WorldWideScience

Sample records for vital statistics birth

  1. Vital Stats (Vital Statistics Tables and files- Births, Infant Deaths, Fetal Deaths)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VitalStats: A collection of vital statistics products including tables, data files, and reports that allow users to access and examine vital statistics and...

  2. Vital statistics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The drawbacks of using 19th-century mathematics in physics and astronomy are illustrated. To continue with the expansion of the knowledge about the cosmos, the scientists will have to come in terms with modern statistics. Some researchers have deliberately started importing techniques that are used in medical research. However, the physicists need to identify the brand of statistics that will be suitable for them, and make a choice between the Bayesian and the frequentists approach. (Edited abstract).

  3. Russian mortality beyond vital statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of routine data have established that the extreme mortality fluctuations among young and middle-aged men are the most important single component of both temporal changes in Russian life expectancy at birth and in the gap between male and female life expectancy. It is also responsible for the largest share of the life expectancy gap between Russia and other industrialised countries. A case-control study has been used to identify factors associated with mortality among men aged 20 to 55 in the five major cities of the Udmurt Republic in 1998-99. Men dying from external causes and circulatory disease are taken as cases. Matched controls were selected from men of the same age living in the same neighbourhood of residence. Information about characteristics of cases and controls was obtained by interviewing proxies who were family members or friends of the subjects. After exclusion of those deaths for which proxy informant could not be identified, a total of 205 circulatory disease and 333 external cause cases were included together with the same number of controls. Educational level was significantly associated with mortality from circulatory diseases and external causes in a crude analysis. However, this could largely be explained by adjustment for employment, marital status, smoking and alcohol consumption. Smoking was associated with mortality from circulatory disease (crude OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.36-4.36, this effect being slightly attenuated after adjustment for socio-economic factors and alcohol consumption. Unemployment was associated with a large increase in the risk of death from external causes (crude OR=3.63, 95% CI 2.17-6.08, an effect that was still substantial after adjustment for other variables (adjusted OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.43. A reported history of periods of heavy drinking was linked to both deaths from circulatory disease (crude OR=4.21, 95% CI 2.35-7.55 and external cause mortality (crude OR=2.65, 95% CI 1

  4. Statistical alliance for vital events: Strengthening reporting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical alliance for vital events: Strengthening reporting & program uses of facility-based child & maternal mortality. Most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur without medical attention, and as a result, the causes of death (COD) remain unknown. This lack of information greatly limits evidence-based planning and slows ...

  5. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/ ...

  7. Centre of Excellence for Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    VIDEO SERIES. Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics systems. This video series features interviews with civil registration and vital statistics systems experts from around the world. Learn more Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics systems ...

  8. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  9. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 forward. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Indicators from this data...

  10. Vital signs: Repeat births among teens - United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother's education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007-2010. Based on 2010 NVSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, of more than 367,000 births to teens aged 15-19 years, 18.3% were repeat births. The percentage of teen births that represented repeat births decreased by 6.2% between 2007 and 2010. Disparities in repeat teen births exist by race/ethnicity, with the highest percentages found among American Indian/Alaska Natives (21.6%), Hispanics (20.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (20.4%) and lowest among non-Hispanic whites (14.8%). Wide geographic disparities in the percentage of teen births that were repeat births also exist, ranging from 22% in Texas to 10% in New Hampshire. PRAMS data from 16 reporting areas (15 states and New York City) indicate that 91.2% of teen mothers used a contraceptive method 2-6 months after giving birth, but only 22.4% of teen mothers used the most effective methods. Teens with a previous live birth were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods postpartum compared with those with no prior live birth (29.6% versus 20.9%, respectively). Non-Hispanic white and Hispanic teens were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods than non-Hispanic black teens (24.6% and 27.9% versus 14.3%, respectively). The percentage of teens reporting postpartum use of the most effective methods varied greatly geographically across the PRAMS reporting areas, ranging from 50.3% in Colorado to 7.2% in New York State. Although the

  11. Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... Case studies and successes in CRVS reform. Cambodia, New Zealand, Peru, Uganda, and others offer important lessons in strengthening civil registration and vital statistics systems. These interviews feature innovative case studies that have led to new and improved CRVS approaches.

  12. Harnessing the power of civil registration and vital statistics systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-27

    Harnessing the power of civil registration and vital statistics systems. A doctor speaks to a woman with her baby in Afghanistan. Graham Crouch/World Bank. Event date: February 27, 2018 to February 28, 2018. Location: IDRC. 150 Kent Street, 8th floor. Ottawa, ON. Canada. Time: 9:00am - 5:45pm. This conference will ...

  13. Centre of Excellence for Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Registration of events, such as birth, death, causes of death, marriage, and divorce, is critical for improving maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health. These statistics provide ... lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  14. [Maternal mortality in Mexico: measurement based on vital statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    "Vital statistics are the most comprehensive source of information on maternal mortality in Mexico.... It is clear that maternal mortality has decreased throughout the twentieth century and will continue to do so. There are signs of a higher underestimation of mortality [due to] abortion. And there are regional differentials of maternal mortality.... Professional and/or institutional attention during childbirth has a great impact on maternal mortality decline. There are also socio-economic differentials by marital status, milieu, and schooling...." (EXCERPT)

  15. The quality of vital statistics for studying perinatal health: the Spanish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Sol; Alonso Ortíz, Tomás; Ramiro-Fariñas, Diego; Bolúmar, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Birthweight and gestational age are key indicators for perinatal health obtained through the birth certificate. Knowing the validity of birth certificate data is crucial when identifying needs and evaluating birth outcomes. In Spain, vital information is reported by parents and is not checked for consistency with any hospital document. Therefore, to perform a validation study and describe the variables associated with misreporting is essential to improve the quality of birth certificates. A database was created using birth information from hospital medical records that were individually linked with the Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE) birth certificate files. Measures of reliability and validity were used to compare the data from the two sources. Logistic regression models were adjusted to model the odds of being misreported in birthweight and gestational age, controlling for relevant variables. INE overestimated the prevalence of birthweight and gestational age. The degree of agreement between the two sources was good for most gestational age groups (Kappa = 0.74), very good for the very preterm (Kappa = 0.85) and very good also for all categories of birthweight (Kappa = 0.88). Misreporting was significantly higher among immigrants, unmarried mothers and girls. Being a preterm birth increased the odds of being declared with errors in gestational age; having low birthweight and missing information on gestational age were associated with misreporting birthweight. The reliability of INE information could be greatly improved if hospitals included birthweight and gestational age on the document provided to parents for registering the birth. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. <B>Methods:</B> We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. <B>Results:</B> The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and >6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. <B>Conclusion:</B> The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  17. When civil registration is inadequate: interim methods for generating vital statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZahr, Carla; Rampatige, Rasika; Lopez, Alan; deSavigny, Don

    2012-04-01

    Comprehensive guidelines and tools to help countries rapidly improve their vital statistics systems, based on international best practice are now available. For many countries, however, attainment of timely, accurate statistics on births and deaths and causes of death will require years of strategic and prioritized investment, with technical assistance from WHO, the United Nations, and academia. In the meantime, however, countries will need accurate and unbiased data in order to measure progress with their health programs and broader development goals, such as the MDGs and the growing crisis of non-communicable diseases. This article has introduced some interim strategies that can yield adequate vital statistics and cause of death data as countries work to strengthen their civil registration systems. These methods mirror the skills, practices and advantages of complete and functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems, but for a sample of the population. They are based on the principle of rigorous and continuous data collection for a defined and manageable part of the population. Doing "smaller, representative" populations well rather than "larger populations poorly" will reduce the biases that would otherwise occur from missing data, incorrect application of data management procedures, poor data quality checking and lack of medical certification of causes of death. A critical component of this strategy is to routinely apply verbal autopsy methods to collect essential cause of death data. When properly applied, VA can yield population-based cause of death data of comparable quality to what is typically collected in hospitals in developing countries. Moreover, with the availability of automated methods to diagnose causes of death, it is now possible to obtain accurate cause of death data routinely, cheaply and quickly in resource-poor settings. The long-term goal of strengthening civil registration and vital statistics systems is to ensure that every

  18. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  19. Effect of Kangaroo mother care on vital physiological parameters of the low birth weight newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanamayi Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g, which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min, heart rate (HR/ min, and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO 2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO 2 were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.

  20. Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Michelle J.K.; Kochanek, Kenneth D.; MacDorman, Marian F.; Strobino, Donna M.; Guyer, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The number of births in the United States declined by 1% between 2012 and 2013, to a total of 3 932 181. The general fertility rate also declined 1% to 62.5 births per 1000 women, the lowest rate ever reported. The total fertility rate was down by 1% in 2013 (to 1857.5 births per 1000 women). The teenage birth rate fell to another historic low in 2013, 26.5 births per 1000 women. Birth rates also declined for women 20 to 29 years, but the rates rose for women 30 to 39 and were unchanged for women 40 to 44. The percentage of all births that were to unmarried women declined slightly to 40.6% in 2013, from 40.7% in 2012. In 2013, the cesarean delivery rate declined to 32.7% from 32.8% for 2012. The preterm birth rate declined for the seventh straight year in 2013 to 11.39%; the low birth weight (LBW) rate was essentially unchanged at 8.02%. The infant mortality rate was 5.96 infant deaths per 1000 live births in 2013, down 13% from 2005 (6.86). The age-adjusted death rate for 2013 was 7.3 deaths per 1000 population, unchanged from 2012. Crude death rates for children aged 1 to 19 years declined to 24.0 per 100 000 population in 2013, from 24.8 in 2012. Unintentional injuries and suicide were, respectively, the first and second leading causes of death in this age group. These 2 causes of death jointly accounted for 45.7% of all deaths to children and adolescents in 2013. PMID:25941306

  1. Civil Registration and Vital Statistics, Emergencies, and International Law: Understanding the Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, Claire E; Gouda, Hebe

    2017-05-01

    Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts. Many countries, however, currently lack adequate and reliable CRVS systems, leaving many people vulnerable to statelessness, limited access to important government services (such as education and health services), and effective legal protection. Public health and humanitarian emergencies in such contexts can expose those already disadvantaged and marginalised to heightened risk. CRVS systems weakened by crises make registration difficult or impossible and unregistered people may be displaced or separated from their families, exacerbating their susceptibility. The presence of a strong CRVS system, therefore, can facilitate effective and cost-effective emergency responses, help prevent exploitation of individuals (particularly women and children), and help to rebuild communities post-crisis. This article will consequently review the international legal mandates that exist to strengthen CRVS systems globally, with particular view to public health and humanitarian emergencies. Identity and citizenship, and the socio-political contexts in which these concepts co-exist, are inevitably interconnected with CRVS. This can create potential for CRVS systems and data to be exploited as a political instrument. Grounding CRVS strengthening in a single binding, human rights law instrument is a potential way

  2. A global assessment of civil registration and vital statistics systems: monitoring data quality and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lene; Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Setel, Philip W; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    Increasing demand for better quality data and more investment to strengthen civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems will require increased emphasis on objective, comparable, cost-effective monitoring and assessment methods to measure progress. We apply a composite index (the vital statistics performance index [VSPI]) to assess the performance of CRVS systems in 148 countries or territories during 1980-2012 and classify them into five distinct performance categories, ranging from rudimentary (with scores close to zero) to satisfactory (with scores close to one), with a mean VSPI score since 2005 of 0·61 (SD 0·31). As expected, the best performing systems were mostly in the European region, the Americas, and Australasia, with only two countries from east Asia and Latin America. Most low-scoring countries were in the African or Asian regions. Globally, only modest progress has been made since 2000, with the percentage of deaths registered increasing from 36% to 38%, and the percentage of children aged under 5 years whose birth has been registered increasing from 58% to 65%. However, several individual countries have made substantial improvements to their CRVS systems in the past 30 years by capturing more deaths and improving accuracy of cause-of-death information. Future monitoring of the effects of CRVS strengthening will greatly benefit from application of a metric like the VSPI, which is objective, costless to compute, and able to identify components of the system that make the largest contributions to good or poor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards universal civil registration and vital statistics systems: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZahr, Carla; de Savigny, Don; Mikkelsen, Lene; Setel, Philip W; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    The health and development challenges of the coming decades cannot be tackled effectively without reliable data for births, deaths, and causes of death, which only a comprehensive civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system can deliver. Alternative methods such as surveys, censuses, or surveillance are not adequate substitutes from a statistical perspective, and do not provide individuals with the legal documentation they need to benefit from services and participate fully in a modern society. Research is needed to generate and disseminate evidence about which CRVS strategies work best in which contexts and to ensure that the potential benefits of innovation are successfully scaled up, and that possible pitfalls are avoided. Research findings need to be compiled and made readily accessible to users for policy making, programming, and practice. Modernisation of CRVS systems necessitates new, broad-based national and international coalitions. The global architecture for CRVS, so far dominated by UN agencies, should extend to include bilateral donors, funds, foundations, non-governmental organisations, the private sector, academic institutions, and civil society. This change is essential to ensure that further development of CRVS systems is inclusive, participatory, multisectoral, and has a strong evidence base. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  5. Using historical vital statistics to predict the distribution of under-five mortality by cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chalapati; Adair, Timothy; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Cause-specific mortality data is essential for planning intervention programs to reduce mortality in the under age five years population (under-five). However, there is a critical paucity of such information for most of the developing world, particularly where progress towards the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) has been slow. This paper presents a predictive cause of death model for under-five mortality based on historical vital statistics and discusses the utility of the model in generating information that could accelerate progress towards MDG 4. Over 1400 country years of vital statistics from 34 countries collected over a period of nearly a century were analyzed to develop relationships between levels of under-five mortality, related mortality ratios, and proportionate mortality from four cause groups: perinatal conditions; diarrhea and lower respiratory infections; congenital anomalies; and all other causes of death. A system of multiple equations with cross-equation parameter restrictions and correlated error terms was developed to predict proportionate mortality by cause based on given measures of under-five mortality. The strength of the predictive model was tested through internal and external cross-validation techniques. Modeled cause-specific mortality estimates for major regions in Africa, Asia, Central America, and South America are presented to illustrate its application across a range of under-five mortality rates. Consistent and plausible trends and relationships are observed from historical data. High mortality rates are associated with increased proportions of deaths from diarrhea and lower respiratory infections. Perinatal conditions assume importance as a proportionate cause at under-five mortality rates below 60 per 1000 live births. Internal and external validation confirms strength and consistency of the predictive model. Model application at regional level demonstrates heterogeneity and non-linearity in cause

  6. Infant Mortality Rates: Socioeconomic Factors. United States. National Vital Statistics System, Series 22, Number 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistics are presented on infant mortality rates according to race, sex, family income, education of mother, and education of father. The statistics are based on data collected by a questionnaire mailed to mothers of legitimate births and to medical care facilities and mothers of legitimate infant deaths. Samples were selected from records of…

  7. Changes in infant mortality among extremely preterm infants: US vital statistics data 1990 vs 2000 vs 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, M H

    2015-10-01

    Infant mortality among extremely preterm infants (22 to 28 weeks gestation) varies considerably by gestational age. The reduction in mortality over a 20-year period, when examined in gestational age week increments, may give a more precise estimate of progress or lack thereof in caring for these infants and provide information to better inform practitioners and parents of the risk of mortality among these small infants. The objective of this analysis is to examine infant mortality (birth to 365 days) by week of gestation for infants 22 to 28 weeks gestation comparing mortality rates, adjusting for maternal and infant birth characteristics, among US births for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. US vital statistics period-linked birth and infant death certificate files for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010 were used. Maternal and infant characteristics for births at 22 to 28 weeks were abstracted from the files. A trimming procedure was used to remove records that had birth weights that exceeded the interquartile range of birth weights for a given week of gestational age. Infant mortality rates were calculated, and adjusted odds ratios for mortality were generated using logistic regression models. A total of 15,593 live births, 22 to 28 weeks gestation were available for the year 1990; 17,095 for the year 2000; and 14,721 for the year 2010. Infant mortality rates ranged from 904 per 1000 live births at 22 weeks gestation in 1990, to 835 in 2000, to 866 in 2010. Across all gestational age groups there was an adjusted reduction in the odds ratio for mortality of ~50% from 1990 to the year 2000. However, between 2000 and 2010 there was no significant reduction in infant mortality except at 25 weeks gestation (adjusted odds ratio=0.81, 95% confidence interval=0.70, 0.93). Despite a significant reduction in infant mortality among extremely preterm infants between the years 1990 and 2000, there has been little progress in reducing mortality between the years 2000 and 2010.

  8. 78 FR 34101 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Subcommittee Chair. Finally, a member of Academy Health's Health Data Consortium will present on their current... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Pursuant to the Federal...

  9. Centile-based early warning scores derived from statistical distributions of vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifton, David A; Pinsky, Michael R; Hravnak, Marilyn T; Woods, John R; Watkinson, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    To develop an early warning score (EWS) system based on the statistical properties of the vital signs in at-risk hospitalised patients. A large dataset comprising 64,622 h of vital-sign data, acquired from 863 acutely ill in-hospital patients using bedside monitors, was used to investigate the statistical properties of the four main vital signs. Normalised histograms and cumulative distribution functions were plotted for each of the four variables. A centile-based alerting system was modelled using the aggregated database. The means and standard deviations of our population's vital signs are very similar to those published in previous studies. When compared with EWS systems based on a future outcome, the cut-off values in our system are most different for respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure. With four-hourly observations in a 12-h shift, about 1 in 8 at-risk patients would trigger our alerting system during the shift. A centile-based EWS system will identify patients with abnormal vital signs regardless of their eventual outcome and might therefore be more likely to generate an alert when presented with patients with redeemable morbidity or avoidable mortality. We are about to start a stepped-wedge clinical trial gradually introducing an electronic version of our EWS system on the trauma wards in a teaching hospital. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  11. A framework for the economic analysis of data collection methods for vital statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Dettrick, Zoe; Lopez, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years there has been a strong movement towards the improvement of vital statistics and other types of health data that inform evidence-based policies. Collecting such data is not cost free. To date there is no systematic framework to guide investment decisions on methods of data collection for vital statistics or health information in general. We developed a framework to systematically assess the comparative costs and outcomes/benefits of the various data methods for collecting vital statistics. The proposed framework is four-pronged and utilises two major economic approaches to systematically assess the available data collection methods: cost-effectiveness analysis and efficiency analysis. We built a stylised example of a hypothetical low-income country to perform a simulation exercise in order to illustrate an application of the framework. Using simulated data, the results from the stylised example show that the rankings of the data collection methods are not affected by the use of either cost-effectiveness or efficiency analysis. However, the rankings are affected by how quantities are measured. There have been several calls for global improvements in collecting useable data, including vital statistics, from health information systems to inform public health policies. Ours is the first study that proposes a systematic framework to assist countries undertake an economic evaluation of DCMs. Despite numerous challenges, we demonstrate that a systematic assessment of outputs and costs of DCMs is not only necessary, but also feasible. The proposed framework is general enough to be easily extended to other areas of health information.

  12. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Collection Systems Vital Statistics: Birth Data NCHS Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth - V ... NCHS Listservs Surveys and Data Collection Systems Vital Statistics: Birth Data File Formats Help: How do I ...

  13. Development and Validation of an Algorithm to Determine Spontaneous versus Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth in US Vital Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Yossef-Salameh, Lina; Latimer, Cheryl; Oza-Frank, Reena; Kachoria, Rashmi; Reagan, Patricia B; Oliver, Emily A; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2016-03-01

    Determining whether initiation of preterm birth was spontaneous, or through labour induction or caesarean without labour or membrane rupture is critical in surveillance and aetiological research on preterm birth, although this information is not explicitly included on the US Birth Certificate. Algorithms combining several fields from birth certificates have been developed to infer the initiating event, but none has been validated against manual review of original obstetric records. Our objective was to develop a birth certificate-based algorithm to determine initiation of preterm birth and validate it by manual review of original records. We developed an algorithm from the 2003 US Standard Birth Certificate to determine spontaneous vs. indicated preterm birth. The algorithm was first tested on obstetrical records from 80 preterm (reviewed by an obstetrician-gynecologist. Onset of delivery was spontaneous if the initiating event was premature rupture of membranes (PROM) or contractions, or indicated if the initiating event was induction or caesarean without labour or PROM. The algorithm was validated in an independent sample of 100 preterm births from four hospitals. Codes for tocolysis, fetal intolerance of labour, and anaesthesia during labour did not predict labour and were dropped. The final algorithm correctly classified 73/80 cases, kappa = 0.83. In the validation, 86/100 cases were correctly classified. The kappa statistic was 0.68 (0.52, 0.83); predictive values for spontaneous and indicated onset were 85% (75%, 92%) and 89% (71%, 98%). The algorithm distinguished spontaneous from indicated preterm birth, using birth certificates, with good accuracy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-03

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public Health Data in Action: An Analysis of Using Louisiana Vital Statistics for Quality Improvement and Payment Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilack, Valery A; Gee, Rebekah E; Berthelot, Danielle P; Gurvich, Rebecca; Muri, Janet H

    2017-05-01

    Introduction In 2012, the Louisiana (LA) Department of Health and Hospitals revised the LA birth certificate to include medical reasons for births before 39 completed weeks' gestation. We compared the completeness and validity of these data with hospital discharge records. Methods For births occurring 4/1/2012-9/30/2012 at Woman's Hospital of Baton Rouge, we linked maternal delivery and newborn birth data collected through the National Perinatal Information Center with LA birth certificates. Among early term births (37-38 completed weeks' gestation), we quantified the reasons for early delivery listed on the birth certificate and compared them with ICD-9-CM codes from Woman's discharge data. Results Among 4353 birth certificates indicating delivery at Woman's Hospital, we matched 99.8% to corresponding Woman's administrative data. Among 1293 early term singleton births, the most common reasons for early delivery listed on the birth certificate were spontaneous active labor (57.5%), gestational hypertensive disorders (15.3%), gestational diabetes (8.7%), and premature rupture of membranes (8.1%). Only 2.7% of births indicated "other reason" as the only reason for early delivery. Most reasons for early delivery had >80% correspondence with ICD-9-CM codes. Lower correspondence (35 and 72%, respectively) was observed for premature rupture of membranes and abnormal heart rate or fetal distress. Discussion There was near-perfect ability to match LA birth certificates with Woman's Hospital records, and the agreement between reasons for early delivery on the birth certificate and ICD-9-CM codes was high. A benchmark of 2.7% can be used as an attainable frequency of "other reason" for early delivery reported by hospitals. Louisiana implemented an effective mechanism to identify and explain early deliveries using vital records.

  16. Correcting the Count: Improving Vital Statistics Data Regarding Deaths Related to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Brandi C; Davis, Gregory G; Dye, Daniel W

    2017-11-15

    Obesity can involve any organ system and compromise the overall health of an individual, including premature death. Despite the increased risk of death associated with being obese, obesity itself is infrequently indicated on the death certificate. We performed an audit of our records to identify how often "obesity" was listed on the death certificate to determine how our practices affected national mortality data collection regarding obesity-related mortality. During the span of nearly 25 years, 0.2% of deaths were attributed to or contributed by obesity. Over the course of 5 years, 96% of selected natural deaths were likely underreported as being associated with obesity. We present an algorithm for certifiers to use to determine whether obesity should be listed on the death certificate and guidelines for certifying cases in which this is appropriate. Use of this algorithm will improve vital statistics concerning the role of obesity in causing or contributing to death. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Suicide in Newfoundland and Labrador: a linkage study using medical examiner and vital statistics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole; Alaghehbandan, Reza; MacDonald, Don; Sikdar, Khokan; Collins, Kayla; Avis, Simon

    2008-04-01

    To examine suicide epidemiology in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1997 to 2001. Data from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (CME) were linked with data derived from the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess variation of rates. We used the chi-square test to compare categorical data. The CME recorded 225 suicide deaths, compared with 187 in the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. Most deaths not coded as suicide in the national database were coded as accidental. Using the CME data, the overall suicide rate was 9.5/100000, aged 10 years and older. The rate among males (15.8/100 000, 95% CI, 10.7 to 20.8) was almost 5 times that of females (3.3/100000; 95% CI, 1.0 to 5.5). Age-standardized rates decreased over the study period, from 10.9 to 8.0/100000; however, the difference was not significant. The proportionate mortality ratio for suicide deaths was highest among those aged 10 to 19 years (20.0%) and decreased with age. The suicide rate was highest among those aged 50 to 59 years. The rate for unpartnered individuals (17.0/100000, 95% CI, 10.7 to 23.0) was significantly higher, compared with partnered individuals (5.1/100000; 95%CI, 2.5 to 7.8). Males used more violent methods than females. Suicide was significantly higher in Labrador (27.7/100000, 95% CI, 18.4 to 37.0), an area with a higher Aboriginal population, compared with the island of Newfoundland (8.5/100000, 95% CI, 7.3 to 9.7). Psychiatric illness was the most common predisposing factor. Suicide deaths are highest among males, unpartnered individuals, and individuals with psychiatric disorders.

  18. Civil registration and vital statistics: progress in the data revolution for counting and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZahr, Carla; de Savigny, Don; Mikkelsen, Lene; Setel, Philip W; Lozano, Rafael; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Francis; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    New momentum for civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) is building, driven by the confluence of growing demands for accountability and results in health, improved equity, and rights-based approaches to development challenges, and by the immense potential of innovation and new technologies to accelerate CRVS improvement. Examples of country successes in strengthening of hitherto weak systems are emerging. The key to success has been to build collaborative partnerships involving local ownership by several sectors that span registration, justice, health, statistics, and civil society. Regional partners can be important to raise awareness, set regional goals and targets, foster country-to-country exchange and mutual learning, and build high-level political commitment. These regional partners continue to provide a platform through which country stakeholders, development partners, and technical experts can share experiences, develop and document good practices, and propose innovative approaches to tackle CRVS challenges. This country and regional momentum would benefit from global leadership, commitment, and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical assessment on a combined analysis of GRYN-ROMN-UCBN upland vegetation vital signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    As of 2013, Rocky Mountain and Upper Columbia Basin Inventory and Monitoring Networks have multiple years of vegetation data and Greater Yellowstone Network has three years of vegetation data and monitoring is ongoing in all three networks. Our primary objective is to assess whether a combined analysis of these data aimed at exploring correlations with climate and weather data is feasible. We summarize the core survey design elements across protocols and point out the major statistical challenges for a combined analysis at present. The dissimilarity in response designs between ROMN and UCBN-GRYN network protocols presents a statistical challenge that has not been resolved yet. However, the UCBN and GRYN data are compatible as they implement a similar response design; therefore, a combined analysis is feasible and will be pursued in future. When data collected by different networks are combined, the survey design describing the merged dataset is (likely) a complex survey design. A complex survey design is the result of combining datasets from different sampling designs. A complex survey design is characterized by unequal probability sampling, varying stratification, and clustering (see Lohr 2010 Chapter 7 for general overview). Statistical analysis of complex survey data requires modifications to standard methods, one of which is to include survey design weights within a statistical model. We focus on this issue for a combined analysis of upland vegetation from these networks, leaving other topics for future research. We conduct a simulation study on the possible effects of equal versus unequal probability selection of points on parameter estimates of temporal trend using available packages within the R statistical computing package. We find that, as written, using lmer or lm for trend detection in a continuous response and clm and clmm for visually estimated cover classes with “raw” GRTS design weights specified for the weight argument leads to substantially

  20. Comparison of Vital Statistics Definitions of Suicide against a Coroner Reference Standard: A Population-Based Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Kurdyak, Paul; Sinyor, Mark; Holder, Laura; Schaffer, Ayal

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine the utility of health administrative databases for population-based suicide surveillance, as these data are generally more accessible and more integrated with other data sources compared to coroners' records. In this retrospective validation study, we identified all coroner-confirmed suicides between 2003 and 2012 in Ontario residents aged 21 and over and linked this information to Statistics Canada's vital statistics data set. We examined the overlap between the underlying cause of death field and secondary causes of death using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for deliberate self-harm (i.e., suicide) and examined the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of misclassified records. Among 10,153 linked deaths, there was a very high degree of overlap between records coded as deliberate self-harm in the vital statistics data set and coroner-confirmed suicides using both ICD-9 and ICD-10 definitions (96.88% and 96.84% sensitivity, respectively). This alignment steadily increased throughout the study period (from 95.9% to 98.8%). Other vital statistics diagnoses in primary fields included uncategorised signs and symptoms. Vital statistics records that were misclassified did not differ from valid records in terms of sociodemographic characteristics but were more likely to have had an unspecified place of injury on the death certificate ( P statistics and coroner classification of suicide deaths suggests that health administrative data can reliably be used to identify suicide deaths.

  1. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.

  2. The demographic viewpoint in the vital and health statistics monographs of The American Public Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, M

    1966-06-01

    The plan calls for monographs on 16 specific topics and a review volume. The specific topics include a monograph on fertility, another on marriage and divorce, and one on social and economic factors in mortality, all of which are of obvious demographic interest. The core of the development of the monographs dealing with the disease topics, and accidents, homicide, and suicide, is a tabulation program involving specific and age-adjusted death rates based upon the deaths in the United States for the three year period 1959-61 and the 1960 census of population. The program called for a set of standard tabulations common to each monograph and also a set of special tabulations tailored to meet the particular needs for each topic as specified by its authors. This wealth of demographic detail regarding mortality in the United States during 1959-61 fills only one aspect of its health picture. To fill out the health picture, use is being made of the great volume of morbidity data out of the National Health Interview and Examination Surveys and a wide variety of other specialized surveys. In all of these, the findings are invariably described in terms of the demographic characteristics of age and sex, and frequently in terms of such social-economic variables as education, income, work status, and occupational class.A large part of the content of the monograph on social and economic factors in mortality will come out of available results of the 1960 census-death certificate matching study at the University of Chicago. One important feature of this monograph, not contained in the Chicago study, is a regression and correlation analysis of total mortality in 202 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in relation to a large number of social, economic, and climatic factors. Among the features in the monograph on fertility are chapters on the medical and biological characteristics of births, fecundity and family planning, and an analysis of cohort fertility trends. The monograph on

  3. [Genetic-statistical analysis of multiple births in humans. I. Genetic analysis of predisposition to multiple birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lil'in, E T; Gindilis, V M

    1976-01-01

    Genetico-statistical analysis was made to check various hypotheses of the tendency to multiple birth inheritance. The material involved was comprised of 115 MZ and 228 DZ twin families burdened by recurrent cases of multiple births in their genealogy. Test data included 516 single birth probands, 5 from which had twins among sibs; this results in p = 0,97% for the evaluation of population frequency of the "affected" couples having twins). Vienberg proband method was applied to check monogenous-autosomal model and Edward & Smith approximating formulae to check additive-polygenous model with liminal results (manifestation). It is shown: 1) that the degree of genetical determination of MZ and DZ twinning is approximately the same for both multiple birth types; H-61 and 53% respectively; 2) in MZ twinning both mother's and father's genotypes perform as multiple birth factors; H-76% for the group of mother's sisters and 64% for that of father's brothers; 3) in case of DZ twinning mother's genotype is much more valid as a multiple birth factor as compared to the father's one; H-68% for the group of mother's sisters and H-25% for father's brothers; 4) at least some genetical factors, involved in multiple birth determination, are common for MZ and DZ twins; the rate of DZ twinning (of different sexes) among sibs of parents of MZ twins is reliable and more than 5-fold increases that in common population. It is suggested that the contradiction of literary data on multiple birth genetics is due to unadequate methods in many early investigations: calculations have been carried out on the basis of twin birth rate, and not on the rate of "affected" (couples having twins); differential Veinberg's method has been used, which is adequate in populational analysis and is unsuitable for genealogical studies for the estimation of MZ and DZ twinning frequency; cases of "sporadic" multiple birth have not been excluded from summary family material. On the basis of the authors' and

  4. 78 FR 9393 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Subcommittees, as well as how to continue development of its key themes. In the afternoon, Subcommittee Co... implement components of the graphic on the Influences on the Population's Health, in the Shaping a Health..., NCVHS, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo...

  5. Uncommon knowledge of a common phenomenon: intuitions and statistical thinking about gender birth ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Ofra N.; Peled, Irit; Peled, Jonathan U.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of birth of a baby is a common and familiar one, and yet college students participating in a general biology class did not possess the expected common knowledge of the equal probability of gender births. We found that these students held strikingly skewed conceptions regarding gender birth ratio, estimating the number of female births to be more than twice the number of male births. Possible sources of these beliefs were analysed, showing flaws in statistical thinking such as viewing small unplanned samples as representing the whole population and making inferences from an inappropriate population. Some educational implications are discussed and a short teaching example (using data assembly) demonstrates an instructional direction that might facilitate conceptual change.

  6. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Conclusions: Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems. PMID:28137194

  7. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems.

  8. Conference on Statistical Science Honouring the Bicentennial of Stefano Franscini's Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenthaler, Stephan; Ronchetti, Elvezio

    1997-01-01

    The Conference on "Statistical Science", held in Monte Verita (Switzerland) on 18/20 November 1996, was intended to honour the memory of Stefano Franscini at the occasion of the bicentennial of his birth (1796-1996). It was jointly organized by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the University of Geneva. These proceedings gather a selected collection of contributions presented by statisticians from universities, research institutes and national statistical services of Europe, North America and Asia. Part I focuses on a historical appreciation of Stefano Franscini's life and work. Authors develop a deep analysis of the historical context, the political action, the scientific achievement and the intellectual legacy of the founding father of Swiss official statistics. The reader thus has an opportunity to appreciate the various facets of this exceptional man who not only drew the first comprehensive statistical portrait of Switzerland but also establis...

  9. Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F; Thoma, Marie E

    2015-08-06

    This report presents 2013 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 5.96 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013, similar to the rate of 5.98 in 2012. The number of infant deaths was 23,446 in 2013, a decline of 208 infant deaths from 2012. From 2012 to 2013, infant mortality rates were stable for most race and Hispanic origin groups; declines were reported for two Hispanic subgroups: Cuban and Puerto Rican. Since 2005, the most recent high, the U.S. infant mortality rate has declined 13% (from 6.86), with declines in both neonatal and postneonatal mortality overall and for most groups. In 2013, infants born at 37–38 weeks of gestation (early term) had mortality rates that were 63% higher than for full-term (39–40 week) infants. For multiple births, the infant mortality rate was 25.84, 5 times the rate of 5.25 for singleton births. In 2013, 36% of infant deaths were due to preterm-related causes of death, and an additional 15% were due to causes grouped into the sudden unexpected infant death category. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Infant mortality statistics from the 2009 period linked birth/infant death data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F

    2013-01-24

    This report presents 2009 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The infant mortality rate in the United States in 2009 was 6.39 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, 3% lower than the rate of 6.61 in 2008. The number of infant deaths was 28,075 in 2008 and 26,408 in 2009, a decline of 1,667 infant deaths. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.40 per 1,000 live births for Asian or Pacific Islander mothers to 12.40 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality was higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. Infant mortality rates were also higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries, to mothers who were unmarried, and for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia. From 2008 to 2009, the neonatal mortality rate (under age 28 days) declined 3% to 4.18 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate (aged 28 days to under 1 year) declined 5% to 2.21. Preterm and low birthweight infants had the highest infant mortality rates and contributed greatly to overall U.S. infant mortality. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 46% of all infant deaths. In 2009, 35.4% of infant deaths were "preterm-related."

  11. [Geographic distribution of perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia, 1999-2008: An analysis of vital statistics data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnaza, Sandra Patricia; Roncancio, Claudia Patricia; Peña, Isabel Cristina; Prieto, Franklin Edwin

    2016-09-01

    During 2012, 13% of the deaths worldwide in children under the age of 28 days were due to congenital malformations. In Colombia, congenital malformations are the second leading cause of infant mortality. Objective: To determine the geographical distribution of extended perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia between 1999 and 2008. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. We revised all death certificates issued between 1999 and 2008. We defined perinatal mortality as fetal or non-fetal deaths within the first 28 days after delivery in children with body weight ≥500 grams, and congenital malformations according to ICD-10 diagnostic codes Q000 - Q999. The annual birth projection was used as the denominator. We defined high mortality areas due to congenital malformations as those in the 90th percentile. Results: We recorded 22,361 perinatal deaths due to congenital malformations. The following provinces exceeded the 90th perinatal mortality percentile: Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Huila, Quindío, Bogotá, Valle del Cauca and Guainía. Among the municipalities, the highest perinatal mortality rates were found in Giraldo, Ciudad Bolívar, Riosucio, Liborina, Supía, Alejandría, Sopetrán, San Jerónimo, Santa Fe de Antioquia and Marmato (205.81 and 74.18 per 10.000 live births).The perinatal mortality rate due to malformations of the circulatory system was 28.1 per 10.000 live births, whereas the rates for central nervous system defects and chromosomal abnormalities were 13.7 and 7.0, respectively. The Andean region showed high perinatal mortality rates due to congenital malformations. There is an urgent need to identify possible risk factors of perinatal mortality and implement successive prevention programs in that particular region.

  12. [Maternal factors associated with birth weight in term infants, Colombia, 2002-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Feria, Natalia Del Carmen Ceballos; Santander, Francisco Mardones

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to identify maternal factors associated with birth weight in Colombia from 2002 to 2011. This was a descriptive study based on data from the Live Birth Registry of Colombia, Administrative Department of Vital Statistics. Birth weight was classified as low birth weight Colombia.

  13. Infant mortality statistics from the 2007 period linked birth/infant death data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F

    2011-06-29

    This report presents 2007 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.75 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007, not significantly different than the rate of 6.68 in 2006. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.57 per 1,000 live births for mothers of Central and South American origin to 13.31 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries; for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia; and for mothers who were unmarried. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged from 2006 (4.46) to 2007 (4.42). The postneonatal mortality rate increased 5 percent from 2.22 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2007, similar to the rate in 2005 (2.32). Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than one-half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2007 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were 3.6 times, and those for early term (37-38 weeks) infants were 1.5 times, those for infants born at 39-41 weeks of gestation, the gestational age with the lowest infant mortality rate. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 45 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.0 percent in 2007. The preterm-related infant

  14. Podiatry Manpower: Characteristics of Clinical Practice United States--1970. Vital and Health Statistics--Series 14, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    The report on the clinical practice of podiatry is the product of a national survey of podiatrists conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics with the cooperation of the American Podiatry Association during the period January--March 1970. The survey was conducted by a self-administered questionnaire (a facsimile of which comprises an…

  15. Metrología de la incertidumbre: un estudio de las estadísticas vitales en Chile y Brasil The metrology of uncertainty: a study of vital statistics from Chile and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Carvajal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la incertidumbre presente en una de las mediciones más usada para análisis y toma de decisiones en salud pública. Adapta la medida de entropía de Shannon-Wiener para expresar la incertidumbre contenida en el conteo de las causas de muertes en las estadísticas vitales oficiales de Chile. A partir de los hallazgos, discute los requerimientos metrológicos en salud pública, tan importantes como las mediciones mismas. Considera y argumenta la existencia de una incertidumbre adicional, asociada con las propiedades performativas de las estadísticas. Tanto por la forma de estructurar los datos a la manera de una cierta sintaxis de lo real, como por las exclusiones de aquello que queda más allá de la modelación cuantitativa usada en cada caso. Mediante una aproximación a la herencia del pensamiento pragmático, y usando herramientas conceptuales de la sociología de la traducción, destaca que la incertidumbre puede contribuir en salud pública a un debate acerca de la vinculación entre técnica, democracia y la formación de un público.This paper addresses the issue of uncertainty in the measurements used in public health analysis and decision-making. The Shannon-Wiener entropy measure was adapted to express the uncertainty contained in counting causes of death in official vital statistics from Chile. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that metrological requirements in public health are as important as the measurements themselves. The study also considers and argues for the existence of uncertainty associated with the statistics' performative properties, both by the way the data are structured as a sort of syntax of reality and by exclusion of what remains beyond the quantitative modeling used in each case. Following the legacy of pragmatic thinking and using conceptual tools from the sociology of translation, the authors emphasize that by taking uncertainty into account, public health can contribute to a

  16. Exposure to Alcoholism in the Family: United States, 1988. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the National Center for Health Statistics. Number 205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenborn, Charlotte A.

    This report is based on data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Alcohol (NHIS-Alcohol), part of the ongoing National Health Interview Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews for the NHIS are conducted in person by staff of the United States Bureau of the Census. Information is collected on each…

  17. Cohort Fertility: A Comparison of the Results of the Official Birth Statistics and of the Microcensus Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pötzsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Data are available for the first time for the year under report 2008 on the biological number of children of women from the comprehensive Microcensus sample. Previously, only the ongoing birth statistics provided information on cohort fertility as a total fertility rate of the synthetic female cohorts. Since both benchmarks bear different types of insecurity, a comparison is to provide important information on the quality of these indicators. This article shows that the average number of children per woman in the dataset of the Microcensus 2008 and the cohort fertility rate in the birth statistics show a highly similar course of cohort fertility. Whilst the agreement for the female cohorts in the new Länder (former GDR without Berlin East and in Germany as a whole is almost complete, the values in the old Länder (Western Germany without Berlin West are further apart. A major cause of this evidently lies in the high proportion of female immigrants in the old Länder. Some of the women who immigrated into the former territory of Federal Republic already gave birth to their children before entering Germany. These births could not be taken into account in the ongoing birth statistics, whilst the Microcensus provided information on all children born, regardless of where they were born. These survey-related deviations can be largely reduced if the comparison with the cohort fertility rate of the birth statistics is based not on the average number of children of all women, but only on the number of children of women who were born in Germany or who immigrated below the age of 26. The share of female migrants was low in the new Länder and did not impact cohort fertility. All in all, the comparison showed that both sets of statistics provide data with a good degree of concurrence on the fertility of the birth years from 1933 to 1992 for Germany as a whole, as well as for the old and the new Länder. This makes it possible to carry out detailed analyses

  18. Describing the linkages of the immigration, refugees and citizenship Canada permanent resident data and vital statistics death registry to Ontario's administrative health database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Lam, Kelvin; Chong, Nelson; Azimaee, Mahmoud; Iron, Karey; Manuel, Doug; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-10-21

    Ontario, the most populous province in Canada, has a universal healthcare system that routinely collects health administrative data on its 13 million legal residents that is used for health research. Record linkage has become a vital tool for this research by enriching this data with the Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Permanent Resident (IRCC-PR) database and the Office of the Registrar General's Vital Statistics-Death (ORG-VSD) registry. Our objectives were to estimate linkage rates and compare characteristics of individuals in the linked versus unlinked files. We used both deterministic and probabilistic linkage methods to link the IRCC-PR database (1985-2012) and ORG-VSD registry (1990-2012) to the Ontario's Registered Persons Database. Linkage rates were estimated and standardized differences were used to assess differences in socio-demographic and other characteristics between the linked and unlinked records. The overall linkage rates for the IRCC-PR database and ORG-VSD registry were 86.4 and 96.2 %, respectively. The majority (68.2 %) of the record linkages in IRCC-PR were achieved after three deterministic passes, 18.2 % were linked probabilistically, and 13.6 % were unlinked. Similarly the majority (79.8 %) of the record linkages in the ORG-VSD were linked using deterministic record linkage, 16.3 % were linked after probabilistic and manual review, and 3.9 % were unlinked. Unlinked and linked files were similar for most characteristics, such as age and marital status for IRCC-PR and sex and most causes of death for ORG-VSD. However, lower linkage rates were observed among people born in East Asia (78 %) in the IRCC-PR database and certain causes of death in the ORG-VSD registry, namely perinatal conditions (61.3 %) and congenital anomalies (81.3 %). The linkages of immigration and vital statistics data to existing population-based healthcare data in Ontario, Canada will enable many novel cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to

  19. Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your vital signs show how well your body is functioning. They are usually measured at doctor's offices, often as part of ... slow or fast breathing can also be a sign of a serious breathing problem. Temperature, which measures ...

  20. Are Birth Certificate and Hospital Discharge Linkages Performed in 52 Jurisdictions in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin Y.; Ahuja, Sukhjeet; Stampfel, Caroline; Williamson, Dhelia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the number and characteristics of US State Registrars of Vital Statistics (Vital Registrars) and State Systems Development Initiative (SSDI) Coordinators that link birth certificate and hospital discharge data as well as using linkage processes. Methods Vital Registrars and SSDI Coordinators in all 52 vital records jurisdictions (50 states, District of Columbia, and New York City) were asked to complete a 41-question survey. We examined fr...

  1. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  2. Identifying heat-related deaths by using medical examiner and vital statistics data: Surveillance analysis and descriptive epidemiology - Oklahoma, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Brown, Sheryll; Archer, Pam; Wendelboe, Aaron; Magzamen, Sheryl; Bradley, Kristy K

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 660 deaths occur annually in the United States associated with excess natural heat. A record heat wave in Oklahoma during 2011 generated increased interest concerning heat-related mortality among public health preparedness partners. We aimed to improve surveillance for heat-related mortality and better characterize heat-related deaths in Oklahoma during 1990-2011, and to enhance public health messaging during future heat emergencies. Heat-related deaths were identified by querying vital statistics (VS) and medical examiner (ME) data during 1990-2011. Case inclusion criteria were developed by using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and ME investigation narrative. We calculated sensitivity and predictive value positive (PVP) for heat-related mortality surveillance by using VS and ME data and performed a descriptive analysis. During the study period, 364 confirmed and probable heat-related deaths were identified when utilizing both data sets. ME reports had 87% sensitivity and 74% PVP; VS reports had 80% sensitivity and 52% PVP. Compared to Oklahoma's general population, decedents were disproportionately male (67% vs. 49%), aged ≥65 years (46% vs. 14%), and unmarried (78% vs. 47%). Higher rates of heat-related mortality were observed among Blacks. Of 95 decedents with available information, 91 (96%) did not use air conditioning. Linking ME and VS data sources together and using narrative description for case classification allows for improved case ascertainment and surveillance data quality. Males, Blacks, persons aged ≥65 years, unmarried persons, and those without air conditioning carry a disproportionate burden of the heat-related deaths in Oklahoma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. New Jersey's electronic birth certificate program: variations in data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulian, J C; Ananth, C V; Hanley, M L; Knuppel, R A; Donlen, J; Kruse, L

    2001-05-01

    This study sought to determine primary sources of data for electronic birth certificates. A survey was administered from 1997 through 1998 to maternity facilities in New Jersey requesting information about what primary information sources were used for 53 electronic birth certificate variables. Potential information sources included the facilities' maternal and infant medical records, the prenatal record, and a parent-completed birth certificate worksheet. Among the 66 maternity facilities responding, there was significant variation in the choice of primary data sources for the electronic birth certificate variables examined. The variability of primary sources for electronic birth certificate data acquisition represents a potential cause of systematic error in reported vital statistics information.

  4. Mortalidade materna em Recife. 1. Avaliação da subenumeração de estatísticas oficiais Maternal mortality in Recife.1. An evaluation of the completeness of vital statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivaldo Mendes de Albuquerque

    1997-01-01

    of Recife for each year and for the total period studied. Twenty deaths were identified by Death Certificates as reported maternal deaths, and they represented 2% of cases among women in this age group. After the investigation proccess, 22 additional maternal deaths were identified for the entire period. According to vital statistics records, the maternal mortality rate was 37.0 per 100,000 live births; however, after adjustment, this figure increased to 77.7. This difference represents an under-recording rate of 52.4%. The study concluded that in the case of Recife, the 3.0 correction factor recommended by the Ministry of Health for the Northeast Region of the country was not applicable, since it would lead to an overestimation of the maternal mortality rate.

  5. Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Feldman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10. Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner.We created a new US-wide dataset by matching cases reported in a nongovernmental, news-media-based dataset produced by the newspaper The Guardian, The Counted, to identifiable NVSS mortality records for 2015. We conducted 2 main analyses for this cross-sectional study: (1 an estimate of the total number of deaths and the proportion unreported by each source using capture-recapture analysis and (2 an assessment of correlates of underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths (demographic characteristics of the decedent, mechanism of death, death investigator type [medical examiner versus coroner], county median income, and county urbanicity in the NVSS using multilevel logistic regression. We estimated that the total number of law-enforcement-related deaths in 2015 was 1,166 (95% CI: 1,153, 1,184. There were 599 deaths reported in The Counted only, 36 reported in

  6. Statistical model predicting a short duration to birth in women with preterm labor at 22-35 weeks' gestation: the importance of large vaginal Gram-positive rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for a short interval to birth in women with preterm labor, and to construct a statistical model to predict birth within seven days from the diagnosis of preterm labor at 22-35 weeks of gestation. Vaginal flora was obtained from 126 singleton pregnant women hospitalized for preterm labor at 22-35 weeks' gestation. The amount of vaginal large Gram-positive rods (GPR) was counted in a bright field under x400 magnification and classified semiquantitively as loss of GPRs, decreased GPRs (GPRs, cervical dilatation, and previous history of preterm birth on the subsequent occurrence of birth were analyzed using proportional hazards model, and the effects on birth within seven days from the diagnosis of preterm labor were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-four women (42.9%) delivered preterm. Both loss of GPRs and decreased GPRs were independent risk factors for a short interval from threatened preterm labor to birth, after adjusting the effect of cervical dilatation and past history of preterm birth (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% CI 2.0-5.5] and 2.0 [95% CI 1.1-3.6], respectively). Cervical dilatation of GPRs and decreased GPRs, and cervical dilatation of GPRs and decreased GPRs may be independently important for developing birth in women with preterm labor.

  7. Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Justin M; Gruskin, Sofia; Coull, Brent A; Krieger, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers) undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser) versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner. We created a new US-wide dataset by matching cases reported in a nongovernmental, news-media-based dataset produced by the newspaper The Guardian, The Counted, to identifiable NVSS mortality records for 2015. We conducted 2 main analyses for this cross-sectional study: (1) an estimate of the total number of deaths and the proportion unreported by each source using capture-recapture analysis and (2) an assessment of correlates of underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths (demographic characteristics of the decedent, mechanism of death, death investigator type [medical examiner versus coroner], county median income, and county urbanicity) in the NVSS using multilevel logistic regression. We estimated that the total number of law-enforcement-related deaths in 2015 was 1,166 (95% CI: 1,153, 1,184). There were 599 deaths reported in The Counted only, 36 reported in the NVSS

  8. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Detection of cosmogeophysical periodicities by the statistical analysis of intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    A statistical analysis of time intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives has been carried out on the basis of 33 family trees. Using the Monte Carlo method, a significant departure of the distribution of birthdays from random results is detected relative to two long-period solar harmonics known from the theory of the Earth tides, i.e., a solar elliptical wave ( S a ) with a period of an anomalistic year (365.259640 days) and a solar declinational wave ( S sa ) with a period of half of the tropical year (182.621095 days). Further research requires larger statistical samples and involves clarifying the effect of long-period lunar harmonics, i.e., an lunar elliptical wave ( M m ) with a period of an anomalistic month (27.554551 days) and a lunar declinational wave ( M f ) with a period of half of a tropical month (13.660791 day), as well as the impact of important lunar and solar tides of time intervals with periods of half (14.765294 days, the interval between syzygial tides at new and full moon) and a whole (29.530588 days) synodic month. It is known that the periodic compression and stretching of the Earth's crust at the time of the tides by means of the piezoelectric effect lead to the generation of long-period electric oscillations with periods corresponding to the harmonics of the theory of the Earth tides. The detection of these harmonics in connection with biological processes will make it possible to determine the impact of regular cosmogeophysical fluctuations (tidal waves) on the processes in the biosphere.

  10. Development and validation of a national data registry for midwife-led births: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Midwives Alliance of North America's (MANA's) Division of Research developed a Web-based data collection system to gather information on the practices and outcomes associated with midwife-led births in the United States. This system, called the MANA Statistics Project (MANA Stats), grew out of a widely acknowledged need for more reliable data on outcomes by intended place of birth. This article describes the history and development of the MANA Stats birth registry and provides an analysis of the 2.0 dataset's content, strengths, and limitations. Data collection and review procedures for the MANA Stats 2.0 dataset are described, along with methods for the assessment of data accuracy. We calculated descriptive statistics for client demographics and contributing midwife credentials, and assessed the quality of data by calculating point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, and kappa statistics for key outcomes on pre- and postreview samples of records. The MANA Stats 2.0 dataset (2004-2009) contains 24,848 courses of care, 20,893 of which are for women who planned a home or birth center birth at the onset of labor. The majority of these records were planned home births (81%). Births were attended primarily by certified professional midwives (73%), and clients were largely white (92%), married (87%), and college-educated (49%). Data quality analyses of 9932 records revealed no differences between pre- and postreviewed samples for 7 key benchmarking variables (kappa, 0.98-1.00). The MANA Stats 2.0 data were accurately entered by participants; any errors in this dataset are likely random and not systematic. The primary limitation of the 2.0 dataset is that the sample was captured through voluntary participation; thus, it may not accurately reflect population-based outcomes. The dataset's primary strength is that it will allow for the examination of research questions on normal physiologic birth and midwife-led birth outcomes by intended place of birth.

  11. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  12. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  13. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  14. Birth statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Robert H I

    2010-01-01

    African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. This study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. I obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. Over the past 30 years, newborn Asian elephants have been taller and heavier than newborn African elephants. Neonatal African elephants exhibited sex differences in both weight and height, whereas neonatal Asian elephants have exhibited sex differences only in height. Primiparous dams ex situ are at least as old as their in situ counterparts, whereas ex situ sires appear to be younger than sires in range countries. Confirming earlier anecdotal evidence, both African [N=47] and Asian [N=91] dams gave birth most often at night.

  15. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  16. [Analysis of relationship between birth weight by gestational age and decreasing birth weight in Kumamoto Prefecture, 1979-1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kimiyo; Onomichi, Mitsukazu; Harada, Koichi; Ueda, Atsushi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate possible factors associated with the recent decrease in birth weight in Kumamoto Prefecture between 1979 and 1997. Vital statistics on birth between 1979 and 1997 were obtained from the records of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan, on the basis of which, infants were divided into low-birth weight (LBW: or =2500 g) group, and the proportions of birth and birth weights by gestational age (from 22 to 42 weeks) of both groups between 1979 and 1997 were compared. For the normal-birth-weight group, the peaks of the proportions of birth and birth weights by gestational age in 1997 shifted to early gestation, compared with the peaks in 1979. The birth weight by gestational age in 1997 decreased, compared with that in 1979 among the normal-birth-weight group, in particular, the birth weight from 37 to 40 gestational ages decreased significantly, and the mean birth weight showed a linear relationship with these gestational ages as observed in normal fetal development. However, in the LBW group, the mean birth weight showed a small increase after 1992 and a large increase in birth weight by gestational age in the last month of pregnancy in 1997. The changes in the proportions of birth and birth weights by gestational age among the normal-birth-weight group were found to be the important factors the recent decrease in birth weight. These factors might be associated with advances in medical technology and the fact that young women diet in order to slim.

  17. Are Birth Certificate and Hospital Discharge Linkages Performed in 52 Jurisdictions in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y; Ahuja, Sukhjeet; Stampfel, Caroline; Williamson, Dhelia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number and characteristics of US State Registrars of Vital Statistics (Vital Registrars) and State Systems Development Initiative (SSDI) Coordinators that link birth certificate and hospital discharge data as well as using linkage processes. Vital Registrars and SSDI Coordinators in all 52 vital records jurisdictions (50 states, District of Columbia, and New York City) were asked to complete a 41-question survey. We examined frequency distributions among completed surveys using SAS 9.3. The response rate was 100% (N = 52) for Vital Registrars and 96% (N = 50) for SSDI Coordinators. Nearly half of Vital Registrars (n = 22) and SSDI Coordinators (n = 23) reported that their jurisdiction linked birth certificate and hospital discharge records at least once in the last 4 years. Among those who link, the majority of Vital Registrars (77.3%) and SSDI Coordinators (82.6) link both maternal and infant hospital discharge records to the birth certificate. Of those who do not link, 43% of the Vital Registrars and 55% of SSDI Coordinators reported an interest in linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data. Reasons for not linking included lack of staff time, inability to access raw data, high cost, and unavailability of personal identifiers to link the two sources. Results of our analysis provide a national perspective on data linkage practices in the US. Our findings can be used to promote further data linkages, facilitate sharing of data and linkage methodologies, and identify uses of the resulting linked data.

  18. Vital Signs-Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-07

    This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  19. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…

  20. Order-specific fertility rates for Germany: Estimates from perinatal statistics for the period 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreyenfeld (Michaela); Scholz, R. (Rembrandt); F. Peters (Frederick); Wlosnewski, I. (Ines)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUntil 2008, Germany's vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by

  1. Vital statistics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... Collecting data in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya can be a dangerous job. Household enumerators who work with the African Population and Health Research Center's (APHRC) demographic surveillance system (DSS) regularly risk being mugged and robbed by pickpockets. Yet they persist, for the ...

  2. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  3. HOSPITAL BIRTHS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ THE PERIOD 2000 TO 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sampaio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocurrence of low birth weight infants varies among contries, and even a general inidcator of health status of a population to be highly associated with socieconomic conditions(3. Newborns with low birth weight are more vulnerable to problems that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality(9. Several factors may be associated with low newborn weight among mothers with less than 20 years or over 35 years(16,17. Objectives: To describe the low-weight births in hospitals in the city of Cuiaba in the period 2000 to 2008 using the variables of the birth certificate (race, sex of infant and maternal age Method: a quantitative study, cross-sectional, restrospective and described with the use of secundary sources of data obtained from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. The study population was constituted by the set of all vital statistics records of hospital deliveries of low birth weight infants n= 6.523, in the municipality of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008. Included only information from births and hospital births only, and with body weight equal to or less than 2,500g, this criterion is basead on the WHO classification. Results/Conclusion: The low birth weight hospital in the city of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008, has a prevalence of 6,6%, ocurred among newborns with GA between 37 and 41 weeks (43,3% n= 2827. The low weight births in the state of MT, evolve with the growing reduction of body weight, the highest prevalence being concentrated in the range of 1500 to 2499g weight. The low birth weight are more prevalent in females (53,7%, n=3506 and mullattos (70.4% n= 4595. 49% of mother of lbw infants are those who are aged 21 to 35 years of age (49,7%, n= 3240.

  4. Vitalism as Pathos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Thomas

    This paper addresses the remarkable longevity (in spite of numerous 'refutations') of the idea of vitalism in the biological sciences and beyond. If there is to be a renewed vitalism today, however, we need to ask - on what kind of original conception of life should it be based ? This paper argues that recent invocations of a generalized, processual variety of vitalism in the social sciences and humanities above all, however exciting in their scope, miss much of the basic originality - and interest - of the vitalist perspective itself. The paper argues that any renewed spirit of vitalism in the contemporary era would have to base itself on the normativity of the living organism rather than on any generalized conceptions of process or becoming. In the terms of the paper, such a vitalism would have to be concrete and 'disciplinary' rather than processual or generalized. Such a vitalism would also need to accommodate, crucially, the pathic aspects of life - pathology, sickness, error; in short everything that makes us, as living beings, potentially weak, without power, at a loss. Sources for such a pathic vitalism might be found above all in the work of Georges Canguilhem - and Friedrich Nietzsche - rather than primarily in Bergson, Whitehead or Deleuze.

  5. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidenc...

  6. Vital signs: teen pregnancy--United States, 1991--2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    In 2009, approximately 410,000 teens aged 15-19 years gave birth in the United States, and the teen birth rate remains higher than in other developed countries. To describe U.S. trends in teen births and related factors, CDC used data on 1) teen birth rates during 1991-2009 from the National Vital Statistics System, 2) sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among high school students during 1991-2009 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and 3) sex education, parent communication, use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), and receipt of reproductive health services among teens aged 15-19 years from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. In 2009, the national teen birth rate was 39.1 births per 1,000 females, a 37% decrease from 61.8 births per 1,000 females in 1991 and the lowest rate ever recorded. State-specific teen birth rates varied from 16.4 to 64.2 births per 1,000 females and were highest among southern states. Birth rates for black and Hispanic teens were 59.0 and 70.1 births per 1,000 females, respectively, compared with 25.6 for white teens. From 1991 to 2009, the percentage of high school students who ever had sexual intercourse decreased from 54% to 46%, and the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months but did not use any method of contraception at last sexual intercourse decreased from 16% to 12%. From 1999 to 2009, the percentage of students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months and used dual methods at last sexual intercourse (condoms with either birth control pills or the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera) increased from 5% to 9%. During 2006-2008, 65% of female teens and 53% of male teens received formal sex education that covered saying no to sex and provided information on methods of birth control. Overall, 44% of female teens and 27% of male teens had spoken with their parents about both topics, but among teens who had ever had sexual intercourse, 20% of females and 31

  7. Marital and birth expectations of urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Zabin, L S

    1993-09-01

    The formation of attitudes conducive to pregnancy prevention is usually included in the development of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. This research examines the marital and birth expectations among 3646 adolescents enrolled in grades 7-12 in four inner city schools in 1981-82 in the US. The aim is to assess adolescents' perceptions of life experiences in their social environment, which reveal their beliefs about the social acceptability of birth after marriage. Two of the schools had entirely Black student populations, and two for comparison purposes had a mixed student population comprised of 33% Black students. Results reveal that Blacks reported a higher age for marriage and a lower age of first birth than Whites. Blacks had a lower mean ideal age of first birth than for marriage, while White had a lower mean age of marriage than for first birth. 59.1% of Black teenage females and 55% of Black teenage males reported a first birth ideal less than the marriage age, while 20.4% of White teenage females and 21.1% of White teenage males did so. A comparative graph shows Whites having in-wedlock births around 21 years of age and Blacks having in-wedlock births at 26 years of age. The analysis of the best age of marriage regressed on the best age at first birth indicates that the slopes are parallel, and there is no significant difference between Black and White attitudes. Blacks had an ideal marriage age of about two years later than Whites. In the comparison of survey responses to vital statistics data on legitimacy of first births in Baltimore in 1980, it appears that there is a close correspondence between actual out-of-wedlock status of first births and female adolescent attitudes. This study's findings suggest that both Blacks and Whites expect early births to be premarital and later births to be postmarital. Adolescent experiences affect their perceptions, and teenagers' perceptions are fairly realistic. The interpretation of findings is that Black

  8. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R; Jones, Abbey M; Petersen, Emily E; Lee, Ellen H; Rice, Marion E; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D; Polen, Kara D; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Moore, Cynthia A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-04-07

    In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus-associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%-7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%-14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%-26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal

  9. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D.; Polen, Kara D.; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L.; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N.; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Adair, Jennifer; Ruberto, Irene; Haselow, Dirk T.; Im, Lucille; Jilek, Wendy; Lehmann, Monica S.; Olney, Richard; Porse, Charsey Cole; Ramstrom, Karen C.; Sowunmi, Similoluwa; Marzec, Natalie S.; Davis, Karin; Esponda-Morrison, Brenda; Fraser, M. Zachariah; O'Connor, Colleen Ann; Chung, Wendy; Richardson, Folasuyi; Sexton, Taylor; Stocks, Meredith E.; Woldai, Senait; Bundek, Amanda M.; Zambri, Jennifer; Goldberg, Cynthia; Eisenstein, Leah; Jackson, Jennifer; Kopit, Russell; Logue, Teresa; Mendoza, Raphael; Feldpausch, Amanda; Graham, Teri; Mann, Sylvia; Park, Sarah Y.; Carter, Kris Kelly; Potts, Emily J.; Stevens, Taryn; Simonson, Sean; Tonzel, Julius L.; Davis, Shari; Robinson, Sara; Hyun, Judie K.; Jenkins, Erin M.; Piccardi, Monika; Reid, Lawrence D.; Dunn, Julie E.; Higgins, Cathleen A.; Lin, Angela E.; Munshi, Gerlinde S.; Sandhu, Kayleigh; Scotland, Sarah J.; Soliva, Susan; Copeland, Glenn; Signs, Kimberly A.; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Byers, Paul; Hand, Sheryl; Mulgrew, Christine L.; Hamik, Jeff; Koirala, Samir; Ludwig, Lisa A.; Fredette, Carolyn Rose; Garafalo, Kristin; Worthington, Karen; Ropri, Abubakar; Ade, Julius Nchangtachi; Alaali, Zahra S.; Blog, Debra; Brunt, Scott J.; Bryant, Patrick; Burns, Amy E.; Bush, Steven; Carson, Kyle; Dean, Amy B.; Demarest, Valerie; Dufort, Elizabeth M.; Dupuis II, Alan P.; Sullivan-Frohm, Ann; Furuya, Andrea Marias; Fuschino, Meghan; Glaze, Viola H.; Griffin, Jacquelin; Hidalgo, Christina; Kulas, Karen E.; Lamson, Daryl M.; Lance, Lou Ann; Lee, William T.; Limberger, Ronald; Many, Patricia S.; Marchewka, Mary J.; Naizby, Brenda Elizabeth; Polfleit, MaryJo; Popowich, Michael; Rahman, Tabassum; Rem, Timothy; Robbins, Amy E.; Rowlands, Jemma V.; Seaver, Chantelle; Seward, Kimberley A.; Smith, Lou; Sohi, Inderbir; St. George, Kirsten; Souto, Maria I.; Wester, Rachel Elizabeth; Wong, Susan J.; Zeng, Li; Ackelsberg, Joel; Alex, Byron; Ballen, Vennus; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Bloch, Danielle; Clark, Sandhya; Conners, Erin; Cooper, Hannah; Davidson, Alexander; Dentinger, Catherine; Deocharan, Bisram; DeVito, Andrea; Fu, Jie; Hrusa, Gili; Iqbal, Maryam; Iwamoto, Martha; Jones, Lucretia; Kubinson, Hannah; Lash, Maura; Layton, Marcelle; Lee, Christopher T.; Liu, Dakai; McGibbon, Emily; Moy, Morgan; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B.; Peterson, Eric; Poy, Jose; Rakeman, Jennifer; Stoute, Alaina; Thompson, Corinne; Weiss, Don; Westheimer, Emily; Winters, Ann; Younis, Mohammad; Chan, Ronna L.; Cronquist, Laura Jean; Caton, Lisa; Lind, Leah; Nalluswami, Kumar; Perella, Dana; Brady, Diane S.; Gosciminski, Michael; McAuley, Patricia; Drociuk, Daniel; Leedom, Vinita; Witrick, Brian; Bollock, Jan; Hartel, Marie Bottomley; Lucinski, Loraine Swanson; McDonald, Morgan; Miller, Angela M.; Ponson, Tori Armand; Price, Laura; Nance, Amy E.; Peterson, Dallin; Cook, Sally; Martin, Brennan; Oltean, Hanna; Neary, Jillian; Baker, Melissa A.; Cummons, Kathy; Bryan, Katie; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Arth, Annelise C.; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dawson, April L.; Denison, Amy M.; Dziuban, Eric J.; Estetter, Lindsey; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Free, Rebecca J.; Galang, Romeo R.; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Green, Caitlin; Hale, Gillian L.; Hayes, Heather M.; Igbinosa, Irogue; Keating, M. Kelly; Khan, Sumaiya; Kim, Shin Y.; Lampe, Margaret; Lewis, Amanda; Mai, Cara; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Miers, Brooke; Moore, Jazmyn; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Nahabedian, John; Panella, Amanda; Parihar, Vaunita; Patel, Mitesh M.; Rabeneck, D. Brett; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Ritter, Jana M.; Rollin, Dominique C.; Sanders, Jeanine H.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Simeone, Regina M.; Simon, Elizabeth L.; Sims, John R.; Spivey, Pamela J.; Talley-McRae, Helen; Tshiwala, Alphonse K.; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Viens, Laura; Wainscott-Sargent, Anne; Williams, Tonya; Zaki, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. Results During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus–associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%–7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%–14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%–26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory

  10. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  11. VitalStats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive online tool for creating and manipulating tables based on birth and perinatal (fetal and infant death) data files. Tabulated data can be graphed or...

  12. The spatial distribution of overweight and obesity among a birth cohort of young adult Filipinos (Cebu Philippines, 2005): an application of the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahly, D L; Gordon-Larsen, P; Emch, M; Borja, J; Adair, L S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to test for spatial clustering of obesity in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines, to estimate the locations of any clusters, and to relate these to neighborhood-level urbanicity and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects: Data are from a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 22 years) Filipino males (n=988) and females (n=820) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: We used the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic to detect clusters associated with unusually low or high prevalences of overweight or obesity (defined using body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage). Cluster locations were compared to neighborhood-level urbanicity, which was measured with a previously validated scale. Individual-level SES was adjusted for using a principal components analysis of household assets. Results: High-prevalence clusters were typically centered in urban areas, but often extended into peri-urban and even rural areas. There were also differences in clustering by both sex and the measure of obesity used. Evidence of clustering in males, but not females, was much weaker after adjustment for SES. PMID:23817443

  13. Estimating community-level costs of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E S; Greenberg, J M

    2016-12-01

    To develop generalizable methods for estimating the economic impact of preterm birth at the community level on initial hospital expenditures, educational attainment and lost earnings as well as to estimate potential savings associated with reductions in preterm birth. The retrospective, population-based analysis used vital statistics and population demographics from Hamilton County, Ohio, USA, in 2012. We adjusted previously reported, mean initial hospital cost estimates (stratified by each week of gestation) to 2012 dollars using national cost-to-charge ratios. Next, we calculated excess costs attributable to prematurity and potential hospital cost savings, which could be realized by prolonging each preterm pregnancy by a single week of gestation. Using reported associations among preterm birth, educational attainment and adult earnings, we developed generalizable formulas to calculate lost academic degrees and lost income estimates attributable to preterm birth. The formulas generated estimates based on local population demographics. The annual initial hospital cost associated with 1444 preterm infants was estimated at $93 million. In addition, over 9000 fewer college degrees and over $300 million in lost annual earnings were attributed to local adults who were born preterm. Prolonging each preterm birth by 1 week could potentially reduce initial hospital expenditures by over $25 million. Additional potential savings could be realized as healthier infants attain higher levels of education and earnings as adults. The generalizable methods developed for estimating the economic impact of preterm birth at the community level can be used by any community in which vital statistics and population demographics are available. Cost estimates can serve to rally support for local stakeholder investment in developing strategies for preterm birth intervention leading to improved pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  14. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  15. The Vitality of Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2017-01-01

    of what we might be conceptualised as the vitality of disease. Medical interventions are increasingly as much about improving (quality of) life as they are about saving and prolonging life. As a consequence, morbid living has come to be disciplined, for example, in patient schools aimed at teaching...... patients to learn how to live with their disease, through rating scales used to measure treatment effect on the ‘quality of life’ of patients in clinical trials and through disease-specific ‘Living with’ guides aimed at patients and carers....

  16. [Vital contact with reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagnan, L M

    1976-12-01

    From the standpoint of existential phenomenology, the contact with reality lies in the very phocus of theory, being closely related to another basic conception: that of being-in-the-world. In order to ratify those conceptions, the author reviews some concepts imported from Kurt Lewin's Field Theory, among which: a) vital psychological space, embedding the subject and in close interchange with him; b) intrapsychic regions, having, to a certain extent, autonomous functions, but being related to each other and integrated into the higher unity of the subject. As both systems are interdependent, any modification of the equilibrium of one of them reverberates into the other's, and changes the general conditions of both of them. Reviewing, at the same time, Minkowski's views on schizophrenia, the author sets forth the production of an inner world that becomes autonomous and possesses a degree of reality that overwhelms the true outer world. There is not only the splitting from reality, but the creation of a whole fantastic field, in which the individual participates with all his vital availability. Both views lead to a similar contention: that in some pathological states, the primal link man-real world, is replaced by a new inner correspondence, focused on the imaginary and having effects similar to those of the real world.

  17. Vital Signs-Preventing Pregnancy in Younger Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-08

    This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/8/2014.

  18. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  19. Direct anterior composite veneers in vital and non-vital teeth: a retrospective clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; Gonçalves, Daiana Silveira; Sales, Michele Peres; Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Opdam, Niek J M; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2015-11-01

    This retrospective, longitudinal clinical study investigated the performance of direct veneers using different composites (microfilled×universal) in vital or non-vital anterior teeth. Records from 86 patients were retrieved from a Dental School clinic, comprising 196 direct veneers to be evaluated. The FDI criteria were used to assess the clinical evaluation. The survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test. The multivariate Cox regression with shared frailty was used to investigate the factors associated with failure. A total of 196 veneers were evaluated, with 39 failures. The mean time of service for the veneers was 3.5 years, with a general survival rate of 80.1%. In the qualitative evaluation of the restorations, microfilled composite showed slighty better esthetics. The annual failure rates (AFR) were 4.9% for veneers in vital teeth and 9.8% for non-vital teeth with statistical significance (p=0.009). For microfilled and universal veneers the respective AFRs were 6.0% and 6.2% (p>0.05). Veneers made in non-vital teeth had a higher risk of failure over time compared to those made in vital teeth (HR 2.78; 95% CI 1.02-7.56), but the type of material was not a significant factor (p=0.991). The main reason for failure was fracture of the veneer. Direct composite veneers showed a satisfactory clinical performance. Veneers performed in vital teeth showed a better performance than those placed in non-vital teeth. No difference in the survival rate for different composites was found, although microfilled composites showed a slightly better esthetic appearance. Direct composite veneers show good results in esthetic dentistry nowadays. Composite veneers in vital teeth have a lower risk of failure than those in non-vital teeth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe: reality or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, J; Blondel, B; Alexander, S; Bréart, G

    2007-09-01

    To compare rates of postterm birth in Europe. Analysis of data from vital statistics, birth registers, and national birth samples collected for the PERISTAT project. Thirteen European countries. All live births or representative samples of births for the year 2000 or most recent year available. Comparison of national and regional rates of postterm birth. Other indicators (birthweight, deliveries with a non-spontaneous onset and mortality) were used to assess the validity of postterm rates. The proportion of births at 42 completed weeks of gestation or later. Postterm rates varied greatly, from 0.4% (Austria, Belgium) to over 7% (Denmark, Sweden) of births. Higher postterm rates were associated with a greater proportion of babies with birthweight 4500 g or more. Fetal and early neonatal mortality rates were higher among postterm births than among births at 40 weeks. Countries with higher proportions of births with a nonspontaneous onset of labour had lower postterm birth rates. The shapes of the gestational-age distributions at term varied. In some countries, there was a sharp cutoff in deliveries at 40 weeks, while elsewhere this occurred at 41 weeks. These results suggest that practices for managing pregnancies continuing beyond term differ in Europe and raise questions about the health and other impacts in countries with markedly high or low postterm rates. Some variability in these rates may also be due to methods for determining gestational age, which has broader implications for international comparisons of gestational age, including rates of postterm and preterm births and small-for-gestational-age newborns.

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have sex makes sense Talking to your parents about sex Deciding about sex Birth control Types of birth ... not planned. Some young people are afraid their parents will find out they’re having sex. If you get birth control from a doctor, ...

  3. Vitality of optical vortices (Presentation)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the vitality of optical vortices to distinguish between vortex dipole creation and annihilation events. Vitality is expressed in terms of the transverse 1st and 2nd order derivatives of the optical field. It can be used...

  4. Aging changes in vital signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004019.htm Aging changes in vital signs To use the sharing ... Normal body temperature does not change much with aging. But as you get older, it becomes harder ...

  5. Estadisticas vitales de Rhodnius neivai Lent, 1953 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales Estatísticas vitais de Rhodnius neiva Lent, 1953 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae em condições experimentais Vital statistics of Rhodnius neivai Lent, 1953 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cabello

    1987-12-01

    foi maior nos alimentados em coelho. A sobrevivência ninfal foi ligeiramente maior nos indivíduos alimentados em galinha. A reprodução começou antes nos exemplares alimentados em galinha, mas o rendimento reprodutivo e a duração da oviposição foram maiores nos alimentados em coelho. As taxas intrínseca e finita de crescimento foram maiores nos triatomíneos alimentados em galinha. O tempo geracional foi ligeiramente maior nas linhagens alimentadas em coelho. A taxa de reprodução foi muito semelhante com ambas as fontes alimentares, embora ligeiramente maior nos exemplares alimentados em coelho. O valor reprodutivo nos alimentos em coelho foi o dobro do obtivo para os que se alimentavam em galinha.A statistical evaluation of the population dynamics of R. neivai is based on six cohorts experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Two blood sources were offered to animals: rabbit and hen. Egg hatching, nymphal development time and mortality, adult longevity and age-specific mortality, female age-specific fecundity and fertility were determined. In addition, some population parameters were evaluated, such as: life expectancy, intrinsic rate of natural increase, net reproduction rate, finite rate of increase, reproductive value and stable age distribution. Life cycle was longer in the animals fed on rabbit, nymphal survival was slightly higher in the individuals fed on hen. Age of first reproduction was lower in the insects fed on hen, but reproductive output and total number of reproductive weeks were greater in the cohorts fed on rabbit. Intrinsic and finite rate of increase were greater in the animals fed on hen. Generation time was slightly greater in the cohorts fed on rabbit. Net reproduction rate was similar on both blood sources, although it was slightly bigger in the individuals fed on rabbit. Reproductive value in the insects fed on rabbit was twice as much as the registered in the animals fed on hen.

  6. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  7. Vital Signs-Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-06

    This podcast is based on the May 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Adults with disabilities who get no aerobic physical activity are 50 percent more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer. Learn what you can do to help.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  8. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  9. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)[15] coding convention ... monitoring progress towards injury and violence Sustainable .... of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

  10. Achieving gender equality with civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-26

    6 days ago ... Interested in participating? Mark your calendars and join us via webcast on February 26, 2018. All are welcome to participate, and sessions will be webcast live in English and French. Due to space limitations, in-person participation is by invitation only. Join the live webcast. Read the meeting agenda.

  11. Health and Nutrition: Collection of Vital Statistical Data on Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    400,000. There are three facets to eligibility in the program: A participants must be (1) pregnant, breastfeeding , or postpartum women, or infants and...4,916,686 1.05 Montana 786,690 1.27 Nebraska 1,569,825 1.79 Yes Nevada 800,493 6.73 Yes N4ew Hampshire 920,610 0.61 New Jersey 7,364,823 6.68 Yes New Mexico ...agencies to low-income pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women, and infants and children up to 5 years of age. To be eligible, these people must

  12. Call for civil registration and vital statistics systems experts | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... ... in particular UNICEF, WHO, UNFPA, UNDP, and Economic and Social Commissions is desired and will constitute an asset. Language proficiency: Fluency in English and/or French is required for any deployment/contract. Fluency in other languages, in particular UN languages or the language of the duty ...

  13. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  14. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm ... Their Families What are the warning signs of preterm labor? In most cases, preterm labor (labor that ...

  15. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class setting. Some hospitals are beginning to offer online courses, too.Expect to be required to pay ... called The Mongan Method, HypnoBirthing helps women learn self-hypnosis techniques to deliver their babies in a ...

  16. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and planning to shop for baby clothes. The reality of labor and birth may seem extremely far ... all women in labor, but many now show increased flexibility in how they handle their patients. Some ...

  17. Medicaid's lasting impressions: Population health and insurance at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2017-03-01

    This article examines lasting mortality improvements associated with availability of Medicaid at time and place of birth. Using the US Vital Statistics (1959-2010), I exploit the variation in when each of the 50 states adopted Medicaid to estimate overall infant mortality improvements that coincided with Medicaid participation. 0.23 less infant deaths per 1000 live births was associated with states' Medicaid implementation. Second, I find lasting associations between Medicaid and mortality improvements across the life-course. I build state-specific cohort life-tables and regress age-specific mortality on availability of Medicaid in their states at time of birth. Cohorts born after Medicaid adoption had lower mortality rates throughout childhood and into adulthood. Being born after Medicaid was associated with between 2.03 and 3.64 less deaths per 100,000 person-years in childhood and between 1.35 and 3.86 less deaths per 100,000 person-years in the thirties. The association between Medicaid at birth and mortality was the strongest in the oldest age group (36-40) in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leading concepts towards vital soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter gives an analysis of the basic elements of a vital soil, of soil protection policies and monitoring options. The background to this approach is the increase in soil functions and an overexploitation that has resulted in conflicts as well as in consequences for human health, the health

  19. A Vital Challenge to Materialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.M.

    Life poses a threat to materialism. To understand the phenomena of animate nature, we make use of a teleological form of explanation that is peculiar to biology, of explanations in terms of what I call the ‘vital categories’ – and this holds even for accounts of underlying physico-chemical

  20. Understanding and Forecasting Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting of ethnolinguistic vitality can only be done within a well-functioning descriptive and explanatory model of the dynamics of language stability and shift. It is proposed that the Perceived Benefit Model of Language Shift, used with a taxonomy of language shift motivations, provides that model. The model, based on individual language…

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Trucker Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  4. Trends in Repeat Births and Use of Postpartum Contraception Among Teens - United States, 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Deborah L; Pazol, Karen; Cox, Shanna; Smith, Ruben A; Bower, Katherine; Kapaya, Martha; Fasula, Amy; Harrison, Ayanna; Kroelinger, Charlan D; D'Angelo, Denise; Harrison, Leslie; Koumans, Emilia H; Mayes, Nikki; Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee

    2017-04-28

    Teen* childbearing (one or more live births before age 20 years) can have negative health, social, and economic consequences for mothers and their children (1). Repeat teen births (two or more live births before age 20 years) can constrain the mother's ability to take advantage of educational and workforce opportunities (2), and are more likely to be preterm or of low birthweight than first teen births (3). Despite the historic decline in the U.S. teen birth rate during 1991-2015, from 61.8 to 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years (4), many teens continue to have repeat births (3). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend that clinicians counsel women (including teens) during prenatal care about birth spacing and postpartum contraceptive use (5), including the safety and effectiveness of long-acting reversible methods that can be initiated immediately postpartum. To expand upon prior research assessing patterns and trends in repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens with a recent live birth (i.e., 2-6 months after delivery) (3), CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System natality files (2004 and 2015) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS; 2004-2013). The number and proportion of teen births that were repeat births decreased from 2004 (82,997; 20.1%) to 2015 (38,324; 16.7%); in 2015, the percentage of teen births that were repeat births varied by state from 10.6% to 21.4%. Among sexually active teens with a recent live birth, postpartum use of the most effective contraceptive methods (intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants) increased from 5.3% in 2004 to 25.3% in 2013; however, in 2013, approximately one in three reported using either a least effective method (15.7%) or no method (17.2%). Strategies that comprehensively address the social and health care needs of teen parents can facilitate access to and use of

  5. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  6. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  8. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  9. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  10. Congenital anomalies, prematurity, and low birth weight rates in relation to nuclear power plant proximity1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangones, Tania; Visintainer, Paul; Brumberg, Heather L

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal residential proximity to a nuclear reactor is associated with prevalence of certain birth defects. The New York State Vital Statistics and Congenital Malformations Registry data (1992-2001) were analyzed for five Hudson Valley counties in a 20-mile radius from the Indian Point nuclear reactor (Buchanan, NY, USA). Four zones of 5-mile increments were used to categorize proximity to the reactor. Data included congenital anomalies, low birth weight, and prematurity. Over the 10-year period, 702 malformations in 666 children were identified from a birth population of 328,124, yielding a regional rate of 2.1 major malformations per 1000 births. The prevalence of defects, low birth weight, and prematurity were not related to proximity to the nuclear power plant. These data did not substantiate an association between maternal proximity to the reactor and certain birth defects and provide baseline data for comparison in the event of a nuclear accident.

  11. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  12. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on fetal cardiac state, newborn anthropometric measurements and vital signs of pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Manchon García, F; Pallarés Ruiz, T I; Marin Gascón, M L; Requena Mullor, M; Alarcón Rodriguez, R; Parron Carreño, T

    2017-05-01

    Music has been used for medicinal purposes throughout history due to its variety of physiological, psychological and social effects. To identify the effects of prenatal music stimulation on the vital signs of pregnant women at full term, on the modification of fetal cardiac status during a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph, and on anthropometric measurements of newborns taken after birth. A randomized controlled trial was implemented. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) during a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph. All of the pregnant women were evaluated by measuring fetal cardiac status (basal fetal heart rate and fetal reactivity), vital signs before and after a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph (maternal heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and anthropometric measurements of the newborns were taken after birth (weight, height, head circumference and chest circumference). The strip charts showed a significantly increased basal fetal heart rate and higher fetal reactivity, with accelerations of fetal heart rate in pregnant women with music stimulation. After the fetal monitoring cardiotocograph, a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in women receiving music stimulation was observed. Music can be used as a tool which improves the vital signs of pregnant women during the third trimester, and can influence the fetus by increasing fetal heart rate and fetal reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CHANGES IN SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN CHINA: A DECOMPOSITION BY BIRTH ORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; YANG, SHUCAI; Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte

    2016-01-01

    The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China’s surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea’s vital registration and censuses from 1980–2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for ...

  14. Modifying the risk of recurrent preterm birth: influence of trimester-specific changes in smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica L; Aland, Kristen L; Blatt, Kaitlin; Moore, Elizabeth; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-03-01

    Women with at least 1 prior occurrence of premature birth often have demographic and medical risk factors that are not modifiable. However, smoking cessation could be a targeted intervention in which a woman with a history of premature birth may be able to reduce her future risk of recurrence. This study aims to assess how trimester-specific smoking patterns influence the risk of recurrent premature birth. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton nonanomalous live births in Ohio, 2006-2012 using vital statistics birth records. This analysis was limited to women with at least 1 prior premature birth. Rates of birth smoked in the 3 months prior to pregnancy and quit in the first vs quit in the second vs quit in the third trimester. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between smoking cessation at various time points in pregnancy and recurrent premature birth while adjusting for maternal race, education, Medicaid enrollment, and marital status. We analyzed the outcomes of 36,432 women with a prior premature birth who subsequently delivered at 20-42 weeks. One third of women with a prior premature birth smoked during pregnancy. Of smokers, 16% quit early in the first trimester, 7% quit in the second, 5% quit in the third trimester, and 72% smoked throughout pregnancy. The rate of recurrent premature birth in nonsmokers was high 28% in this cohort. Smoking in pregnancy with cessation in the first or second trimester was not significantly associated with an increase in recurrent premature birth rates (first trimester, 29% adjusted odds ratio, 0.97 [95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.1], and second trimester, 31% adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.3], respectively). However, quitting late in pregnancy (third trimester) was associated with a high rate (43%) of delivery smoking throughout pregnancy was also associated with an increased recurrent premature birth (32%), adjusted odds ratio, 1.14 (95

  15. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Messer, Lynne C; Laraia, Barbara A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman's correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data.

  16. Vital Signs-Trucker Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In 2012 in the United States, about 317,000 motor vehicle crashes involved a large truck. Twenty-six thousand truck drivers and their passengers were injured in these crashes, and about 700 died. Learn what can be done to help truck drivers stay safe.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  17. Plan de empresa Vital Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Primero, Alejandro; García Perea, Mónica Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto de grado tiene como objetivo hacer un plan de negocios para el negocio de batidos naturales y funcionales, Vital Juice. La idea de negocio nace de una búsqueda de creación de empresa con la motivación de salir del mundo corporativo y tener independencia económica en un futuro cercano. Está basada en una experiencia de trabajo en los Estados Unidos en la cadena de tiendas de café Starbucks y de ver el modelo de negocio de Jamba Juice y de Mountain Néctar, ya que este tipo de n...

  18. Maternal mortality ratio – trends in the vital registration data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracking the level of maternal mortality reliably in developing countries is extremely challenging. In an ideal setting, vital statistics, based on good-quality medical certification of the cause of death, would provide the number of deaths from maternal causes. In developed countries it is sometimes necessary to supplement.

  19. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P teen births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HOSPITAL BASED BIRTH DEFECTS SURVEILLANCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: A STUDY OF ONE YEAR STATISTICS FROM A TERTIARY CARE GOVERNMENT TEACHING HOSPITAL OF NORTH COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies are defined as abnormalities of both structures or functions that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. They contribute to a significant proportion of perinatal, neonatal & childhood mortality as well as morbidity. AIM To study at birth, prevalence of selected birth defects among babies delivered at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from Jan 2015 to December 2015, appropriate management strategy of the most common neural tube defects. RESULTS Among the total deliveries of 6088 in the above period, the incidences of birth defects were 88 (1.44%, the most common among them were neural tube defects. CONCLUSION Birth defect surveillance and standardisation of the data is essential to understand the public health burden and to design appropriate prenatal prevention programs.

  1. Análise da qualidade das estatísticas vitais brasileiras: a experiência de implantação do SIM e do SINASC Quality analysis of Brazilian vital statistics: the experience of implementing the SIM and SINASC systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Prado de Mello Jorge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que um dos fins da informação é fornecer subsídios para ações adequadas, em cada setor. Há cerca de trinta anos, sistemas de informação vêm sendo criados pelo Ministério da Saúde. Objetivo: mostrar a evolução dos Sistemas de Informações sobre Mortalidade e Nascidos Vivos, desde a concepção, implantação (respectivamente, 1975 e 1989, até sua avaliação. Os Sistemas foram concebidos para suprir falhas do Registro Civil e permitir conhecer o perfil epidemiológico em todo o país. Este registro é ato jurídico e as anotações referem-se a dados necessários à comprovação legal do evento; à área de saúde faltavam informações sobre esses eventos e suas características relacionadas à saúde. Mostram-se avaliações quantitativas e qualitativas dos sistemas, feitas em níveis federal, estadual e municipal, visando medir a fidedignidade e as limitações dos dados. Conclui-se que os Sistemas vêm melhorando acentuadamente e, para o futuro, espera-se que a captação dos eventos, em ambos, aproxime-se de 100%, com adequada qualidade.One of the main purposes of health information is to help administrative staff and health planners take the best possible decisions for promoting the wellbeing of society. Since 1970, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has been developing and organizing Health Information Systems. This paper presents the progress of the Mortality Information System and the Live Birth Information System since they were first established, building up historical series with accurate figures for these vital events. Their positive and negative aspects are analyzed through quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Steadily improving, they are expected to attain full coverage and adequate quality in the near future.

  2. The sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth.

  3. Comparison of Vitality Between Two Streets of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Molavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the urban spaces that make living in a city pleasant and the urban landscape delightful. Vitality, an indispensable feature in the life of a city, is an undeniable gap in many urban spaces today. Spaces lacking vitality make no passion to stop within them and no incentive to pass by them. Over time urban spaces are getting uncrowded and deprived of social life and this event puts the current urban spaces of a country seriously in danger. Given the vitality impact on desirability of urban spaces and the research concern toward this on-the-wane quality, two important streets of Tehran, Enghelab and Vali-e-Asr, were compared to investigate the effective factors in vitality more thoroughly and in terms of several needs of people in urban spaces. According to different spirits of the two streets as well as positive and negative effective factors, the amount of vitality criteria in both spaces was studied through surveys. In this regard, 200 questionnaires, prepared by the authors, have been analyzed. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and the results were demonstrated in charts. These figures confirm the vitality potential of both spaces. However, it was concluded that the spirit in each of the spaces was different as the atmosphere of the Vali-e-Asr Street was commercial-recreational and the atmosphere of the Enghelab Street was commercial-cultural. The vitality amount of each of them is compared on the basis of their spirits. To strengthen the vitality and encourage people to engage more with the space, some suggestions have been finally presented.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Opioids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests for people using prescription painkillers long term. Teaching patients how to safely use, store, and dispose ... 0:60 seconds] Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses [SPANISH PODCAST – 1:30 minutes] Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller ...

  5. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  6. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  7. Completeness of birth and death registration in a rural area of South Africa: the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance, 1992–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Completeness of vital registration remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. Objectives: To investigate trends and factors in completeness of birth and death registration in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa covering a population of about 110,000 persons, under demographic surveillance since 1992. The population belongs to the Shangaan ethnic group and hosts a sizeable community of Mozambican refugees. Design: Statistical analysis of birth and death registration over time in a 22-year perspective (1992–2014. Over this period, major efforts were made by the government of South Africa to improve vital registration. Factors associated with completeness of registration were investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Birth registration was very incomplete at onset (7.8% in 1992 and reached high values at end point (90.5% in 2014. Likewise, death registration was low at onset (51.4% in 1992, also reaching high values at end point (97.1% in 2014. For births, the main factors were mother's age (much lower completeness among births to adolescent mothers, refugee status, and household wealth. For deaths, the major factors were age at death (lower completeness among under-five children, refugee status, and household wealth. Completeness increased for all demographic and socioeconomic categories studied and is likely to approach 100% in the future if trends continue at this speed. Conclusion: Reaching high values in the completeness of birth and death registration was achieved by excellent organization of the civil registration and vital statistics, a variety of financial incentives, strong involvement of health personnel, and wide-scale information and advocacy campaigns by the South African government.

  8. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  9. 46 CFR 169.642 - Vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vital systems. 169.642 Section 169.642 Shipping COAST... Electrical Piping Systems § 169.642 Vital systems. For the purpose of this part, the following are considered vital systems— (a) A marine engineering system identified by the OCMI as being crucial to the survival...

  10. Development of a web-based integrated birth defects surveillance system in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tao, Zhen; Cross, Philip K; Le, Linh H; Steen, Patricia M; Babcock, Gwen D; Druschel, Charlotte M; Hwang, Syni-An

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has become a powerful and effective tool for public health surveillance. The objectives of this project were to develop secure Web-based applications for Birth Defects Surveillance and to integrate them into routine surveillance activities of the New York State (NYS) Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR). The Web-based applications were developed on infrastructure of New York State Health Provider Network using JAVA programming language. In addition, SAS/IntrNet software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) was also used to leverage the data analysis and processing capabilities of SAS for generating real-time reports and performing statistical and spatial analyses. Congenital Malformations Registry staff have developed and implemented a Web-based integrated birth defect surveillance system, which enables staff to routinely perform surveillance activities including monitoring the quality, timeliness, and completeness of case reporting by hospitals; matching the CMR cases to the vital records; conducting trends analysis on birth defect prevalence and mortality with data query and visualization capabilities; and performing temporal and spatial analysis. The CMR's Web-based integrated birth defects surveillance system empowers authorized users to perform routine surveillance activities using only a PC and a Web browser. This system will help NYS public health professionals and epidemiologists perform trend analyses and identify possible clusters of birth defects in space and time that may be related to environmental toxins.

  11. Problematizing Statistical Literacy: An Intersection of Critical and Statistical Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I problematize traditional notions of statistical literacy by juxtaposing it with critical literacy. At the school level statistical literacy is vitally important for students who are preparing to become citizens in modern societies that are increasingly shaped and driven by data based arguments. The teaching of statistics, which is…

  12. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  13. CDC Vital Signs–Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    This podcast is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  14. [Age, period and birth-cohort effects on marriage rates in Japanese women between 1985 and 2005, and comparison of trends of effects between marriage and birth rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Youichi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Jun

    2008-07-01

    An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed to provide information about age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage trends in Japanese women. In addition, the relationships of the trends of age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects between marriage and birth were analyzed. We obtained data regarding marriages of Japanese women aged between 19 and 38 years for the period of 1985 to 2005 from the National Vital Statistics. Population data used were for an estimated population, obtained from the Population Estimates Annual Reports. Standard cohort tables comprising marriage and population data were analyzed using a Bayesian APC model to identify age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage rate trends. Previously obtained data for a similar APC-analysis of birth trends were used to compare the trends in the effects of age, period, and cohort on marriage and birth patterns. For this purpose, the estimated values for each effect were normalized. With regard to the marriage trends in Japanese women, the effect of age was the greatest, peaking at the age of 25 years. The period effect increased after 1997; however, its effect was relatively limited as compared to the other effects. The cohort effect, which was greater than the period effect and less than the age effect, on marriage trends showed a decreasing slope for birth cohorts born after 1966 and subsequent increase after 1982. Comparison of age, period and cohort effects between the trends in marriage and birth rates showed that the age effect distinctly peaked at 25 and 28 years for marriage and births, respectively. The period effect on marriage and birth showed a decreasing trend until 1991 and subsequent increased in 1992 and 1997 for births and marriage, respectively. With regard to the cohort effect on birth rates, a decreasing trend was observed for the birth cohorts after 1961, with increase after 1977. However, with regard to the cohort effect on marriage rates, the decreasing

  15. The sixth vital sign in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Singh Balhara, Yatan Pal

    2018-01-01

    The vital signs are an integral part of clinical methods. In diabetes, determination of plasma glucose can be taken as the fifth vital sign. The sixth vital sign is well being, which can easily be measured by two item questionnaires designed to assess distress, depression and coping skills. This sign is essential for the screening and follow up of persons living with diabetes, as it provides an idea of quality of care, helps plan therapeutic interventions, and serves as a surrogate for prognosis or outcome. Inclusion of the sixth vital sign reflects the relevance of the bio-psychosocial model of health to diabetes care. .

  16. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Birth Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human ... Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs ...

  17. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  18. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  20. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 579 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  1. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Who and where are the uncounted children? Inequalities in birth certificate coverage among children under five years in 94 countries using nationally representative household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-08-18

    Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities in birth certificate coverage. We analyzed nationally representative household surveys from 94 countries between 2000 and 2014 using Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Birth certificate coverage among children under five was examined at the national and regional level. Absolute measures of inequality were used to measure inequalities in birth certificate coverage by wealth quintile, urban/rural residence and sex of the child. Over four million children were included in the analysis. Birth certificate coverage was over 90% in 29 countries and below 50% in 36 countries, indicating that more than half the children under five surveyed in these countries did not have a birth certificate. Eastern & Southern Africa had the lowest average birth certificate coverage (26.9%) with important variability among countries. Significant wealth inequalities in birth certificate coverage were observed in 74 countries and in most UNICEF regions, and urban/rural inequalities were present in 60 countries. Differences in birth certificate coverage between girls and boys tended to be small. We show that wealth and urban/rural inequalities in birth certificate coverage persist in most low and middle income countries, including countries where national birth certificate coverage is between 60 and 80%. Weak CRVS systems, particularly in South Asia and Africa lead rural and poor children to be systematically excluded from the benefits tied to a birth certificate, and prevent these

  3. Back to the future? A critical commentary on the 2003 U.S. National standard certificate of live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Russell S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2006-09-01

    Vital statistics documents for the United States have been revised approximately decennially throughout the past century. In this commentary we review the contents of the 2003 revision of the national standard certificate of live birth, focusing on changes from the certificates in use nationally since 1989, and identifying strengths and weaknesses of key data elements. Additional federal-state partnership funding is imperative to support the transition to the new standard certificates, and to ensure a focus on data quality at the state and national levels.

  4. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects

  5. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  6. Sharing Vital Signs between mobile phone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A; Scheffer, Cornie

    2014-01-01

    We propose a communication library, ShareVitalSigns, for the standardized exchange of vital sign information between health applications running on mobile platforms. The library allows an application to request one or multiple vital signs from independent measurement applications on the Android OS. Compatible measurement applications are automatically detected and can be launched from within the requesting application, simplifying the work flow for the user and reducing typing errors. Data is shared between applications using intents, a passive data structure available on Android OS. The library is accompanied by a test application which serves as a demonstrator. The secure exchange of vital sign information using a standardized library like ShareVitalSigns will facilitate the integration of measurement applications into diagnostic and other high level health monitoring applications and reduce errors due to manual entry of information.

  7. Direct anterior composite veneers in vital and non-vital teeth: A retrospective clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho-de-Souza, F.H.; Goncalves, D.S.; Sales, M.P.; Erhardt, M.C.; Correa, M.B.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This retrospective, longitudinal clinical study investigated the performance of direct veneers using different composites (microfilledxuniversal) in vital or non-vital anterior teeth. METHODS: Records from 86 patients were retrieved from a Dental School clinic, comprising 196 direct

  8. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (ptouch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.

  9. Incidence of post-operative pain following single visit endodontics in vital and non-vital teeth: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Sumita; Mehta, Deepil

    2013-01-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the post-operative pain following single visit endodontics in vital and non-vital teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. A total of 60 adult patients requiring root canal therapy in anterior and premolar teeth were selected for this study. Single sitting root canal treatment was carried out and the subjects were recalled after 2 weeks and instructed to fill out a series of self-report questionnaires for responses about pain in the interim after 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 1 week and 2 weeks. In vital teeth (Group I) 60% of the treated cases had pain, of which 36% had mild pain (non-significant) and 24% had moderate pain (significant). In non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency (Group II) 64% of cases had pain, of which 48% had mild pain (non-significant) and 16% had moderate pain (significant). In non-vital teeth with periapical radiolucency (Group III) 32% of the cases had pain of which 24% had mild pain (non-significant) and 8% had moderate pain (significant). None of the teeth in any of the groups had severe pain. There was no statistical difference between incidence of pain in vital and non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency. Non-vital teeth with periapical radiolucency exhibited relatively less pain as compared with non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency, but the pain continued in a significant percent of teeth even after 2 weeks. Pain incidence dropped significantly within a period of 1 day to 2 weeks in vital teeth and non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency. There was a tendency for less incidence of significant pain after a single visit root canal treatment in these groups. Results obtained were comparable with those obtained by several investigators. PMID:24124293

  10. Declines in state teen birth rates by race and Hispanic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J; Venture, Stephanie J

    2013-05-01

    Teen birth rates fell steeply in the United States from 2007 through 2011, resuming a decline that began in 1991 but was briefly interrupted in 2006 and 2007. The overall rate declined 25% from 41.5 per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19 in 2007 to 31.3 in 2011--a record low. The number of births to teenagers aged 15-19 also fell from 2007 to 2011, by 26% to 329,797 in 2011. Births to teenagers are at elevated risk of low birthweight, preterm birth, and of dying in infancy compared with infants born to women aged 20 and over, and they are associated with significant public costs, estimated at $10.9 billion annually. Recent trends by state and race and Hispanic origin are illustrated using the most current available data from the National Vital Statistics System. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Monitoring child mortality through community health worker reporting of births and deaths in Malawi: validation against a household mortality survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbessi Amouzou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rate of decline in child mortality is too slow in most African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Effective strategies to monitor child mortality are needed where accurate vital registration data are lacking to help governments assess and report on progress in child survival. We present results from a test of a mortality monitoring approach based on recording of births and deaths by specially trained community health workers (CHWs in Malawi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Government-employed community health workers in Malawi are responsible for maintaining a Village Health Register, in which they record births and deaths that occur in their catchment area. We expanded on this system to provide additional training, supervision and incentives. We tested the equivalence between child mortality rates obtained from data on births and deaths collected by 160 randomly-selected and trained CHWs over twenty months in two districts to those computed through a standard household mortality survey. CHW reports produced an under-five mortality rate that was 84% (95%CI: [0.71,1.00] of the household survey mortality rate and statistically equivalent to it. However, CHW data consistently underestimated under-five mortality, with levels of under-estimation increasing over time. Under-five deaths were more likely to be missed than births. Neonatal and infant deaths were more likely to be missed than older deaths. CONCLUSION: This first test of the accuracy and completeness of vital events data reported by CHWs in Malawi as a strategy for monitoring child mortality shows promising results but underestimated child mortality and was not stable over the four periods assessed. Given the Malawi government's commitment to strengthen its vital registration system, we are working with the Ministry of Health to implement a revised version of the approach that provides increased

  12. A Comparison between APGAR Scores and Birth Weight in Infants of Addicted and Non-Addicted Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Esmat; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Mirkamandar, Ehsan; Haji Maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Rastegari, Azam

    2011-01-01

    Addiction in pregnant women causes complications such as abortion, asphyxia and cerebral and physical problems. APGAR score assesses vital signs and birth weight and represents the physical and brain growth of newborns. In this study, the effects of opium addiction in mothers on birth weight and APGAR scores of neonates were discussed. This study analytic, descriptive study was conducted on 49 pregnant women addicted to oral consumption of opium (0.5-0.8 grams daily) and 49 non-addicted women who referred to Afzalipour Hospital associated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Information including various personal characteristics, history of addiction and drug consumption, and the possibility of taking other drugs was collected by a researcher and recorded confidentially in a checklist. Birth weight and APGAR score t first, fifth and tenth minutes were also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation test, independent t-test, and repeated measure to evaluate the APGAR scores and other characteristics of the two groups of infants. Average birth weight of infants with addicted mothers was 2255 grams which had a significant difference with infants born by non-addicted mothers (P APGAR scores at the first minute were 7.6 ± 1.1 and 8.6 ± 1.1 among infants from addicted and non-addicted mothers, respectively. Average APGAR scores over time (at minutes 1, 5 and 10) had a significant difference (P APGAR score and birth weight of infants.

  13. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    , and comprehending the underlying assumptions of these studies and drawing the inferences from them can be complex. This book provides the knowledge and skills required to design, analyse, and correctly interpret family-based studies. It explains what these studies can tell us about life course epidemiology...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas......Family-based studies, including intergenerational, sibling, and twin studies, are increasingly being used to explore life course epidemiology. However, there are issues relating to study design and the statistical analysis of family-based studies that are still not well understood...

  14. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Methadone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Signs Current Issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Antibiotic Resistance Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Diseases & Conditions Food Safety ... MMWR Science Clips Prescription Painkiller Overdoses Use and Abuse of Methadone as a Painkiller Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the number of teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get ... Vital Signs Issue: Drinking and Driving Among High School Students Aged ≥16 Years — United States, 1991-2011. ...

  17. Vital directions for mathematics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Leatham, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    In this book, experts discuss vital issues in mathematics education and what they see as viable directions for research in mathematics education to address them. Their recommendations take the form of overarching principles and ideas that cut across the field.

  18. Preterm birth and dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the risk for dyscalculia in preterm children increases the lower the gestational age (GA) and whether small-for-gestational age birth is associated with dyscalculia. A total of 922 children ranging from 23 to 41 weeks' GA were studied as part of a prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany. At 8 years of age, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and with a standardized mathematics test. Dyscalculia diagnoses were evaluated with discrepancy-based residuals of a linear regression predicting children's math scores by IQ and with fixed cut-off scores. We investigated each GA group's ORs for general cognitive impairment, general mathematic impairment, and dyscalculia by using binary logistic regressions. The risk for general cognitive and mathematic impairment increased with lower GA. In contrast, preterm children were not at increased risk of dyscalculia after statistically adjusting for child sex, family socioeconomic status, and small-for-gestational age birth. The risk of general cognitive and mathematic impairments increases with lower GA but preterm children are not at increased risk of dyscalculia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  20. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Associations between multiple green space measures and birth weight across two US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne; Larkin, Andrew; Carozza, Susan E; Hystad, Perry

    2017-09-01

    Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807). These cities have similar green space levels but very different population and contextual characteristics. Green space metrics derived from mother's full residential address using multiple buffer distances (50-1000m) included: Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), % tree cover, % green space, % street tree buffering, and access to parks (using US EPA EnviroAtlas Data). Correlation between green space metrics were assessed and mixed models were used to determine associations with term birth weight, controlling for a comprehensive set of individual and neighborhood factors. City-specific models were run to determine how contextual and population differences affected green space associations with birth weight. We observed moderate to high degrees of correlation between different green space metrics (except park access), with similar patterns between cities. Unadjusted associations demonstrated consistent protective effects of NDVI, % green space, % tree cover, and % street tree buffering for most buffer sizes on birth weight; however, in fully adjusted models most metrics were no longer statistically significant and no clear patterns remained. For example, in Austin the difference in birth weight for the highest versus lowest quartile of % green space within 50m was 38.3g (95% CI: 30.4, 46.1) in unadjusted and -1.5g (98% CI: -8.8, 6.3) in adjusted models compared to 55.7g (95%CI: 47.9, -63.6) and 12.9g (95% CI: 4.4, 21.4) in Portland. Maternal race, ethnicity and education had the

  2. CHANGES IN SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN CHINA: A DECOMPOSITION BY BIRTH ORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yu, Qun; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-11-01

    The long-term high sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a serious issue in China. In this study, changes in SRB were decomposed into variations in SRB by birth order and compositional changes in female births by birth order. With SRB data from China's surveys and censuses, and SRB data from South Korea's vital registration and censuses from 1980-2015, the trend and decomposition results in SRB were compared between China and South Korea, and the decomposition results for urban and rural SRBs, and for provinces, are presented. In both China and South Korea the rise in the SRB was driven by a rise in the SRB at all birth orders, which was only partly counteracted by the change in the distribution of births by order. The overall rise in the SRB ended when there was a decline in the SRB at second birth or above in South Korea. In China the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders increased more for the rural population than for the urban population before 2000, resulting in a higher total SRB for rural than urban population. After 2000, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders lowered the total SRB for the rural population, whereas the effect of compositional change increased the total SRB, leading to a very slight rise in the total SRB for the rural population. At the province level, there was no spatial autocorrelation for the changes in total SRB by province, the total effect of variations in SRB of all birth orders or the effect of compositional change. The effect of variations in SRB by birth order accounted for the majority of changes in total SRB in most provinces.

  3. The impact of changes in preterm birth among twins on stillbirth and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, D; Demissie, K; Marcella, S W; Rhoads, G G

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends for preterm births, stillbirths, neonatal and infant deaths in twin births by gestational age and birth weight categories, as well as trends in induction of labor and cesarean delivery during 1995-2006. A trend analysis was performed on data derived from the National Centers for Health Statistics' Vital Statistics Data files (1995-2006). The primary outcomes examined were preterm birth, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. During the study period, rates of labor induction among twins decreased by 8% and rates of cesarean delivery increased by 35%. Concurrently, the preterm birth rate increased by 13% from 54% in 1995-96 to 61% in 2005-06. The overall stillbirth rate, and neonatal and infant death rates decreased during the same period by 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18-25%), 13% (95% CI: 9-16%) and 12% (95% CI: 8-15%), respectively. There were significant reductions in neonatal death rates related to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; 48%, 95% CI: 41-54%) and congenital anomalies (25%, 95% CI: 16-33%) during the study period. Reductions in post-neonatal infant mortality were mainly in RDS (88%) and sudden infant death syndrome (26%). Mortality rates among infants born by either induction of labor or cesarean delivery fell during the study period and remained much lower than the overall infant mortality rate. The findings of this study suggest that during 1995-2006 there was an increase in preterm birth rates and a decrease in labor inductions with a sharp decline in stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality rates.

  4. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover FDA-approved methods of birth control and patient education and counseling as prescribed by a health care provider for women of reproductive age without cost to the patient. Adopting clinical guidelines to carry out alcohol screening ...

  6. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  7. CDC Vital Signs-Zika and Pregnancy: What You Should Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-04-01

    This podcast is based on the April 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. A pregnant woman who is infected with Zika virus can pass it to her fetus which is linked to microcephaly, a serious birth defect. This podcast discusses how to protect yourself from Zika virus.  Created: 4/1/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/1/2016.

  8. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate...... the empirical evidence in this field. The purpose of this study was to review and quantify the impact of vital exhaustion on the development and progression of CHD. METHODS: Prospective and case-control studies reporting vital exhaustion at baseline and CHD outcomes at follow-up were derived from PubMed, Psyc...... by two authors. RESULTS: Thirteen prospective (n = 52,636) and three case-control (cases, n = 244; controls, n = 457) studies assessed vital exhaustion and could be summarized in meta-analyses. The pooled adjusted risk of CHD in healthy populations was 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...

  9. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  10. [Transforming the Peruvian birth information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H; Pardo, Karim; Loayza, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The On-Line Registration of Certificates of Live Births was developed in conjunction with the Ministry of Health of Peru and the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status. It is a free system that registers newborns in the delivery room itself which generates a real time certificate of live birth. This simplifies the procedures required to obtain the birth certificate and the National Identity Document for the newborn. This system has been implemented in 114 health centers in 21 regions from March 2012 to March 2013, and has registered 113,917 live births, providing accurate, timely and quality information about these births. This system is the main cornerstone of the health information system which helps obtain real time statistics for adequate and timely decision making in public health.

  11. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  12. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  13. [Confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingming, Huang; Qian, Lu; Qian, Liao; Ling, Ye; Xuedong, Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Dental pulp tissue plays a role in forming dentin, providing nutrition, conducting pain, and generating protective responses to environmental stimuli. Bacterial infection is the main cause of pulp disease, where histopathological changes are the histological basis for determining the choice of treatment and the evaluation of therapeutic effect. Thus, particular attention should be given to eliminate infection, as well as preserve and maintain pulpal health in teeth that show reversible or limited pulpal injuries. Vital pulp therapy, especially its indications and prognostic factors, has been a research hotspot that often causes confusion among clinicians. In this paper, we briefly introduce the confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy in terms of indications, pulp condition assessment, infection elimination, and capping material selection. In addition, we develop a clinical pathway and an operation normalization of vital pulp therapy to better perform the therapy.

  14. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” ...

  15. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  16. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  17. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  18. Vital pulpa tedavilerinde lazer uygulaması

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2011-01-01

    Lazer, vital pulpa tedavilerinde hemoraji kontrolü ve sterilizasyon gibi önemli avantajlar sağlamaktadır. Aynı zamanda lazer, pulpa dokusunu atravmatik olarak uzaklaştırabilmekte; hemostaz sağlayıp minimal oranda pıhtı formasyonu oluşturmakta ve bakterilerin eliminasyonunu sağlamaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı pulpa teşhisi, pulpa kaplaması ve amputasyon yöntemi içeren vital pulpa tedavilerinde lazer kullanımınıözetlemektir

  19. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...

  20. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  1. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that use hormones, such as the birth control pill or birth control ring , a girl uses the birth control patch based on her monthly menstrual cycle. She puts on the patch on the first day of her menstrual cycle or the first Sunday after her menstrual cycle begins. She will change the ...

  2. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  3. Birth and Emergency Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Overall, 62% had a birth plan, 74% had adequate knowledge of danger signs, while 64% and 37% reported maternal and newborn complications ... Knowledge of danger signs was associated with birth and emergency planning, and birth and emergency planning was associated with .... Materials and Methods. Study site.

  4. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in ...

  5. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  6. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  7. Objective Local Vitality and Linguistic Networks as Predictors of Perceived Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, László; Harwood, Jake

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the relationship between objective ethnolinguistic vitality, individual networks of linguistic contacts (INLCs) and perceived vitality among German-speaking (N = 415) and Italian-speaking (N = 379) adolescents in South Tyrol, Italy. Supporting our hypothesis, we found that INLC has a greater effect on perceived…

  8. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  9. Entrepreneurship education: a vital instrument for youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concern of this paper is to explore Entrepreneurship Education (EE) as one of the vital tools for youth empowerment, industrial development and consolidation of national integration in Nigeria. To achieve this feat, the paper takes its roots from the role of EE in youth empowerment programmes, national integration and ...

  10. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  11. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Asthma in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  16. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  17. Introducing the new business demography statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Grierson; Andrew Allen

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the new business demography statisticsA new National Statistics series waspublished on 28 November 2008 bythe Offi ce for National Statistics (ONS),providing data on business births,deaths and survival rates, called BusinessDemography: Enterprise Births andDeaths. The Department for Business,Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (BERR)also published its series Business start upsand closures: VAT registrations andde-registrations in 2007 on the sameday. The year 2008 is the final update t...

  18. Signos Vitales de los CDC La actividad física y los adultos con discapacidades (Vital Signs-Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de mayo del 2014. Los adultos con discapacidades que no hacen actividad física aeróbica tienen un 50 % más de probabilidades de tener enfermedades cardiacas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes o cáncer. Sepa qué puede hacer para ayudar.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  19. Vital signs of the emergency patient with pulpal necrosis and localized acute apical abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Chad A; Walton, Richard E; Williamson, Anne E; Drake, David R; Qian, Fang

    2008-03-01

    Vital signs aid in assessing patient health and the disease severity. The objectives of this study were to determine changes in vital signs of patients with pulpal necrosis (PN) and acute apical abscess (AAA). The vital signs measured at the emergency visit were blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and lymphadenopathy. Visual analogue scales (VASs) were used to assess (1) pain and (2) malaise. Emergency treatment was rendered. At a subsequent (baseline) visit and with clinical symptoms resolved, systemic vital sign measurements and VASs were repeated. The presence or absence of swelling with vital signs and VASs of pain and swelling were compared. Compared with baseline, data showed no marked elevation in temperature, blood pressure, or lymphadenopathy, regardless of presence or absence of swelling. VAS measurements of pain and malaise did show statistically significant higher numbers at the emergency appointment, indicating a difference from baseline. Swelling versus no swelling did not differ. Vital signs were not impacted by localized AAA, although pain and malaise were greater. Vital signs might not be useful determinants of treatment or pharmacotherapeutic measures with localized AAA.

  20. The age of fathers in the USA is rising: an analysis of 168 867 480 births from 1972 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandwala, Yash S; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Lu, Ying; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    How has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades? The age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level. While the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA. A retrospective data analysis of paternal age and reporting patterns for 168 867 480 live births within the USA since 1972 was conducted. All live births within the USA collected through the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were evaluated. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to reduce bias due to missing paternal records. Mean paternal age has increased over the past 44 years from 27.4 to 30.9 years. College education and Northeastern birth states were associated with higher paternal age. Racial/ethnic differences were also identified, whereby Asian fathers were the oldest and Black fathers were the youngest. The parental age difference (paternal age minus maternal age) has decreased over the past 44 years. Births to Black and Native American mothers were most often lacking paternal data, implying low paternal reporting. Paternal reporting was higher for older and more educated women. Although we utilized IPW to reduce the impact of paternal reporting bias, our estimates may still be influenced by the missing data in the NVSS. Paternal age is rising within the USA among all regions, races and education levels. Given the implications for offspring health and demographic patterns, further research on this trend is warranted. No funding was received for this study and there are no competing interests. N/A.

  1. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  2. Caregiving Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coping with Alzheimer’s COPD Caregiving Take Care! Caregiver Statistics Statistics on Family Caregivers and Family Caregiving Caregiving Population ... Health Care Caregiver Self-Awareness State by State Statistics Caregiving Population The value of the services family ...

  3. Ansiedad y acontecimientos vitales en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la posible relación entre acontecimientos vitales (AV y ansiedad en población adolescente. Para la evaluación de AV se ha usado el AV.I.A (Inventarlo de Acontecimeintos Vitales en Infancia y Adolescencia (adaptado de P. Morató y para la evaluación de la ansiedad, el S.T.A.I.C. (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Children (Spielberger, 1973. La muestra consta de 695 adolescentes de 14 a 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que un mayor número de AV negativos repercute en la elevación de las tasas de ansiedad.

  4. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  5. Integration of Instrumentation for Measuring Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-31

    with ECO, NIBP, IBP, SpO2 and temperature. Protocol’s president claims this unit can oscillometrically measure blood pressure in a helicopter (personal...A1 RA 21 Blood pressurel Noninvasivel Medicall _______ Temperatures Heart ratel Blood oxygen It PecI CON ’ il. SECURITY CLASIWICATION is. SECUAITY...medical personnel. Vital signs that were deemed important included Sao02, electrocardiogram (ECO), respiration rate, and blood pressure. SaO2 gives a

  6. ASSESSMENT OF NEIGHBORHOOD VITALITY IN DOHA

    OpenAIRE

    Awwaad, Reem Youssef Amin

    2017-01-01

    Well-functioning urban environments are good causes of societies living healthily and happily. The performance of the public realm plays an important role, in this regard, where societies are in direct contact with their physical environment. Urban environments should be created in which economic prosperity, social cohesion, and citizenship occur. The concept of urban vitality achieves this through being concerned with the socio-cultural, experiential, and spatial dimensions of the urban envi...

  7. Community Vitality in Dynamic Temporal Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Cai; Li Min; Zou Deqing; Qu Shuyan; Han Lansheng; James J. Park

    2013-01-01

    Current researches on temporal networks mainly tend to detect community structure. A number of community detection algorithms can obtain community structure on each time slice or each period of time but rarely present the evolution of community structure. Some papers discussed the process of community structure evolution but lacked quantifying the evolution. In this paper, we put forward the concept of Community Vitality (CV), which shows a community's life intensity on a time slice. In the p...

  8. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  9. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  10. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  11. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  12. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  13. A Flexible Vital Sign Representation Framework for Mobile Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, H.; Widya, I.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Erfianto, Bayu

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for patient’s vital sign representations. This framework offers the flexibility to extend or to augment represented vital signs, e.g. with trend signs or professional’s annotations. It further enables multi standard representations of vital signs and meta-level information for processing of represented vital signs. Vital signs represented in accordance with this framework are therefore suitable for forwarding, processing and rendering within a heterogeneous mob...

  14. Teen Births: Examining the Recent Increase. Research Brief. Publication #2009-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    After a 14-year decline, the teen birth rate increased in 2006, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Between 2005 and 2006, the teen birth rate rose 3.5 percent, from 40.5 to 41.9 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19. The number of teen births rose by 20,843, from 414,593 to 435,436 births, the largest annual increase…

  15. Heart rate variability analysis is more sensitive at identifying neonatal sepsis than conventional vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanon, Fredrick J; Mrazek, Amy A; Shabana, Mohamed T; Mims, Sarah; Radhakrishnan, Geetha L; Kramer, George C; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S

    2015-10-01

    Sepsis remains the largest preventable source of neonatal mortality in the world. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and noninvasive cardiac output have been shown to be useful adjuncts to sepsis detection in many patient groups. With Institutional Review Board approval, 4 septic and 6 nonseptic extremely low birth weight patients were enrolled. Data from septic and healthy patients were collected for 5 hours. Electrocardiogram waveform and traditional vital signs were collected and the RR intervals were calculated; then HRV analysis was performed in both the time and frequency domain. HRV measurements in time domain, heart rate, and pulse oximetry (SpO2) were significantly different in septic patients vs nonseptic controls. These results indicate that nonconventional vital signs such as HRV are more sensitive than traditionally used vital signs, such as cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, in the confirmation of sepsis in extremely low birth weight neonates. HRV may allow for earlier identification of septic physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The birth satisfaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caroline Hollins; Fleming, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a psychometric scale--the birth satisfaction scale (BSS)--for assessing women's birth perceptions. Literature review and transcribed research-based perceived birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction expression statements were converted into a scored questionnaire. Three overarching themes were identified: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, long labour and baby's health). Women construct their birth experience differently. Views are directed by personal beliefs, reactions, emotions and reflections, which alter in relation to mood, humour, disposition, frame of mind and company kept. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals can use BSS to assess women's birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Scores measure their service quality experiences. Scores provide a global measure of care that women perceived they received during labour. Finding out more about what causes birth satisfaction and dissatisfaction helps maternity care professionals improve intra-natal care standards and allocate resources effectively. An attempt has been made to capture birth satisfaction's generalised meaning and incorporate it into an evidence-based measuring tool.

  17. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Birth Control Methods - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ... Dari) PDF Birth Control Methods - دری (Dari) MP3 Family Tree Clinic Teen Wise Minnesota Farsi (فارسی) Expand Section ...

  18. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  19. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  20. Nonlinear Behaviour of Vital Physiological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    Nonlinearity is an intrinsic property of biological and physiological systems. Strictly speaking, almost all physiological processes are nonlinear. The linear behaviour seems to be rather an exception which is applicable only for small changes in physiological processes. Vital physiological systems such as heartbeat, respiration, blood circulation, oxygenation, and body temperature exhibit strong nonlinearities in order to fulfil their respective functions in time and space domains, and, on the other hand, to account for limiting environmental conditions. Nonlinearities ensure an effective use of body resources such as limited energy, available biological space for reactions, and finite time to provide a substantive output.

  1. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  3. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  4. TIROTOXICOSIS GESTACIONAL: PATOLOGIA CON RIESGO VITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R.,Enrique; Pilasi M.,Carlos; Núñez U,Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico con diagnóstico final de Tirotoxicosis gestacional que debuta con una complicación excepcional, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva e hipertensión pulmonar severa. Se presenta la experiencia del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo que su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos son la base del pronóstico de esta patología de riesgo vital para el binomio madre-hijo

  5. New website will help record vital life events to improve access to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Free resource library, with curated documents, information videos, terms and definitions, and tools for civil registration, health information, and vital statistics systems. Directory of experts for governments, development practitioners, and others seeking expertise in support of CRVS system strengthening ...

  6. Clinical Inquiry: Does caffeine intake during pregnancy affect birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Taralee; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    No. Reducing caffeinated coffee consumption by 180 mg of caffeine (the equivalent of 2 cups) per day after 16 weeks' gestation doesn't affect birth weight. Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day is associated with a clinically trivial, and statistically insignificant (less than 1 ounce), reduction in birth weight, compared with consuming no caffeine.

  7. Second-birth rates in Denmark from 1980 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2010-01-01

    A statistical age-period-cohort model was used to depict second-time birth rates and the spacing between the first and second child in Denmark, including 524,316 one-child mothers who gave birth to 296,923 second children 1980-1994. The spacing between the first and second child varies according...

  8. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the differences were respectively significant (P < 0.01). Birth weight of lambs also depended on weight of lamb, although differences in the average body weight of lambs were statistically.

  9. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  10. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  11. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  12. Early diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Massachusetts birth cohorts, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Susan E; Davin, Carol A; Barfield, Wanda D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Clements, Karen; Diop, Hafsatou; Osbahr, Tracy; Smith, Lauren A

    2011-06-01

    We examined trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses by age 36 months (early diagnoses) and identified characteristics associated with early diagnoses. Massachusetts birth certificate and early-intervention program data were linked to identify infants born between 2001 and 2005 who were enrolled in early intervention and receiving autism-related services before age 36 months (through December 31, 2008). Trends in early autism spectrum disorders were examined using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. χ² Statistics were used to compare distributions of selected characteristics for children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of early diagnoses. A total of 3013 children (77.5 per 10,000 study population births) were enrolled in early intervention for autism spectrum disorder by age 36 months. Autism spectrum disorder incidence increased from 56 per 10,000 infants among the 2001 birth cohort to 93 per 10,000 infants in 2005. Infants of mothers younger than 24 years of age, whose primary language was not English or who were foreign-born had lower odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Maternal age older than 30 years was associated with increased odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Odds of early autism spectrum disorders were 4.5 (95% confidence interval: 4.1-5.0) times higher for boys than girls. Early autism spectrum disorder diagnoses are increasing in Massachusetts, reflecting the national trend observed among older children. Linkage of early-intervention program data with population-based vital statistics is valuable for monitoring autism spectrum disorder trends and planning developmental and educational service needs.

  13. Accuracy of Birth Certificate Data for Classifying Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-05-01

    Classifying preterm birth as spontaneous or indicated is critical both for clinical care and research, yet the accuracy of classification based on different data sources is unclear. We examined the accuracy of preterm birth classification as spontaneous or indicated based on birth certificate data. This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 birth certificates from preterm births in Missouri. Correct classification of spontaneous or indicated preterm birth subtype was based on multi-provider (RN, MFM Fellow, MFM attending) consensus after full medical record review. A categorisation algorithm based on clinical data available in the birth certificate was designed a priori and classification was performed by a single investigator according to the algorithm. Accuracy of birth certificate classification as spontaneous or indicated was compared to the consensus classification. Errors in misclassification were explored. Classification based on birth certificates was correct for 66% of preterm births. Most errors in classification by birth certificate occurred in classifying a birth as spontaneous when it was in fact indicated. The vast majority of errors occurred when preterm rupture of membranes (≥12 h) was checked on the birth certificate causing classification as spontaneous when there was a maternal or fetal indication for delivery. Birth certificate classification overestimated spontaneous preterm birth and underestimated indicated preterm birth compared to classification performed from medical record review. Revisions to birth certificate clinical data would allow more accurate population level surveillance of preterm birth subtypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Finer, Lawrence B; Bankole, Akinrinola; Eilers, Michelle A; Singh, Susheela

    2015-02-01

    To examine pregnancy rates and outcomes (births and abortions) among 15- to 19-year olds and 10- to 14-year olds in all countries for which recent information could be obtained and to examine trends since the mid-1990s. Information was obtained from countries' vital statistics reports and the United Nations Statistics Division for most countries in this study. Alternate sources of information were used if needed and available. We present estimates primarily for 2011 and compare them to estimates published for the mid-1990s. Among the 21 countries with complete statistics, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year olds was the highest in the United States (57 pregnancies per 1,000 females) and the lowest rate was in Switzerland (8). Rates were higher in some former Soviet countries with incomplete statistics; they were the highest in Mexico and Sub-Saharan African countries with available information. Among countries with reliable evidence, the highest rate among 10- to 14-year olds was in Hungary. The proportion of teen pregnancies that ended in abortion ranged from 17% in Slovakia to 69% in Sweden. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in live births tended to be higher in countries with high teen pregnancy rates (p = .02). The pregnancy rate has declined since the mid-1990s in the majority of the 16 countries where trends could be assessed. Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy rates remain high in many countries. Research on the planning status of these pregnancies and on factors that determine how teens resolve their pregnancies could further inform programs and policies. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FastStats: Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... and other higher order births: 24 Twin birth rate: 33.5 per 1,000 live births Triplet ...

  16. Birth: Icon Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Sargeant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth: Icon Drawings (2011 are a series of pencil and ink drawings that unite the public practice of watching YouTube birth videos with the more personal experience of giving birth oneself. Sargeant aims to expose the physical and emotional experience of birth, paying attention to both her own feelings of emotional detachment during the delivery of her sons, and to the idea of traumatic birth more generally. The artist considers the vulnerability of both mother and child, and through the inclusion of adult hands seeks to represent the carers that aid a birthing mother to be (e.g., the woman’s partner, the midwife, the doula, a family member, or a friend. The depiction of the mother's body for Sargeant refers back to earlier sketches made in the series M(other Icons. Here, the mother is depicted as fragmented, ethereal, and empty. Such emptiness, despite the presence of a child, is also hinted at in Birth: Icon Drawings. The simple and anatomical style of drawing that Sargeant adopts makes reference to historical sketches of the body and, in particular, to those housed by the Wellcome Trust. The decorative and abstract detail surrounding the vagina is intended to contrast with the complexity of a disembodied mother subject, and to attract the eye of the viewer into the sketch.

  17. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Tychele; Pihur, Vasyl; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2011-01-01

    .... We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate...

  18. The impact of the Wenchuan earthquake on birth outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong E Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthquakes and other catastrophic events frequently occurring worldwide can be considered as outliers and cause a growing and urgent need to improve our understanding of the negative effects imposed by such disasters. Earthquakes can intensively impact the birth outcomes upon psychological and morphological development of the unborn children, albeit detailed characteristics remain obscure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the birth records at Du Jiang Yan and Peng Zhou counties to investigate the birth outcomes as a consequence of a major earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, China on May 12, 2008. Totally 13,003 of neonates were recorded, with 6638 and 6365 for pre- and post- earthquake, respectively. Significant low birthweight, high ratio of low birthweight, and low Apgar scores of post-earthquake group were observed. In contrast, the sex ratio at birth, birth length and length of gestation did not show statistical differences. The overall ratio of birth-defect in the post-earthquake (1.18% is statistically high than that of pre-earthquake (0.99%, especially for those in the first trimester on earthquake day (1.47%. The birth-defect spectrum was dramatically altered after earthquake, with the markedly increased occurrences of ear malformations. The ratio of preterm birth post-earthquake (7.41% is significant increased than that of pre-earthquake (5.63%. For the birth outcomes of twins, significant differences of the ratio of twins, birth weight, ratio of low birthweight and birth-defect rate were observed after earthquake. CONCLUSION: A hospital-based study of birth outcomes impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake shows that the earthquake was associated with significant effects on birth outcomes, indicating it is a major monitor for long-term pregnant outcomes.

  19. Statistics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, David J

    2008-01-01

    Statistics has evolved into an exciting discipline which uses deep theory and powerful software to shed light on the world around us: from clinical trials in medicine, to economics, sociology, and countless other subjects vital to understanding modern life. This Very Short Introduction explores and explains how statistics works today. - ;Modern statistics is very different from the dry and dusty discipline of the popular imagination. In its place is an exciting subject which uses deep theory and powerful software tools to shed light and enable understanding. And it sheds this light on all aspe

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-02

    This podcast is based on the February 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. More than three million women in the U.S. are at risk for exposing their developing baby to alcohol. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that can affect a child’s whole life. Learn what can be done to keep developing babies healthy.  Created: 2/2/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 2/2/2016.

  1. Development of a remote vital signs sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, M.D.; Pacheco, M.S.; Rivas, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the work at Sandia National Laboratories to develop sensors that remotely detect unique life-form characteristics, such as breathing patterns or heartbeat patterns. This paper will address the Technical Support Working Group`s (TSWG) objective: to develop a remote vital signs detector which can be used to assess someone`s malevolent intent. The basic concept of operations for the projects, system development issues, and the preliminary results for a radar device currently in-house and the implications for implementation are described. A survey that identified the in-house technology currently being evaluated is reviewed, as well as ideas for other potential technologies to explore. A radar unit for breathing and heartbeat detection is being tested, and the applicability of infrared technology is being explored. The desire for rapid prototyping is driving the need for off-the-shelf technology. As a conclusion, current status and future directions of the effort are reviewed.

  2. Ley de urgencia y riesgo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Leoncio Tay, Dr.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone las disposiciones vigentes que deben ser observadas en las Unidades de Emergencias en el momento de atender pacientes que están cursando una urgencia médica con compromiso vital o riesgo de la pérdida total la función de un órgano o extremidad, que requiere una atención médica inmediata e impostergable, condición que debe presentarse simultáneamente. Se detalla el marco jurídico administrativo y el proceso operativo que se debe considerar para el buen desarrollo de la aplicación de la Ley de Urgencia. La Ley comporta beneficios para los pacientes, como el acceso a la atención sin mediar garantía previa y el respaldo económico, para lo cual se deben cumplir ciertas condiciones.

  3. Understanding External Cervical Resorption in Vital Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, Athina M; Hauben, Esther; Wevers, Martine; Schepers, Evert; Bergmans, Lars; Lambrechts, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) structure and the cellular and tissue characteristics of external cervical resorption (ECR) in vital teeth and to understand the phenomenon of ECR by combining histomorphological and radiographic findings. Twenty-seven cases of vital permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The extracted teeth were further analyzed by using nanofocus computed tomographic imaging, hard tissue histology, and scanning electron microscopy. All examined teeth showed some common characteristics. Based on the clinical and experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism of ECR was proposed. At the first stage (ie, the initiation stage), ECR was initiated at the cementum below the gingival epithelial attachment. At the second stage (ie, the resorption stage), the resorption invaded the tooth structure 3-dimensionally toward the pulp space. However, it did not penetrate the pulp space because of the presence of a pericanalar resorption-resistant sheet. This layer was observed to consist of predentin, dentin, and occasionally reparative mineralized (bonelike) tissue, having a fluctuating thickness averaging 210 μm. At the last advanced stage (ie, the repair stage), repair took place by an ingrowth and apposition of bonelike tissue into the resorption cavity. During the reparative stage, repair and remodeling phenomena evolve simultaneously, whereas both resorption and reparative stages progress in parallel at different areas of the tooth. ECR is a dynamic and complex condition that involves periodontal and endodontic tissues. Using clinical, histologic, radiographic, and scanning microscopic analysis, a better understanding of the evolution of ECR is possible. Based on the experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism for the initiation and growth of ECR is proposed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  4. A Flexible Vital Sign Representation Framework for Mobile Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, H.; Widya, I.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Erfianto, Bayu

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for patient’s vital sign representations. This framework offers the flexibility to extend or to augment represented vital signs, e.g. with trend signs or professional’s annotations. It further enables multi standard representations of vital signs and meta-level

  5. Importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio en el ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis MELERO MARCOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A lo largo del ciclo vital, los individuos experimentan una serie de acontecimientos que, sin duda, influyen en su desarrollo individual y colectivo. Tales acontecimientos parecen introducir cambios en la vida de los sujetos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio, desde la consideración de que el estudio de los mismos es consustancial con el estudio del ciclo vital. Desde este punto de partida, se ha establecido la existencia de diversos tipos de clasificaciones de acontecimientos, como la aportada por Rodrigo (1985, que plantea la existencia de tres tipos de eventos, eventos normativos relacionados con la edad, eventos normativos relacionados con el tiempo histórico, y finalmente, un tercer tipo de acontecimientos considerados como no normativos, que solamente son experimentados por algunos sujetos a lo largo de su vida. Analizaremos aquellos factores que adquieren significado en el desarrollo de los acontecimientos vitales y en la forma como los perciben los individuos que los experimentan, desde la revisión de los principales modelos explicativos, polarizados en dos grandes paradigmas, organicista y mecanicista, así como el intento de aproximación a través de modelos contextúales-dialécticos a una posición intermedia entre el paradigma organicista y el paradigma mecanicista.ABSTRACT: Throughout the vital cycle, individuals undergo experiences which no doubt exert an influence on their development. The present article analyzes the importance of vital events as change factors. We assume their inseparability. Adopting the classification established by Rodrigo (1985 we distinguish three classes of events, namely, normative events related to age, normative events related to historical time and non normative events which are not universally experienced by all subjects. We will analyze those factors which have relevant meaning in the development of vital events

  6. Birth control pill overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of an overdose of birth control pills include: Breast tenderness Discolored urine Drowsiness Heavy vaginal bleeding (2 to 7 days after the overdose) Headache Emotional changes Nausea and vomiting Rash

  7. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother has certain infections (such as toxoplasmosis ) during pregnancy, her baby can have a birth defect. Other conditions that cause defects include rubella and chickenpox (varicella). Fortunately, many people get vaccinated ...

  8. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ... Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg Avenue PO Box 1710 Gold Beach, OR 97444 541-425-5311 Accredited since ...

  9. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  11. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  12. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  13. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  14. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  15. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  16. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  17. Month of birth and schizophrenia in Korea. Sex, family history, and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C E; Lee, Y S; Lim, Y H; Noh, I Y; Park, S H

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates whether there is any difference in the month of birth between people with schizophrenia and controls in Korea. When 1606 patients with schizophrenia were compared with 4582 age- and sex-matched controls, there was no statistically significant difference in the month of birth, the season of birth of schizophrenic patients was not related to sex, family history or handedness.

  18. Ingroup vitality and intergroup attitudes in a linguistic minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebkind, Karmela; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Teräsaho, Mia

    2007-10-01

    In this study we argue that predictions of the impact of group status, status stability and status legitimacy on intergroup attitudes can be refined using the subjective perceptions of various dimensions of ingroup vitality. We tested the main and moderating effects of perceived present, future and the legitimacy of present ingroup vitality and perceived discrimination on intergroup attitudes in a nation-wide probability sample (N= 1,411) of Swedish-speaking Finns, controlling for ingroup identification. We found that those who perceived the legitimacy of present ingroup vitality to be low had more negative intergroup attitudes than those who perceived the legitimacy to be high. Perceived present and future ingroup vitality had no main effects on the dependent variable. Instead, perceived future ingroup vitality moderated the effect of perceived discrimination on intergroup attitudes. In addition, the perceived legitimacy of present ingroup vitality mediated the effect of perceived present ingroup vitality on intergroup attitudes.

  19. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  20. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  1. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  2. Exploring Vital Sign Data Quality in Electronic Health Records with Focus on Emergency Care Warning Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyttberg, Niclas; Chen, Rong; Blomqvist, Hans; Koch, Sabine

    2017-08-30

    Computerized clinical decision support and automation of warnings have been advocated to assist clinicians in detecting patients at risk of physiological instability. To provide reliable support such systems are dependent on high-quality vital sign data. Data quality depends on how, when and why the data is captured and/or documented. This study aims to describe the effects on data quality of vital signs by three different types of documentation practices in five Swedish emergency hospitals, and to assess data fitness for calculating warning and triage scores. The study also provides reference data on triage vital signs in Swedish emergency care. We extracted a dataset including vital signs, demographic and administrative data from emergency care visits (n=335027) at five Swedish emergency hospitals during 2013 using either completely paper-based, completely electronic or mixed documentation practices. Descriptive statistics were used to assess fitness for use in emergency care decision support systems aiming to calculate warning and triage scores, and data quality was described in three categories: currency, completeness and correctness. To estimate correctness, two further categories - plausibility and concordance - were used. The study showed an acceptable correctness of the registered vital signs irrespectively of the type of documentation practice. Completeness was high in sites where registrations were routinely entered into the Electronic Health Record (EHR). The currency was only acceptable in sites with a completely electronic documentation practice. Although vital signs that were recorded in completely electronic documentation practices showed plausible results regarding correctness, completeness and currency, the study concludes that vital signs documented in Swedish emergency care EHRs cannot generally be considered fit for use for calculation of triage and warning scores. Low completeness and currency were found if the documentation was not completely

  3. Purpose and Vitality of Rumours: Political Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with social instrumental intention of rumours and their expression. It also reveals the social and political role of rumours in controlling the behaviour of a group of members and preserving its identity. The dual nature of rumours is analyzed as well as gnosiological, psychological and sociological reasons. On the one hand, the roots of rumour vitality are hidden in the dualism of this phenomenon, where in a strange way contradictory things get on well together ­ private and public, moral and immoral, the truth and the lie, between which it is not easy to draw a clear boundary even in everyday life. On the other hand, a rumour is alive because of our constant thirst for additional and fresher information, trying to perceive a person, an action or a phenomenon better. At the same time, it stimulates the proclaimers of the official political information to find the ways for the provided information to be more accurate, open, exhaustive as possible, presented in an understandable and accessible form. There the power of the effect of a rumour lays, a phenomenon without authorship, but with an authority to which, more or less, all of us are to obey. 

  4. Defining the vital condition for organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamperetti Nereo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called "dead donor rule". Such change would involve the societal and legal abandonment of the above rule and the introduction of mandated choice. In this commentary, we review some of the problems associated with the proposed changes as well as the problems associated with the current model. We emphasize the continuing problems with the definition of death and the physiological process of dying; we discuss the difficulties associated with a dichotomous view of death; we review the difficulties with non-beating heart donation and emphasize the current limitations of society's understanding of these complex issues. We conclude that public education remains the best approach and that such education should not be merely promotion of a particular ideology but honest debate of what is socially and morally acceptable and appropriate given the changes in vital organ support technology and the need to respect patient autonomy.

  5. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  6. Prediction of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, F; Gravino, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-06-01

    Preterm delivery is birth occurring before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially if this occurs before 34 weeks of gestation. If preterm birth could be predicted and treated accordingly, this would greatly reduce mortality, morbidity and associated costs. There have been many attempts to develop an accurate and efficient method to predict preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm labor that leads to spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). However, the initial signs and symptoms are most often mild and may even occur in normal pregnancies, making early detection rather difficult. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current methods employed in predicting preterm birth occurring due to preterm labor and PPROM. Among these methods are risk scoring systems, cervical/vaginal screening for fetal fibronectin, cervical assessment by ultrasonography, uterine activity monitoring, biomarkers such as endocrine factors, cytokines and enzymes, fetal DNA and genetic polymorphism. SPB is multifactorial, and so it is highly unlikely that a single test can accurately predict SPB. A combination of biological markers is also reviewed in the estimation of the risk of preterm delivery.

  7. Vital registration and under-reporting of maternal mortality in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, Affette M; Mullings, Jasneth A; Holder, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    To identify why vital registration under-reports maternal deaths in Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify all maternal deaths (during pregnancy or ≤42 days after pregnancy ended) occurring in 2008. Data sources included vital registration, hospital records, forensic pathology records, and an independent maternal mortality surveillance system. Potential cases were cross-referenced to registered live births and stillbirths, and hospital records to confirm pregnancy status, when the pregnancy ended, and registration. Medical certificates were inspected for certification, transcription, and coding errors. Maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) for registered and/or unregistered deaths were calculated. Of 50 maternal deaths identified, 10 (20%) were unregistered. Eight unregistered deaths were coroners' cases. Among 40 registered deaths, pregnancy was undocumented in 4 (10%). Among the other 36, 24 (67%) had been misclassified (59% direct and 89% indirect deaths). Therefore, only 12 (30%) registered maternal deaths had been coded as maternal deaths, yielding an MMR of 28.3 per 100 000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-48.3), which was 76% lower than the actual MMR of 117.8 (95% CI 85.2-150.4). Under-reporting of maternal deaths in Jamaica in 2008 was attributable to delayed registration of coroners' cases and misclassification. Timely registration of coroners' cases and training of nosologists to recognize and code maternal deaths is needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  10. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  11. Development of a prehospital vital signs chart sharing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Taka-aki; Masunaga, Naohisa; Nakao, Shota; Narita, Maiko; Fuse, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Physiological parameters are crucial for the caring of trauma patients. There is a significant loss of prehospital vital signs data of patients during handover between prehospital and in-hospital teams. Effective strategies for reducing the loss remain a challenging research area. We tested whether the newly developed electronic automated prehospital vital signs chart sharing system would increase the amount of prehospital vital signs data shared with a remote trauma center prior to hospital arrival. Fifty trauma patients, transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan, were studied. The primary outcome variable was the number of prehospital vital signs shared with the trauma center prior to hospital arrival. The prehospital vital signs chart sharing system significantly increased the number of prehospital vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, shared with the in-hospital team at a remote trauma center prior to patient arrival at the hospital (P prehospital vital signs during ambulance transfer between patients who had severe bleeding and non-severe bleeding within 24 hours after injury onset. Vital signs data collected during ambulance transfer via patient monitors could be automatically converted to easily visible patient charts and effectively shared with the remote trauma center prior to hospital arrival. The prehospital vital signs chart sharing system increased the number of precise vital signs shared prior to patient arrival at the hospital, which can potentially contribute to better trauma care without increasing labor and reduce information loss during clinical handover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of simulation on the ability of first year nursing students to learn vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyikara, Evrim; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor knowledge and skills are required in nursing, made possible via an interactive teaching method, such as simulation. This study conducted to identify the impact of simulation on first-year nursing students' ability to learn vital signs. A convenience sample of 90 first-year nursing students enrolled at a University, Ankara, in 2014-2015. Ninety students enrolled for lessons on the "Fundamentals of Nursing" were identified using a simple random sampling method. The students were taught vital signs theory via traditional methods. They were grouped into experimental 1, experimental 2 and control group, of 30 students each. Students in the experimental 1 group attended sessions on simulation and those in the experimental 2 group sessions on laboratory work, followed by simulation. The control group were taught via traditional methods and only attended the laboratory work sessions. The students' cognitive knowledge acquisition was evaluated using a knowledge test before and after the lessons. The ability to measure vital signs in adults (healthy ones and patients) was evaluated using a skill control list. A statistically significant difference was not observed between the groups in terms of the average pre-test scores on knowledge (p>0.050). Groups exposed to simulation obtained statistically significantly higher scores than the control group in post-test knowledge (pnursing students to measure vital signs. Thus, simulation should be included in the mainstream curriculum in order to effectively impart nursing knowledge and skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  15. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  16. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  17. WPRDC Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Data about the usage of the WPRDC site and its various datasets, obtained by combining Google Analytics statistics with information from the WPRDC's data portal.

  18. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  19. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  20. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  1. Trichomoniasis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Trichomoniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Trichomoniasis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir In ...

  2. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  3. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  4. Vital Energy and Afterlife: Implications for Cognitive Science of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Monteiro Roazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature investigating people’s concepts of supernatural agency (such as ghosts and deities points to an intuitive theory of mind underlying such ideas, however, recent studies suggest that intuitive ideas over vital energy could also be involved. The present paper focuses on examining the culture and development of people’s conceptions on vital energy. A search was made using the keyword vital energy targeting literature from Anthropology, Psychology and Cognitive Science. A literature review over this topic was made yielding reflections over the development of vital energy concepts. Results suggest that an intuitive biology, grounded on ideas of biological energy (vital energy, may underlie an understanding of soul, spirit, and supernatural energy. Future empirical studies should target the development of vital energy intuitive theories with different age ranges and cultures.

  5. Effectiveness of a worksite lifestyle intervention on vitality, work engagement, productivity, and sick leave: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Jorien E; Proper, Karin I; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-01-01

    A worksite lifestyle intervention aiming to improve lifestyle behaviors could be an effective tool to keep older workers vital, and thereby prolong their labor participation. Therefore, this study evaluates the effectiveness of such an intervention on vitality, work engagement, productivity and sick leave. In a randomized controlled trial design, 367 workers (control group: N=363) received a 6-month intervention, which included two weekly guided group sessions: one yoga and one workout, as well as one weekly session of aerobic exercising, without face-to-face instruction, and three individual coach visits aimed at changing workers' lifestyle behavior by goal setting, feedback, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, free fruit was provided at the guided sessions. Data on work-related vitality (UWES vitality scale), general vitality (RAND-36 vitality scale), work engagement (UWES), productivity (single item scoring 0-10), and sick leave (yes/no past 3 months) were collected using questionnaires at baseline (N=730), and at 6- (N=575) and 12-months (N=500) follow-up. Effects were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle with complete cases (N=500) and imputed data (N=730). There were no significant differences in vitality, work engagement, productivity, and sick leave between the intervention and control group workers after either 6- and 12-months follow-up. Yoga and workout subgroup analyses showed a 12-month favorable effect on work-related vitality [β=0.14, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.04-0.28] and general vitality (β=2.9, 95% CI 0.02-5.9) among high yoga compliers. For high workout compliers, this positive trend was also seen, but it was not statistically significant. Implementation of worksite yoga facilities could be a useful strategy to promote vitality-related work outcomes, but only if high compliance can be maximized. Therefore, impeding factors for participation should be investigated in more detail in future research.

  6. Association between periodontitis, periodontopathogens and preterm birth: is it real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Rita Elizabeth; Moreno-Castillo, Diana Francisca; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Sánchez-Medrano, Ana Gabriela; Miguel-Hernández, Jesús Héctor San; Olvera-Delgado, José Honorio; Domínguez-Pérez, Rubén Abraham

    2016-07-01

    To identify the association between periodontitis and periodontal pathogens with preterm birth despite the strict control of some important confounders, such as infectious processes and criteria for diagnosis of periodontitis during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study were included 70 healthy puerperal women between 20 and 35 years without a history of genitourinary infections during pregnancy. Based on the gestational age they were divided into two groups: 45 with term birth (>37 weeks) and 25 with preterm birth (periodontal status applying different authors' criteria of periodontitis diagnosis, presence of periodontopathogens, dental caries and oral hygiene were recorded. There was no association between periodontitis, periodontopathogens and preterm birth. There were no statistical differences applying different authors' criteria diagnosis of periodontitis. Gingivitis status was similar, but probing depth was greater in preterm birth subjects, perhaps they are young women, and this finding could be an early sign of periodontitis. In like manner, the main periodontal bacterial species are not associated with preterm birth, general hygiene and care habits are poorer than term birth subjects. We could suggest that preterm birth is a multifactorial condition and the role of periodontitis and the periodontopathogens itself is not sufficient to trigger the preterm birth. There are factors such as infectious processes and diagnostic criteria for periodontitis that could be responsible for controversial results.

  7. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  8. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal mortality rates

  9. Restoring Faculty Vitality in Academic Medicine When Burnout Threatens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshana T; Williams, Valerie N; Thorndyke, Luanne E; Marsh, E Eugene; Sonnino, Roberta E; Block, Steven M; Viggiano, Thomas R

    2017-11-21

    Increasing rates of burnout-with accompanying stress and lack of engagement-among faculty, residents, students, and practicing physicians have caused alarm in academic medicine. Central to the debate among academic medicine's stakeholders are oft-competing issues of social accountability; cost containment; effectiveness of academic medicine's institutions; faculty recruitment, retention, and satisfaction; increasing expectations for faculty; and mission-based productivity.The authors propose that understanding and fostering what contributes to faculty and institutional vitality is central to preventing burnout during times of change. They first look at faculty vitality and how it is threatened by burnout, to provide a framework for a greater understanding of faculty well-being. Then they draw on higher education literature to determine how vitality is defined in academic settings and what factors affect faculty vitality within the context of academic medicine. Next, they propose a model to explain and examine faculty vitality in academic medicine, followed by a discussion of the need for a greater understanding of faculty vitality. Finally, the authors offer conclusions and propose future directions to promote faculty vitality.The authors encourage institutional decision makers and other stakeholders to focus particular attention on the evolving expectations for faculty, the risk of extensive faculty burnout, and the opportunity to reduce burnout by improving the vitality and resilience of these talented and crucial contributors. Faculty vitality, as defined by the institution, has a critical role in ensuring future institutional successes and the capacity for faculty to thrive in a complex health care economy.

  10. 77 FR 34044 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Hilton Hotel Silver Spring, 8727 Colesville Road, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, Tel: 1-301-589-5200. Status: Open. Purpose: The purpose of the hearing is to receive an update from industry on the... Standards Maintenance Organization (DSMO), and industry preparations for the first set of operating rules...

  11. 78 FR 54470 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... records and the Meaningful Use program, implementation of national messaging and vocabulary standards for... Use; (4) Quality and Patient Safety; and, (5) Privacy and Security. Contact Person for More...

  12. [Comparison of Chuvashs with Maris and Russians by vital statistics and the Crow index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'chinova, G I; Zinchenko, R A; Zinchenko, S P; Ginter, E K

    2002-01-01

    Genetic demographic characteristics were calculated for Chuvash and Russian inhabitants of the Republic of Chuvashia. The generation lengths were 27.09 and 26.4 years and the sibship sizes were 2.54 and 1.82 for Chuvashes and Russians, respectively. Crow's indices and their components were as follows: Im = 0.05, If = 0.31, and Itot = 0.37 for Chuvashes and Im = 0.03, If = 0.43, and Itot = 0.46 for Russians. The genetic demographic characteristics obtained were compared with those for Highland and Meadow Maris.

  13. 78 FR 65317 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... coding, document-type standards, message content, structure and format standards, transport, vocabulary... hearing to focus on important considerations for standardized definitions of public health variables...

  14. 75 FR 60459 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics; Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... health data standards and health information privacy as a result of the Administrative Simplification... financing health care services, integrated computerized health information systems, health services research... health data policy, data standards, health information privacy, population- based data and HIPAA...

  15. The Relative Stability of Remarriages: A Cohort Approach Using Vital Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sally Cuningham; Wilson, Barbara Foley

    1994-01-01

    Of marriages in 1972, fewer joint remarriages than first marriages ended in divorce. Within specific age/sex groupings (e.g., men 20 to 24 years old), more remarriages than first marriages ended in divorce. Difference occurred because couples entering remarriages were older than those entering first marriages and divorce rates declined with…

  16. 77 FR 34044 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... briefing on a Standards Subcommittee meeting; and hear subcommittee reports, strategic plans and discuss next steps. After the full Committee adjourns, the new Working Group on HHS Data Access and Use will.... ] Dated: June 1, 2012. James Scanlon, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Office of...

  17. 78 FR 34100 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Disorders, 5th edition. Finally, the Subcommittee will discuss new uses of ICD-10 data by different stakeholders, including relationships to new payment models, big data/data analytics, population management...

  18. 78 FR 942 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... and administrative information exchanges, and industry moves from a claim-centric, transaction-based administrative information infrastructure to quality-oriented and outcomes-based reporting. Contact Person for... Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and...

  19. 76 FR 54469 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... also is available on the NCVHS home page of the HHS Web site: http://www.ncvhs.hhs.gov/ , where further...) Standards and Operating Rules Development and Maintenance; (2) Status of implementation/transition to 5010... on the second day. Agendas for these breakout sessions will be posted on the NCVHS Web site (URL...

  20. 77 FR 9660 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... home page of the HHS Web site: http://www.ncvhs.hhs.gov/ , where further information including an... Rule Maintenance Process. After lunch, an update will be given on the March 8-9, 2012 NCVHS... information will be provided on the NCVHS Web site at http://www.ncvhs.hhs.gov/ . The times shown above are...

  1. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also have their blood pressure checked 3 months after they begin to take the pill. Birth control pills only work well if the woman remembers to take her pill daily without missing a day. Only 2 or 3 women out of 100 ...

  2. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form of di...

  3. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  4. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man to do. It takes a lot of self-control. Even if you use withdrawal, sperm can be ... 1–104. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Birth Control: Medicines to Help You. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). FC2 Female condom . National Cancer Institute. (2012). Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk . Wright, ...

  5. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  6. Wireless chest wearable vital sign monitoring platform for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, G; Guldenring, D; Finlay, D; McLaughlin, J

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension, a silent killer, is the biggest challenge of the 21 st century in public health agencies worldwide [1]. World Health Organization (WHO) statistic shows that the mortality rate of hypertension is 9.4 million per year and causes 55.3% of total deaths in cardiovascular (CV) patients [2]. Early detection and prevention of hypertension can significantly reduce the CV mortality. We are presenting a wireless chest wearable vital sign monitoring platform. It measures Electrocardiogram (ECG), Photoplethsmogram (PPG) and Ballistocardiogram (BCG) signals and sends data over Bluetooth low energy (BLE) to mobile phone-acts as a gateway. A custom android application relays the data to thingspeak server where MATLAB based offline analysis estimates the blood pressure. A server reacts on the health of subject to friends & family on the social media - twitter. The chest provides a natural position for the sensor to capture legitimate signals for hypertension condition. We have done a clinical technical evaluation of prototypes on 11 normotensive subjects, 9 males 2 females.

  7. CDC Signos Vitales-Seguridad de los camioneros (Vital Signs-Trucker Safety)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de marzo del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En el 2012 en los Estados Unidos, ocurrieron cerca de 317 000 choques asociados a camiones pesados. Veintiséis mil camioneros y sus pasajeros sufrieron lesiones en esos choques, y cerca de 700 murieron. Infórmese sobre lo que se puede hacer para que los camioneros estén seguros.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  8. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  9. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  10. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  11. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  13. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  14. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  15. Statistical Mechancis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.

  16. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Statistical Computing - Understanding Randomness and Random Numbers. Sudhakar Kunte. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 16-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  18. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  19. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and birth outcomes in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Martinez, David; Costa, Olga; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Pereda-Pereda, Eva; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in 1st-trimester maternal plasma (years: 2003-2008) in 1202 mother-child pairs. Continuous birth outcomes included standardized weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Binary outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. We calculated maternal GFR from plasma-creatinine measurements in the 1st-trimester of pregnancy (n=765) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. We used mixed-effects linear and logistic models with region of residence as random effect and adjustment for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fish intake during pregnancy. Newborns in this study weighted on average 3263g and had a median gestational age of 39.8weeks. The most abundant PFAS were PFOS and PFOA (median: 6.05 and 2.35ng/mL, respectively). Overall, PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated to birth outcomes. PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA showed weak, non-statistically significant associations with reduced birth weights ranging from 8.6g to 10.3g per doubling of exposure. Higher PFOS exposure was associated with an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.68) for LBW (similar in births-at-term) in boys. Maternal GFR did not confound the associations. In this study, PFAS showed little association with birth outcomes. Higher PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were non-significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The association between PFOS and LBW seemed to be sex-specific. Finally, maternal GFR measured

  20. Documentation of pediatric vital signs by EMS providers over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Hilary; Hunsaker, Shari; Christensen, Mathew; Whitney, Jolene; Dalrymple, Tia; Taillac, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric patients make up approximately 10% of EMS transports nationwide. Previous studies demonstrated that pediatric patients do not consistently have a full set of vitals signs obtained in the prehospital setting [1]. In certain conditions, such as traumatic head injury and shock, unrecognized hypotension and/or hypoxia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality [2,3]. To measure how often EMS providers obtain blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (Po), and respiratory rate (RR) on pediatric transport patients in the state of Utah from 2007 to 2014. To assess whether educational interventions improved the percentage of pediatric transport patients with a full set of vital signs documented. The trend of documenting the four critical vital signs improved over time for all four categories. Measurement of Po increased most consistently across all age groups. Blood pressure remained the most inconsistently obtained vital sign, especially in younger pediatric patients. The educational interventions introduced in late 2010 correlated with an increase in vital sign attainment. Assessment of pediatric vitals signs is a critical part of the evaluation and care of pediatric patients in the prehospital setting. Utah EMS providers improved their practice of documenting four pediatric vital signs over time after educational interventions. Obtaining a BP, especially in younger children, continues to be a challenge. More work remains to achieve the state goal of documenting all vital signs in >90% of pediatric transports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Full crown preparation of a vital tooth is outdated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, S.P.; van Pelt, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The restorative solutions for esthetic problems are becoming minimal invasive. Adhesive technology and materials as composite luting cements are biocompatible and therefor less harmfull for vital pulps. Necrosis of vital pulps hardly occurs and the survival of porcelain veneers is very good. The

  2. 46 CFR 111.60-9 - Segregation of vital circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of vital circuits. 111.60-9 Section 111.60-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-9 Segregation of vital circuits. (a) General. A...

  3. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus patula trees infected by Sirex noctilio using digital multispectral imagery. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality.

  4. An expanded model of faculty vitality in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankoski, Mary E; Palmer, Megan M; Nelson Laird, Thomas F; Ribera, Amy K; Bogdewic, Stephen P

    2012-12-01

    Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher education broadly and in academic medical centers specifically, this study proposes an expanded model of the unique factors that contribute to faculty vitality in academic medicine. We developed an online survey on the basis of a conceptual model (N = 564) and used linear regression to investigate the fit of the model. We examined the relationships of two predictor variables measuring Primary Unit Climate and Leadership and Career and Life Management with an overall Faculty Vitality index comprised of three measures: Professional Engagement, Career Satisfaction, and Productivity. The findings revealed significant predictive relationships between Primary Unit Climate and Leadership, Career and Life Management, and Faculty Vitality. The overall model accounted for 59% of the variance in the overall Faculty Vitality Index. The results provide new insights into the developing model of faculty vitality and inform initiatives to support faculty in academic medical centers. Given the immense challenges faced by faculty, now more than ever do we need reliable evidence regarding what sustains faculty vitality.

  5. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity.

  6. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  7. [Descriptive statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  8. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons

    1963-01-01

    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  9. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  10. Comparison of birth weight between school health records and medical birth records in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit

    2015-01-01

    performed using t tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and κ coefficients. Odds of BW discrepancies >100 g were examined by logistic regressions. RESULTS: The study population included 47 534 children. From 1973 to 1979 when BW was grouped in 500 g intervals in the MBR, mean BW......OBJECTIVE: To compare reported birth weight (BW) information in school health records with BW from medical birth records, and to investigate if maternal and offspring characteristics were associated with any discrepancies. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1973......-1991. PARTICIPANTS: The study was based on BW recorded in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) and in The Medical Birth Register (MBR). The registers were linked via the Danish personal identification number. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Statistical comparisons of BW in the registers were...

  11. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  12. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tychele; Pihur, Vasyl; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  13. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  14. Setting a goal to reduce teen births in Milwaukee by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoyo; Blair, Kathleen A; Ward, Trina C Salm; Bergstrorn, Jessica; Galvão, Loren; Cisler, Ron A

    2009-10-01

    Although teen birth rates have declined significantly since 1991, teen pregnancy remains a significant public health problem in Milwaukee, Wis. Using historical teen birth data trends, this study sets a birth rate reduction goal by the year 2015 for Milwaukee teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. Birth counts and birth rates for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17 were obtained from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health (WISH). Trend analyses were performed on teen birth rate data gathered between 1991 and 2006 in an effort to forecast and set a birth rate goal for the year 2015. Trend analyses yielded a predicted birth rate projection of 35.9 (Adjusted R2 = .95, P teens aged 15-17 years for the year 2015, which represents a 46% reduction of the 2006 rate of 55/1000.

  15. Birth order and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.

  16. Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    Mothers of multiple births face higher rates of postpartum depression, yet evidence on the marital consequences of multiple births is limited. We examined the association between twin births and parental divorce. We used the 1980 U.S. Census to identify a large sample of mothers with and without twin births. The goal was to estimate multivariate logistic models of the association between birth of twins and divorce adjusting for race, age at marriage and first birth, and college education. We examined whether the association was affected by maternal education, age and sex composition of twins, and family size. Twins at first birth were associated with greater parental divorce compared with singletons (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; absolute risk 13.7% with twins compared with 12.7%; P=.02). The association was statistically greater among mothers not attending college (14.9% with twins compared with 13.3%; P=.01) compared with those with some college (10.4% with twins compared with 10.5%; P=.34); those with children older than 8 years (15.6% with twins compared with 13.5%; Pdivorce (15.4% for mothers with twins at fourth birth compared with 11.3% for all other mothers with four or more children; Pdivorce. Specific groups, namely mothers not completing college and mothers who already have more children, may be at higher risk. II.

  17. Periodontal disease and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A

    2012-03-01

    Preterm birth (delivery at fewer than 37 weeks’ gestation) is the most common cause of infant morbidity and mortality among nonanomalous infants in the United States. Increasing evidence has focused on associations between clinical infection, inflammation, and preterm birth. Maternal periodontal disease, which is associated with systemic inflammation, has been associated with preterm birth. Intervention trails for treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy, however have not consistently shown a reduction in preterm birth rates. Despite the lack of reduction in preterm birth, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care and should be supported during pregnancy.

  18. Bypassing birthing centres for child birth: a community-based study in rural Chitwan Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child delivery in a health facility is important to reduce maternal mortality. Bypassing nearby birthing facility to deliver at a hospital is common in developing countries including Nepal. Very little is known about the extent and determinants of bypassing the birthing centres in Nepal. This study measures the status of bypassing, characteristics of bypassers and their reasons for bypassing. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six rural village development committees of Chitwan district of Nepal. Structured interviews were conducted with 263 mothers who had given birth at a health facility and whose nearest facility was a birthing centre. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results More than half of the mothers had bypassed the nearer birthing centres to deliver at hospital. Living in plain area [aOR: 2.467; 95 % CI: 1.005–6.058], higher wealth index [aOR: 4.981; 95 % CI: 2.482–9.999], advantaged caste/ethnicity [aOR: 2.172; 95 % CI: 1.153–4.089], older age [aOR: 2.222; 95 % CI: 1.050–4.703] and first birth [aOR: 2.032; 95 % CI: 1.060–3.894] were associated with higher likelihood of bypassing. Among the reasons of bypassing as reported by the bypassers, lack of operation, video x-ray, and blood test facilities were the most common ones, followed by the lack of medicines/drugs and equipment, lack of skilled service provider, and inadequate physical facilities, among others. Conclusions Quality of service at the birthing centres needs to be given a high consideration to increase their use as well as to ensure an equitable access to the quality care by all.

  19. Pathophysiology of Birth Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainaldi, Matthew A; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of asphyxia generally results from interruption of placental blood flow with resultant fetal hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis. Circulatory and noncirculatory adaptive mechanisms exist that allow the fetus to cope with asphyxia and preserve vital organ function. With severe and/or prolonged insults, these compensatory mechanisms fail, resulting in hypoxic ischemic injury, leading to cell death via necrosis and apoptosis. Permanent brain injury is the most severe long-term consequence of perinatal asphyxia. The severity and location of injury is influenced by the mechanisms of injury, including degree and duration, as well as the developmental maturity of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  1. Emergency Department Vital Signs and Outcomes After Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabayan, Gelareh Z; Gould, Michael K; Weiss, Robert E; Derose, Stephen F; Chiu, Vicki Y; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2017-07-01

    Vital signs are critical markers of illness severity in the emergency department (ED). Providers need to understand the abnormal vital signs in older adults that are problematic. We hypothesized that in patients age > 65 years discharged from the ED, there are abnormal vital signs that are associated with an admission to an inpatient bed within 7 days of discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from a regional integrated health system of members age > 65 years during the years 2009 to 2010. We used univariate contingency tables to assess the relationship between hospital admission within 7 days of discharge and vital sign (including systolic blood pressure [sBP], heart rate [HR], body temperature, and pulse oximetry [SpO2 ] values measured closest to discharge) using standard thresholds for abnormal and thresholds derived from the study data. Of 104,025 ED discharges, 4,638 (4.5%) were followed by inpatient admission within 7 days. Vital signs had a greater odds of admission beyond a single cutoff. The vital signs with at least twice the odds of admission were sBP  101 beats/min (OR = 2.00 95% CI = 1.75-2.29), body temperature > 37.3°C (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.90-2.41), and pulse oximetry sign abnormalities per the analysis had the highest odds of admission. A majority of patients discharged with abnormal vital signs per the analysis were not admitted within 7 days of ED discharge. While we found a majority of patients discharged with abnormal vital signs as defined by the analysis, not to be admitted after discharge, we identified vital signs associated with at least twice the odds of admission. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Second births to teenage mothers: risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Steber, Dale L; Blair, Kathleen A; Cisler, Ron A

    2009-06-01

    Teenagers are more likely than older women to have a low-birth-weight infant or a preterm birth, and the risks may be particularly high when they have a second birth. Identifying predictors of these outcomes in second teenage births is essential for developing preventive strategies. Birth certificate data for 1993-2002 were linked to identify second births to Milwaukee teenagers. Predictors of having a low-birth-weight second infant or a preterm second birth were identified using logistic regression. The same proportion of first and second infants were low-birth-weight (12%), but second births were more likely than first births to be preterm (15% vs. 12%). In analyses that adjusted for demographic, pregnancy and behavioral characteristics, the odds that a second infant was low-birth-weight or preterm were elevated if the mother smoked during pregnancy (odds ratios, 2.2 and 1.9, respectively), had inadequate prenatal weight gain (1.8 and 1.4), had an interpregnancy interval of less than 18 months (1.6-2.9 and 1.4-2.3) or was black (2.7 and 1.7). Women who had received an adequate level of prenatal care had reduced odds of both outcomes (0.6 and 0.4). Women younger than 16 also had increased odds of having a low-birth-weight second infant. Further adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics yielded largely the same results. In addition, women who were unmarried or did not identify a father were at increased risk of both outcomes (1.5 for each), and poor women were at risk of having a low-birth-weight infant (1.3). Predictors of poor birth outcomes include modifiable behaviors. Prenatal interventions addressing these behaviors could help improve outcomes.

  3. Comparison of Vitality Between Two Streets of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnaz Molavi; Fatemeh Jalili

    2016-01-01

    This is the urban spaces that make living in a city pleasant and the urban landscape delightful. Vitality, an indispensable feature in the life of a city, is an undeniable gap in many urban spaces today. Spaces lacking vitality make no passion to stop within them and no incentive to pass by them. Over time urban spaces are getting uncrowded and deprived of social life and this event puts the current urban spaces of a country seriously in danger. Given the vitality impact on desirability of ur...

  4. Spatial-temporal modeling of the association between air pollution exposure and preterm birth: identifying critical windows of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy; Langlois, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution during the pregnancy is associated with increased probability of preterm birth (PTB), a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. New statistical methodology is required to specifically determine when a particular pollutant impacts the PTB outcome, to determine the role of different pollutants, and to characterize the spatial variability in these results. We develop a new Bayesian spatial model for PTB which identifies susceptible windows throughout the pregnancy jointly for multiple pollutants (PM(2.5) , ozone) while allowing these windows to vary continuously across space and time. We geo-code vital record birth data from Texas (2002-2004) and link them with standard pollution monitoring data and a newly introduced EPA product of calibrated air pollution model output. We apply the fully spatial model to a region of 13 counties in eastern Texas consisting of highly urban as well as rural areas. Our results indicate significant signal in the first two trimesters of pregnancy with different pollutants leading to different critical windows. Introducing the spatial aspect uncovers critical windows previously unidentified when space is ignored. A proper inference procedure is introduced to correctly analyze these windows. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Emotional, restorative and vitalizing effects of forest and urban environments at four sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Korpela, Kalevi; Lee, Juyoung; Morikawa, Takeshi; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Kagawa, Takahide

    2014-07-15

    The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing ("forest bathing"). The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban) and activity (walking and viewing) would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS) indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS) and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  6. Emotional, Restorative and Vitalizing Effects of Forest and Urban Environments at Four Sites in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Takayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing (“forest bathing”. The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban and activity (walking and viewing would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS. No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  7. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Colorectal Cancer Tests Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is right for them. Know their own family history and any personal risks they may have for CRC. Encourage friends and ... Vital Signs Issue details: Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Use — United States, 2012, Morbidity and ...

  9. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital for survival in Solanum tuberosum L. in vivo condition. Bengyella Louis, Pranab Roy, Tamgue Ousman, Sayanika Waikhom Devi, Narayan Chandra Talukdar ...

  10. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Lotan, Reuben; Stewart, David

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the clinical trials that will be conducted in the VITAL Research Program will demonstrate the true rate of lung cancer recurrence and second primary tumor incidence in patients at high...

  11. Determining the vitality of urban centres / Mariske van Aswegen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aswegen, Mariske

    2006-01-01

    This study was initiated to potentially provide an encompassing Index of Vitality for urban centres. The Vitality Index’s goal is to evaluate and measure urban centres in terms of growth and general performance on various levels. This will enable measurement of the general economic, social, physical, environmental, institutional and spatial performance of towns within a region, ultimately reflecting the spatial importance of the urban centre in the region. The main problem s...

  12. Vital Geographies: Life, Luck, and the Human Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Life has been problematized anew by recent social change and scientific innovation. There are important and little studied geographical dimensions to any such understanding of “the politics of life itself,” however. A geographical perspective involves, first, highlighting the spatial aspects of both states and capital, two rather neglected dimensions of vital politics. Elaborating the geographical constitution of vital politics entails further describing the related powers of know...

  13. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Hearing Impairment and Emotional Vitality in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrera, Kevin J.; Betz, Josh; Deal, Jennifer A.; Choi, Janet S.; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Harris, Tamara; Helzner, Elizabeth; Martin, Kathryn R.; Mehta, Kala; Pratt, Sheila; Rubin, Susan M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Garcia, Melissa; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the potential impact of hearing impairment (HI) and hearing aid use on emotional vitality and mental health in older adults. Method: We investigated the cross-sectional association of HI with emotional vitality in 1,903 adults aged 76–85 years in the Health ABC study adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Hearing was defined by the speech frequency pure tone average (no impairment 40 dB). Emotional vitality was defined as having a high sense of personal mastery, happiness, low depressive symptomatology, and low anxiety. Results: Compared with individuals with no HI, participants with moderate or greater HI had a 23% lower odds of emotional vitality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.99). Hearing aid use was not associated with better emotional vitality (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81–1.20). Discussion: HI is associated with lower odds of emotional vitality in older adults. Further studies are needed to examine the longitudinal impact of HI on mental health and well-being. PMID:26883806

  15. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  16. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  17. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kwang-Ming; Chin, Chien-Pang; Chen, Chun-Hui; Chang, Jui-Han

    2015-01-01

    The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ’) and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax), age at maturity (Tm), annual fecundity (f/Rc)), size at birth (Lb), size at maturity (Lm), and asymptotic length (L∞). Group (1) included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr-1 thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ’ values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures. PMID:26576058

  18. The influence of birth season on height: Evidence from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-08-01

    Literature on the effect of birth month on height has generally considered regions in temperate climates. However, because many climatic conditions there change with seasons, it is difficult to isolate potential causes. This study estimated the effect of birth month and season on terminal height by analyzing the population of a country with only a few factors driving its climate. The sample was derived from nationally representative data of the Indonesian population. We considered 9,262 men and 10,314 women 20-50 years of age. We applied cosinor analysis to a time series of height by birth month. We then applied a more flexible approach by regressing height on a series of dummy variables for birth month (and, subsequently, season) and birth year fixed effects by sex. There was no statistically significant difference in height by birth month. However, although weakly significant, men born in the dry season (June-September) were 2.3 mm shorter than those born in the wet season (the remaining months). The corresponding figure for women was 2.6 mm, a statistically significant difference. We eliminated some potential factors previously suggested in the literature, including insolation, the position of our planet with respect to the sun, food availability, and maternal workload. We speculate that babies born in the dry season were affected in the third trimester by the high disease burden that characterizes the wet season. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The birth of joseph gabriel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.

  20. Validity of parental work information on the birth certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H

    2008-03-25

    In the most recent revision (2003) of the U.S. standard certificate of live births, the National Center for Health Statistics recommended that all states collect maternal and paternal usual occupation. Because such information might be useful in the surveillance of job-related risk areas, we assessed the quality of parental work information on the U.S. birth certificate. Occupational histories obtained from maternal interviews with Texas (USA) participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were linked to and compared with parental work information on birth certificates. With occupational information from interviews serving as the gold standard, we assessed the quality of occupational information on the birth certificate with measures of sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic. Of the 649 births available for study, parental occupation agreed between the birth certificate and interview for 77% of mothers and 63% of fathers with similar agreement by case-control status. Among occupations and industries with 10 or more workers by interview, sensitivity of the birth certificate information ranged from 35% to 100% for occupational groups and 55% to 100% for industrial sectors. Specificities of occupations/industries studied ranged from 93 to 100%. Kappa statistics for maternal occupations (0.76 to 0.90) and industries (0.59 to 0.94) were higher than those for paternal occupations (0.48 to 0.92) and industries (0.47 to 0.89). Mothers were frequently misclassified as homemakers or otherwise unemployed while the paternal information was often missing altogether on the birth certificate. Women who worked as health diagnosing and treating practitioners were the least likely (0%) and women in food preparation or serving occupations were the most likely (65%) to be misclassified as not employed on the birth certificate. Among fathers, the proportion of missing occupations was the lowest for occupations in business or financial operations (0%) and highest

  1. [Prevalence of low weight at birth and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel; Romero Tinoco, Pablo; Andrade García, Marina; Velázquez Luna, Mario; Rodríguez García, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    To measure the prevalence of low birth weight and its possible association with risk characteristics at an international level. An analytical and transversal study was performed during 2003. Newborns attended at the gynecological unit of the Hospital General de Zona Num. 35 in Cosamaloapan, Veracruz, were selected. The neonates included had a neonatal screening for hypothyroidism, as well as a newborn registration format. Pediatricians and pre-graduate interns evaluated: weight at birth, sex, maternal age, weeks of gestation, number of pregnancies, place of residence and the mother's occupation. Low birth weight was defined as the newborns that weighed less than 2,500 g. A total of 751 newborns were evaluated. In accordance to the characteristics of the mother, the mean age was of 25.9 +/- 5.9 years, 104 (13.8%) were adolescents, and 256 (35.3%) were first time mothers. The low birth weight existed in 43 (5.7%) of the newborns, and the birth weight of 708 (94.3%) was > or = 2,500 g. The maternal age, the number of pregnancies, the place of residence and the mother's occupation were not statistically related with the low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight is lower than the data reported internationally, and it could be explained by the period in which the study was performed. None of the characteristics assessed as risk factors demonstrated to be associated.

  2. [The vitalism of Paul-Joseph Barthez (1734-1806)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hee Jin

    2010-06-30

    In The Logic of Life (1970), Francois Jacob (1920- ), Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine (1965), proclaimed the end of vitalism based on the concept of life. More than two decades before this capital sentence condemning vitalism was pronounced, Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995), a French philosopher of medicine, already acknowledged that eighteenth-century vitalism was scientifically retrograde and politically reactionary or counter-revolutionary insofar as it was rooted in the animism of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734). The negative preconception of the term 'vitalism' came to be established as an orthodox view, since Claude Bernard (1813-1878) unfairly criticized contemporary vitalism in order to propagate his idea of experimental medicine. An eminent evolutionary biologist like Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) still defended similar views in This is Biology (1997), arguing that if vitalists were decisive and convincing in their rejection of the Cartesian model (negative heuristics), however they were equally indecisive and unconvincing in their own explanatory endeavors (positive heuristics). Historically speaking, vitalists came to the forefront for their outstanding criticism of Cartesian mechanism and physicochemical reductionism, while their innovative concepts and theories were underestimated and received much less attention. Is it true that vitalism was merely a pseudo-science, representing a kind of romanticism or mysticism in biomedical science? Did vitalists lack any positive heuristics in their biomedical research? Above all, what was actually the so.called 'vitalism'? This paper aims to reveal the positive heuristics of vitalism defined by Paul.Joseph Barthez (1734-1806) who was the founder of the vitalist school of Montpellier. To this end, his work and idea are introduced with regard to the vying doctrines in physiology and medicine. At the moment when he taught at the medical school of Montpellier, his colleagues advocated the mechanism of Rene

  3. Predictors and birth outcomes: An investigation of birth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...

  4. Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This document presents mortality statistics for 1985 for the entire United States. Data analysis and discussion of these factors is included: death and death rates; death rates by age, sex, and race; expectation of life at birth and at specified ages; causes of death; infant mortality; and maternal mortality. Highlights reported include: (1) the…

  5. SDGs: The Need for Vital Registration and Accurate Record Keeping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    the program has been consistent emphasis on data collection. It began ... Management system will be discussed and ensured. On this ... Conclusion. For the next 15 years, we must learn from our .... Birth weight of Hausa infants in northern ...

  6. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...... of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...

  7. Birth rate and its correlation with the lunar cycle and specific atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Pradhan, Susan; Bay, R Curtis; Coonrod, Dean V

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to use the Arizona State birth certificate database for Phoenix metropolitan hospitals, in conjunction with National Weather Service records to determine whether there is a relationship between birth rate and meteorologic or lunar conditions. This study attempts to dispel or lend significance to beliefs among hospital staff that the phase of the moon and/or meteorologic conditions are related to birth rate. Birth records were limited to spontaneous vaginal deliveries, 37 to 40 weeks' gestation, in Phoenix, between 1995 and 2000 (n = 167,956). Daily birth counts were merged with daily surface weather statistics from the National Weather Service for Sky Harbor Airport, and records of lunar phase for the same period. The analyses revealed no significant correlates of birth rate. Although there exists a popular belief that the phase of the lunar cycle and weather conditions affect birth rate, no such evidence was found in this study.

  8. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  9. Are vital signs indicative for bacteremia in newborns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; Özlü, Ferda; Sertdemir, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal systemic infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality both in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate if vital signs had a predictive power in neonatal sepsis as an early marker. This study was designed as a matched case-control study. Vital signs were monitorized prior to infection in newborns that had healthcare-associated blood stream infection (BSI). Maximum and minimum values of the vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature) of the babies at rest were recorded from the nurse observation charts five days prior to clinical sepsis and compared with vital signs of healthy, age-matched babies. Maximum mean heart rates, respiratory rates and systolic blood pressure levels of the patients in BSI group were significantly higher than the control group in the past three days prior to clinical deterioration. Monitoring vital signs closely might be helpful in a newborn infant to define a BSI. In future, a respiratory and blood pressure predictive monitoring system such as heart rate variability index may be developed for newborn patients with sepsis.

  10. Births: Final Data for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Park, Melissa M.; Sutton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); pregnant women's medical care utilization (prenatal care, obstetric procedures,…

  11. Left behind by Birth Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  12. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  13. The Prevalence and Impact of Substance Use Disorder and Treatment on Maternal Obstetric Experiences and Birth Outcomes Among Singleton Deliveries in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelchuck, Milton; Cheng, Erika R; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Derrington, Taletha M; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R; Bernstein, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Despite widely-known negative effects of substance use disorders (SUD) on women, children, and society, knowledge about population-based prevalence and impact of SUD and SUD treatment during the perinatal period is limited. Methods Population-based data from 375,851 singleton deliveries in Massachusetts 2003-2007 were drawn from a maternal-infant longitudinally-linked statewide dataset of vital statistics, hospital discharges (including emergency department (ED) visits), and SUD treatment records. Maternal SUD and SUD treatment were identified from 1-year pre-conception through delivery. We determined (1) the prevalence of SUD and SUD treatment; (2) the association of SUD with women's perinatal health service utilization, obstetric experiences, and birth outcomes; and (3) the association of SUD treatment with birth outcomes, using both bivariate and adjusted analyses. Results 5.5% of Massachusetts's deliveries between 2003 and 2007 occurred in mothers with SUD, but only 66% of them received SUD treatment pre-delivery. Women with SUD were poorer, less educated and had more health problems; utilized less prenatal care but more antenatal ED visits and hospitalizations, and had worse obstetric and birth outcomes. In adjusted analyses, SUD was associated with higher risk of prematurity (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.28-1.41) and low birth weight (LBW) (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.64-1.82). Women receiving SUD treatment had lower odds of prematurity (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.55-0.68) and LBW (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.49-0.61). Conclusions for Practice SUD treatment may improve perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with SUD, but many who need treatment don't receive it. Longitudinally-linked existing public health and programmatic records provide opportunities for states to monitor SUD identification and treatment.

  14. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed.

  15. [CW bio-radar vital sign detector and experiment study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhao, Zhangyan; Zhang, Haiying

    2014-03-01

    Non-contact vital sign detection technique provides an effective usage in health monitoring applications. A vital sign detector was designed based on microwave bio-radar technique. Using Doppler principle, continuous wave bioradar was designed for tiny body movement detection, short-time Fourier transform and interpolation algorithm were adopted for heart and respiration rate extraction, embedded system was used for system integration, real-time signal processing software was designed on it. Experiments were done by using simulation device and human body for research and performance evaluation. The result shows that the proposed prototype can be used for single target vital signs detection at the distance of 90 cm, and the heart rate result shows a 96% recognition rate.

  16. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…

  17. Nonhomogeneous birth and death models for epidemic outbreak data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, generalized nonlinear models are proposed in order to incorporate the following considerations in modeling an epidemic disease outbreak statistically. (1) The dependence of the data is handled with a nonhomogeneous death or a nonhomogeneous birth process. (2) The first stage of the

  18. INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study aims to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with delivery of low birth weight singletons at term at UBTH, Benin City. ... mortality. All isolated risk factors but nulliparity are amenable to antenatal management. Key words: .... data was fed into the computer and analyzed using the Epi info statistical ...

  19. Birth outcomes in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Senécal, Sacha; Simonet, Fabienne; Guimond, Éric; Penney, Christopher; Wilkins, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is essential for developing public health programs aimed at reducing such disparities. The lack of data on disparities in birth outcomes between Inuit and non-Inuit populations in Canada prompted us to compare birth outcomes in Inuit-inhabited areas with those in the rest of the country and in other rural and northern areas of Canada. Methods We conducted a cohort study of all births in Canada during 1990–2000 using linked vital data. We identified 13 642 births to residents of Inuit-inhabited areas and 4 054 489 births to residents of all other areas. The primary outcome measures were preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death. Results Compared with the rest of Canada, Inuit-inhabited areas had substantially higher rates of preterm birth (risk ratio [RR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–1.52), stillbirth (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.38–2.04) and infant death (RR 3.61, 95% CI 3.17–4.12). The risk ratios and absolute differences in risk for these outcomes changed little over time. Excess mortality was observed for all major causes of infant death, including congenital anomalies (RR 1.64), immaturity-related conditions (RR 2.96), asphyxia (RR 2.43), sudden infant death syndrome (RR 7.15), infection (RR 8.32) and external causes (RR 7.30). Maternal characteristics accounted for only a small part of the risk disparities. Substantial risk ratios for preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death remained when the comparisons were restricted to other rural or northern areas of Canada. Interpretation The Inuit-inhabited areas had much higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and infant death compared with the rest of Canada and with other rural and northern areas. There is an urgent need for more effective interventions to improve maternal and infant health in Inuit-inhabited areas. PMID:20100852

  20. Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Whitehead, James R; Goodwin, Janice K

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC) and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p ≥ 0.15). Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers. Key pointsPre-workout carbohydrate did not affect post-workout measures of vitality or affect in collegiate swimmers.Avoidance of feeling nauseous/ill' and 'lack of time' were the most frequent reasons reported by swimmers for forgoing breakfast before morning swim practice.A longer trial of carbohydrate supplementation is needed to verify if there is indeed no effect of pre-workout carbohydrate on post-workout measures of vitality or affect in swimmers.

  1. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  2. R statistical application development by example : beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tattar, Narayanachart Prabhanjan

    2013-01-01

    Full of screenshots and examples, this Beginner's Guide by Example will teach you practically everything you need to know about R statistical application development from scratch. You will begin learning the first concepts of statistics in R which is vital in this fast paced era and it is also a bargain as you do not need to do a preliminary course on the subject.

  3. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  4. Influence of sleep disturbance, fatigue, vitality on oral health and academic performance in indian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Sen, Nandini; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Sultane, Pratibha; Mandal, Aritra

    2017-01-01

    Oral health and academic performance are important contributing factors for a student's professional life. Countless factors affect both, among which sleep, vitality and fatigue are less explored areas that also have a strong impact. The objective of the study was to assess the association of sleep disturbances, fatigue and vitality with self reported oral health status, oral hygiene habits and academic performance of dental students of Udaipur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students of Udaipur. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess the psychological factors, vitality, sleep quality, fatigue, self reported oral health status, habits and academic performance. Analysis of variance and stepwise multiple linear regression were utilized for statistical analysis with 95% confidence level and 5% level of significance. Of the 230 participants, 180 (78.3%) were undergraduates and 50 (21.7%) were postgraduates. Among them, females showed higher scores in disturbed sleep index (2.69±2.14) as compared to males (2.45±1.91). Respondents who had "Poor" dental health, scored more in disturbed sleep index (3.15±1.64) and fatigue scale (20.00±4.88). Subjects who flossed "everyday", were found to have good sleep and more energy (p=0.01) and those who assessed themselves as excellent students scored more in the Vitality Scale (p=0.01) and less in the Sleep index (p=0.01). The present study confirms that disturbed sleep, aliveness and fatigue, all are interlinked with each other and are imperative factors having the potential to alter the oral health status, habits and academics of dental students.

  5. Influence of sleep disturbance, fatigue, vitality on oral health and academic performance in indian dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASAWA, KAILASH; SEN, NANDINI; BHAT, NAGESH; TAK, MRIDULA; SULTANE, PRATIBHA; MANDAL, ARITRA

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral health and academic performance are important contributing factors for a student’s professional life. Countless factors affect both, among which sleep, vitality and fatigue are less explored areas that also have a strong impact. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the association of sleep disturbances, fatigue and vitality with self reported oral health status, oral hygiene habits and academic performance of dental students of Udaipur. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students of Udaipur. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess the psychological factors, vitality, sleep quality, fatigue, self reported oral health status, habits and academic performance. Analysis of variance and stepwise multiple linear regression were utilized for statistical analysis with 95% confidence level and 5% level of significance. Results Of the 230 participants, 180 (78.3%) were undergraduates and 50 (21.7%) were postgraduates. Among them, females showed higher scores in disturbed sleep index (2.69±2.14) as compared to males (2.45±1.91). Respondents who had “Poor” dental health, scored more in disturbed sleep index (3.15±1.64) and fatigue scale (20.00±4.88). Subjects who flossed “everyday”, were found to have good sleep and more energy (p=0.01) and those who assessed themselves as excellent students scored more in the Vitality Scale (p=0.01) and less in the Sleep index (p=0.01). Conclusion The present study confirms that disturbed sleep, aliveness and fatigue, all are interlinked with each other and are imperative factors having the potential to alter the oral health status, habits and academics of dental students. PMID:28781530

  6. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  7. Noise considerations for vital signs CW radar sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    The use of continuous wave (CW) radars for measuring human vital signs have recently received a lot of attention due to its many promising applications like monitoring people at hospitals or infants at home without the need for wired sensors. This paper briefly presents the typical CW radar setup...... and the underlying signal theory for such sensors. Then to point out and especially clarify one of the most important effects aiding the design of vital signs radars (VSR), a more detailed discussion concerning phase noise cancellation (or filtering) by range correlation is given. This discussion leads to some...

  8. HUBUNGAN PEMAKAIAN ALAT PELINDUNG PERNAPASAN DENGAN TINGKAT KAPASITAS VITAL PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eko Rikmiarif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan dengan tingkat kapasitas vital paru pada pekerja pembuat genteng di Desa Singorojo Kabupaten Jepara tahun 2011. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian analitik yang menjelaskan korelasi antara variabel bebas dan variabel terikat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah cross sectional. Teknik penarikan sampel menggunakan total sampling. Variabel penelitian terdiri dari variabel bebas yaitu pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan, sedangkan variabel terikat adalah kapasitas vital paru. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan metode pengukuran, kuesioner, dan dokumentasi. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis univariat dengan analisis deskriptif dan uji bivariat dengan spearman test melalui bantuan komputer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai korelasi spearman -0,923 dengan nilai probabilitas (p value 0,0001 (< 0,05, yang artinya bahwa tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan dengan tingkat kapasitas vital paru pada pekerja pembuat genteng di Desa Singorojo Kabupaten Jepara tahun 2011. Simpulan penelitian adalah ada ada hubungan antara praktik penggunaan APD pernafasan (masker dengan Tingkat Kapasitas Vital Paru. The research objective was to determine the relationship between the use of respiratory protective equipment with the level of vital lung capacity in workers in the village of tile maker Singorojo Jepara regency in 2011. This type of research was the analytical research that explains the correlation between independent variables and the dependent variable. The method used in this study was cross sectional. Sampling technique using total sampling. Variable study consists of the independent variable is the use of respiratory protective equipment, while the dependent variable was the vital lung capacity. Data collection techniques with methods of measurement, questionnaires, and documentation. Methods of data

  9. Personalidad, resiliencia y satisfacción vital

    OpenAIRE

    Solo de Zaldívar del Amo, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la relación existente entre resiliencia, satisfacción vital y las variables de personalidad extraversión, neuroticismo y piscoticismo. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 110 sujetos, todos ellos estudiantes de psicología que completaron los cuestionarios Escala de Resiliencia (RS-18), Versión Reducida del Cuestionario Revisado de Personalidad de Eysenck (EPQ-RA-24) y Cuestionario de Satisfacción Vital (SWLS) a través de la plataforma virtual de la Universidad de ...

  10. Birth of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  11. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  12. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... can you find women like you who are thinking about pregnancy after premature birth? Visit the March ...

  13. PRE-WORKOUT CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT MEASURES OF SELF-ASSESSED VITALITY AND AFFECT IN COLLEGE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Hill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37 participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p > 0.15. Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers

  14. Study of Relation between Physical Activity and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and the importance of knowing its causes is clear. Since the effect of physical activity on preterm birth is unknown and its prevention is the priority in health care, we decided to do this study with the aim of determining the relation between physical activity and preterm birth. Methods: In this case-control study, 300 pregnant women delivering in Izadi Hospital in Qom, Iran in the second half of 2008, selected through simple sampling. The data were collected using standard pregnancy physical activity questionnaire that categorizes the physical activity into 4 groups: work activities, home activities, transport activities and fun/exercise activities. The physical activity severity was calculated as MET (Metabolic Equivalence Test. Finally, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic (x2 and t test statistics. A p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The findings didn't show any significant relation between physical activity and preterm birth. In addition, in view of activity type, fun/exercise and work activities (respectively and in view of activity severity, sedentary and moderate activities (respectively were associated with higher, but insignificant rate of preterm birth. Among demographic factors, only gravidity of women was significantly associated with preterm birth.Conclusion: Although, in this study the significant relation between physical activity and preterm delivery wasn't observed, the same research with further sample is recommended.

  15. CDC Vital Signs–Arthritis in America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-07

    This podcast is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  16. Ten Indicators of Vitality in Smaller Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a means of quickly ascertaining the relative health of smaller academic libraries by presenting a top ten list of vitality indicators. The list is based on an observational convenience sampling of thirty smaller academic libraries across the United States. The indicators making the list were those which appeared most often in…

  17. LongoVital in the prevention of recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    LongoVital (LV) (DK. Reg. No. 5178/75) is a herbal based tablet enriched with recommended doses of vitamins. The present study was undertaken to investigate prevention of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) during 6 months' daily intake of LV as compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomized...

  18. Vital Signs-Children Need More Fruits and Vegetables!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-05

    This podcast is based on the August 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Children in the U.S. aren't eating enough fruits and vegetables. Learn what you can do to impact this problem.  Created: 8/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2014.

  19. Deteksi 4 Tanda Vital Pasien Rumah Sakit Berbasis Fuzzy Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haris Rangkuti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  To assist the performance of medical technicians in nursing patients effectively and efficiently, information technology appears as a dominant support. Utilizing information technology, patient’s diagnoses can be reported to a doctor as soon as possible, as well as the patient's condition which needs to be monitored regularly. It is necessary to build a monitoring information system of hospital that is able to present timely information regarding the patient's condition characterized by four vital signs which are temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. For the four vital signs monitoring, fuzzy logic concept is implemented. If vital signs approach 1, the patient is close to recovery. Conversely, if the signs are 0, the patient still needs medical treatment. This system also helps nurses in order to provide answers to the families of patients who want to know the development of the patient's condition, as well as the recovery based on the average percentage of Fuzzy max of four vital signs. By Fuzzy-based monitoring system, monitoring the patient's condition becomes simpler and easier. 

  20. Vital Signs – Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  1. Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…

  2. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  3. Vital Signs – Making Health Care Safer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    This podcast is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.  Created: 3/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  4. Effects of Tooth Whitening Agents in Non Vital Teeth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C Harshitha

    2014-01-01

    ..., hydrogen peroxide, cervical root resorption, bleaching, non-vital teeth INTRODUCTION Tooth whitening is of great importance in dental aesthetics. Whitening may be visually perceived and measured within a few days or weeks, depending on the technique used for peroxide delivery and retension, and the method of assessment(1). Tooth bleaching ca...

  5. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...

  6. Determinants of muscular and functional vitality in oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taekema, Diana Gretha

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing question with regard to ageing research is why some people age successfully and why others are burdened with chronic diseases and functional disability. Researchers aim to identify the candidate determinants associated with the preservation of vitality during a long life course. In

  7. Job satisfaction and basic vital needs satisfaction among working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalva I.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, all basic vital needs were satisfied on the lower level among married women. So, a presence of work-life imbalance indirectly has been shown in the married women, who have to sacrifice a better paid job for the sake of having more free time for the family. Such rejection of some social roles in working women (moms has been reported in literature.

  8. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, A.J.; Wals, A.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution a key policy ‘tool’ used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described

  9. Derivation and validation of a universal vital assessment (UVA) score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Christopher C; Hazard, Riley; Saulters, Kacie J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical illness is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Identifying patients with the highest risk of death could help with resource allocation and clinical decision making. Accordingly, we derived and validated a universal vital assessment (UVA...

  10. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Prescribing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    This podcast is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 7/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  11. Telemarketing as a Vital Part of Enrollment Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lee D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how telemarketing can be vital part of college's or university's enrollment management campaign if it is done wisely and nonintrusively. Shares author's experience as coordinator of telemarketing activity at one university. Concludes that development of effective telemarketing program can enhance the institution's ability to achieve its…

  12. Internet skills : vital assets in an information society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloisius Maria

    2010-01-01

    Internet Skills, vital assets in an information society starts with a brief history of communication technologies. It appears that in the course of history, these technologies have changed and have put increasing demands on the people that use them. Moreover, the stakes for not being able to keep up

  13. Vital Signs – Alcohol Screening and Counseling?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-07

    This podcast is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.  Created: 1/7/2014 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/7/2014.

  14. Development of a vital-sign/fluid-balance flow sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, L A; Adkins, A T

    1993-01-01

    An improved flow sheet for recording vital signs and fluid balance on a medical oncology unit was developed and tested using quality-assurance techniques. The new form, which replaced three separate forms, measurably improved documentation on all quality-assurance monitors tested. Additional benefits include cost-savings and decreased time expenditures by nursing staff.

  15. KONTRIBUSI KAPASITAS VITAL PARU TERHADAP DAYA TAHAN KARDIORESPIRATORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriani Armen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of science and technology of sports can be done by conducting research, transfer of technology, socialization, scientific meeting and cooperation among research institute having specialization of science and technology of sport. This study aims to see concretely the contribution of vital capacity of the lung to cardiorespiratory endurance. The population of this study is non-regular students of FIK UNP's education department who took athletic courses totaling 159 people. The sampling technique was done by proportional random sampling and got 32 samples. Data was collected at sport medicine laboratory and FIK UNP track, vital pulmonary capacity was measured by spirometer, cardiorespiratory assay test was measured by VO2 Max test of Balke method, calculated running distance for 15 minutes. Analysis of research data with product moment correlation technique with significant level α 0.05. The data were analyzed by excel and SPSS version 12. From the data analysis, it was found that there was "no significant relationship" between vital lung capacity and cardiorespiratory resistance, and the contribution was only 0.08%. So it can be concluded that the endurance ability kardiorespiratori not much determined by the vital capacity of the lung.

  16. Career Vitality of Professors: A Cognitive Restructuring Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, J. Frank

    An attributional model that conceptualizes the pressures that reduce professors' personal and career vitality is presented. The model is based primarily on the locus of control literature and especially the reformulated model of learned helplessness by Lynn Abramson, Martin Seligman, and John Teasdale. The analysis deals only with the cognitive…

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: HIV and Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  19. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  2. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality. The effectiveness of visual assessments is questionable because they are qualitative, subjective and dependent on the skill of the surveyor. Remote sensing technology provides a synoptic ...

  3. Doctors' lifestyles vital for SA's health – global expert

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He says research shows that doctors who smoke and present as overweight or obese are 'far less likely' to counsel their patients or become effective disease prevention agents, let alone engage in any public discourse on legislative health measures. Speaking at a Discovery Vitality Institute media breakfast at Cape Town's ...

  4. Maternal maya ancestry and birth weight in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcorra, Hugo; Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Mendez, Nina; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Datta-Banik, Sudip

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between maternal Maya ancestry and the birth weight of infants born in Yucatan, Mexico, during 2013. A total of 30,435 singletons born at term (≥37 weeks) in Yucatan during 2013 were analyzed. Birth weights, gestational ages, and maternal socioeconomic data were provided by the Ministry of Health of Yucatan. Maternal Maya ancestry was defined by the presence of Maya surnames in: (1) non-Maya surnames (NM-NM), (2) one Maya surname (NM-M), and (3) two Maya surnames (M-M). Biological and socioeconomic parameters were compared between the categories of ancestry through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the association between ancestry and infants' birth weight controlling for influence of covariates. Mean birth weight was 3,114 g (SD = 406) (NM-NM: 3,150 g [SD = 404], NM-M: 3,106 g [SD = 402], M-M: 3,088 g [SD = 408]). With the biological and socioeconomic variables statistically adjusted for, the presence of one and two maternal Maya surnames was associated with decreases in birth weight of 42 g and 63 g, respectively. None of the interactions between ancestry and other predictors was statistically significant. The lower mean birth weights of Maya infants are consistent with studies reporting poor growth and nutritional status of Maya children from Yucatan. Historically adverse socioeconomic conditions experienced by the Maya population are probably linked to the relatively lower birth weights of their infants. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:436-439, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Congenital syphilis presenting as Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hideyuki; Sato, Yoshitake; Shitara, Tosiji

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of congenital syphilis (CS) presenting as Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) at birth. The mother (primigravida) presented in labor and had not received antenatal care. She was given prophylactic ampicillin 2 g i.v. on admission and delivered shortly thereafter. The male infant (2899 g) had normal vital signs, conjunctival congestion, splenohepatomegaly, and maculopapular rash with small blisters over the entire body. Serological tests on the infant and mother confirmed CS. The infant was given i.v. ampicillin for 14 days (50 mg/kg per day until day 3, 100 mg/kg per day thereafter). One hour after the first injection, the infant developed fever (39°C), tachycardia and tachypnea without worsening of rash. Vital signs improved gradually. The rash reduced markedly at postnatal day 1, and disappeared without pigmentation at day 3. This was considered a JHR following ampicillin injection given to the mother before delivery and to the infant after birth. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. [Assessment of fetal vitality and perinatal results in pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Igai, Ana Maria Kondo; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Miyadahira, Seizo; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    To study fetal vitality assessed in pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and verify maternal complications and perinatal results. Hospital charts of all pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were reviewed retrospectively. All cases followed at the specialized prenatal care that gave birth in this institution, between July 2001 and September 2009, were reviewed. The assessment of fetal vitality (cardiotocography, fetal biophysical profile and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry) performed in the last week before delivery were analyzed. The maternal variables investigated were: demographic data, maternal complications, mode of delivery, complications during delivery and postpartum, maternal blood exams and perinatal results. During the study period 30 pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were identified and 24 of them had undergone assessment of fetal vitality. All patients presented normal cardiotocography, normal fetal biophysical profile and normal results at the umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry. One case presented with oligohydramnios. The main complication observed was maternal anemia (Hb gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The main maternal complication was anemia, therefore these women require specific nutritional counseling and a broad evaluation for micronutrient deficiencies at early pregnancy.

  7. Validation of birth outcomes from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS): population-based analysis from the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Gopal, Daksha; Liberman, Rebecca F; Anderka, Marlene; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    To assess the validity of outcome data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) compared with data from vital records and the birth defects registry in Massachusetts. Longitudinal cohort. Not applicable. A total of 342,035 live births and fetal deaths from Massachusetts mothers giving birth in the state from July 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008; 9,092 births and fetal deaths were from mothers who had conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and whose cycle data had been reported to the SART CORS. Not applicable. Percentage agreement between maternal race and ethnicity, delivery outcome (live birth or fetal death), plurality (singleton, twin, or triplet+), delivery date, and singleton birth weight reported in the SART CORS versus vital records; sensitivity and specificity for birth defects among singletons as reported in the SART CORS versus the Massachusetts Birth Defects Monitoring Program (BDMP). There was >95% agreement between the SART CORS and vital records for fields of maternal race/ethnicity, live birth/fetal death, and plurality; birth outcome date was within 1 day with 94.9% agreement and birth weight was within 100 g with 89.6% agreement. In contrast, sensitivity for report of any birth defect was 38.6%, with a range of 18.4%-50.0%, for specific birth defect categories. Although most SART CORS outcome fields are accurately reported, birth defect variables showed poor sensitivity compared with the gold standard data from the BDMP. We suggest that reporting of birth defects be discontinued. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  9. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI < 25.0 kg/m(2) as the reference outcome category. The relative risk of obesity at conscription increased linearly with increasing paternal age at birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intracranial Birth Injury of Newborns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.I. Shevtsova

    2015-01-01

    The lecture presents the modern views on the problem of intracranial birth injury, considers risk factors, features of clinical manifestations at different types of this trauma, issues of diagnosis...

  11. Animal models of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovitz, Michal A; Mrinalini, Conjeevaram

    2004-12-01

    Preterm birth continues to pose a significant clinical dilemma and contributes to both acute and long-term neonatal morbidity. Despite efforts, the incidence of preterm birth has not decreased, partly because of our lack of understanding of the mechanisms that trigger parturition. Animal models are essential research tools for investigating the pathways that promote preterm parturition and for testing therapeutic interventions. Growing evidence correlates infection or inflammation with preterm birth. Consequently, many investigators have created animal models that reflect these findings. Current models of preterm parturition include diverse species, varying means of inducing an inflammatory or infectious state, and different routes of administration. Although each of these models can advance our knowledge, it is important to understand their advantages, disadvantages and unique characteristics. An understanding of such models will hopefully promote continued research that will ultimately lead to a decrease in preterm birth and an improvement in neonatal outcome.

  12. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  13. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Lung vital capacity and oxygen saturation in adults with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,2 Tobias Blumenstein,2 Varvara Turova,2 Ana Alves-Pinto2 1Markus Würth Stiftungsprofessur, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Research Unit for Cerebral Palsy and Children Neuroorthopaedics of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation, Orthopedic Department of the Clinic “rechts der Isar” of the Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Background: Individuals with infantile cerebral palsy have multiple disabilities. The most conspicuous syndrome being investigated from many aspects is motor movement disorder with a spastic gait pattern. The lung function of adults with spasticity attracts less attention in the literature. This is surprising because decreased thoracic mobility and longstanding scoliosis should have an impact on lung function. With increasing age and the level of disability, individuals become susceptible to lung infections and reflux illness, and these are accompanied by increased aspiration risk. This study examined, with different methods, to what extent adults with congenital cerebral palsy and acquired spastic paresis – following traumatic brain injury – showed restriction of lung function. It also assessed the contribution of disability level on this restriction.Methods: The oxygen saturation of 46 adults with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy was measured with an oximeter. Lung vital capacity was measured with a mobile spirometer and excursion of the thorax was clinically registered. The gross motor function levels and the presence or absence of scoliosis were determined.Results: A significantly positive correlation between lung vital capacity and chest expansion was established. Both the lung vital capacity and the thorax excursion decreased with increases in gross motor function level. Oxygen saturation remained within the normal range in all persons, in spite of reduced values of the measured lung parameters. No statistically significant dependency between lung vital capacity and oxygen

  15. Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Shaheen, Seif O; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Hansell, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    Findings from previous studies investigating the relationship between birth weight and adult lung function have been inconsistent, and data on birth weight and adult lung function decline are lacking. Few studies have investigated the relation between early childhood growth and adult lung function. FEV1 and FVC were measured at ages 43 years, 53 years and 60-64 years in the 1946 British birth cohort study. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to study associations with birth weight and weight gain at age 0-2 years. Multilevel models assessed how associations changed with age, with FEV1 and FVC as repeated outcomes. 3276 and 3249 participants were included in FEV1 and FVC analyses, respectively. In women, there was a decreasing association between birth weight and FVC with age. From the multilevel model, for every 1 kg higher birth weight, FVC was higher on average by 66.3 mL (95% CI 0.5 to 132) at 43 years, but significance was lost at 53 years and 60-64 years. Similar associations were seen with FEV1, but linear change (decline) from age 43 years lost statistical significance after full adjustment. In men, associations with birth weight were null in multilevel models. Higher early life weight gain was associated with higher FEV1 at age 43 years in men and women combined but not in each sex. Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ' and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax, age at maturity (Tm, annual fecundity (f/Rc, size at birth (Lb, size at maturity (Lm, and asymptotic length (L∞. Group (1 included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr(-1 < k < 0.103 yr(-1 and extended longevity (26 yr < Tmax < 81 yr, e.g., shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, etc.; Group (2 included species with fast growth rates (0.103 yr(-1 < k < 0.358 yr(-1 and short longevity (9 yr < Tmax < 26 yr, e.g., starspotted smoothhound Mustelus manazo, gray smoothhound M. californicus, etc.; Group (3 included late maturing species (Lm/L∞ ≧ 0.75 with moderate longevity (Tmax < 29 yr, e.g., pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ' values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures.

  17. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Reports Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  18. Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the occurrence of 5-minute Apgar scores of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, free-standing birth center midwife, and home midwife) in the United States from 2007-2010. Data from the United States Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files were used to assess deliveries by physicians and midwives in and out of the hospital for the 4-year period from 2007-2010 for singleton term births (≥37 weeks' gestation) and ≥2500 g. Five-minute Apgar scores of 0 and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction were analyzed for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, freestanding birth center midwife, and home midwife). Home births (relative risk [RR], 10.55) and births in free-standing birth centers (RR, 3.56) attended by midwives had a significantly higher risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 (P Apgar score of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction of out-of-hospital births should be disclosed by obstetric practitioners to women who express an interest in out-of-hospital birth. Physicians should address patients' motivations for out-of-hospital delivery by continuously improving safe and compassionate care of pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) on ex vivo dental plaque vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, A; Auschill, T M; Donos, N; Brecx, M; Arweiler, N B

    2001-11-01

    A common clinical observation following surgical periodontal therapy with an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) is the improved healing of the soft tissues and the limited inflammation of the operated areas. These clinical observations are empirical and difficult to explain. One of the factors influencing the early wound healing might be a potential antimicrobial effect of Emdogain. To investigate the effect of Emdogain on the vitality of ex vivo supragingival dental plaque and to compare this effect to that of a standard 0.2% chlorhexidine solution. 24 patients suffering from adult periodontitis were included in the study. At the beginning of the experiment, all participants were given a professional tooth cleaning. For the following 4 days, they had to refrain from any kind of oral hygiene measures. At day 5, from each of the volunteers, a voluminous plaque biofilm sample was taken with a sterile curette from the vestibular surfaces of the 1st lower molars and divided into 5 equal parts. Each part was mounted with 5 microl of the following solutions: (1) NaCl, (2) enamel matrix derivative dissolved in water (EMD), (3) enamel matrix derivative dissolved in the vehicle (Emdogain), (4) vehicle (propylene glycol alginate, PGA), (5) 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX). After a reaction time of 2 min the test solutions were sucked off, and subsequently the biofilm was stained with a fluorescence dye. The vitality of the plaque flora after the treatments was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean vitality of 76.8+/-8%. The EMD, Emdogain, PGA and CHX showed VF values of 54.4+/-9.2, 21.4+/-10.6%, 19.6+/-11.6% and 32.3+/-11.8%, respectively. Emdogain, PGA and CHX showed statistically highly significant reductions (pEmdogain and PGA were found to be statistically significantly different compared to CHX (pEmdogain might have an antibacterial effect on the vitality of the ex vivo supragingival dental plaque flora.

  20. Trihalomethanes in public drinking water and stillbirth and low birth weight rates: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Bennett, James E; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-12-01

    During 2003-2004, United Utilities water company in North West England introduced enhanced coagulation (EC) to four treatment works to mitigate disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. This enabled examination of the relation between DBPs and birth outcomes whilst reducing socioeconomic confounding. We compared stillbirth, and low and very low birth weight rates three years before (2000-2002) with three years after (2005-2007) the intervention, and in relation to categories of THM change. We created exposure metrics for EC and trihalomethane (THM) concentration change (n=258 water zones). We linked 429,599 live births and 2279 stillbirths from national birth registers to the water zone at birth. We used Poisson regression to model the differences in birth outcome rates with an interaction between before/after the intervention and EC or THM change. EC treatment reduced chloroform concentrations more than non-treatment (mean -29.7 µg/l vs. -14.5 µg/l), but not brominated THM concentrations. Only 6% of EC water zones received 100% EC water, creating exposure misclassification concerns. EC intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth outcome rates. Areas with the highest chloroform decrease (30 - 65 μg/l) had the greatest percentage decrease in low -9 % (-12, -5) and very low birth weight -16% (-24, -8) rates. The interaction between before/after intervention and chloroform change was statistically significant only for very low birth weight, p=0.02. There were no significant decreases in stillbirth rates. In a novel approach for studying DBPs and adverse reproductive outcomes, the EC intervention to reduce DBPs did not affect birth outcome rates. However, a measured large decrease in chloroform concentrations was associated with statistically significant reductions in very low birth weight rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 36 CFR 1223.14 - What elements must a vital records program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements must a vital... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MANAGING VITAL RECORDS § 1223.14 What elements must a vital records program include? To achieve compliance with this section, an agency's vital records program must...

  2. Energía vital. La corriente de Relaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gudeman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vital energy' is a central idea in the economies of Panama and Colombia. Known as 'strength' or 'force', and assembled from the environment, this current connects all activities in the local economies and establishes relationships, from kin to strangers. Humans compose vital energy, but its sources are limited, and it is expended in use. Its availability is a gift from God and part of the unpredictable fortune that everyone faces. This economy exhibits a contrast between a social current and a market currency. It offers a materialist perspective, provides a critique of standard economics, suggests that sharing rather than reciprocity or rational choice is the 'fundamental' economic practice, and shows how an economy may be a kind of ritual legitimated by a belief in divine power that is displayed through personal fortune.

  3. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  4. Development anomaly and non-vitality: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Kailasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic aberrations are seen in human dentition. The maxillary incisor region of the permanent dentition where these anatomical aberrations are commonly seen is considered an area of embryonic hazard. Aberrations affecting the internal and external morphology can at times be the cause of complex pathological conditions involving the pulpal and periodontal tissues and can pose a challenge to the clinician for the diagnosis and clinical management. Detecting and treating the anomalies at an early phase is essential as it poses a threat for the loss of vitality of the concerned teeth. The aim of this paper is to highlight the fact two different developmental anomalies of maxillary incisors, namely palatoradicular groove and Turner′s hypoplasia, led to the loss of vitality of the same.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzert, Marit; Hermus, Marieke Maa; Boesveld, Inge Ic; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin Km; Steegers, Eric Eap; van den Akker-van Marle, EIske Me

    2017-09-11

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Economic evaluation based on a prospective cohort study. 21 Dutch birth centres, 46 hospital locations where midwife-led birth was possible and 110 midwifery practices where home birth was possible. 3455 low-risk women under the care of a community midwife at the start of labour in the Netherlands within the study period 1 July 2013 to 31 December 2013. Costs and health outcomes of birth for different planned places of birth. Healthcare costs were measured from start of labour until 7 days after birth. The health outcomes were assessed by the Optimality Index-NL2015 (OI) and a composite adverse outcomes score. The total adjusted mean costs for births planned in a birth centre, in a hospital and at home under the care of a community midwife were €3327, €3330 and €2998, respectively. There was no difference between the score on the OI for women who planned to give birth in a birth centre and that of women who planned to give birth in a hospital. Women who planned to give birth at home had better outcomes on the OI (higher score on the OI). We found no differences in costs and health outcomes for low-risk women under the care of a community midwife with a planned birth in a birth centre and in a hospital. For nulliparous and multiparous low-risk women, planned birth at home was the most cost-effective option compared with planned birth in a birth centre. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. Unfortunately, two out of three U.S. adults weigh more than recommended. Find out what can be done to help people get to and keep a healthy weight.  Created: 10/4/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2017.

  7. USE OF VITAL STAINING IN STORED HUMAN PLATELETS MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apheresis and pooled platelet concentrates, stored at 22°C during 5 days, were studied with morho-functional platelet rate analysis, based on vital cell staining and registration with fluorescent microscope. It was revealed that apheresis and pooled PC had, on the average, normal values of morphological and functional parameters. On the other hand, both PC kept MFPR of cells only for 2 days storage. Longer PC storage caused the significant decay of morphological and functional platelet parameters.

  8. CDC Vital Signs–HIV Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast is based on the December 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 15 percent of people who have HIV don't know they have it. Learn about the importance of testing, early diagnosis, and treatment.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  9. Vital Signs – When Food Bites Back

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-04

    This podcast is based on the June 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. It discusses food poisoning and specifically, Listeria. If you're 65 or older, have a weakened immune system, or are pregnant, you must be especially careful when selecting, preparing, and storing food.  Created: 6/4/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/4/2013.

  10. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survival capacity, extrinsic mortality occurs when an extrinsic challenge exceeds the remaining vitality and intrinsic mortality occurs with the complete loss of vitality by aging. Total mortality depends on the stochastic loss rate of vitality and the magnitude and frequency of extrinsic challenges. Parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. RESULTS Fitting the model to two centuries of adult Swedish period data, intrinsic mortality dominated in old age and gradually declined over years. Extrinsic mortality increased with age and exhibited step-like decline over years driven by high-magnitude, low-frequency challenges in the 19th century and low-magnitude high-frequency challenges in the 20th century. CONCLUSIONS The Swedish mortality was driven by asynchronous intrinsic and extrinsic processes, coinciding with well-known epidemiological patterns involving lifestyle and health care. Because the processes are largely independent, predicting future mortality requires projecting trends of both processes. COMMENTS The model merges point-of-view and classical hazard rate mortality models and yields insights not available from either model individually. To obtain a closed form the intrinsic-extrinsic interactions were simplified, resulting in biased, but correctable, parameters estimates.

  11. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; James Anderson

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survi...

  12. CDC Vital Signs–Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This podcast is based on the September 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Each year, more than 140,000 people die and many survivors face disability. Eighty percent of strokes are preventable. Learn the signs of stroke and how to prevent them.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  13. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  14. CDC Vital Signs-Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-06

    This podcast is based on the October 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Hospitals can implement the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to be designated as "Baby-Friendly" and support more moms in a decision to breastfeed.  Created: 10/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/6/2015.

  15. Evaluation of Efficiency Improvement in Vital Documentation Using RFID Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eizen; Nakai, Miho; Ishihara, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We introduced medical devices with RFID tags and the terminal with RFID reader in our hospital. Time study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, nurses round as usual, and in phase II, the nurse round the ward with a terminal installed on a cart. This study concluded that RFID system shortens the time for vital sign documentation. However, deploying the terminals at every bedside did not contribute the more time reduction.

  16. Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    This podcast is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.  Created: 7/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/2/2013.

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  18. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  19. SOCIAL MEDIA – VITAL INSTRUMENT IN GAINING CONSUMERS CONFIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela-Cristina VOICU

    2016-01-01

    Given that, currently, the consumer has become more demanding and organizations face some of the greatest challenges due to the economic climate of recent years, the need to build and cultivate strong relationships has become vital not only for the company's success but also for its survival. And solid relationships are built over time through confidence. Trust is one of the most important elements in the process of purchasing and consumer loyalty; it is difficult to obtain but easy to lose. ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Communication Can Save Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This podcast is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  1. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  2. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where medically...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  4. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2018 Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard ...

  5. Economic influences on birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J

    1988-11-01

    A researcher uses an econometric analysis to test his theory that economic developments influence birth rates in post World War II in Great Britain. The base of the analysis consists of a group of equilibrium relationships examining the levels of conditional birth rates (at each birth order and each mother's age) and the levels of economic variables, e.g., ratio of women's hourly wage after taxes. The leading cause of a decrease in births, especially after 1974, was an increase in women's net wages in comparison to men's net wages. Additional evidence suggested that higher women's wages increase the cost of an additional child by raising missed earnings, and this higher opportunity cost reduces the chance of another birth. On the other hand, if men's earnings are higher, couples have more children and at a young age. Further, the higher the real house prices the more likely women are to postpone starting a family and, in the case of 20-24 year old women, these high prices also deter them from having a 2nd child. Higher house prices do not affect higher order births, however. When all other things are equal, women from larger families have a tendency to begin having children in their 30s and produce smaller families than those women from smaller families. Large child allowances encourage 3rd-4th births and early motherhood. To increase fertility to replacement level over the long term, the current level of child allowances would have to double costing about 5 billion British pounds or 1.5% of the gross domestic product.

  6. Laser Doppler pulp vitality measurements: simulation and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, T.

    2017-02-01

    Frequently pulp vitality measurement is done in a dental practice by pressing a frozen cotton pellet on the tooth. This method is subjective, as the patient's response is required, sometimes painful and has moderate sensitivity and specificity. Other methods, based on optical or electrical measurement have been published, but didńt find wide spread application in the dental offices. Laser Doppler measurement of the blood flow in the pulp could be an objective method to measure pulp vitality, but the influence of the gingival blood flow on the measurements is a concern. Therefore experiments and simulations were done to learn more about the gingival blood flow in relation to the pulpal blood flow and how to minimize the influence. First patient measurements were done to show the feasibility clinically. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and bench experiments simulating the blood flow in and around a tooth show that both basic configurations, transmission and reflection measurements are possible. Most favorable is a multi-point measurement with different distances from the gingiva. Preliminary sensitivity / specificity are promising and might allow an objective and painless measurement of tooth vitality.

  7. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Jifke; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution a key policy `tool' used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described while an example of its use in practice, is analysed using a form of reflexive monitoring and evaluation. The example focuses on a multi-stakeholder learning process around the transformation of a somewhat sterile pre-school playground into an intergenerational green place suitable for play, discovery and engagement. Our analysis of the policy-framework and the case leads us to pointing out the importance of critical interventions at so-called tipping points within the transformation process and a discussion of the potential of hybrid learning in vital coalitions in strengthening ecological mindfulness. This paper does not focus on establishing an evidence base for the causality between this type of learning and a change in behavior or mindfulness among participants as a result contributing to a vital coalition but rather focusses on the conditions, processes and interventions that allow for such learning to take place in the first place.

  8. [The history of the concept of vital force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohff, B

    1981-12-01

    This article deals with the term "Lebenskraft - vital force' from the terminological point of view (life vs. force), as well as from the historical one-(1774-1848), also considering the place this term occupies in colloquial speech. This term, however, first introduced into medicine by Kasimir Medicus in 1774, cannot be defined in a philosophical sense. Historically though, it can be proved that four different starting positions have caused the different ways of interpreting this "vital force'. Alongside the physical interpretations, i.e. the impossibility of a perpetuum mobile, there were some reflections on the chemical mode of action (chemical dynamism, J.Chr. Reil). Another aspect developed from the irritability concept (G.R. Treviranus); furthermore a special interpretation resulted from the microcosmos-macrocosmos-analogy (Fr.L. Augustin). Thus these different positions had influenced the investigations carried out in the fields of biochemistry, neuro-physiology and comparative anatomy. Since the investigations of Emil Du Bois-Reymond and his articles on "Lebenskraft' the term and the hypothesis of vital force was no longer of scientific importance. The term lived on in colloquial speech and thus became a characteristic of the difference between a scientific and non scientific approach to life.

  9. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  11. Effect of nightguard vital bleaching gel on the color stability of provisional restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajunaid, Salwa Omar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the hypothesis that there was no difference in effect of 10% and 15% tooth bleaching agents on color stability of materials used for provisional fixed dental prosthesis. Fifteen samples from two materials used for provisional fixed dental prosthesis: methacrylate-based and composite-based materials and 15 preformed polycarbonate crowns soaked in bleaching gel or distilled water. Spectrophotometer recorded color of specimens at baseline, after 3, 7, and 14 days. Data were statistically analyzed using two-factor ANOVA test to compare the color stability of tested materials. Methyl-based provisional material exhibited statistically higher color change when exposed to 10% and 15% bleaching gel (delta EFNx01: 9.0 and 11.1, respectively) as compared to distilled water (delta EFNx01: 2.9). Delta EFNx01 of composite-based material specimens exposed to distilled water was statistically higher (6.3) than specimens exposed to 10% and 15% bleaching gel (1.5 and 1.1, respectively). Polycarbonate crowns showed a statistically lower color change when exposed to 15% (0.9) than to 10% bleaching gel (5.1) or distilled water (5.5). Composite-based provisional material showed highest color stability when exposed to vital tooth bleaching gel, whereas methacrylate-based material was the least color stable. Polycarbonate crowns were more color stable when exposed to 15% bleaching gel as opposed to 10% bleaching gel.

  12. Revisiting the ‘Low BirthWeight paradox’ using a model-based definition

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, Sol; Ploubidis, George B.; Clarke, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Immigrant mothers in Spain have a lower risk of delivering Low BirthWeight (LBW) babies in comparison to Spaniards (LBW paradox). This study aimed at revisiting this finding by applying a model-based threshold as an alternative to the conventional definition of LBW. Methods: Vital information data from Madrid was used (2005–2006). LBW was defined in two ways (less than 2500 g and Wilcox's proposal). Logistic and linear regression models were run. Results: According to comm...

  13. [Humanized birth according to obstetric nurses involved in birth care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jamile Claro de; Clapis, Maria José

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed at identifying how obstetrical nurses perceive the humanization of delivery care, as well as evidencing, based on their discourse, the actions they develop during the birth process and factors that complicate the implementation of this care. Study participants were 16 nurses from a maternity in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Following the Collective Subject Discourse framework, data were collected by using semistructured interviews that were recorded, transcribed and organized for tabulation and analysis. The results show that, according to these nurses, the humanization process happened as a political strategy for improving care and rescuing normal birth. They believe there is a need to change the paradigm for the process to be concretized. These results also showed that nurses are more integrated with humanized birth as a process, and not as an event.

  14. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    characteristics such as the received radiation of the hydrological year, slope, aspect, soil depth, grazing offtake, as well as the cover of bare ground and litter. The geo-morphological data comes from a high resolution UAV generated digital elevation model. We used GLMMs and LMMs to assess effects of tree health on ecosystem functions, statistically controlling for plots' variable environmental conditions. We found ANPP to be higher in intercanopy habitats and beneath trees with a low vigor or crown density. In contrast, highly vigorous trees increased legume biomass and grass biomass. Responses of other ecosystem functions were mostly not significant, although a lower diversity was found under trees with intermediate vigor. In the case of MEFHI, we assume that positive and negative responses have partly masked each other. Our results underline that a NOD-related decline in tree vitality has complex effects on ecosystem functions. For example, it increases forage quantity but decreases forage quality. Ecosystem functions under trees with a low vigor were in most cases similar to those in adjacent open habitats, showing that the presence of vigorous (i.e. old and vital) trees is critical for maintaining ecosystem functions on a landscape level. Keywords: NODs, dehesa, ANNP, decomposition, herb diversity, habitat degradation

  15. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  16. Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankit; Sindhu, Neelesh; Kumar, Parmod; Kumar, Tarun; Charaya, Gaurav; Surbhi; Jain, V. K.; Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the incidence and clinical vital parameters in cases of primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar and from adjoining villages of the district Hisar, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 24 clinical cases (out of total 145 screened) of primary ketosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of clinical signs and significantly positive two tests for ketone bodies in urine (Rothera’s and Keto-Diastix strip test). Data collected were statistically analyzed using independent Student’s t-test. Results: Overall incidence of disease in these areas was found to be 16.55% and all the animals were recently parturited (mean: 1.42±0.14 month), on an average in their third lactation (mean: 2.38±0.30) and exhibited clinical signs such as selective anorexia (refusal to feed on concentrate diet), drastic reduction in milk yield (mean: 64.4±5.35%), ketotic odor from urine, breath, and milk and rapid loss of body condition. All the clinical vital parameters in ketotic buffaloes (body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen movements) were within normal range. Conclusion: Primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes was the most common seen in the third lactation, within the first 2 months after parturition with characteristics clinical signs and no variability in vital parameters. The disease has severe effect on the production status of affected animal. PMID:27047203

  17. Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the incidence and clinical vital parameters in cases of primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar and from adjoining villages of the district Hisar, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 24 clinical cases (out of total 145 screened of primary ketosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of clinical signs and significantly positive two tests for ketone bodies in urine (Rothera’s and Keto-Diastix strip test. Data collected were statistically analyzed using independent Student’s t-test. Results: Overall incidence of disease in these areas was found to be 16.55% and all the animals were recently parturited (mean: 1.42±0.14 month, on an average in their third lactation (mean: 2.38±0.30 and exhibited clinical signs such as selective anorexia (refusal to feed on concentrate diet, drastic reduction in milk yield (mean: 64.4±5.35%, ketotic odor from urine, breath, and milk and rapid loss of body condition. All the clinical vital parameters in ketotic buffaloes (body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen movements were within normal range. Conclusion: Primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes was the most common seen in the third lactation, within the first 2 months after parturition with characteristics clinical signs and no variability in vital parameters. The disease has severe effect on the production status of affected animal.

  18. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godhi, Brinda; Tyagi, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy is a major contributor in the preservation of primary dentition after caries affliction. Introduction of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has revolutionized such treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate and correlate the effects of MTA clinically and radiographically on pulpotomized primary molars till their exfoliation or extraction followed by histological evaluation. This is an observational study. A total of 25 teeth were selected from 5- to 8-year-old children requiring pulp therapy on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criterion. The teeth were treated by conventional pulpotomy technique under aseptic conditions using MTA and were immediately restored with stainless steel crown. The teeth were assessed postoperatively till 36 months. The exfoliated or extracted teeth were examined histologically. The pulpotomized teeth were vital with no adverse clinical findings during the observation period. After 3 months, one tooth showed internal resorption, but the same was not observed after 12 months. Pulp canal obliteration was seen in three cases. At the end of the study, five teeth were exfoliated and one tooth was extracted for maintaining arch symmetry. The histological examination of extracted tooth revealed the presence of healthy pulp and the area of true calcification. Remaining exfoliated teeth presented dentin bridge formation. Frequencies and percentages were used for descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to see the difference between clinical and radiological findings. The probability value was fixed at 5% level of significance. The response of pulp in primary teeth to MTA was favorable in all cases from clinical and radiographic perspective, and histological evaluation confirmed the observation. Godhi B, Tyagi R. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):222-227.

  19. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion and perceived stress among pregnant migraineurs and non-migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunfang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine has been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints among pregnant migraineurs. Methods A cohort of 1,334 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. At the time of interview we ascertained participants' migraine diagnosis status and collected information about sleep duration before and during early pregnancy, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress during early pregnancy. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of short/long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress associated with a history of migraine. Results Approximately 19.4% of the cohort (n = 259 reported having a medical diagnosis of migraine prior to the study pregnancy. Compared with women without migraine, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI among migraineurs for short sleep duration before and during early pregnancy were 1.51 (1.09-2.09, and 1.57 (1.11-2.23, respectively. The corresponding OR (95% CI for long sleep duration before and during pregnancy were 1.33 (0.77-2.31 and 1.31 (0.94-1.83, respectively. A modest and statistically insignificant association between migraine history and excessive daytime sleepiness in early pregnancy was noted (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.94-2.26. Migraineurs had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.52-2.76 and elevated perceived stress (OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.06-2.31. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight migraineurs. Conclusions These data support earlier research documenting increased risks of sleep disorders among migraineurs; and extends the literature to include pregnant women. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent migraine-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  20. The effectiveness of Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in surgery: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammed Husnain; Aydin, Abdullatif; Lowdon, Alexandra; Ahmed, Hamza Ibn; Muir, Gordon H; Khan, M Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in a surgical setting and identify potential uses. This prospective, observational and comparative study recruited novice (n = 24), intermediate (n = 8) and expert urologists (n = 5). All candidates performed a procedure on the GreenLight Simulator within a simulated setting using a standard vital signs monitor and then the Google GLASS. The time taken to respond to abnormal vital signs during both sessions was recorded. A quantitative survey was used to assess the usability and acceptability of the Google GLASS surgery. The majority (84%) of participants responded quicker to abnormal signs with the Google GLASS compared to a standard monitor (p = 0.0267). The average simulation score during a standard-monitor and GLASS-session scored to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.253). All parameters of simulation were also similar in both sessions including average sweep speed (p = 0.594), average blood loss (p = 0.761) and average grams vaporised (p = 0.102). Surgical performance between both sessions was similar and not hampered by the use of Google GLASS. Furthermore, 81% of candidates stated the GLASS was comfortable to wear during the procedure. This study has demonstrated that head-mounted displays such as the Google GLASS are potentially useful in surgery to aid patient care without hampering the surgeons view. It is hoped that the innovation and evolution of these devices triggers the potential future application of such devices within the medical field. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.