of acetone was added and the solvents were removed in vacuo. The product was recrystallized from methyl acetate-petroleum ether (m.p. 158-159*C

  5. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation and health-related outcomes in hemodialysis patients: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Anita; Leung, Wai-Yin; Joson, Tannia

    2015-02-21

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients is high. While most hemodialysis patients are treated with activated vitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) to prevent renal osteodystrophy, clinical practices of the screening and treatment of 25(OH)2D deficiency are highly variable. It is unclear if nutritional vitamin D supplementation with D2 or D3 provides an additional clinical benefit beyond that provided by activated vitamin D treatment in this population. We will conduct a systematic review of nutritional vitamin D (D2/D3) supplementation and health-related outcomes in hemodialysis patients according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary objective is to assess the impact of nutritional vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes relevant in hemodialysis patients, such as mortality, cardiovascular events, infections, and fractures. Secondary outcomes will include anemia, hyperparathyroidism, medication use (erythrocyte-stimulating agents, activated vitamin D), and quality of life. We will search MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized, controlled trials of nutritional vitamin D supplementation (ergocalciferol/D2 or cholecalciferol/D3) in chronic hemodialysis patients. The Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool will be used to assess the quality of eligible studies. We will perform meta-analyses using standard techniques for the outcomes listed above if pooling is deemed appropriate/sufficient. The results of this systematic review may highlight gaps in our knowledge of the relevance of nutritional vitamin D in end-stage renal disease, allowing for the informed design of clinical trials assessing the impact of nutritional vitamin D therapy in the hemodialysis population in the future. PROSPERO CRD42014013931.

  6. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation and health-related outcomes in hemodialysis patients: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrotra, Anita; Leung, Wai-Yin; Joson, Tannia

    2015-01-01

    .... We will conduct a systematic review of nutritional vitamin D (D2/D3) supplementation and health-related outcomes in hemodialysis patients according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...

  7. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris......BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain...... in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. DESIGN:: The randomised controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania and Lusaka, Zambia. ART......-naïve adults referred for ART and with body mass index (BMI)vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning prior to ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/day LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART...

  8. Vitamin and mineral supplements have a nutritionally significant impact on micronutrient intakes of older adults attending senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Allisha; Remig, Valentina; Holcomb, Carol Ann; Herald, Thomas J; Baybutt, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, although the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate micronutrient intakes of older adults with emphasis on identifying nutrients most improved by VM supplements, nutrients most likely to remain inadequate, and nutrients most likely consumed in excess. Community-based volunteers were recruited from senior centers and completed a questionnaire querying demographic data, current health status, and VM supplement use. Participants (n = 263) were then contacted by telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls and confirm VM supplement use. Dietary adequacy was determined by comparing the ratio of mean dietary intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Dietary consumption was lowest for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. VM supplementation most improved intakes of vitamins E, D, B(6), folic acid, and calcium. Participants were most likely to exceed the Tolerable Upper Limit with supplementation of niacin, folic acid, and vitamin A.

  9. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, G.; Linseisen, J.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Romieu, I.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Roswall, N.; Witt, P.M.; Overvad, K.; Rohrmann, S.; Kaaks, R.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Stratigakou, V.; Zylis, D.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Berrino, F.; Grioni, S.; Mattiello, A.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Zanetti, R.; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ardanaz, E.; Sanchez, M.J.; Huerta, J.M.; Amiano, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Spencer, E.A.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Rinaldi, S.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary

  10. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stomach upset and diarrhea. Large doses of vitamin C supplementation are not recommended during pregnancy. They can lead ... gov/pubmed/23440782 . Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies ...

  11. [Study on vitamin A nutritional status of Chinese urban elderly residents in 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Hu, Y C; Yang, C; Yun, C F; Wang, R; Mao, D Q; Li, W D; Yang, Y H; Yang, X G; Yang, L C

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To assess the vitamin A nutritional status of the Chinese urban elderly population by analyzing serum retinol level in 2010-2012. Methods: Data were collected from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, serum samples from elderly residents aged ≥60 years old were obtained from 34 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire survey. The serum retinol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was determined using the World Health Organization guidelines. A total of 3 200 elderly residents were included in the study. The serum retinol levels and prevalence of VAD and marginal VAD were also compared. Results: The serum retinol concentration (P(50)(P(25)-P(75))) of Chinese urban elderly residents was 1.83 (1.37-2.39) μmoL/L. Compared with middle-sized and small cities (1.91 (1.47-2.48) μmol/L), the retinol level of senior citizens in metropolis (1.70 (1.25-2.25) μmol/L) was significantly lower (Pelderly male (1.89 (1.37-2.47) μmoL/L) was significantly higher than that of female (1.80 (1.36-2.28) μmoL/L) (P=0.001). The serum retinol concentration was 1.87 (1.42-2.43), 1.78 (1.32-2.33), and 1.71 (1.24-2.24) μmol/L for 60-69, 70-79, and ≥80 years olds, respectively. The retinol level in elderly people ≥70 years olds was significantly lower than that of 60-69 years olds (Pelderly residents was 4.22% (135/3 200); 6.00% (81/1 350) for metropolis residents and 2.92% (54/1 850) for middle-sized and small city residents. The overall marginal VAD rate of Chinese urban elderly residents was 8.19% (262/3 200); 10.51% (142/1 350) for metropolis residents and 6.49% (120/1 850) for medium-sized and small city residents. The prevalence of VAD and marginal VAD for males was 3.87% (61/1 577) and 8.24% (130/1 577), respectively (Pelderly residents showed various levels of

  12. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and improved mental and psychomotor development, of their infants. At18 weeks of pregnancy, women from 5 villages were randomly assigned on an individual...

  13. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D demography and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Nguyen, Bao Khanh Le; Sandjaja; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Hong, Truong Nguyen; Ernawati, Fitrah; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2016-01-01

    The South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) were conducted in 2010/2011 in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam in country representative samples totalling 16,744 children aged 0.5 to 12 years. Information on socio-demographic and behavioural variables was collected using questionnaires and anthropometric variables were measured. In a sub-sample of 2016 children, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) was determined. Data were analysed using SPSS complex sample with weight factors to report population representative data. Children were categorized as deficient (=75 nmol/L). In Malaysia and Thailand, urban children had lower 25(OH)D than rural children. In all countries, except Vietnam, boys had higher 25(OH)D levels and older children had lower 25(OH)D. Regional differences after correcting for age, sex and area of residence were seen in all countries. In Thailand and Malaysia, 25(OH)D status was associated with religion. The percentage of children with adequate 25(OH)D (>=75 nmol/L) ranged from as low as 5% (Indonesia) to 20% (Vietnam). Vitamin D insufficiency (countries. Logistic regression showed that girls, urban area, region within the country and religion significantly increased the odds for being vitamin D insufficient. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the (sub) tropical SEANUTS countries suggests a need for tailored approach to successfully combat this problem. Promoting active outdoor livestyle with safe sunlight exposure along with food-based strategies to improve vitamin D intake can be feasible options.

  14. Short-term oral nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D decreases falls in malnourished older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Lips, Paul; Bosmans, Judith E; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of a short-term nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D on falls in malnourished older adults. Randomized controlled trial. From hospital admission until 3 months after discharge. Malnourished older adults (≥ 60) newly admitted to an acute hospital (n = 210). Participants were randomized to receive nutritional intervention (energy- and protein-enriched diet, oral nutritional supplements, calcium-vitamin D supplement, telephone counseling by a dietitian) for 3 months after discharge or usual care. Number of participants who fell, fall incidents, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and dietary intake. Measurements were performed on admission to hospital and 3 months after discharge. Three months after discharge, 10 participants (10%) in the intervention group had fallen at least once, compared with 24 (23%) in the control group (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19-0.86). There were 57 fall incidents (16 in the intervention group; 41 in the control group). A significantly higher intake of energy (280 kcal, 95% CI = 37-524 kcal) and protein (11 g, 95% CI = 1-25 g) and significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (10.9 nmol/L, 95% CI = 2.9-18.9 nmol/L) were found in participants in the intervention group than in controls. A short-term nutritional intervention consisting of oral nutritional supplements and calcium and vitamin D supplementation and supported by dietetic counseling in malnourished older adults decreases the number of patients who fall and fall incidents. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Vitamin B12 concentration and its association with sociodemographic factors in Colombian children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-02-01

    Rapid changes in dietary patterns, economic development, and urbanization in low- to middle-income countries are fueling complex malnutrition states that need better characterization using population-level data. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to vitamin B12 status to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6910 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. Of the children assessed, 2.8% had vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as levels <200 pg/mL, and 18.1% had marginal vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as levels between 200 and 300 pg/mL. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for vitamin B12 deficiency among children ages ≥9 y and for those living in the eastern, western, and southern regions of the country. No significant associations were found for ethnic groups, socioeconomic status, or urbanity levels. Being 11 y of age (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-3.00; P = 0.0001), living in the west (Pacific) region of the country (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 3.14-4.90; P = 0.0001), and being male (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20-1.65; P = 0.0001) were the factors most strongly associated with an increased risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Compared with data from other Latin American countries, Colombian children have a lower prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency; however the prevalence of marginal deficiency is substantial. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the high-risk groups identified should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L. fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Aničić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819 were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate (100 mg/kg with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K, one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each. Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL, followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.

  17. Vitamin D Nutritional Status and its Related Factors for Chinese Children and Adolescents in 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Rui; Li, Min; Yun, Chunfeng; Li, Weidong; Yang, Yanhua; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Lichen

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status and analyze the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 15,000 children and adolescent participants in the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 2010-2012. Age, gender, region type, ethnicity, outdoor time, and vitamin D supplementation were recorded in unified design questionnaires. The season was recorded by the date of blood taken; location was divided into north and south by China's Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River; and ambient ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation level was classified according to the corresponding dose of each participant living area from National Aeronautics and Space Administration data. 14,473 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS 2010-2012 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2 (35.4-63.4) nmol/L, and the concentration for males was 50.0 (36.5-65.7) nmol/L, which was statistically higher than that of females (46.7 (34.4-60.9) nmol/L) ( P vitamin D deficiency was 53.2%; 50.0% for males and 56.5% for females at the cut-off 50 nmol/L. According to the results of the log-binomial regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents was specifically related to female gender ( P vitamin D deficiency was very common among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years in China. Effective sun exposure should be encouraged in both genders aged 6-17 years, dietary vitamin D and vitamin D supplements are also recommended, especially in the seasons of spring and winter.

  18. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons: How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.

  19. The roles of B vitamins in phytoplankton nutrition: new perspectives and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Katherine E

    2017-10-01

    Contents 62 I. 62 II. 63 III. 63 IV. 66 V. 66 VI. 67 67 References 67 SUMMARY: B vitamins play essential roles in central metabolism. These organic water-soluble molecules act as, or as part of, coenzymes within the cell. Unlike land plants, many eukaryotic algae are auxotrophic for certain B vitamins. Recent progress in algal genetic resources and environmental chemistry have promoted a renewal of interest in the role of vitamins in governing phytoplankton dynamics, and illuminated amazing versatility in phytoplankton vitamin metabolism. Accumulating evidence demonstrates metabolic complexity in the production and bioavailability of different vitamin forms, coupled with specialized acquisition strategies to salvage and remodel vitamin precursors. Here, I describe recent advances and discuss how they redefine our view of the way in which vitamins are cycled in aquatic ecosystems and their importance in structuring phytoplankton communities. © 2017 The Author. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Nutritional status and food consumption in 10-11 year old Dutch boys (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G.van.; Schneijder, P.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Schrijver, J.; Kok, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System, cardiovascular risk factors and food consumption (24 h recall) as well as haematological, Fe and vitamin status (A, B6, C) were assessed in 126 Dutch boys aged 10-11 years (response 71%). Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of four skinfolds were

  1. Dietary vitamin C intake protects against COPD: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hye Jung Park,1 Min Kwang Byun,1 Hyung Jung Kim,1 Jae Yeol Kim,2 Yu-Il Kim,3 Kwang-Ha Yoo,4 Eun Mi Chun,5 Ji Ye Jung,6 Sang Haak Lee,7 Chul Min Ahn1 On behalf of the Korean Smoking Cessation Study Group 1Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 7Division of Pulmonology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Background: Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, has recently been suggested to provide protection against COPD; however, only few national cohort studies have investigated these effects. We aimed to confirm the protective effects of vitamin C against COPD in Korean patients. Patients and methods: We analyzed the data of 3,283 adults aged ≥40 years (representing 23,541,704 subjects who underwent pulmonary function tests and responded to questionnaires on smoking history and vitamin C intake, with stratification variables and sampling weight designated by the Korea 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Among all the subjects, 512 (representing 3,459,679 subjects; 15.6% were diagnosed as having COPD based on pulmonary function test results. Male gender, old age, residence in suburban/rural regions, low household income, low educational level, an occupation in agriculture or fisheries, and heavy smoking were significantly associated with COPD. Low intake of nutrients, including potassium, vitamin A, carotene, retinol

  2. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, N.; Witten, C.; Stallkamp, G.; Anderson, V.; Pee, S. de; Haselow, N.

    2009-01-01

    From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP) in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB) distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC) among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP d...

  3. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad A. van Bodegraven

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD. This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet. Almost all CD-patients (87% had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss, 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI 25. Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.

  4. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the ross sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability.

  5. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the Ross Sea: implications for vitamin B12 nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Bertrand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 hours. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability.

  6. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  7. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-08-30

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  8. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin C. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR) can be derived from indicators of vitamin C status, as well as a Population...... Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 %. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin C intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults, the AR is determined from the quantity of vitamin C that balances...... metabolic vitamin C losses and allows the maintenance of an adequate body pool characterised by fasting plasma ascorbate concentrations at around 50 µmol/L. In men, an AR of 90 mg/day of vitamin C and a PRI of 110 mg/day are proposed. As no value for metabolic losses is available in women, the AR for women...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of vitamin D and to provide, if necessary, revised Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of vitamin D for all relevant population groups. The ULs......) of 250 µg/day was established. Taking into account uncertainties associated with these studies, the UL for adults including pregnant and lactating women was set at 100 µg/day. Despite a continuing paucity of data for high vitamin D intakes in children and adolescents, the UL was adapted to 100 µg....../day for ages 11-17 years, considering that owing to phases of rapid bone formation and growth this age group is unlikely to have a lower tolerance for vitamin D compared to adults. The same applies also to children aged 1-10 years, but taking into account their smaller body size, a UL of 50 µg/day is proposed...

  11. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  12. World Health Organisation multicentre randomised trial of supplementation with vitamins C and E among pregnant women at high risk for pre-eclampsia in populations of low nutritional status from developing countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villar, J; Purwar, M; Merialdi, M; Zavaleta, N; thi Nhu Ngoc, N; Anthony, J; De Greeff, A; Poston, L; Shennan, A

    2009-01-01

    ... of low nutritional status from developing countries. BJOG 2009;116:780-788. Objective  To determine if vitamin C and E supplementation in high-risk pregnant women with low nutritional status reduces pre-eclampsia. Design...

  13. Vitamin D – a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Lamberg-Allardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. Objectives: The overall aim was to review recent scientific data on the requirements and health effects of vitamin D and to report it to the NNR5 Working Group, who is responsible for updating the current dietary reference values valid in the Nordic countries. Methods: The electronic databases MEDLINE and Swemed were searched. We formulated eight questions which were used for the search. The search terms related to vitamin D status and intake and different health outcomes as well as to the effect of different vitamin D sources on vitamin D status. The search was done in two batches, the first covering January 2000–March 2010 and the second March 2009–February 2011. In the first search, we focused only on systematic literature reviews (SLRs and in the second on SLRs and randomized control trials (RCTs published after March 2009. Furthermore, we used snowballing for SLRs and IRCTs published between February 2011 and May 2012. The abstracts as well as the selected full-text papers were evaluated in pairs. Results: We found 1,706 studies in the two searches of which 28 studies were included in our review. We found 7 more by snowballing, thus 35 papers were included in total. Of these studies, 31 were SLRs and 4 were RCTs. The SLRs were generally of good or fair quality, whereas that of the included studies varied from good to poor. The heterogeneity of the studies included in the SLRs was large which made it difficult to interpret the results and provide single summary statements. One factor increasing the heterogeneity is the large variation in the assays used for assessing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OHD], the marker of vitamin D status. The SLRs we have reviewed conclude that the evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D

  14. Comparison of metabolism of vitamins D2 and D3 in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Obadofin, Michael O; Levine, Michael A; Singh, Ravinder J; Pettifor, John M

    2010-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets may have increased vitamin D requirements and respond differently to vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3). Our objective was to compare the metabolism of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in rachitic and control children. We administered an oral single dose of vitamin D(2) or D(3) of 1.25 mg to 49 Nigerian children--28 with active rickets and 21 healthy controls. The primary outcome measure was the incremental change in vitamin D metabolites. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ranged from 7 to 24 and 15 to 34 ng/mL in rachitic and control children, respectively (p children with rickets (29 ± 17 and 25 ± 11 ng/mL, respectively) and in control children (33 ± 13 and 31 ± 16 ng/mL, respectively). 1,25(OH)(2)D rose significantly (p children with rickets. By contrast, control children had no significant increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D (19 ± 28 and 16 ± 38 pg/mL after vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively). We conclude that in the short term, vitamins D(2) and D(3) similarly increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations in rachitic and healthy children. A marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D in response to vitamin D distinguishes children with putative dietary calcium-deficiency rickets from healthy children, consistent with increased vitamin D requirements in children with calcium-deficiency rickets. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Evidence of poor vitamin status in coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet for 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallert, C; Grant, C; Grehn, S; Grännö, C; Hultén, S; Midhagen, G; Ström, M; Svensson, H; Valdimarsson, T

    2002-07-01

    Patients with coeliac disease are advised to keep to a lifelong gluten-free diet to remain well. Uncertainty still exists as to whether this gives a nutritionally balanced diet. To assess the vitamin nutrition status of a series of coeliac patients living on a gluten-free diet for 10 years. Thirty adults with coeliac disease (mean age, 55 years; range, 45-64 years; 60% women), in biopsy-proven remission following 8-12 years of dietary treatment, were studied. We measured the total plasma homocysteine level, a metabolic marker of folate, vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12 deficiency, and related plasma vitamin levels. The daily vitamin intake level was assessed using a 4-day food record. Normative data were obtained from the general population of the same age. Coeliac patients showed a higher total plasma homocysteine level than the general population, indicative of a poor vitamin status. In accordance, the plasma levels of folate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of vitamin B-6) were low in 37% and 20%, respectively, and accounted for 33% of the variation of the total plasma homocysteine level (P coeliac patients than in controls. Half of the adult coeliac patients carefully treated with a gluten-free diet for several years showed signs of a poor vitamin status. This may have clinical implications considering the linkage between vitamin deficiency, elevated total plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease. The results may suggest that, when following up adults with coeliac disease, the vitamin status should be reviewed.

  16. TIDBIT: portable diagnostics of multiplexed nutrition deficiencies: iron, vitamin A and inflammation status (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test can be done within 15 minutes and a complete sample-answer quantitative results of vitamin A, iron and inflammation status level can be obtained with assists of a smartphone and an external device. We also demonstrated the device is able to perform colorimetric analysis on single test area. which gives the device potential to perform more tests simultaneously at the same time.

  17. Early-life nutritional exposures and lifelong health: immediate and long-lasting impacts of probiotics, vitamin D, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Cristiana; Agostoni, Carlo; Davanzo, Riccardo; Hyppönen, Elina; Isolauri, Erika; Meltzer, Helle M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Cetin, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Pregnancy and infancy comprise the most critical stages for conditioning an individual's health, with a number of implications for subsequent risks of morbidity, mortality, and reproductive health. Nutrition may influence both the overall pregnancy outcome and the growth trajectory and immune system of the fetus and infant, with short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Within this context, leading experts at Expo Milano 2015 in Milan, Italy, discussed up-to-date knowledge while providing suggestions and challenges before, during, and after pregnancy. This narrative review summarizes the key issues raised by the experts concerning the interplay between the nutritional environment from conception to early infancy and the offspring's immediate and lifelong health, with a particular focus on epigenetic mechanisms, probiotics, vitamin D, and breastfeeding. Taken together, the findings strengthen the awareness that nutritional exposures occurring from preconception to the postnatal period may be strong determinants of the offspring's health and may provide supportive evidence for current nutritional recommendations and guidelines for pregnant women and infants. Critical topics to be addressed in future research and translated into recommendations of public health relevance are also highlighted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation substantially reversed the resistance to vitamin D treatment in patients with magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. We hypothesized that dietary magnesium alone, particularly its interaction with vitamin D intake, contributes to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and the associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by magnesium intake level. Methods We tested these novel hypotheses utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study, and the NHANES III cohort, a population-based cohort study. Serum 25(OH)D was used to define vitamin D status. Mortality outcomes in the NHANES III cohort were determined by using probabilistic linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). Results High intake of total, dietary or supplemental magnesium was independently associated with significantly reduced risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Intake of magnesium significantly interacted with intake of vitamin D in relation to risk of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Additionally, the inverse association between total magnesium intake and vitamin D insufficiency primarily appeared among populations at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Furthermore, the associations of serum 25(OH)D with mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer, were modified by magnesium intake, and the inverse associations were primarily present among those with magnesium intake above the median. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate it is possible that magnesium intake alone or its interaction with vitamin D intake may contribute to vitamin D status. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and risk of mortality may be modified by the intake level of magnesium. Future studies

  19. Class III obesity and its relationship with the nutritional status of vitamin A in pre- and postoperative gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Chaves, Gabriela; Ramalho, Andréa

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological findings have shown the rise of the prevalence of obesity in several segments of the world population, and more recent evidences point to a possible association with vitamin A deficiency (VAD). The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin A nutritional status in individuals with class III obesity in the preoperative period and 30 and 180 days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, correlating these findings with lipid profile and body mass index (BMI). The sample was composed of class III obese individuals, males and females, in the preoperative period (T1) and 30 (T2) and 180 days (T3) after bariatric surgery with 5,000 IU of supplementation of retinol acetate. Vitamin A nutritional status was assessed through biochemical indicators (retinol and beta-carotene serum levels), which were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with an inadequacy cutoff of or=40 microg/dL, respectively. Out of the 114 assessed patients, the mean age was 36.9+/-11.6 years and BMI was >or=40 kg/m2. The prevalence of VAD was 14%, being 37.5% in T1, 50.8% and 67.8% in T2, and 52.9% and 67% in T3, according to retinol and serum beta-carotene, respectively. A decrease of retinol and beta-carotene serum levels was observed with BMI increase in T1. An increase of very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and triglycerides was verified with the increase of retinol, being VLDLc in T3 and triglycerides in T1 and T2. In T1, high-dense lipoprotein cholesterol presented a positive and significant correlation with beta-carotene and a negative and significant correlation in T3. High prevalence of VAD in the preoperative period and in 30 and 180 postoperative days, even during supplementation, with higher inadequacy of beta-carotene in all the three studied time periods, probably occurred because of its bioconversion to retinol due to the increased demand to which those individuals were exposed. It is suggested that the oral intake supplementation does not present the

  20. Nutritional Health of Indonesian Adolescent Girls: the role of riboflavin and vitamin A on iron status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, D.

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries, adolescent girls often have anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of riboflavin or vitamin A as determinant of anemia and iron deficiency in Indonesian adolescent girls.

  1. Nutritional aspects of calcium and vitamin D from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, G; Igli Baroncelli, G

    1995-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient for normal growth and development. Growing individuals must be in positive calcium balance to satisfy their calcium needs. Calcium requirements are higher during infancy and adolescence than childhood and adulthood. The achievement of a higher calcium balance in infancy and adolescence is likely due to the increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration occurring during these periods. The main determinants of calcium balance in infancy are dietary calcium intake and vitamin D. In normal circumstances, breast milk and formulas supply sufficient amounts of calcium. In the post-natal life, the major sources of vitamin D are sunlight exposure and supplemented formulas; in fact, the amount of vitamin D in breast milk, cow's milk, and common foods is poor. Although sunlight exposure should be able to maintain adequate vitamin D stores, a supplement with 400 IU/day of vitamin D from birth to the second year of life is recommended to assure the prophylaxis of rickets in all breast-fed infants. A dose of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is safe and appropriate. During childhood and adolescence, currently recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium might be augmented, as suggested by calcium balance studies. The higher amount of calcium intake may lead to achieve maximal peak bone mass. The main source of vitamin D in children and adolescents is the casual sunlight exposure; therefore, a sistematical vitamin D supplementation is not usually needed. The major sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. However, if calcium intake is reduced, an additional calcium intake to reach the RDA may be provided by calcium supplements.

  2. Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, K C; Visentainer, J V; Evelázio de Souza, N; Matsushita, M

    2000-12-01

    Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), a native fruit of the Amazon region, is one of the richest sources of vitamin C (2.4 to 3.0 g/100 g in the pulp) found in Brazil. The purpose of this work was the physical-chemical characterization of some nutrients and the valuation of vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu pulp, produced by the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), Paraná State, Brazil. The vitamin C determination was made by titration with potassium iodate. The fruit produced in Paraná State, presented a lower content of vitamin C than the one native of the amazon region, possibly due to the different development conditions of the plant, and consequently of the fruit, as well as the climatic variation, the humidity and the characteristics of the soil. Regarding the vitamin C stability in stored (-18 degrees C) camu-camu pulp, a considerable decrease in its concentration until the 28th day was observed lost 23% (from 1.57 to 1.21 g/100 g), staying approximately the same until the end of the experiment. After 335 days of storage, the content found was of approximately 1.16 g/100 g of pulp, the ascorbic acid losses amounted to 26%. This content was still higher than the one found for most fruits that are good sources of this vitamin.

  3. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria; Picciano, Mary Frances; Jacques, Paul F; Selhub, Jacob

    2008-05-01

    No large-scale, population-based study has considered the descriptive epidemiology of vitamin B-6 status with use of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the indicator of vitamin B-6 adequacy used to set the current Recommended Dietary Allowance, which is 6000 participants aged > or = 1 y in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004), we considered relations between plasma PLP and various subject characteristics and examined trends in plasma PLP and homocysteine with vitamin B-6 intake, both overall and in selected subgroups. In males, plasma PLP decreased with age after adolescence only in nonusers of supplemental vitamin B-6. Regardless of supplement use, plasma PLP concentrations of women of childbearing age were significantly lower than those of comparably aged men, and most oral contraceptive users had plasma PLP 3% at vitamin B-6 intakes from 2 to 2.9 mg/d in all subgroups and at intakes from 3 to 4.9 mg/d in smokers, the elderly, non-Hispanic blacks, and current and former oral contraceptive users. Intakes from 3 to 4.9 mg/d compared with Allowance for most Americans. However, at that intake level, substantial proportions of some population subgroups may not meet accepted criteria for adequate vitamin B-6 status.

  4. Planning and Budgeting for Nutrition Programs in Tanzania: Lessons Learned From the National Vitamin A Supplementation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Benjamin Lyatuu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds. Helen Keller International (HKI and the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC conduct reviews of VASD funds and health budgets annually in all districts to monitor the impact of advocacy efforts. This paper presents the findings of the fiscal year (FY 2010 district budget annual review. The review was intended to answer the following questions regarding district-level funding: (1 how many funds were allocated to nutrition-specific activities in FY 2010? (2 how many funds were allocated specifically to twice-yearly VASD activities in FY 2010? and (3 how have VASD funding allocations changed over time? Methods: Budgets from all 133 districts in Tanzania were accessed, reviewed and documented to identify line item funds allocated for VASD and other nutrition activities in FY 2010. Retrospective data from prior annual reviews for VASD were used to track trends in funding. The data were collected using specific data forms and then transcribed into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. Results: The total funds allocated in Tanzania’s districts in FY 2010 amounted to US$1.4 million of which 92% were for VASD. Allocations for VASD increased from US$0.387 million to US$1.3 million between FY 2005 and FY 2010. Twelve different nutrition activities were identified in budgets across the 133 districts. Despite the increased trend, the percentage of districts allocating sufficient funds to implement VAS (as defined

  5. Planning and Budgeting for Nutrition Programs in Tanzania: Lessons Learned From the National Vitamin A Supplementation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatuu, Margaret Benjamin; Mkumbwa, Temina; Stevenson, Raz; Isidro, Marissa; Modaha, Francis; Katcher, Heather; Dhillon, Christina Nyhus

    2016-05-03

    Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds. Helen Keller International (HKI) and the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC) conduct reviews of VASD funds and health budgets annually in all districts to monitor the impact of advocacy efforts. This paper presents the findings of the fiscal year (FY) 2010 district budget annual review. The review was intended to answer the following questions regarding district-level funding: (1) how many funds were allocated to nutrition-specific activities in FY 2010? (2) how many funds were allocated specifically to twice-yearly VASD activities in FY 2010? and (3) how have VASD funding allocations changed over time? Budgets from all 133 districts in Tanzania were accessed, reviewed and documented to identify line item funds allocated for VASD and other nutrition activities in FY 2010. Retrospective data from prior annual reviews for VASD were used to track trends in funding. The data were collected using specific data forms and then transcribed into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The total funds allocated in Tanzania's districts in FY 2010 amounted to US$1.4 million of which 92% were for VASD. Allocations for VASD increased from US$0.387 million to US$1.3 million between FY 2005 and FY 2010. Twelve different nutrition activities were identified in budgets across the 133 districts. Despite the increased trend, the percentage of districts allocating sufficient funds to implement VAS (as defined by cost per child) was just 21%. District

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos ...

  7. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Is it possible to take too much vitamin C? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq- ...

  8. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Marra Ersilia; Capitani Guido; Giannattasio Sergio; Vacca Rosa A; Christen Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolu...

  9. A Randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of single intramuscular versus staggered oral dose of 600 000IU Vitamin D in treatment of nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishanu; Seth, Anju; Marwaha, Raman K; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Aneja, Satinder; Singh, Ritu; Sonkar, Pitambar

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jacqueline A; Shipton, Catherine A; Chaggar, Sunandha; Howells, Rhian M; Kennedy, Mike J; Vernon, Gareth; Wright, Susan Y; Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L; Silverstone, Aron L; Drake, Rachel

    2005-04-01

    "Golden Rice" is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene.

  11. Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and/N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Supplementation on Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Male Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Manap, Roslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant therapy has a potential to be introduced as therapeutic modality for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation [ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)] on nutritional and antioxidant status in male COPD patients. A parallel and single blind randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seventy-nine subjects were recruited and randomly divided into four trial arms (i.e., NAC, vitamin C, NAC+vitamin C and control groups) for six mo. The primary outcome was changes in body mass index by estimating power of 90% and significance level of psupplementation of NAC or vitamin C improved nutritional and antioxidant status of subjects.

  12. Nutritional needs in environmental intoxication: vitamin E and air pollution, an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    Dietary vitamin E affects the susceptibility of mice and rats to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, suggesting a free radical mechanism of toxicity. A new scheme is proposed based on the cyclization of beta, gamma-allylic peroxyl free radicals to monocyclic and bicyclic peroxides to explain the relationship between diet and toxicity. Such cyclic peroxides may mimic or interfere with the prostaglandin system. Several chronic diseases may be exacerbated through such a subtle toxic mechanism. The level of vitamin E needed for protection against peroxidation toxicity may be much greater than the present US dietary intake.

  13. Vitamins and Trace Minerals. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleson, Ann L.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  14. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin E as α-tocopherol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin E. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin E as α-tocopherol only. The Panel considers that Average Requirements (ARs......) and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) for vitamin E (as α-tocopherol) cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore defines Adequate Intakes (AIs), based on observed intakes in healthy populations with no apparent α‑tocopherol deficiency in the EU. This approach considers the range...... for vitamin E as α-tocopherol equivalents, as well as the contribution of average α-tocopherol intakes to average α-tocopherol equivalent intakes in these countries. For adults, an AI for α-tocopherol is set at 13 mg/day for men and 11 mg/day for women. For children aged 1 to

  16. The association between vitamin E intake and hypertension: results from the re-analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Nakade, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing concern about noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), in which oxidative damage plays a role. In this paper, we have re-analyzed the data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2007 to study the relationship between an NCD (e.g. hypertension) and the dietary intake of vitamin E, a potent anti-oxidative vitamin. The inclusion criteria were those aged 40 and over, excluding pregnant or lactating women, and data from 1,405 males and 2,102 females were analyzed. The mean ages were 63.5 and 62.4, respectively. Nutrients intake was evaluated from a semi-weighted, 1-d household dietary record. When the subjects were categorized into tertiles based on their vitamin E intake, higher vitamin E intake was associated with a lower percentage of subjects with hypertension (p for trend=0.01). Subjects with higher vitamin E intake had higher energy intake-adjusted intake of other nutrients which have been considered to be related to hypertension such as potassium, magnesium, and vitamin C. Logistic regression analysis was done with the low tertile of vitamin E intake as the reference. The medium and high tertiles of vitamin E intake were associated with a significantly lower odds ratio for hypertension, 0.73 (95% CI; 0.62-0.87) for the former and 0.81 (95% CI; 0.69-0.96) for the latter. Additional analyses, one adjusted for the indices associated with hypertension and one excluding the subjects with vitamin E supplementation, have yielded the similar results. In summary, re-analysis of data from NHNS has revealed that higher vitamin E intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of hypertension.

  17. Iron and Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Young Children in Western Europe Despite Current Nutritional Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Marjolijn D.; van der Horst-Graat, Judith M.; Eussen, Simone R. B. M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brus, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are the 2 most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and may lead to impaired neurodevelopment and rickets, respectively. Risk factors for ID and VDD differ between populations. The objective of this study was to determine

  18. Golden rice: Development, Nutritional Assessment, and Potential for Alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR) is a transgenic product engineered to produce beta-carotene in the rice endosperm. It has been developed as a means to combat vitamin A malnutrition, which exists throughout much of the developing world (especially in rice eating populations) and can lead to blindness, increased sus...

  19. Vitamin D3 in cancer prevention and therapy: the nutritional issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    The action of vitamin D3, in its biological form 1α,25(OH)2vitD3 or calcitriol, may be summarized as a steroid-like hormone able to modulate basic functions of cell encompassing energy balance, stress response, mitochondria biogenesis, intracellular calcium oscillations, and replication/apoptosis mechanisms leading to cell survival. Moreover, calcitriol exerts a potent role as an innate and adaptive immune cytokine as immunity is closely related to self-maintenance through its energetic/metabolic balance and homeostasis of cell turnover. Therefore, vitamin D might be the ancestral form of survival hormones developed with calcified vertebrate bearing skeleton in order to survive far from water. This characteristic may suggest that the role of dietary vitamin D in preventing cancer is simply ancillary to the many factors playing a major role in contrasting impairment in energy balance and cell survival. Most probably, the immune role of calcitriol might be included in the maintenance, mostly by adipose tissue, of an anti-inflammatory, tolerant immune status, depending on the immune tolerance and modulation from the gut. A balance closely modulated by the leptin axis, which when impairments in metabolism occur, such as in insulin resistance or obesity, calcitriol is unable to face at this imbalance, while leptin plays a major role and cancer progression may be promoted. Furthermore, this mechanism promotes epithelial/mesenchymal transition-mediated fibrosis, leading to cancer resistance to immune control and drug action. Interestingly, this pathologic picture is triggered by deficiency in vitamin D from the diet. Therefore, a dietary habit including vitamin D sources, besides flavonoids, may ameliorate lifestyle and health span in most individuals, depending on their genetic background.

  20. Stability of hydrophilic vitamins mixtures in the presence of electrolytes and trace elements for parenteral nutrition: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Falugiani, Niccolò; Desideri, Ielizza

    2015-03-25

    In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), especially in the case of preterm infants, simultaneous administration of vitamins and trace elements is still a problematic issue: guidelines put in evidence the lack of specific documentation. In this work NMR spectroscopy was applied to the study of vitamins (pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine nitrate, riboflavin-5'-phosphate and nicotinamide) stability in presence of salts and trace elements. Vitamins in D2O were first analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in absence of salts and trace elements; changes in chemical shifts or in diffusion coefficients, measured by NMR DOSY technique, were analyzed. The effects of salts and trace elements on single vitamins and on their admixtures were then investigated by performing quantitative analyses during 48h. Selected vitamins are subject to intermolecular interactions. No degradative effects were observed in presence of salts and trace elements. Only riboflavin-5'-phosphate is subject to precipitation in presence of divalent cations; however, at low concentration and in presence of other vitamins this effect was not observed. Solutions analyzed, in the condition of this study, are stable for at least 48h and vitamins and trace elements can be administered together in TPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial assessment of the nutritional quality of the space food system over three years of ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya; Perchonok, Michele; Douglas, Grace L

    2017-01-01

    Processed and prepackaged space food is the main source of nutrition for crew aboard the International Space Station, and likely will continue to be the main source of nutrition for future exploration missions. However, very little information is available on the nutritional stability of space foods. To better understand their nutritional stability, 24 micronutrients were measured in 109 space foods stored over 3 years at room temperature. Our analysis indicated that potassium, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K concentrations in the food may not be adequate to meet the recommended daily intake requirements even before storage. Decreases in vitamins A, C, B1, and B6 were observed during storage. Notably, vitamins B1 and C may degrade to inadequate levels after 1 year and 3 years, respectively. This assessment suggests that different technological approaches will be required to stabilize processed foods to enable spaceflight missions over 1 year.

  2. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Katrina L; Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly to enhance reverse cholesterol transport. The distinct and tissue-specific biosynthetic and/or ligand activities of tryptophan, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and the newly identified NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside, reviewed herein, are responsible for vitamin-specific effects and side effects. Because current data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis, we present prospects for human nicotinamide riboside supplementation and propose areas for future research.

  3. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  4. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, H. K.; Bischoff, S. C.; Boehles, H. J.; Muehlhoefer, A.

    2009-01-01

    A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea) must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status) is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml) or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.). Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes. PMID:20049067

  5. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.. Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes.

  6. Physical activity, dietary vitamin C, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Choi, Yoon-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a global public health problem, and regular physical activity is a well-known critical factor in its management. A recent study suggests that the effect of exercise on metabolic syndrome may be enhanced by sufficient plasma vitamin C concentrations. We therefore examined the combined effect of physical activity and dietary vitamin C on the risk of metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. Cross-sectional study. We analyzed data from 22,671 adults aged 20 years or older from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. Physical activity was computed as the total metabolic equivalent (METs-hr/week) summed from MET scores of walking, moderate activity, and vigorous activity. Vitamin C intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Participants were classified into four combined groups based on median values of physical activity and vitamin C intake. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for metabolic syndrome in individuals with both high physical activity and vitamin C intake (vs. both low physical activity and vitamin C intake) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.87). The estimated combined effect was more than either high physical activity alone (OR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.90)) or high vitamin C intake alone (OR, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99)), although each of those was beneficial. Physical activity and dietary intake of vitamin C are both associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest further that a combination of physical activity and a diet rich in vitamin C may help in preventing metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fortification of fried potato chips with antioxidant vitamins to enhance their nutritional value and storage ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edress El-Sayed, Fyka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The frying shelf life of commercial frying oil was increased by the addition of synthetic and natural antioxidants, e.g. TBHQ, retinyl palmitate and ascorbyl palmitate (antioxidant vitamins.The results revealed that TBHQ had the best effect in retarding the deteriorative effect of frying conditions throughout 24h of frying potato chips at 180±10 ºC followed by the effect of retinyl palmitate and the effect of ascorbyl palmitate compared to the control without any additives. Fried potato chips in oils either with or without antioxidant were collected during the first 8h of frying, divided into 3 main portions each portion had different treatment; 1 without any additives (control samples for fried potatoes resulting from the control oil or from oil containing TBHQ or containing retinyl or ascorbyl palmitate. 2 fortification of the above 4 samples with vitamin E (tocopherol by dipping each of the resulting samples from the four frying trials separately in oil containing 0.1 % tocopherol. 3 fortification of each of the above mentioned samples with vitamin C by dispersing the mixture of fine salt and ascorbyl palmitate on the fried chips' surface and vigorous shaking in bags. The control samples and fortified samples were packed in aluminum bags and stored in an electric oven at 63±1 ºC . The storage ability of fried potatoes at 63±1 ºC was increased by the fortification with antioxidant vitamins either with vitamin E (tocopherol or with vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate before packaging and storing at 63±1 ºC. The results indicated that potatoes fried in oil without any additives (control had the lowest storage stability and that it was increased by the fortification with antioxidant vitamins, C or E. Potato chips fortified with vitamins A or C by frying in oil containing retinyl palmitate or ascorbyl palmitate and also in oil containing TBHQ had better storage ability at 63 ºC and this was also prolonged by the addition of vitamin E or C after

  8. Vitamin Supplement - Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This Vitamin Supplement presents some of the main information presented at The First International Vitamin Conference in Copenhagen, May, 2010. The theme of the conference was ‘Vitamins in foods and supplements: Analytical possibilities versus nutritional needs in human research, food databases, and labeling’. All 13 vitamins were represented. Although vitamin D and folate that in recent years have been heavily debated, also were the one in focus and is represented in 8 of the 17 papers inclu...

  9. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  10. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Mallet, E; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can

  11. Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Hartunian-Sowa, Sonia; Matusheski, Nathan V

    2017-06-01

    The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will the units of measurement used in nutrition labeling for some vitamins. For some food categories, the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACCs) will increase to reflect portions commonly consumed on a single occasion. These regulatory changes are now effective, and product label changes will be mandatory beginning 26 July 2018. This commentary considers the potential impact of these regulatory changes on the vitamin and mineral contents of foods and dietary supplements. Case studies examined potential effects on food fortification and nutrient density. The updated DVs may lead to a reduction in the nutrient density of foods and dietary supplements with respect to 8 vitamins (vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid) and 6 minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and chloride), and have mixed effects on 2 vitamins where the amount required per serving is affected by chemical structure (i.e., form) (natural vitamin E compared with synthetic vitamin E and folic acid compared with folate). Despite an increased DV for vitamin D, regulations limit food fortification. The adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents for folate labeling may lead to reductions in the quantity of folic acid voluntarily added per RACC. Finally, because of increased RACCs in some food categories to reflect portions that people typically eat at one time, the vitamin and mineral density of these foods may be affected adversely. In totality, the United States is entering an era in which the need to monitor dietary intake patterns and nutritional status is unprecedented. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Octopus lipid and vitamin E composition: interspecies, interorigin, and nutritional variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrinha, Alvaro; Cruz, Rebeca; Gomes, Filipa; Mendes, Eulália; Casal, Susana; Morais, Simone

    2014-08-20

    Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa from distinct marine environments [Northeast Atlantic (NEA), Northwest Atlantic (NWA), Eastern Central Atlantic, Western Central Atlantic (WCA), Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea] were characterized regarding their lipid and vitamin E composition. These species are those commercially more relevant worldwide. Significant interspecies and interorigin differences were observed. Unsaturated fatty acids account for more than 65% of total fatty acids, mostly ω-3 PUFA due to docosahexaenoic (18.4-29.3%) and eicosapentanoic acid (11.4-23.9%) contributions. The highest ω-3 PUFA amounts and ω-3/ω-6 ratios were quantified in the heaviest specimens, O. vulgaris from NWA, with high market price, and simultaneously in the lowest graded samples, E. cirrhosa from NEA, of reduced dimensions. Although having the highest cholesterol contents, E. cirrhosa from NEA and O. maya from WCA have also higher protective fatty acid indexes. Chemometric discrimination allowed clustering the selected species and several origins based on lipid and vitamin E profiles.

  13. Nutritional B vitamin deficiency disrupts lipid metabolism causing accumulation of proatherogenic lipoproteins in the aorta adventitia of ApoE null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Christopher J; Beattie, John H; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Pirie, Lynn P; Duthie, Susan J

    2012-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in the world. Low dietary folate, elevated homocysteine, and high circulating cholesterol are risk factors. We investigated whether folate and/or B vitamin deficiency would change lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation in the aorta adventitia of ApoE null mice. Mice (n = 10 per group) were fed a control (C; 4%) or high saturated fat (HF; 21%), and high cholesterol (0.15%) diet for 16 weeks. Folate (F-) or folate, B6 and B12 deficiency (F-B-) were imposed on these diets. Feeding a HF diet increased plasma and liver total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (two- to threefold; p B vitamins (F-B-) significantly increased cholesterol accumulation in both liver and aorta adventitial lipid (approximately 50-70%; p B vitamin depletion, measured as an increase in saturated fatty acids (approximately 15%) and a decrease (approximately 11%) in monounsaturated fatty acids (p B vitamin deficiency perturbs lipid metabolism in ApoE null mice, causing accumulation of proatherogenic cholesterol and fatty acids in the aorta adventitia. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Vitamin D status and community-acquired pneumonia: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeq A Quraishi

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level and history of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP.We identified 16,975 individuals (≥17 years from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with documented 25(OHD levels. To investigate the association of 25(OHD with history of CAP in these participants, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex, race, poverty-to-income ratio, and geographic location, clinical data (body mass index, smoking status, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, chronic kidney disease, neutropenia, and alcohol consumption, and season. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS was used to depict the relationship between increasing 25(OHD levels and the cumulative frequency of CAP in the study cohort.The median [interquartile range (IQR] serum 25(OHD level was 24 (IQR 18-32 ng/mL. 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-2.3] of participants reported experiencing a CAP within one year of their participation in the national survey. After adjusting for demographic factors, clinical data, and season, 25(OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 56% higher odds of CAP [odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.07] compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. LOWESS analysis revealed a near linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of CAP up to 25(OHD levels around 30 ng/mL.Among 16,975 participants in NHANES III, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with history of CAP. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of CAP.

  15. Promising new applications of Castanea sativa shell: nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, amino acids and vitamin E profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Santos, Joana; Pimentel, Filipa B; Braga, Nair; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the macronutrient composition and the amino acid and vitamin E profiles of Castanea sativa shell from different production regions of Portugal (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, with a high moisture content and low fat amounts. Arginine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids (EAA) accounting for 3.55-7.21% and 1.59-2.08%, respectively, for samples of the different production zones. All the shells presented high contents of vitamin E (481.5 mg per 100 g sample, 962.8 mg per 100 g sample and 567.5 mg per 100 g sample, respectively, for Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The predominant vitamer was γ-tocopherol (670 mg per 100 g sample for Trás-os-Montes). The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. sativa shell were also determined. Trás-os-Montes extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 31.8 ± 1.3 μg mL(-1) for DPPH; 8083.5 ± 164.8 μmol per mg db for FRAP). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 241.9 mg to 796.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g db sample, the highest TPC being obtained for Trás-os-Montes. The total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 31.4 to 43.3 mg of catechin equivalents (CEQ) per g db sample. No antimicrobial activity was observed. The results showed the potentialities of C. sativa shell extracts.

  16. Paternal under-nutrition programs metabolic syndrome in offspring which can be reversed by antioxidant/vitamin food fortification in fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Fullston, Tod; Kang, Wan Xian; Sandeman, Lauren Y; Corbett, Mark A; Owens, Julie A; Lane, Michelle

    2016-06-03

    There is an ever increasing body of evidence that demonstrates that paternal over-nutrition prior to conception programs impaired metabolic health in offspring. Here we examined whether paternal under-nutrition can also program impaired health in offspring and if any detrimental health outcomes in offspring could be prevented by micronutrient supplementation (vitamins and antioxidants). We discovered that restricting the food intake of male rodents reduced their body weight, fertility, increased sperm oxidative DNA lesions and reduced global sperm methylation. Under-nourished males then sired offspring with reduced postnatal weight and growth but somewhat paradoxically increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia, despite being fed standard chow. Paternal vitamin/antioxidant food fortification during under-nutrition not only normalised founder oxidative sperm DNA lesions but also prevented early growth restriction, fat accumulation and dyslipidaemia in offspring. This demonstrates that paternal under-nutrition reduces postnatal growth but increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disease in the next generation and that micronutrient supplementation during this period of under-nutrition is capable of restoring offspring metabolic health.

  17. IRON, VITAMIN B12 AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN ADOLESCENTS HAVING NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra; Sudha; Sreekanthan; Anil; Rajendran; Manil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the formative period of life when the maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place and this is a vulnerable period in the human life cycle for the development of nutritional anaemia, which has been constantly neglected by public health programs. The prevalence of anaemia is disproportionately high in developing countries than developed countries. It has mainly been ascribed to poverty, inadequate diet, certain dise...

  18. The relative nutritive value of lucerne leaf protein concentrate (LPC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral & vitamin premix*. Lactalbumin. Lucerne LPC. Determined protein content. 'Water-coagulated LPC; bSteam-coagulated LPC; *Supplied per kilogram feed: Vitamin A, 2,0 IU; Vitamin. D, I {)()()IU; Vitamin E, 35 mg; Vitamin K, 50 ~g; Thiamin hydrochloride 1,25 mg; Riboflavin 2,5 mg;. Vitamin B6, 7 mg; Vitamin B12, ...

  19. 49 CFR 178.33b-6 - Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacture. 178.33b-6 Section 178.33b-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-6 Manufacture. (a) Each container must be...

  20. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory standards...

  1. [Severe vitamin D deficiency in children from Punta Arenas, Chile: Influence of nutritional status on the response to supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karin; Le Roy, Catalina; Iñiguez, Germán; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    There is a high risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in the population of southern Chile that can be treated with VD supplements. Weight excess (WE) can influence the response to supplements. To study the prevalence of VD deficiency and the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) supplements in healthy children from Punta Arenas, Chile, and evaluate a possible association with nutritional status. Demographic and anthropometric data, as well as laboratory assessment of serum 25-hidroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and other bone metabolism parameters were evaluated. After baseline evaluation, children were supplemented with VD3 1600 IU/day for one month, after which 25OHD was retested. Of the 108 children studied, 50% were boys, and had a mean age of 9.6±0.5 years. Nutritional assessment showed that 39% had normal weight, 46% were overweight, and 15% were obese. Median 25OHD was 10.9ng/ml: 96.3% had deficiency (30ng/ml). Children with WE had a significantly lower increase in 25OHD than children with normal weight (5±5.5 vs. 7.7±4.9, p=03). Children with WE may require 32% higher VD dose than normal weight children to attain the same 25OHD concentration. Chilean schoolchildren from Punta Arenas have high prevalence of WE and VD deficiency, with a majority in the range of severe VD deficiency. WE interferes in the response to VD supplementation, leading to a lower increase in 25OHD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Vitamin D Level Related to Coffee Consumption in Korean Young Adults Using the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong-Won; Lee, Bora; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-11-01

    Even young adults are highly interested in their osteological health, yet their calcium intake does not match the level of such interest. Increase in bone loss is known to be associated with higher intake of caffeine and coffee consumption among the young Korean is rising steadily. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between coffee consumption and serum vitamin D level in Korean young adults. This study analyzed potential difference in lifestyle and concentration of vitamin D in blood in relation to coffee intake frequency of 2,523 subjects on the basis of data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. According to the analysis, groups of males, with high income, frequent social activity followed by alcohol consumption and smoking, and high rate of dining out showed a high frequency of coffee consumption. Vitamin D concentration among the groups was 16.2±5.3 mL and 80.3% of them were considered to be vitamin D-deficient. All the groups appeared to have deficiencies compared to males who did not consume caffeine at all. The practice of having an adequate amount of coffee is needed, and more efforts should be done to improve vitamin D intake among young adults.

  3. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincikova, T; Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Moen, I E

    2011-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis patients are vitamin D-insufficient. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a major complication of cystic fibrosis. The literature suggests that vitamin D might possess certain glucose-lowering properties. We aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and cystic fibrosis...

  5. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âself...

  6. [Study on vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents between 2010 and 2012 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X B; Yang, L C; Chen, J; Wang, R; Yang, X G; Piao, J H; Mao, D Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents by analyzing serum retinol level, between 2010 and 2012 in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using multi-stage stratified sampling and the population proportional stratified random sampling method, 6 617 children aged 6-17 years from 32 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities of China were selected. The questionnaire survey was used to collect demographic information. Blood samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography to determine serum retinol concentration, and the World Health Organization guidelines were used to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A. Vitamin A levels, vitamin A deficiency, and marginal vitamin A deficiency in children with different characteristics were compared. Results: A total of 3 785 cases with valid samples were obtained. The overall mean serum retinol concentration level was (1.49±0.71) μmol/L; the mean serum retinol concentration was (1.55±0.69) μmol/L for metropolis and (1.49±0.75) μmol/L for middle-sized and small cities ( P> 0.05). The mean serum retinol concentration was (1.52±0.78) μmol/L for boys and (1.47±0.68) μmol/L for girls ( P> 0.05). The mean serum retinol concentration level was (1.46±0.70) μmol/L for 6- to 11-year-old children and (1.54±0.65) μmol/L for 12- to 17-year-old children ( Pvitamin A deficiency rate and marginal vitamin A deficiency rate was 7.69% (291/3 785) and 18.57% (703/3 785), respectively. The vitamin A deficiency rate was 8.00% (36/450) for metropolis and 7.64% (65/3 335) for middle-sized and small cities; 8.12% (155/1 908) for boys and 7.25% (136/1 877) for girls; and 8.04% (171/2 115) for 6- to 11-year-old children and 7.18% (120/1 670) for 12- to 17-year-old children. No significant differences were observed for region, sex, or age ( P> 0.05). The marginal vitamin A deficiency rate was

  7. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  8. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  9. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  11. Vitamin D intake and status are associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Rains, Tia M; Park, Keigan M; Rubin, Martyn R

    2012-10-01

    Previous reports have shown that metabolic syndrome and some metabolic syndrome components are associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2003-2006, we evaluated the associations of vitamin D intake (n=3543) and vitamin D status [25(OH)D; n=3529], with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in adults 20 years and older. Exclusion criteria included nonfasted subjects, those pregnant and/or lactating, and, for intake analyses, those with unreliable 24-h recall records. Subjects were separately classified into quartiles of vitamin D intake (both including and excluding supplements) and serum 25(OH)D. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome after adjusting for multiple confounders. Those in the highest quartile of serum 25(OH)D had 60% lower odds for metabolic syndrome as compared to those in the lowest quartile [OR=0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.59]. Elevated waist circumference (OR=0.57; 95% CI 0.39, 0.84), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR=0.54; 95% CI 0.39, 0.75), and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29, 0.55) were the main components associated with serum 25(OH)D. Compared with the lowest vitamin D intake quartile (excluding supplements), those in the highest intake quartile had 28% lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.58, 0.90). No components of metabolic syndrome were significantly associated with dietary intake of vitamin D with supplements included or excluded. We conclude that higher 25(OH)D, and, to a lesser degree, greater dietary vitamin D intake, are associated with reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Maternal Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Neonatal Anthropometric and Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Results from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon Laird

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OHD concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S. This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples (n = 202 taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OHD and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children’s average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34–218 nmol/L and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure.

  13. Effect of heat treatment and mineral and vitamin supplementation on the nutritive use of protein and calcium from lentils (Lens culinaris M.) in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesús M; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Urbano, Gloria

    2003-05-01

    The effects of heat treatment, supplementation of a mineral and vitamin premix, and 4% olive oil on the bioavailability of protein and calcium from Lens culinaris M., var vulgaris, cultivar. magda-20 were studied in growing rats. Nutrition assessment was based on chemical analysis of lentil protein, energy, total and available starch, lipid and calcium composition, and the digestive and metabolic use of nitrogen and calcium by rats. Lentils used for the present study had crude protein and calcium contents of 25.5% and 0.07%, respectively. Heating lentils to 120 degrees C at 1 atm for 30 min decreased trypsin inhibitor activity, phytate, and tannin content by 76%, 8%, and 12%, respectively, but did not improve dietary intake or digestive use of protein compared with untreated raw control lentils. Mineral, vitamin, and olive oil supplementation of raw or autoclaved lentils significantly improved daily food intake and nutritive use of nitrogen and calcium. The best results were obtained for the rats fed with a diet of raw lentils supplemented with a premix of minerals and vitamins. There was a direct correlation between calcium balance and weight gain in animals (r = 0.89) and between the calcium balance and nitrogen balance (r = 0.86).

  14. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene (p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.

  15. Application of dried blood spots to determine vitamin D status in a large nutritional study with unsupervised sampling: the Food4Me project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Ulrich; Baur, Manuela; Roos, Franz F; Brennan, Lorraine; Daniel, Hannelore; Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Mike; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hartwig, Kai; Kolossa, Silvia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Macready, Anna L; Manios, Yannis; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Saris, Wim H M; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Traczyk, Iwona; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Walsh, Marianne C; Woolhead, Clara; Mathers, John C; Weber, Peter

    2016-01-28

    An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (Pvitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  17. Clinical presentation and metabolic consequences in 40 breastfed infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency--what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzik, Tomas; Adamovicova, Miriam; Smolka, Vratislav; Magner, Martin; Hruba, Eva; Zeman, Jiri

    2010-11-01

    Maternal vitamin B(12) (Cbl) deficiency causes nutritional Cbl deficiency in breastfed infants. To analyse clinical presentation and metabolic consequences in 40 breastfed infants with Cbl deficiency. Cbl levels in serum and breast milk were determined by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, methylmalonic acid level by GC/MS, plasma homocysteine by HPLC and propionylcarnitine by MS/MS. Profound Cbl deficiency was found in 17 children (69 ± 17 ng/l, controls 200-900), and milder Cbl deficiency in 23 children (167 ± 40 ng/l). Maternal Cbl deficiency was mostly caused by insufficient Cbl absorption. Only six mothers were vegetarian. The average age at diagnosis was 4.4 ± 2.5 months. Clinical symptoms included failure to thrive (48% of children), hypotonia (40%), developmental delay (38%) and microcephaly (23%). 63% of children had anaemia (megaloblastic in 28% of all children). All but one patient had methylmalonic aciduria, 80% of patients had hyperhomocysteinemia and 87% had increased aminotransferases. Propionylcarnitine was elevated in two out of 25 infants. Comparing groups with severe and mild Cbl deficiency, a marked difference was found in severity of clinical and laboratory changes. Maternal Cbl status and diagnostic delay are the major factors influencing severity and progression of Cbl deficiency in breastfed infants. In our cohort, propionylcarnitine was not sufficiently sensitive marker of Cbl deficiency. Although symptoms are reversible on Cbl substitution, permanent neurological damage can result. Selective screening for Cbl deficiency is indicated in all breastfed infants with failure to thrive, hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly or megaloblastic anaemia. The best prevention in future could be the screening of all pregnant women. Copyright © 2009 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a B-vitamin on tryptophan metabolism in South African Bantu with pellagra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankes, L.V.; Jansen, C.R.; DeBruin, E.P.; Schmaeler, M.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of kynurenine, a metabolite in the tryptophan-niacin pathway, before and after vitamin B6 therapy was studied in pellagra patients. The patients given vitamin B6 showed a higher metabolism of L-kynurenine-keto-/sup 14/C than the patients without vitamin B6. (ACR)

  19. Inverse relation between vitamin D and serum total immunoglobulin G in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincikova, T; Nilsson, K; Moen, I E

    2011-01-01

    The hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung inflammation. The severity of lung disease is closely correlated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. Beyond its contribution to the bone health, the importance of vitamin D has not been fully recognized owing to the lack of human studies...... providing evidence of its benefit. In the context of the recently described immunomodulatory functions of vitamin D, we aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and IgG levels....

  20. WEIGHT LOSS AND NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS ON USE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAMOS, Natalia Maria Coutinho Pinheiro de Jesus; MAGNO, Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos; COHEN, Larissa; ROSADO, Eliane Lopes; CARNEIRO, João Régis Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic disease with high growth in population and bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for weight reduction; on the other hand, nutritional deficiencies are observed after this procedure. Aim To analyze weight loss progression and nutritional anemia in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on use of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 137 patients of both sexes, aged between 18-60 years, using supplemental multivitamins and minerals, were included; personal information, anthropometric and laboratory data in the preoperative, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months postoperatively were collected. Results Postoperatively, in both sexes, occurred weight loss compared to the pre-operative weight gain at 48 months and maintenance of body mass index. There was a decrease in the percentage of excess weight loss at 48 months postoperatively compared to the time of 12, 24 and 36 months in men and decreased at 48 postoperative months compared to the time of 24 months in females. There was a decreased in serum ferritin in both sexes and increased serum iron at 48 months postoperatively in males. There was a decreased in vitamin B12 and folic acid increased serum at 48 postoperative months in females. Conclusions Surgical treatment was effective for reducing weight, body mass index reduction and achievement of success in the late postoperative period along with multivitamin and mineral supplementation on prevention of serious nutritional deficiencies and anemia. PMID:25861069

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the safety of vitamin D - enriched UV - treated baker‘s yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “UV-treated baker’s yeast” (Lallemand SAS) as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97, taking...... into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. The novel food ingredient (NFI) is baker’s yeast treated with UV irradiation to induce the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2. The applicant intends to use the NFI during the production of yeast-leavened bread, rolls....../100 g bread, rolls and fine pastry, it is highly unlikely that Tolerable Upper Intake Levels as established by EFSA (EFSA NDA Panel, 2012) are exceeded. The Panel considers that UV-treated baker’s yeast exhibiting an enhanced content of vitamin D2 is safe under the intended conditions of use....

  2. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  3. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, P R; Rombeau, J L

    2000-09-01

    The use of nutrition for the medical patient, in the inpatient setting and at home, will likely continue to increase in the future. Each patient should be evaluated in an individualized but systematic fashion. Each patient in whom malnourishment is suspected should undergo a thorough assessment for the presence and degree of malnutrition with an accurate calculation of nutritional requirements. It is important to choose the correct method of delivery of nutrition, to monitor and recognize any complications or problems that may arise, and to tailor the nutritional therapy to the unique diseases that are encountered in medicine. Although increasingly new advances and changes are occurring in the field of nutrition, nutritional support and therapy are best delivered and supplied to the patient with a network of health care workers, including the physician, the nurse, the dietitian, the social worker, and pharmacist.

  4. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  5. Stereoselective Metabolism of Bupropion by Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and Human Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Rebecka; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hydroxylation of the antidepressant and smoking deterrent drug bupropion is a clinically important bioactivation and elimination pathway. Bupropion hydroxylation is catalyzed selectively by cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6). CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation has been used as an in vitro and in vivo phenotypic probe for CYP2B6 activity and CYP2B6 drug interactions. Bupropion is chiral, used clinically as a racemate, and disposition is stereoselective. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation is stereoselective. Methods Hydroxylation of racemic bupropion by recombinant CYP2B6 and human liver microsomes was evaluated using a stereoselective assay. Results At therapeutic concentrations, hydroxylation of (S)-bupropion was 3-fold and 1.5-greater than (R)-bupropion, respectively, by recombinant CYP2B6 and human liver microsomes. In vitro intrinsic clearances were likewise different for bupropion enantiomers. Conclusions Stereoselective bupropion hydroxylation may have implications for the therapeutic efficacy of bupropion as an antidepressant or smoking cessation therapy, and for the use of bupropion as an in vivo phenotypic probe for CYP2B6 activity. PMID:18219560

  6. Vitamin composition of ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ireland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin analyses are particularly important for estimating dietary intakes, determining nutritional status and regulating food labelling. Due to the increased popularity of ethnic foods, the vitamin composition of these foods is required to ensure that national food databases are up-to-date.Objectives: The key objective of this study was to generate new and reliable data on the contents of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A (all trans-retinol, D3 & E (α-tocopherol and those that are water-soluble (vitamins B6, B12, C, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin in ethnic foods commonly consumed in Europe.Design: Thirty commonly-consumed ethnic foods in Europe (from Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, and the UK were analysed using harmonised methodologies for identification of representative foods, sampling, data scrutiny and documentation to generate reliable data. Analyses were carried out using International standard methods. Results: Certain vitamins were present in appreciable amounts: β-carotene in tayer leaves (7919µg/100g, thiamin in frik dry (0.24mg/100g, riboflavin in mbinzo worms (0.79mg/100g, and niacin in commercial soy patty (17.5mg/100g. However, retinol, pantothenic acid, vitamins D and B12 were below detectable levels in the majority of the foods analysed.Conclusions: The majority of the foods contained most of the water-soluble vitamins but lacked fat-soluble vitamins. However, these preliminary data represent only a small number of foods per country and so no conclusions about vitamin imbalances can be drawn. Additional data are required on a much wider range of commonly-consumed ethnic foods to make firm conclusions about adequacy of diets.

  7. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from DSM Nutritional Products Europe AG, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling. Vitamin D (D2 and D3) is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in the risk of falling among men and women 60 years of age and older is beneficial to human health by reducing the risk of bone fractures. Daily vitamin D supplementation...... as the primary outcome. Statistical pooling of the data from these randomised controlled trials consistently shows a significant reduction in the risk of falling. The available data do not provide information about the lowest effective dose of vitamin D needed to obtain the claimed effect. On the basis...

  9. 300,000 IU or 600,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 for treatment of nutritional rickets: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Hema; Rai, Sunita; Shah, Dheeraj; Madhu, S V; Mehrotra, Gopesh; Malhotra, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the non-inferiority of a lower therapeutic dose (300,000 IU) in comparison to standard dose (600,000) IU of Vitamin D for increasing serum 25(OH) D levels and achieving radiological recovery in nutritional rickets. Randomized, open-labeled, controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital. 76 children (median age 12 mo) with clinical and radiologically confirmed rickets. Oral vitamin D3 as 300,000 IU (Group 1; n=38) or 600,000 IU (Group 2; n=38) in a single day. Primary: Serum 25(OH)D, 12 weeks after administration of vitamin D3; Secondary: Radiological healing and serum parathormone at 12 weeks; and clinical and biochemical adverse effects. Serum 25(OH)D levels [geometric mean (95% CI)] increased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks after therapy in both the groups [Group 1: 7.58 (5.50–10.44) to 16.06 (12.71– 20.29) ng/mL, Pchildren by 12 weeks. Both groups demonstrated significant (Pchildren after 12 weeks of intervention [Group 1: 20/32 (62.5%); Group 2: 18/28 (64.3%)]. No major clinical adverse effects were noticed in any of the children. Hypercalcemia was documented in 2 children at 4 weeks (1 in each Group) and 3 children at 12 weeks (1 in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2). None of the participants had hypercalciuria or hypervitaminosis D. A dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D3 is comparable to 600,000 IU, administered orally, over a single day, for treating rickets in under-five children although there is an unacceptably high risk of hypercalcemia in both groups. None of the regime is effective in normalization of vitamin D status in majority of patients, 3 months after administering the therapeutic dose.

  10. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  11. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status among apparently healthy obese female individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, D; Deler, M H; Turker, Y; Ermis, F; Iliev, D; Velioglu, U

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and great risk for not only cardiovascular diseases but also cancer, musculoskeletal, and gynecological diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum Vitamin B12 (vitB12), body mass index (BMI), and nutritional status among obese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive female subjects. The consumptions of red meat, fish, bovine liver, egg, and mushroom were recorded. According to the Dietary Reference Intakes, the patients were categorized as insufficiency and sufficiency. Three cutoff points were defined for vitB12 status: (1) Deficiency if vitB12 is <200 pg/mL; (2) insufficiency if vitB12 is 250-350 pg/mL, and (3) sufficient if vitB12 is ≥350 pg/mL. According to BMI, the patients were assigned to nonobese and obese groups. BMI, serum vitB12 level, consumptions of red meat, fish, bovine liver, egg, and mushroom were evaluated and compared between two groups. Mean level of vitB12 was 247.8 ± 10.4 pg/mL and significantly associated with consumption of egg (P = 0.031), bovine liver (P = 0.004), mushroom (P = 0.040), and red meat (P = 0.003). VitB12 was significantly higher in nonobese than obese group (282.5 ± 106.8 vs. 242.5 ± 107.5 pg/mL, P = 0.001). The ratio of vitB12 deficiency was significantly higher in obese than nonobese group (37.6% vs. 24.7%; P = 0.019). VitB12 level was negatively correlated with BMI (r = -0.155; P< 0.001), but not insulin resistance (r = -0.172; P = 0.062). Obesity was associated with low level of vitB12 in obese women, and more likely to be vitB12 deficient. Consumption of certain types of food contributes to increase vitB12 level.

  12. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  13. Rediscovering vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Anaizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 2 years there has been a radical change in standard clinical practice with respect to vitamin D. As a result of a growing body of knowledgeable physicians are assessing the vitamin D nutritional status of their patients and prescribing aggressive repletion regimens of a vitamin D supplement. The present paper summarizes some basic information about this essential nutrient and reviews some of the more recent data implicating vitamin D deficiency in disease etiology with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Finally a rational approach to the dosing of vitamin D in different patient populations is provided.

  14. Influence of the relative composition of trace elements and vitamins in physicochemical stability of total parenteral nutrition formulations for neonatal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the relative composition of trace elements and vitamins in physicochemical stability of neonatal parenteral nutrition. Material and methods Three formulations for neonatal administration were selected; the main variable was the presence of trace elements and vitamins. The analyses where carried out immediately after preparation and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days after preparation. Three methods were selected to determine globule size: light obscuration, dynamic light scattering and optical microscopy. Complementary evaluation including visual inspection, determination of pH and osmolarity, peroxide levels and measurements of zeta potential were also performed. Results There was an observable alteration in color and phase separation in the PN stored at 25°C and 40°C. Neither globule size pattern, nor any other physicochemical characteristic evaluated appeared to be considerably altered in any of the analyzed formulations even after 7 days of storage at 5°C. Globule size in all the PN studied was consistent with the established limit, below 500 nm by DLS measurement, and PFAT5 was below 0.05% under all storage temperatures. Conclusion Concomitant presence of trace elements and vitamins in the same neonatal formulation did not alter the evaluated aspects of stability. PMID:22510447

  15. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  16. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Rosa A; Giannattasio, Sergio; Capitani, Guido; Marra, Ersilia; Christen, Philipp

    2008-06-19

    The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase), in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R) for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R)-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1) covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine); (2) catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine); (3) adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4) reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and beta-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5) acceleration factors for racemization and beta-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6) ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg) and covalent binding of PLP to active-site Lys7 suffice to

  17. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  18. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in 13-15-years-old boys from a sport school in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Wajszczyk, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in teenagers engaged in physical activity increases the risk of health disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected vitamins and minerals intake in 13-15-year-old boys from sport school. The study of dietary intake was conducted among 44 boys from the School of Sport Championship (SSC). Nutritional data was collected using 24-hour recall for 3 days of week. Daily intake of minerals: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine and vitamins: A, E, D, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folate and niacin was estimated. The probability of insufficient intake of nutrients in relation to the standard levels: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) as well as excessive intake of them in relation to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were assessed. The highest percentage of insufficient intake concerned vitamin D (100%), potassium (69%), folate (53%), and calcium (50%), slightly lower of magnesium (27%), vitamins C (24%) and E (15%). The risk of inadequate intake of other minerals: sodium, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, iodine and vitamins: B6, B1, B2, A, B12, niacin, was relatively lower and amounted from 0.3% to 5.4%. The disturbingly high probability of exceeding the UL for sodium (99.5%) was observed. A significant disproportion between the mean intake and the percentage of inadequate diets indicates a large diversity in the intake of vitamins and minerals in the group of studied boys, what was the reason of unbalanced diet. The insufficient intake concerns especially vitamin D, potassium, folate, calcium and a lesser extent magnesium, vitamins C and E. Sodium intake was disturbingly high. In order to avoid nutritional mistakes in the future education on the rational nutrition among students, their parents, and teachers is necessary.

  19. Nutritional intake, depressive symptoms and vitamin D status in hypertensive patients in the north of Iran: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, A; Mahdavi-Roshan, M; Hasandokht, T; Gholipour, M; Soltanipour, S; Nagshbandi, M; Javadzadeh, A

    We investigated vitamin D status, body size, nutritional intake and depression status in hypertensive patients in the north of Iran that have special dietary habit and lifestyle according to their culture and geographical situation. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normal participants, in the north of Iran. Anthropometric data was measured and demographic characteristics, dietary intake, depression and medical status were collected by valid questionnaires. Blood samples were measured for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Hypertensive patients had significantly lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control group (16±8.7ng/mL vs. 19.8±8.4ng/mL; P=0.04). In adjusted model, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 30ng/mL was associated with an almost 4-fold odds of hypertension. The odds of hypertension in depressed patients was 1.2 times higher than in those without depression (p=0.002). After adjusted logistic regression analysis for energy intake, significant association was observed between hypertension and some dietary nutrients, including cholesterol, fiber and vitamin D intake. There was no significant association between hypertension and body weight, waist circumference as well as BMI. The vitamin D status was lower in the most individuals and it causes a considerable increase in the risk of hypertension. Undesirable intake of some nutrients and depression also increase the risk of developing hypertension. Health training about suitable dietary habits, easier access to vitamin D supplementation and screening for depression in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6: Advances on Polymorphisms, Mechanisms, and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich M Zanger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6 belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to nongenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4 to 12% and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant

  1. Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6): advances on polymorphisms, mechanisms, and clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Ulrich M.; Klein, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to non-genetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility, and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4–12%) and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant expression systems. PMID

  2. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... nutritional status. B vitamins are absorbed from the diet, used as needed, and any excess is removed ...

  3. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Lactation Consultant Association About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While breastfeeding ...

  4. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified ... B12 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, ...

  5. Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs in MS: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of foods, including fish (especially salmon and tuna fish), pork and chicken, beans, bananas and many vegetables. 11 | Vitamins, Minerals & Herbs in MS Vitamin B6 is needed in amino acid conversions. Sometimes people with MS take a B ...

  6. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix gla protein is associated with vitamin K nutritional status, but not coronary artery calcium, in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vermeer, Cees; Magdeleyns, Elke J P; Crosier, Michael D; Gundberg, Caren M; Ordovas, José M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Booth, Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue that must be carboxylated by vitamin K to function. Evidence suggests circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in persons with disease characterized by vascular calcification. The primary purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in older adults without coronary heart disease. Genetic determinants of ucMGP were also explored. Cross-sectional associations among baseline plasma ucMGP, vitamin K status biomarkers [plasma phylloquinone, uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC)], CAC, and plausible genetic polymorphisms were examined in 438 community-dwelling adults (60-80 y, 59% women). The effect of phylloquinone supplementation (500 μg/d) for 3 y on plasma ucMGP was determined among 374 participants. At baseline, plasma phylloquinone was lower and %ucOC and PIVKA-II were greater across higher plasma ucMGP quartiles (all P supplemented group, the 3-y change in ucMGP was not associated with the 3-y change in CAC [unstandard β (SE) = -0.02 (0.02); P = 0.44]. Plasma ucMGP was associated with vitamin K status biomarkers and was reduced following phylloquinone supplementation, suggesting it may be a useful marker of vitamin K status in vascular tissue. Plasma ucMGP did not reflect CAC in healthy older adults.

  7. Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice. Objective: We applied VDSP protocols to existing ELISA-derived serum 25(OH)D data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) as a case-study survey and evaluated their effectiveness by comparison of the protocol-projected estimates with those from a reanalysis of survey serums by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–tandem MS). Design: The VDSP reference system and protocols were applied to ELISA-based serum 25(OH)D data from the representative NANS sample (n = 1118). A reanalysis of 99 stored serums by using standardized LC–tandem MS and resulting regression equations yielded predicted standardized serum 25(OH)D values, which were then compared with LC–tandem MS reanalyzed values for all serums. Results: Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentrations 125 nmol/L were 1.2%, 0.3%, and 0.6% by means of ELISA, VDSP protocols, and LC–tandem MS, respectively. Conclusion: VDSP protocols hold a major potential for national nutrition and health surveys in terms of the standardization of serum 25(OH)D data. PMID:23615829

  8. Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T

    2013-06-01

    The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice. We applied VDSP protocols to existing ELISA-derived serum 25(OH)D data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) as a case-study survey and evaluated their effectiveness by comparison of the protocol-projected estimates with those from a reanalysis of survey serums by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-tandem MS). The VDSP reference system and protocols were applied to ELISA-based serum 25(OH)D data from the representative NANS sample (n = 1118). A reanalysis of 99 stored serums by using standardized LC-tandem MS and resulting regression equations yielded predicted standardized serum 25(OH)D values, which were then compared with LC-tandem MS reanalyzed values for all serums. Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentrations 125 nmol/L were 1.2%, 0.3%, and 0.6% by means of ELISA, VDSP protocols, and LC-tandem MS, respectively. VDSP protocols hold a major potential for national nutrition and health surveys in terms of the standardization of serum 25(OH)D data.

  9. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  10. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  11. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy: results from the NUSTART randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George; Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; Kelly, Paul; Friis, Henrik; Filteau, Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. We hypothesized that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. The randomized controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. ART-naive adults referred for ART and with body mass index vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning before ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/d LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART and 250 g/d from weeks 2 to 6 of ART. Of 1815 patients recruited, 365 (20%) died during the study and 813 (45%) provided data at 12 weeks. Controlling for baseline values, anthropometric measures were consistently higher at 12-week ART in the LNS-VM than in the LNS group but statistically significant only for calf and mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps skinfold. Appetite did not differ between groups. Using piecewise mixed-effects quadratic models including all patients and time points, the main effects of LNS-VM were seen after starting ART and were significant for weight, body mass index, and mid-upper arm circumference. Provision of high levels of vitamins and minerals to patients referred for ART, delivered with substantial macronutrients, increased nutritional recovery but did not seem to act through treatment group differences in appetite.

  12. Project CHOICE: #77. A Career Unit for Grades 5 and 6. Nutrition (Vitamin A) and Jobs Relating to the Handling and Care of Food. (Community and Personal Services Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Nutrition (Vitamin A) and Jobs Relating to the Handling and Care of Food, is one in a series of curriculum guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking 5th and 6th grade elementary classroom experiences with the…

  13. Vitamin A and clefting: putative biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.M.; Zhou, Huiqing; Carels, C.E.L.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as vitamin intake contribute to the etiology of cleft palate. Vitamin A is a regulator of embryonic development. Excess vitamin A can cause congenital malformations such as spina bifida and cleft palate. Therefore, preventive nutritional strategies are required. This review

  14. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  16. Prenatal Vitamins: OK for Women Who Aren't Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Is it OK to take prenatal vitamins if I'm not pregnant, and ... 21, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/prenatal-vitamins/faq- ...

  17. [Practical aspects of vitamin deficit correction in nutrition of children and adult population by enrichment of foodstuffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatniuk, L N

    2004-01-01

    One of the effective ways of normalization of micronutrients deficiency (vitamins, mineral substances etc.) for children and adult population--use of the specialized foodstuffs enriched with essential food substances in a daily diet is considered in the paper. On the basis of the analysis of foreign experience and the data accumulated as a result of performance of some state scientific and technical programs and the major projects of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technologies of the Russian Federation, the basic scientific principles of enrichment of foodstuffs with vitamins and mineral substances are considered. In view of these principles the wide range of products of preventive purpose is developed: bakery, confectionery products, grain concentrates, dry mixes for preparation of the beverages, enriched with vitamins and some mineral substances (iron, calcium, magnesium). Large-scale clinical approbation of the developed products on various groups of the population (children of preschool and school age, pregnant women, workers of hard trades, patients with hypertonic disease, diabetes), has shown their efficiency both in the improvement of the vitamin status of surveyed and some therapeutic parameters. Circulars, instruction on application, methodical recommendations are developed and authorized.

  18. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities... transaction within the six months prior to the date the price is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative...

  19. Influence of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A in Pregnant Women: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Suzana N; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Saunders, Cláudia; Ramalho, Andréa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A through biochemical and functional indicators of pregnant women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery compared to pregnant women who did not undergo this surgery. The present study is a cross-sectional study of the analytical type with pregnant women paired by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Group 1 (G1) comprised 80 pregnant women without previous submission to RYGB and group 2 (G2) by 40 pregnant women who previously underwent this surgery. We used high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector for quantification of retinol and β-carotene, and the functional evaluation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was performed through standardized interview validated for pregnant women. G1 mean age was 29.3 ± 5.3 and 30.8 ± 4.4 in G2. BMI mean prepregnancy found in G1 was 25.7 ± 3.2 and 26.8 ± 3.1 in G2, featuring overweight. Serum retinol and β-carotene means were significantly higher in G1 (1.8 ± 0.9; 87.4 ± 62.2) compared to G2 (0.99 ± 0.39; 22.7 ± 18.0), respectively (p supplementation of vitamin A to pregnant women undergoing RYGB.

  20. Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Frei, Balz B; Fulgoni, Victor L; Weaver, Connie M; Zeisel, Steven H

    2017-08-09

    Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food alone versus food plus multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements (MVMS) of 17 nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and of the status of five nutrients with recognized biomarkers of deficiency. Compared to food alone, MVMS use at any frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of inadequacy ( p UL for 7 nutrients, but the latter was ≤4% for any nutrient. Except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, most frequent MVMS use (≥21 days/30 days) virtually eliminated inadequacies of the nutrients examined, and was associated with significantly lower odds ratios of deficiency for the examined nutrient biomarkers except for iron. In conclusion, among U.S. adults, MVMS use is associated with decreased micronutrient inadequacies, intakes slightly exceeding the UL for a few nutrients, and a lower risk of nutrient deficiencies.

  1. Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food alone versus food plus multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements (MVMS of 17 nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL, and of the status of five nutrients with recognized biomarkers of deficiency. Compared to food alone, MVMS use at any frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of inadequacy (p < 0.01 for 15/17 nutrients examined and an increased prevalence of intakes >UL for 7 nutrients, but the latter was ≤4% for any nutrient. Except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, most frequent MVMS use (≥21 days/30 days virtually eliminated inadequacies of the nutrients examined, and was associated with significantly lower odds ratios of deficiency for the examined nutrient biomarkers except for iron. In conclusion, among U.S. adults, MVMS use is associated with decreased micronutrient inadequacies, intakes slightly exceeding the UL for a few nutrients, and a lower risk of nutrient deficiencies.

  2. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  3. Nutritional profile of adolescents practicing resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Gama de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional profile of adolescents practicing resistance exercise, determining the adequacy of the macronutrients and micronutrients caloric intake, and their nutritional status. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted from August to September 2010 at a gym in Fortaleza-CE. A questionnaire comprising identification, anthropometric, dietary and supplementary data was applied to the adolescents. Data was analyzed using the Avanutri software, which assessed the adolescents’ nutritional status and the macronutrients and micronutrients caloric intake. Results: The sample consisted of 33 students, of which 66.7% (n=22 were male and 33.3% (n=11 female. It is noteworthy that the majority of boys (60.6%; n=20 and of girls (27.3%; n=9 presented adequate Body Mass Index (BMI. As for the caloric intake, insufficient consumption predominated (39.4%; n=13 among boys. Regarding macronutrients, insufficient consumption of carbohydrates predominated in both sexes. The protein intake was adequate in most of the group and the predominant fat intake was excessive. On the micronutrients, there was great inadequacy, especially the intake of calcium, vitamins A, B2 and B6, zinc, magnesium and copper. Vitamin E, niacin and pyridoxine were being consumed in amounts potentially harmful. Conclusion: Although the majority of adolescents have shown normal nutritional status, the analyzed questionnaires showed a large inadequacy, which is liable, in the long term, to affect health. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p489

  4. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a vegan-diet mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, R

    1986-04-01

    A 7-month-old male presented with lethargy and failure to thrive. The child was exclusively breast-fed from birth by a mother who was a strict vegetarian. Laboratory data revealed macrocytic anemia and methylmalonic acid in the urine, consistent with vitamin B12 deficient anemia. The patient responded well to supplementation with B12 alone and was developmentally normal by 11 months of age. This study emphasizes the need for assuring maternal dietary adequacy during pregnancy and after birth.

  5. Effect of vitamin E nutritional supplementation on the pathological changes induced in the ileum of rabbits by experimental infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalie, E; Kouzi, K; Poutahidis, T; Abas, Z; Sarris, K; Iliadis, N; Kaldrymidou, E

    2006-05-01

    A well-established rabbit model of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) disease was used to examine whether vitamin E (VE) nutritional supplementation had an effect on the pathological changes induced in the bowel by EPEC. Quantitative methods were used to evaluate the influence of VE on bacterial colonization, intestinal mucosal architecture and inflammation, and intestinal epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. VE did not affect EPEC colonization and did not give significant protection against EPEC-induced changes and diarrhoea. Although VE had no effect on the EPEC-related increase of enterocyte apoptosis, it clearly contributed to an acceleration of epithelial cell proliferation in the ileal crypts. This finding may explain why ileal morphometry undertaken in this study showed that VE ameliorated somewhat the effects of EPEC on intestinal mucosal architecture. Quantitative studies on inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa revealed that VE nutritional supplementation resulted in an increased neutrophilic and mononuclear inflammatory cell response to EPEC infection, which did not contribute, however, to the clearance of infection.

  6. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, M S

    2000-01-01

    Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Subjects were recruited at a health ministers' reunion based on adherence to the Hallelujah diet for at least 2 years. Serum cobalamin and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) assays were performed. Follow-up with sublingual tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements was carried out on subjects with abnormal MMA results. 49 subjects were tested. Most subjects (10th to 90th percentile) had followed this diet 23-49 months. 6 subjects had serum B12 concentrations nutritional yeast, but not probiotic supplements, significantly reduced group mean MMA concentrations (tablet p 0.20). The urinary MMA assay is effective for identifying early metabolic cobalamin deficiency. People following the Hallelujah diet and other raw-food vegetarian diets should regularly monitor their urinary MMA levels, consume a sublingual cobalamin supplement, or consume cobalamin in their food.

  7. Neutron scattering from the Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Collin

    A review of neutron scattering work probing the Kondo insulator SmB6 is presented with special emphasis on assessing the topology of the underlying strongly renormalized band structure. A 14 meV excition dominates the spectrum and is evidence of strong electron correlations [1]. Though the data generally supports the proposal that SmB6 is a topological Kondo insulator, specific heat and high-resolution neutron scattering data show a continuum of states well below the bulk transport gap, which enrich the problem and may connect to the recent surprising de Haas van Alpen results. ``Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB6,'' W. T. Fuhrman, J. Leiner, P. Nikolic, G. E. Granroth, M. B. Stone, M. D. Lumsden, L. DeBeer-Schmitt, P. A. Alekseev, J.-M. Mignot, S. M. Koohpayeh, P. Cottingham, W. Adam Phelan, L. Schoop, T. M. McQueen, and C. Broholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 036401 (2015). Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  8. Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Iglesia, Iris; González-Gross, Marcela; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Molnar, Dénes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Kafatos, Anthony; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents. Participants from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (N = 1089; 12.5-17.5 y; 580 girls) were selected by complex sampling. Multilevel linear regression models examined the associations between iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood and blood pressure; the analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for contextual and individual potential confounders. A positive association was found in girls between RBC folate concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-5.77), although no association between the vitamin serum biomarkers concentrations and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found. In boys, retinol was positively associated with DBP (β = 3.84; 95% CI, 0.51-7.17) and vitamin B6 was positively associated with SBP (β = 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-6.18). In contrast, holotranscobalamin was inversely associated with SBP (β = -3.74; 95% CI, -7.28 to -0.21). Levels of RBC folate and vitamin B6 in blood may affect BP in adolescents. In this context, programs aimed at avoiding high BP levels should promote healthy eating behavior by focusing on the promotion of vegetable proteins and foods rich in vitamin B12 (i.e., white meat and eggs), which may help to achieve BP blood control in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiolysis of pyridoxine (vitamin B 6) in aqueous solution under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Cahero, Fernando; Aliev, Roustam

    2008-05-01

    Aqueous solutions of pyridoxine (1 mM) without or with additive of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] (2.5 mM) were gamma-irradiated at different doses and dose rate of 2.16 kGy/h in the absence of air, in the presence of air or by their saturation with N 2O. The radiolytic products were analyzed with HPLC, mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. 2,4,5-Trihydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol, pyridoxal, isopyridoxal and 6-hydroxypyridoxine were formed by radiolysis in the absence of K 3[Fe(CN) 6], and their concentrations were much higher in samples saturated with N 2O. Pyridoxi-3,6-quinone was found by radiolysis under all the above-mentioned conditions but only in the presence of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Besides, the pyridoxal formation increased in the presence of this oxidizing agent. G values of pyridoxal formation and pyridoxine degradation were quantified. Some details of the radiolytic product formation were discussed.

  10. Functional vitamin B-6 status and long-term mortality in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minović, Isidor; Veen, van der Anna; Faassen, van Martijn; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Berg, van den Else; Ley, van der Claude; Gomes-Neto, António W.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Navis, Gerjan J.; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) are common in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and confer increased risk of long-term mortality. To our knowledge, it is not known whether low plasma PLP concentrations have functional (i.e., intracellular) consequences and,

  11. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  12. Poor vitamin D status increases the risk of anemia in school children: National Food and Nutrition Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and the risk of anemia in a large cohort of children with consideration for the effects of sex, body mass index (BMI), serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations, and iron level status. A total of 937 children (493 boys, 444 girls) ages 9 to 12 y were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. The children underwent various examinations including anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. Overall, 13.3% of the children were anemic and 64.2% and 28.1% of the subjects had a vitamin D deficiency (D levels. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the group of children with anemia was 96.8% compared with 91.6% in the non-anemic group (P = 0.046). Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower in the anemic children compared with the non-anemic children (19.6 ± 13.3 vs. 24.0 ± 23.1 nmol/L; P = 0.003). After controlling for sex and BMI, children with a vitamin D deficiency were almost 3.45 times more likely to be anemic compared with children with a vitamin D sufficiency (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-9.81). The increased risk of anemia was found to start significantly at 25(OH)D D and anemia in a large, representative sample of children, even after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, and iPTH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The relationship between nutrition and frailty: Effects of protein intake, nutritional supplementation, vitamin D and exercise on muscle metabolism in the elderly. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza-Artabe, Iñaki; Sáez-López, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Natalia; Fernández-Gutierrez, Naiara; Malafarina, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts the onset of disability, morbidity and mortality in elderly people; it is a state of pre-disability and is reversible. The aim of this review is to assess how nutrition influences both the risk of developing frailty and its treatment. We searched two databases, PubMed and Web of Science. We included epidemiologic studies and clinical trials carried out on people aged over 65 years. We included 32 studies with a total of over 50,000 participants. The prevalence of frailty is ranges from 15% among elderly people living in the community to 54% among those hospitalized. Furthermore, the prevalence of frailty is disproportionately high among elderly people who are malnourished. Malnutrition, which is very prevalent in geriatric populations, is one of the main risk factors for the onset of frailty. A good nutritional status and, wherever necessary, supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients reduce the risk of developing frailty. Physical exercise has been shown to improve functional status, helps to prevent frailty and is an effective treatment to reverse it. Despite the relatively large number of studies included, this review has some limitations. Firstly, variability in the design of the studies and their different aims reduce their comparability. Secondly, several of the studies did not adequately define frailty. Poor nutritional status is associated with the onset of frailty. Screening and early diagnosis of malnutrition and frailty in elderly people will help to prevent the onset of disability. Effective treatment is based on correction of the macro- and micronutrient deficit and physical exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

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    Hongli Dong

    Full Text Available Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  15. Adiposity in the Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Level and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged and Elderly Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008

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    Ji Hyun Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of adiposity in the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and insulin resistance has not yet been fully studied. This aim of this study is to clarify the role of adiposity in the relationship between serum vitamin D level and insulin resistance among middle-aged and elderly Korean adults.MethodsWe used data from 2,710 individuals aged ≥50 years based on national data from a representative sample of the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2 in 2008.ResultsAfter adjustment for potential confounders, body mass index (BMI was significantly associated with 25(OH vitamin D (P=0.008. However, waist circumference was not significantly associated with 25(OH vitamin D. In the stratified analyses, 25(OH vitamin D was found to be negatively associated with fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in participants with BMIs ≥25 kg/m2 (P=0.003 for both insulin and HOMR-IR but was not found to be associated in those with BMIs <23 kg/m2. However, we observed a significant inverse in the association of 25(OH vitamin D with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in both the normal (P=0.001 and P<0.001 and the abdominally obese group (P=0.010 and P=0.009 in the stratified analyses according to abdominal obesity.ConclusionOur results support that the idea that endogenously-produced vitamin D might be stored in subcutaneous fat deposits. In addition, the association of vitamin D with insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Korean adults was stronger when it was stratified by BMI than when abdominal obesity status.

  16. World Health Organisation multicentre randomised trial of supplementation with vitamins C and E among pregnant women at high risk for pre-eclampsia in populations of low nutritional status from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, J; Purwar, M; Merialdi, M; Zavaleta, N; Thi Nhu Ngoc, N; Anthony, J; De Greeff, A; Poston, L; Shennan, A

    2009-05-01

    To determine if vitamin C and E supplementation in high-risk pregnant women with low nutritional status reduces pre-eclampsia. Multicentred, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial. Antenatal care clinics and Hospitals in four countries. Pregnant women between 14 and 22 weeks' gestation. Randomised women received 1000 mg vitamin C and 400 iu of vitamin E or placebo daily until delivery. Pre-eclampsia, low birthweight, small for gestational age and perinatal death. Six hundred and eighty-seven women were randomised to the vitamin group and 678 to the placebo group. Groups had similar gestational ages (18.1; SD 2.4 weeks), socio-economic, clinical and demographical characteristics and blood pressure at trial entry. Risk factors for eligibility were similar, except for multiple pregnancies: placebo group (14.7%), vitamins group (11.8%). Previous pre-eclampsia, or its complications, was the most common risk factor at entry (vitamins 41.6%, placebo 41.3%). Treatment compliance was 87% in the two groups and loss to follow-up was low (vitamins 2.0%, placebo 1.3%). Supplementation was not associated with a reduction of pre-eclampsia (RR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.3), eclampsia (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.3-8.9), gestational hypertension (RR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9-1.7), nor any other maternal outcome. Low birthweight (RR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.1), small for gestational age (RR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.1) and perinatal deaths (RR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-1.2) were also unaffected. Vitamins C and E at the doses used did not prevent pre-eclampsia in these high-risk women.

  17. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Verly Junior, Eliseu

    2014-06-02

    Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan.

  18. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  19. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN THE FOOD RATION OF ADOLESCENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubenko, O V; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Glagoleva, O N; Pogodin, I S; Luksha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents. Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders. The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency. There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents. The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins

  20. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

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    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  1. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

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    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  2. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs: program impact on dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, S; Vermeersch, J; Gale, S

    1984-08-01

    This article describes the dietary analysis component of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. It addresses two research questions: 1) do participants and nonparticipants in the school nutrition programs have different calorie and nutrient intakes for 24 h, breakfast, and/or lunch and 2) if there are differences in the nutritional quality or total quantity of food consumed? Students who participate in the School Lunch Program get more than nonparticipants of almost all nutrients that were examined, both at lunch and during 24 h. The superior lunch and 24-h intakes of Lunch Program participants are due to the higher nutritional quality of the School Lunch compared with lunches that nonparticipants eat. The most important impact of the School Breakfast is that when the program is available, it increases the likelihood that children will eat breakfast, and children who eat breakfast have significantly higher intakes of nutrients than children who skip breakfast. The School Breakfast provides more calcium, phosphorus, protein, and magnesium than a non-US Department of Agriculture breakfast, but less vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron. The positive impacts of calcium and phosphorus carry over 24 h, while the negative impacts for vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron are made up during the remainder of the day. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn about the impact of the Milk Program, milk is an important component of all US Department of Agriculture school nutrition programs and makes a major contribution to student dietary intake. Its presence in the meal patterns probably accounts for some of the greater nutrient intakes associated with participation in the School Lunch Program and most of the greater intakes associated with participation in the School Breakfast Program.

  3. Association between serum vitamin D status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in an older Korean population with radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jee-Yon; Kim, Tae-Jong; Lee, Ji-Won

    2015-04-18

    Vitamin D is important in bone health and its relationship with osteoarthritis has recently been reported. Both vitamin D deficiency and knee osteoarthritis are age dependent and are known to affect quality of life (QOL) in older populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the association between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in an older Korean population with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 2,165 participants aged ≥50 years with radiographic knee osteoarthritis defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2 were selected from data from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted in 2010-2011. They stratified into two levels by vitamin D status (deficiency vitamin D deficiency group was more likely to report problems with mobility, self-care, and usual activities. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with poor HRQOL indicated by the lowest quartile of EQ-VAS (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.832, p = 0.006) and the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index (unadjusted OR = 1.992, p = 0.003). Theses associations of vitamin D status with EQ-VAS and EQ-5D index were maintained after adjustment for age and sex (Model 1: OR = 1.677, p = 0.022 and OR = 1.701, p = 0.021, respectively). The significant associations of vitamin D status with EQ-VAS were maintained after adjustment for other possible covariates (Model 3: OR = 1.562, p = 0.044). Also, a trend of associations between vitamin D status and EQ-5D index were shown after adjustment for other covariates (Model3: OR = 1.681, p = 0.056). This is the first study to reveal that vitamin D status is independently associated with HRQOL in an older Korean population with knee osteoarthritis. Our results suggest that the maintenance of sufficient vitamin D status may be important to prevent QOL decline in older populations with knee osteoarthritis.

  4. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-10

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  5. HYGIENIC ESTIMATION OF PROVISION WITH VITAMINS IN ORENBURG SCHOOLCHILDREN

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    T.I. Burtseva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a trial, studying provision with vitamins in younger schoolchildren from Orenburg. This research showed low intake of vitamins D, C, B1 and folic acid. Authors proved that schoolchildren have combined nutritive vitamin deficiency and gave estimation to content of vitamins in urine.Key words: younger children, nutrition, vitamins.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:44-48

  6. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  7. Biochemistry and Physiology of Vitamins in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated.Previous biochemical studies indicated that E. gracilis Z contains several vitamin-related novel synthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways which suggests that it is a highly suitable organism for elucidating the physiological functions of vitamins in comparative biochemistry and biological evolution. E. gracilis Z has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vitamin C, a hybrid of the pathways found in animals and plants. This chapter presents up-to-date information on the biochemistry and physiological functions of vitamins in this organism.

  8. Associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihyun E; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. Adults aged 40-70 years were divided into three groups by tertile of accelerometer-determined steps/d (in men and women, respectively): tertile 1 (sedentary), active), ≥10699, ≥9226. The active men consumed more grain products, fruits and vegetables, whereas the active women consumed more legumes and vegetables, compared with the sedentary group. Serum vitamin concentrations were associated with daily steps in both men and women. Vitamin C, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, γ-tocopherol and vitamin D were significantly associated with daily steps. OR (Pmetabolic syndrome in men and women, respectively. Those with the highest steps taken showed a more healthful eating profile and a better serum vitamin profile compared with less active adults. Those with the lowest steps taken had greater odds of having metabolic syndrome and its risk components. Probably, daily walking is a marker of a healthful eating profile and increasing daily walking is one of the healthful ways to decrease the metabolic syndrome and its risk components.

  9. Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Aben, K.K.; Büchner, F.L.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Gils, van C.H.; Egevad, L.; Overvad, K.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell

  10. Adult classical homocystinuria requiring parenteral nutrition: Pitfalls and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christel; Bonafé, Luisa; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Rieger, Julie; Berger, Mette M

    2017-07-25

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Treatment by the enteral route aims at reducing homocysteine levels by using vitamin B6, possibly methionine-restricted diet, betaine and/or folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Currently no nutritional guidelines exist regarding parenteral nutrition (PN) under acute conditions. Exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the pathogenesis and nutritional intervention of adult classical homocystinuria requiring PN. Description of an illustrative case of an adult female with CBS deficiency and intestinal perforation, who required total PN due to contraindication to enteral nutrition. Nutritional management of decompensated classical homocystinuria is complex and currently no recommendation exists regarding PN composition. Amino acid profile and monitoring of total homocysteine concentration are the main tools enabling a precise assessment of the severity of metabolic alterations. In case of contraindication to enteral nutrition, compounded PN will be required, as described in this paper, to ensure adequate low amounts of methionine and others essential amino acids and avoid potentially fatal toxic hypermethioninemia. By reviewing the literature and reporting successful nutritional management of a decompensated CBS deficiency using tailored PN with limited methionine intake and n-3 PUFA addition, we would like to underscore the fact that standard PN solutions are not adapted for CBS deficient critical ill patients: new solutions are required. High methionine levels (>800 μmol/L) being potentially neurotoxic, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of acute nutritional therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

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    Gülşah Kaner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n=29 and control group (n=30. Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p<0.05 were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05 were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p<0.05 in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted.

  12. Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Jin, Hailing; Gillani, Niloufar B; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Dilks, Holli H; Crawford, Dana C

    2012-11-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors impact lipid traits. Environmental modifiers of known genotype-phenotype associations may account for some of the "missing heritability" of these traits. To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 23 lipid-associated variants identified previously through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2,435 non-Hispanic white, 1,407 non-Hispanic black, and 1,734 Mexican-American samples collected for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Along with lipid levels, NHANES collected environmental variables, including fat-soluble macronutrient serum levels of vitamin A and E levels. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we modeled gene-environment interactions between vitamin A or vitamin E and 23 variants previously associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels. We identified three SNP × vitamin A and six SNP × vitamin E interactions at a significance threshold of p < 2.2 × 10(-3). The most significant interaction was APOB rs693 × vitamin E (p = 8.9 × 10(-7)) for LDL-C levels among Mexican-Americans. The nine significant interaction models individually explained 0.35-1.61% of the variation in any one of the lipid traits. Our results suggest that vitamins A and E may modify known genotype-phenotype associations; however, these interactions account for only a fraction of the overall variability observed for HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels in the general population.

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... About Vitamins FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ... Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  19. Intake of B vitamins and impairment in physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Ellen A; Lana, Alberto; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2017-05-23

    The effect of vitamin B intake on physical function is not well known. To examine the prospective association of the intake of vitamins B6, B12 and folate with physical function impairment in older adults. We performed a prospective cohort study with 1630 participants from the Seniors-ENRICA study, a cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years who were free of physical function impairment at baseline. In 2008-2010, nutrient intake was obtained through a validated computer-assisted face-to-face diet history. Study participants were followed-up through 2012 to assess incident impairment in agility and mobility, as well as impairment in overall physical functioning, defined as a decrease in the physical component summary of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, we identified 343 individuals with agility limitation, 212 with mobility limitation, and 457 with decreased overall physical functioning. A significant association was observed between intake of vitamin B6 and lower risk of impaired mobility (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs. lowest tertile: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.44-0.99; p-trend = 0.05). The results lost significance when additionally adjusted for vitamin B12 and folate, however the OR did not materially change. A higher consumption of important sources of vitamin B6, such as fish or fruit, was also related to a lower risk of impaired mobility (OR 100-g increase in fish: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.79; OR 100-g increase in fruit: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84-1.01). No association was found between vitamin B12 and folate intake and physical function. A higher intake of vitamin B6 and of several of its main sources, such as fish and fruit, was associated with lower risk of impaired mobility in Spanish older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunological aspects of sport nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high-carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low-glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high-dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post exercise may influence immune system status in athletes. In order to maintain robust immunity, athletes need to consume a well-balanced diet that is sufficient to meet their requirements for energy, carbohydrate, protein and micronutrients. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients are well known to be potential causes of immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of some essential minerals including iron and zinc and the vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 are important to maintain a healthy immune function. Vitamin D may be a particular concern as recent studies have emphasised its importance in limiting infection episode incidence and duration in both the general population and in athletes and many individuals exhibit inadequate vitamin D status during the winter months. There is only limited evidence that individual amino acids, β-glucans, herbal extracts and zinc are capable of boosting immunity or reducing infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotics, vitamin D3, bovine colostrum and plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs currently offer the best chance of success, particularly for those individuals who are prone to illness.

  1. Effect of cooking method, distiller's grains, and vitamin E supplementation on the vitamin content of value cuts from beef steers fed wet distiller's grains and solubles and supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y N; Giraud, D W; Masrizal, M A; Hamouz, F L; Watanabe, K; Schnepf, M I; de Mello, A S; Erickson, G E; Calkins, C R; Driskell, J A

    2010-03-01

    Vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of flat iron steaks and petite tenders from steers fed finishing rations containing 0% and 40% corn wet distiller's grains and solubles (WDGS) with and without supplemental vitamin E were determined. Feeding treatment groups were: 0% WDGS with basal vitamin E, 0% WDGS with supplemental vitamin E (500 IU daily), 40% WDGS with basal vitamin E, and 40% WDGS and supplemental vitamin E. Cattle can be fed 40% WDGS diets more economically than corn diets. The incorporation of 40% WDGS, with and without vitamin E, was hypothesized to have little effect on the vitamin concentrations of these value meat cuts. Flat iron steaks and petite tenders were broiled and/or grilled to 70 degrees C internal temperature. Mean cooking yields ranged from 68.7% to 78.2%. The majority of the vitamin concentrations of broiled and of grilled meat were significantly different (P meat. Vitamin E concentrations of raw and cooked meat from steers that received supplemental vitamin E were significantly higher (P vitamin E. Significant differences in thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations in raw flat iron steaks and in vitamin B(6) in raw petite tenders were observed by WDGS. Thiamin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) concentrations of broiled flat iron steaks were significantly different (P vitamin concentrations of the flat iron steaks and petite tenders were observed by WDGS, vitamin E supplementation, and cooking treatments, but most of the vitamin concentrations were statistically similar.

  2. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B 12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  3. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  4. Simultaneous detection of water-soluble vitamins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Godbless Dadzie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble vitamins (WSV: ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamine (B1, riboflavin (B2, niacin (B3, panthothenic acid (B5, pyridoxine, and pyridoxal (B6, folic acid (B9, biotin(B8 , and B12 are very essential in the diet of humankind. As a result of ever increasing pressures from both consumers and legal enforcers, to specify accurately nutritive compositions of WSV that are present in food materials, many researchers have attempted to fill this niche through the provision of highly sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures. In view of the health benefits of WSV, a replete of HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of their contents in nature and fortified food samples, nutritional supplements, as well as blood plasmas. The rate of losses of these vitamins during food processing and analysis, in addition to their transient dynamics, presents complexities in developing a highly sensitive HPLC procedure for their simultaneous separations and assays. This review critically assesses the different HPLC procedures developed by researchers and available in the open literature for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (WSV in dried tropical fruits materials. The study revealed that not a single chromatographic run developed by researchers can simultaneously elute all the WSV at a time. However, the HPLC procedures that are capable of determining all the WSV were coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, thus making the set-up expensive.

  5. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manual Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/ ... Manual Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/ ...

  6. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  7. Evaluation of water-soluble vitamins and optimum cooking time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (matrix) and base of domesticated elephant grass shoot were evaluated for watersoluble vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and vitamin C. The B-vitamins were determined using high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique, while vitamin C was evaluated using 2, 6 dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP) titration method.

  8. Impact of different protocols of nutritional supplements on the status of vitamin A in class III obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the nutritional status of vitamin A (VA) using biochemical and functional indicators in subjects with class III obesity, before and after RYGB, supplemented with three protocols. The sample comprised 90 patients, with BMI ≥40 kg/m(2), divided into three groups: G1 that received routine supplementation containing 5,000 IU of retinol daily; G2 that received 10,000 IU of retinol daily; and G3 that received routine supplementation plus complementary of 50,000 IU of retinol intramuscularly every month. The status of VA was evaluated before (T0), 30 days (T1), and 180 days (T2) after surgery. The vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in G1, G2, and G3 was respectively 20.7, 21.2, and 20.2 % as regards retinol and 37.8, 63.3, and 40 % as regards β-carotene in T0; 26.7, 10, and 23.4 % as regards retinol and 68, 37, and 32 % as regards β-carotene in T1; and 21, 8.7, and 20.2 % as regards retinol and 63.3, 20, and 32 % as regards β-carotene in T2. A reduction of retinol and β-carotene with increasing BMI and waist circumference was observed in T0. The prevalence of night blindness (XN) in groups 1, 2, and 3 was respectively 23.3, 26.7, and 16.7 % in T0; 56.7, 40, and 60 % in T1; and 70, 43, and 63.3 % in T2. The study showed high prevalence of VAD. Among the supplementation protocols used, the one containing 10,000 IU of retinol showed the best impact. However, in cases of more severe VAD, intramuscular supplementation should be considered. The prevalence of XN, justifies attention to this segment of population.

  9. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  10. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  11. Plant B vitamin pathways and their compartmentation: a guide for the perplexed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerdes, Svetlana; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Frelin, Océane; Seaver, Samuel M D; Henry, Christopher S; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The B vitamins and the cofactors derived from them are essential for life. B vitamin synthesis in plants is consequently as crucial to plants themselves as it is to humans and animals, whose B vitamin nutrition depends largely on plants...

  12. Nutritional deficiencies in homeless persons with problematic drinking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sharea; Jackson, Joni; Thorley, Helen; Porter, Katie; Fleming, Clare; Richards, Alison; Bonner, Adrian; Savović, Jelena

    2017-05-05

    A significant proportion of homeless people drink alcohol excessively and this can lead to malnutrition and consequent medical problems. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence on the range of nutritional deficiencies in the homeless problem-drinking populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of nine scientific literature databases and 13 grey literature sources. We included studies of any design that included homeless population with problem-drinking and reported measures of nutritional deficiencies in urine or blood. Study selection and data extraction was done by one reviewer and checked by another. Data on malnutrition profile were summarized narratively. We found nine studies reporting nutritional deficiencies in homeless populations with problem-drinking. The oldest study was from the 1950s and the most recent from 2013. The following nutrients were reported across studies: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B9, B12, C, A, and E; haemoglobin; and albumin. The most common deficiencies reported were of vitamin B1 (prevalence of deficiency was 0, 2, 6, 45, and 51% in five studies) and vitamin C (29, 84, and 95% in three studies). None of the studies were assessed to be at a low risk of bias. The limited, low quality and relatively old evidence suggests that homeless people who drink heavily may be deficient in vitamin C, thiamine, and other nutrients. New, well conducted studies are needed in order to optimally inform public health interventions aimed at improving deficiencies in this population. PROSPERO CRD42015024247.

  13. Vitamins and Health. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information on: (1) the nature of health and nutrition; (2) the nature of vitamins; (3) general characteristics of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins; (4) the source and major role of several vitamins (vitamins C, B, D, E, and K) as well as deficiences that arise from their oversupply, or insufficiency; and (5) ways of…

  14. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  15. High Prevalence of Suboptimal Vitamin D Status and Bone Loss in Adult Short Bowel Syndrome Even After Weaning Off Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Ni, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yongliang; Tao, Shen; Kong, Wencheng; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have noticed the high incidence of suboptimal vitamin D (VtD) status and bone loss in short bowel syndrome (SBS) with parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence. However, limited data have focused on adult SBS without PN dependence. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of suboptimal VtD status and bone loss in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. We performed a prospective study of 60 adult patients with SBS. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Medical records and various laboratory parameters were collected in all participants. Suboptimal VtD status was identified in all individuals, including 3 (5.0%) with VtD insufficiency and 57 (95.0%) with VtD deficiency. Residual small bowel length (B, 0.072, P = .001) and duration of SBS (B, -0.066, P = .020) were both significantly correlated with suboptimal VtD levels. Overall, only 2 patients presented a normal BMD; osteopenia and osteoporosis were noted in 41 (68.3%) and 17 (28.3%) individuals, respectively. Low 25-OHD concentration was associated with a decreased BMD (B, 0.065, P = .029). There were no other demographic characteristics or clinical examinations associated with suboptimal VtD levels and bone loss. Suboptimal VtD status and bone loss were common in adult SBS even after weaning off PN. Despite routine oral VtD supplementation, most patients did not achieve satisfactory status. This emphasizes the critical importance of routine surveillance of 25-OHD and BMD, as well as consideration of alternative methods of supplementation after weaning off PN.

  16. Characterisation of vitamin and mineral supplement users differentiated according to their motives for using supplements: results of the German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anne; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    To characterise German vitamin and mineral supplement users differentiated by their motives for supplement use. Data were obtained from the German National Nutrition Monitoring (2010/11) via two 24 h dietary recalls and a telephone interview. Motive-based subgroups of supplement users were identified by factor and cluster analysis. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, health and dietary characteristics and supplement use were examined. Differences were analysed using χ 2 tests, logistic and linear regression models. Germany, nationwide. Individuals (n 1589) aged 18-80 years. Three motive-based subgroups were identified: a 'Prevention' subgroup (n 324), characterised by the motive to prevent nutrient deficiencies; a 'Prevention and additional benefits' subgroup (n 166), characterised by motives to prevent health problems and improve well-being and performance; and a 'Treatment' subgroup (n 136), characterised by motives to treat nutrient deficiencies or diseases. Members of the two prevention subgroups had a higher Healthy Eating Index score and tended to be more physically active than non-users. Those in the 'Prevention and additional benefits' subgroup supplemented with a greater number of micronutrients. Members of the 'Treatment' subgroup tended to be older and have a lower self-reported health status than non-users, and supplemented with a smaller number of micronutrients. The majority of supplement users take supplements for preventive purposes and they are more health conscious than non-users of supplements due to their concerns about developing health problems. Those supplementing for treatment purposes may have underlying health indications and may be more likely to benefit from supplementation than those supplementing for preventive purposes.

  17. Preconception serum 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane and B-vitamin status: independent and joint effects on women's reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Longnecker, Matthew P; Venners, Scott A; Johnson, Sara; Korrick, Susan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Xiping; Christian, Parul; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-12-01

    Although preconception 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) exposure and B-vitamin deficiencies have each been shown to negatively affect human reproductive outcomes, little is known about their joint effect. We sought to examine whether B-vitamin sufficiency protects against adverse effects of DDT on clinical pregnancy (CP) and subclinical early pregnancy loss (EPL). We measured preconception concentrations of plasma B vitamins (vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate) and serum total DDT [sum of p,p' and o,p' isomers of DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] in 291 nulligravid women from Anhui, China, who were studied in 1996-1998. The women were followed prospectively from the time they stopped contraception until CP (gestational age ≥42 d) or 12 mo (whichever occurred first). EPL was identified by using daily urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. The women were categorized according to B-vitamin status (deficiency compared with sufficiency) and DDT concentration (high compared with low). Of 291 study women, a total of 385 conceptions (31% of which ended in EPL) and 265 CPs occurred. Compared with women with adequate B-vitamins and low DDT, incidence rates of CP were reduced in women with B-vitamin deficiency and a high DDT concentration (P vitamin B-12, DDT was not associated with the incidence of CP; in contrast, in women with vitamin B-12 deficiency, high DDT was associated with a lower incidence of CP (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.84); and the test for interaction was significant (P vitamin B-12 and folate sufficiency may help protect against adverse reproductive effects of DDT exposure. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  19. The use and misuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M; Briggs, M

    1977-02-01

    Overt vitamin deficiency in Australia is a medical curiosity. Suspected hypovitaminoses in the general population requires education in nutrition, rather than supplementation by vitamin capsules. Vitamin supplementation, however, may be needed by patients receiving long-term drug treatment, or with chronic malabsorption conditions. The receipt of specific additional vitamins may also be beneficial during pregnancy, or in persons dedicated to a totally vegan diet.

  20. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the m...

  1. APPLICATION OF VITAMINS IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of balanced nutrition remains to be quite urgent in the modern pediatrics. Despite the fact there are many high quality foodstuffs in the Russian market, the occurrence of the vitamin deficient statuses is still high. The authors of the article describe the important functions of vitamins and microelements in the human body, as well as demonstrate the necessity to additionally administer them as correctly balanced pharmacological forms.Key words: vitamins, vitamin deficiency, correction, children.

  2. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  3. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  4. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for ... promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources ...

  5. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds ...

  6. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  7. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  8. Evaluation of Vitamin and Trace Element Requirements after Sleeve Gastrectomy at Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Silvia; Martínez, Eva; Puig, Rocío; Leis, Alba; Zavala, Roxanna; Granada, María Luisa; Pastor, Cruz; Moreno, Pau; Tarascó, Jordi; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2017-07-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are common after bariatric surgery, but data are scarce after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) at long term. We performed a prospective nutritional status evaluation before and at 2 and 5 years after SG in morbid obese patients receiving mulvitamin and mineral supplementation at a Spanish university hospital. One hundred seventy-six patients (49.3 ± 9.1 years and 46.7 ± 7.4 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated; 51 of them were followed during 5 years. Anthropometric, compliance supplementation intake, and micronutrient evaluation were performed. Baseline concentrations were below normal values for 25(OH) vitamin D (73%), folic acid (16.5%), cobalamin (6.9%), pyridoxine (12%), thiamine (3.4%), and copper (0.5%). Anemia was found in 23%. In 49% of the subjects, at least one micronutrient deficiency was found at 2 years after SG. Vitamin D deficiency persisted at 2 and 5 years higher than 30% of patients. Frequencies of deficiencies for folic acid, B12, B6, and B1 vitamins decreased significantly after 2 years with normalization at 5 years. Copper deficiency increased between 1 and 2 years and it persisted at 5 years after SG. Vitamin supplementation compliance decreased progressively from the first year after surgery (94.8 to 81% at 2 years and to 53% 5 years after surgery). Vitamin D deficiency is the most prevalent long-term nutritional deficiency after SG. About half of patients show some micronutrient deficiency at medium long term, despite supplementation. A proactive follow-up is required to ensure a personalized and adequate supplementation in all surgically treated obese patients including those in which SG has been performed.

  9. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk factor for CVD, in part by reducing the proportion of uMMA. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreases infectious complications and shortens ventilation time. Parenteral nutrition ... cholestasis and poor intake. Cholestasis leads to malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins. Managing malnutrition in children in with end stage liver disease is a challenge. ... including additional vitamin D as needed together with folic acid,.

  11. Nutrition and cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio

    2016-07-12

    Dementia, closely linked to environmental predisposing factors such as diet, is a public health problem of increasing magnitude: currently there are more than 35 million patients with Alzheimer´s disease, and is expected to exceed 135 million by 2050. If we can delay the development of dementia 5 years will reduce its prevalence by 50%. Patients with dementia modify their diet, and it has been reported in them deficits, among others, of folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, beta carotene and omega 3 fatty acids, that must be resolved with proper diet and with extra contributions if needed in some cases. But to reduce, or at least delay, the prevalence of dementia we advocate prevention through proper diet from the beginning of life, an idea that is reinforced given that cardiovascular risk factors are related directly to the development of dementia. A lot of literature are available that, although with limits, allows us to make nutritional recommendations for preventing cognitive impairment. Better results are achieved when complete diets have been studied and considered over specific nutrients separately. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet has great interest in this disease, since it ensures a high intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, cereals, fish and olive oil, and moderate intake of meat, dairy products and alcohol. We will focus more on this article in this type of diet.

  12. Vitamin D Toxicity: What If You Get Too Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is vitamin D toxicity, and should I worry about it ... Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Vitamin D toxicity, also called hypervitaminosis D, is a ...

  13. Methadone pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 polymorphisms determine plasma concentrations, clearance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Regina, Karen J.; Blood, Jane; Friedel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, deficiently catalyzes methadone metabolism in vitro. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6*6, and other allelic variants encountered, on methadone concentrations, clearance, and metabolism. Methods Healthy volunteers in genotype cohorts CYP2B6*1/*1 (n=21), CYP2B6*1/*6 (n=20), and CYP2B6*6/*6 (n=17), and also CYP2B6*1/*4 (n=1), CYP2B6*4/*6 (n=3), CYP2B6*5/*5 (n=2) subjects received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Plasma and urine methadone and metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 and 45% lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1, and R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 and 30% lower. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 3- and 4-fold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 homozygotes, and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African-Americans due to the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism. Conclusions CYP2B6 polymorphisms influence methadone plasma concentrations, due to altered methadone metabolism and thus clearance. Genetic influence is greater for oral than intravenous, and S- than R-methadone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics explains, in part, interindividual variability in methadone elimination. CYP2B6 genetic effects on methadone metabolism and clearance may identify subjects at risk for methadone toxicity and drug interactions. PMID:26389554