Sample records for vital fluorescent staining

  1. Fluorescent Europium Chelate Stain (United States)

    Scaff, W. L.; Dyer, D. L.; Mori, K.


    The europium chelate of 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (thenoyl-trifluoroacetone; TTA) is firmly bound to microorganisms. It fluoresces brightly at 613 nm with activation at 340 nm. Cells may be stained with 10−3m chelate in 50% ethyl alcohol, followed by washing with 50% ethyl alcohol. Equal or better stains are produced with 10−3m aqueous europium salt, water wash, and 10−2m aqueous TTA. A noncomplexing buffer should be used to maintain the pH at 6.5 to 6.8. Images PMID:4181107


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Makarov


    Full Text Available Apheresis and pooled platelet concentrates, stored at 22°C during 5 days, were studied with morho-functional platelet rate analysis, based on vital cell staining and registration with fluorescent microscope. It was revealed that apheresis and pooled PC had, on the average, normal values of morphological and functional parameters. On the other hand, both PC kept MFPR of cells only for 2 days storage. Longer PC storage caused the significant decay of morphological and functional platelet parameters.

  3. Meibomian orifices and Marx's line. Studied by triple vital staining. (United States)

    Norn, M


    The ciliary margins of the lower lids have been vital stained by the lipid-specific Sudan III powder, fluorescein 0.1% and the bottom of the lacrimal river (Marx's line) by lissamine green 1% in 100 cases. The Meibomian orifices are situated in a straight row just in front of the Marx's line in the lipid phase. With increasing age (greater than 50 years) the orifices are more often displaced and also discharge their lipid in the depth of the aqueous phase. The number averaged 21.5 in the lipid phase and 1.7 in the aqueous phase. Active orifices staining with lipid were found in 45% of all orifices in normals, independent of age, and were increased in conjunctivitis in the lipid phase. Lissamine green-stained orifices were independent of age, phase and diagnosis. The anterior edge of Marx's line may run an irregular course in elderly normals (greater than 50 years), significantly more often in conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  4. Vitality Stains and Real Time PCR Studies to Delineate the Interactions of Pichia anomala and Aspergillus flavus (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to probe the effect of the yeast, P. anomala against A flavus by using real time RT-PCR technique and vitality fluorescent stains. Yeast and fungi were inoculated into a 250 ml-flask containing 50 ml potato dextrose broth (PDB) at yeast to fungus (Y : F) ratios of ...

  5. A Simple Procedure for the Evaluation of Bone Vitality by Staining with a Tetrazolium Salt

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    René Schiffner


    Full Text Available Presently, no intra-operative method for a direct assessment of bone vitality exists. Therefore, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium-based staining on bone samples. The explanted femoral heads of 37 patients were used to obtain either cancellous bone fragments or bone slices. Samples were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC or 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (thiazolyl blue, MTT at different times (one to twelve hours after explantation. Staining was quantified either spectrophotometrically after extraction of the dyes or by densitometric image analysis. TTC-staining of cancellous bone fragments and bone slices, respectively, indicated the detectability of vital cells in both types of samples in a window of up to six hours after explantation. Staining intensity at later time-points was indistinguishable from the staining of untreated samples or sodium azide treated samples, which represent dead cells. In contrast, MTT-staining of bone slices revealed intense unspecific staining, which obscured the evaluation of the vitality of the samples. The lack of a detectable increase of colour intensity in TTC-stained bone samples, which were treated more than six hours after explantation, corresponds to reduced fracture healing. The described simple procedure could provide a basis for an intraoperative decision by the orthopaedic surgeon.

  6. Janus Green B as a rapid, vital stain for peripheral nerves and chordotonal organs in insects. (United States)

    Yack, J E


    Effective staining of peripheral nerves in live insects is achieved with the vital stain Janus Green B. A working solution of 0.02% Janus Green B in saline is briefly applied to the exposed peripheral nervous system. The stain is then decanted and the dissection flooded with fresh saline, resulting in whole nerves being stained dark blue in contrast to surrounding tissues. This simple and reliable technique is useful in describing the distribution of nerves to their peripheral innervation sites, and in locating small nerve branches for extracellular physiological recordings. The stain is also shown to be useful as a means of enhancing the contrast between scolopale caps and surrounding tissues in chordotonal organs, staining chordotonal organ attachment strands, and the crista acustica (tympanal organ) of crickets and katydids. The advantages of Janus Green B over traditional peripheral nerve strains, in addition to its shortcomings, are discussed.

  7. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen


    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  8. Ultrafast dynamics of epicocconone, a second generation fluorescent protein stain. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumit; Burai, Tarak Nath; Karuso, Peter; Datta, Anindya


    Femtosecond upconversion experiment has been carried out for epicocconone and its butylamine adduct in acetonitrile and tert-butanol. An ultrafast component is found to dominate the decay of fluorescence of epicocconone in acetonitrile solution. Upon reacting with butylamine, a model for the epicocconone-protein adduct, this ultrafast component remains almost unaffected but an additional rise time occurs, indicating the formation of a highly emissive species from the locally excited state. This phenomenon is central to the extraordinary applications of epicocconone in biotechnology. The magnitude of the rise time of the butylamine adduct is similar to that of the longer component of the decay of epicocconone in acetonitrile, suggesting that the dynamics of epicocconone and its butylamine adduct are similar. The ultrafast component is slowed upon increasing the viscosity of the solvent. This results in a marked increase in quantum yield and suggests that it corresponds to rapid bond isomerization, leading to a nonradiative decay. Surprisingly, in water/sucrose mixtures, the ultrafast component remains unaffected but there is still an increase in quantum yield, suggesting that there are at least two nonradiative pathways, one involving bond isomerization and another involving proton transfer. The correct interpretation of these data will allow the design of second generation protein stains based on the epicocconone scaffold with increased quantum yields and photostability. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Toluidine Blue Vital Staining sebagai Alat Bantu Diagnostik pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Lidah

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    Dwi Suhartiningtyas


    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral (KSSO merupakan salah satu kanker mulut yang paling sering terjadi. Deteksi dini kanker mulut menyulitkan oleh karena etiologi yang tidak pasti dan gambaran klinis yang tidak khas. Toluidine blue vital staining (TBVS dilaporkan dapat membantu penegakan diagnosis KSSO. Tujuan. Penulisan ini bertujuan melaporkan kasus KSSO di lidah yang terdiagnosis melalui TBVS. Kasus dan penanganannya. Laki-laki 77 tahun dengan gigi tiruan lengkap mengeluhkan sakit pada lidah sejak 2 minggu lalu, yang tidak sembuh dengan terapi konvensional. Pasien adalah perokok berat selama 60 tahun. Temuan klinis menunujukkan ulkus soliter berdiameter 2,5 cm pada ventral lidah, tepi membulat, indurasi dan tertutup pseudomembran putih. Temuan lain berupa kandidas mulut pada mukosa palatal, kedua sudut mulut dan dorsum lidah. Berdasar anamnesis dan pemeriksaan klinis, dicurigai adanya keganasan pada lesi lidah. Perawatan awal ditujuan untuk pembersihan rongga mulut, terapi anti jamur dan perbaikan status nutrisi. Lima hari kemudian, dilaporkan adanya kaku lidah dan gangguan fungsi mulut. Klinis tampak ulkus pada lidah semakin dalam dan melebar, untuk memastikan kecurigaan keganasan dilaksanakan pemeriksaan TBVS. Hasil pemeriksaan positif sehingga ditegakkan diagnosis kerja KSSO. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut, pasien dikirim ke Klinik Bedah Mulut Rumah Sakit Dr. Sarjito. Hasil biopsi positif menunjukkan KSSO, selanjutnya pasien dirujuk ke Klinik Onkologi. Kesimpulan. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral memiliki gambaran klinis tidak khas sehingga penyakit ini sulit terdeteksi secara dini. Diagnosis dan perawatan dini KSSO akan meningkatkan survival rate dan kualitas hidup penderitanya. Metode pemeriksaan diagnostic bantu dengan TBVS sangat membantu dalam penegakan diagnosis keganasan di rongga mulut.   Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most oral cancers occurred. Early detection of oral cancer is difficult due to uncertain

  10. An easy and inexpensive method for quantitative analysis of endothelial damage by using vital dye staining and Adobe Photoshop software. (United States)

    Saad, Hisham A; Terry, Mark A; Shamie, Neda; Chen, Edwin S; Friend, Daniel F; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Stoeger, Christopher


    We developed a simple, practical, and inexpensive technique to analyze areas of endothelial cell loss and/or damage over the entire corneal area after vital dye staining by using a readily available, off-the-shelf, consumer software program, Adobe Photoshop. The purpose of this article is to convey a method of quantifying areas of cell loss and/or damage. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty corneal transplant surgery was performed by using 5 precut corneas on a human cadaver eye. Corneas were removed and stained with trypan blue and alizarin red S and subsequently photographed. Quantitative assessment of endothelial damage was performed by using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The average difference for cell area damage for analyses performed by 1 observer twice was 1.41%. For analyses performed by 2 observers, the average difference was 1.71%. Three masked observers were 100% successful in matching the randomized stained corneas to their randomized processed Adobe images. Vital dye staining of corneal endothelial cells can be combined with Adobe Photoshop software to yield a quantitative assessment of areas of acute endothelial cell loss and/or damage. This described technique holds promise for a more consistent and accurate method to evaluate the surgical trauma to the endothelial cell layer in laboratory models. This method of quantitative analysis can probably be generalized to any area of research that involves areas that are differentiated by color or contrast.

  11. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility ...

  12. Fluorescent in situ hybridization employing the conventional NBT/BCIP chromogenic stain. (United States)

    Trinh, Le A; McCutchen, Marshall D; Bonner-Fraser, Marianne; Fraser, Scott E; Bumm, Lloyd A; McCauley, David W


    In situ hybridization techniques typically employ chromogenic staining by enzymatic amplification to detect domains of gene expression. We demonstrate the previously unreported near infrared (NIR) fluorescence of the dark purple stain formed from the commonly used chromogens, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP). The solid reaction product has significant fluorescence that enables the use of confocal microscopy to generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of gene expression.

  13. Natural fruit extracts as non-toxic fluorescent dyes for staining fungal chlamydospores. (United States)

    Vujanovic, Silva; Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir


    Currently, most synthetic dyes utilized for fungal fluorescent staining are toxic, carcinogenic, or harmful to animals, humans, and the environment. This study proposes non-toxic extracts of fruits from the genera Rhamnus, Ribes, Sambucus, Viburnum, Sorbus and Beta as simple, safe, and ecological alternatives to chemical fluorescent dye for efficient staining of Fusarium chlamydospore cells using, as test strains, five different pathogenic Fusarium species.

  14. Nile blue A as a fluorescent stain for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate.


    Ostle, A G; Holt, J G


    Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules exhibited a strong orange fluorescence when stained with Nile blue A. Heat-fixed cells were treated with 1% Nile blue A for 10 min and were observed at an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Glycogen and polyphosphate did not stain. Nile blue A appears to be a more specific stain for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate than Sudan black B.

  15. Vital staining of the stick insect digestive system identifies appendices of the midgut as novel system of excretion. (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan; Kimsey, Lynn S


    The stick insects or phasmids (Phamsatodea) have a series of pyriform ampulles with long, thin filaments on the posterior end of their midgut referred to as the "appendices of the midgut." Found only in phasmids, their function had never been determined until now. Their similarity to the Malpighian tubules, which are ubiquitous insect organs of excretion, suggested a similar function. To differentiate between the appendices and the Malpighian tubules and compare functional differences between the two tissue types, vital staining (the injection of histological stains into living organisms) was done in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy in multiple phasmid species. The results showed that the appendices originated in the basal phasmids (Timematidae) and grew more numerous in derived species. The appendices stain selectively, notably failing to pick up the indicators of the two known systems of invertebrate excretory function, indigo carmine and ammonium carmine. Appendices sequester stains in the ampule portion before eliminating the compounds into the midgut. We conclude by confirming that the appendices do have an excretory function, but one unlike any other known in invertebrates. Their function is likely cation excretion, playing a role in calcium regulation and/or organic alkaloid sequestration. The appendices must thus be considered distinct organs from the Malpighian tubules. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fluorescence imaging of dendritic spines of Golgi-Cox-stained neurons using brightening background (United States)

    Ai, Min; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Tao; Shang, Zhenhua; Chen, Muqing; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun


    We report a novel fluorescence imaging approach to imaging nonfluorescence-labeled biological tissue samples. The method was demonstrated by imaging neurons in Golgi-Cox-stained and epoxy-resin-embedded samples through the excitation of the background fluorescence of the specimens. The dark neurons stood out clearly against background fluorescence in the images, enabling the tracing of a single dendritic spine using both confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that the reported fluorescence imaging method would provide an effective alternative solution to image nonfluorescence-labeled samples, and it allows tracing the dendritic spine structure of neurons.

  17. Flow Cytometric Applicability of Fluorescent Vitality Probes on Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.


    The applicability of six fluorescent probes (four esterase probes: acetoxymethyl ester of Calcein [Calcein-AM], 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate [CMFDA], fluorescein diacetate [FDA], and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate [H(2)DCFDA]; and two membrane probes: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)

  18. Comparison of culture-based, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S


    Accurate quantitative measurement of viable hookworm ova from environmental samples is the key to controlling hookworm re-infections in the endemic regions. In this study, the accuracy of three quantitative detection methods [culture-based, vital stain and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR)] was evaluated by enumerating 1,000 ± 50 Ancylostoma caninum ova in the laboratory. The culture-based method was able to quantify an average of 397 ± 59 viable hookworm ova. Similarly, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods quantified 644 ± 87 and 587 ± 91 viable ova, respectively. The numbers of viable ova estimated by the culture-based method were significantly (P methods. Therefore, both PMA-qPCR and vital stain methods appear to be suitable for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. However, PMA-qPCR would be preferable over the vital stain method in scenarios where ova speciation is needed.

  19. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  20. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

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    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.


    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  1. Fluorescence-based staining for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) in osteoclasts combined with other fluorescent dyes and protocols. (United States)

    Filgueira, Luis


    Osteoclasts are the only bone-resorbing cells. In addition to other specific properties, osteoclasts are characterized by their expression of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), which is usually detected using a histochemical method for light microscopy. Using ELF97 phosphatase substrate, this study describes a new fluorescence-based method for TRAP detection. The fluorescence-based ELF97 TRAP stain not only results in a better resolution of the TRAP-positive granules, because confocal microscopy can be applied for image acquisition and analysis, but it reveals additional and more specific information about osteoclasts because it can be combined with other fluorescence-based methods.

  2. Staining of fluorogold-prelabeled retinal ganglion cells with calcein-AM: A new method for assessing cell vitality. (United States)

    Grieshaber, Philippe; Lagrèze, Wolf Alexander; Noack, Christian; Boehringer, Daniel; Biermann, Julia


    The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) is often used as an outcome measure in neuroprotection. The gold standard for staining RGC is retrograde labeling, e.g. with fluorogold (FG). However, this method alone does not permit to differentiate between viable and dead cells, because dying cells only avoid being counted once they have undergone complete microglial-phagocytosis. To differentiate between viable and dead but still existent RGC, we additionally stained FG-labeled RGC with calcein-acetoxymethylester (CAM). The left optic nerves of rats were crushed 6 days after stereotactical injection of FG into both superior colliculi. The right eyes served as controls. Retinal whole mounts were prepared 2, 5, 8 or 11 days after optic nerve crush (ONC), and incubated for 30min in culture media containing 0.01% CAM. RGC densities were determined in defined areas at different eccentricities under a fluorescence microscope using the appropriate filters. Twice-positive RGC were counted after merging both filters. The loss of RGC induced by ONC is identified earlier when these cells are detected by FG+CAM rather than by FG-labeling alone. The percentages of FG-positive RGC stained with CAM were 83% in controls, 68% on day 2, 48% on day 5, 26% on day 8, and 9% on day 11 after ONC. The decay rate of FG-prelabeled RGC appears accelerated and becomes more linear when only viable RGC positive for CAM are counted. The staining of FG-prelabeled RGC with CAM permits the discrimination between dead and viable RGC in retinal whole mounts, which enables to quantify RGC degeneration earlier after injury than by using microglial-phagocytosis-dependant retrograde labeling alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterogeneous staining: a tool for studies of how fluorescent dyes affect the physical properties of DNA. (United States)

    Nyberg, Lena; Persson, Fredrik; Akerman, Björn; Westerlund, Fredrik


    The commonly used fluorescent dye YOYO-1 (YOYO) has, using bulk techniques, been demonstrated to stain DNA heterogeneously at substoichiometric concentrations. We here, using nanofluidic channels and fluorescence microscopy, investigate the heterogeneous staining on the single DNA molecule level and demonstrate that the dye distribution is continuous. The equilibration of YOYO on DNA is extremely slow but can be accelerated by increasing the ionic strength and/or the temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to use the heterogeneous staining as a tool for detailed and time-efficient studies of how fluorescent dyes affect the physical properties of DNA. We show that the relative increase in extension of DNA with increasing amount of YOYO bound is higher at low ionic strengths and also extrapolate the extension of native DNA. Our study reveals important information on how YOYO affects the physical properties of DNA, but it also has broader applications. First, it reveals how cationic intercalators, such as potential DNA drugs, affect DNA under strong confinement. Second, the strategy of using heterogeneous staining is of general use for single molecule studies of DNA interacting with proteins or ligands.

  4. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

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    Attila Bokros


    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  5. Intracellular staining and detection of cytokines by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. (United States)

    Freer, Giulia


    The detection of cytokines inside cells producing them has made a tremendous impact on the way immune reactivity is measured. Intracellular cytokine staining is the only immunological technique allowing determination of antigen-specific T cell function and phenotype at the same time; for this reason, it is one of the most popular methods to measure antigenicity in the evaluation of vaccine efficacy and in the study of infectious diseases. It is a flow cytometric technique based on staining of intracellular cytokines and cell markers (surface or cytoplasmic) with fluorescent antibodies after short term culture of stimulated immune cells in the presence of a protein secretion inhibitor, followed by fixation and permeabilization. Most experiments involve detection of five to ten different colors but many more can be detected by modern flow cytometers. Here, we discuss our experience using a standard protocol for intracellular cytokine staining.

  6. Development of Pathological Diagnostics of Human Kidney Cancer by Multiple Staining Using New Fluorescent Fluolid Dyes

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    Dilibaier Wuxiuer


    Full Text Available New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC, and renal angiomyolipoma (AML, with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics.

  7. [Incidence of esophageal cancer synchronous with upper aerodigestive tract cancers (100 cases): value of vital staining with lugol and toluidine blue]. (United States)

    Papazian, A; Descombes, P; Capron, J P; Lorriaux, A


    A number of studies have demonstrated a high incidence of synchronous or metachronous esophageal carcinoma in association with carcinoma of head and neck. Carcinoma of the esophagus must be systematically looked for before the treatment of head-neck carcinomas and during follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of synchronous esophageal carcinoma in patients with head and neck carcinoma and to evaluate the advantages of lugol and toluidine blue vital staining in fiberoptic endoscopy. One hundred patients (97 males and 3 females, mean age 54.9 years) were studied. A fiberoptic esophagoscopy was performed in all patients. Vital staining was realized with 5 p. 100 lugol in 40 cases and with 1 p. 100 toluidine blue e in 20 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was observed in 12 patients, typical grossly in 5 cases and occult in 7 cases. In these latter cases, lugol (2 cases) or toluidine blue (5 cases) stain facilitated the forceps biopsies. Histological examination was positive in all cases. The incidence of esophageal carcinoma synchronous to carcinoma of the mouth was high (35.3 p. 100). Lugol vital staining seems to be sensitive, non-specific and easy to realize. Toluidine blue staining calls for a more difficult and prolonged technique. Although it can reveal occult carcinoma, false positive or negative results may be observed.

  8. MRT letter: a fast and easy method for general fluorescent staining of cultured cells on transparent or opaque supports. (United States)

    Gayoso, Manuel J


    Development of cell-based therapy entails the use of different types of materials as support for cultured cells. Some of these materials are opaque. For a general microscope study of cell cultures prepared on transparent supports, Giemsa stain with bright field microscopy is useful. With opaque supports or scaffolds, epifluorescence microscopy is necessary. The method the authors describe uses eosin Y to stain cytoplasm and DAPI to stain nuclei under fluorescence microscopy. This method provides easy and fast fluorescent staining for a general morphological study of cultured cells on transparent or opaque supports. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A protocol for combining fluorescent proteins with histological stains for diverse cell wall components. (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Marhavý, Peter; Geldner, Niko


    Higher plant function is contingent upon the complex three-dimensional (3D) architecture of plant tissues, yet severe light scattering renders deep, 3D tissue imaging very problematic. Although efforts to 'clear' tissues have been ongoing for over a century, many innovations have been made in recent years. Among them, a protocol called ClearSee efficiently clears tissues and diminishes chlorophyll autofluorescence while maintaining fluorescent proteins - thereby allowing analysis of gene expression and protein localisation in cleared samples. To further increase the usefulness of this protocol, we have developed a ClearSee-based toolbox in which a number of classical histological stains for lignin, suberin and other cell wall components can be used in conjunction with fluorescent reporter lines. We found that a number of classical dyes are highly soluble in ClearSee solution, allowing the old staining protocols to be enormously simplified; these additionally have been unsuitable for co-visualisation with fluorescent markers due to harsh fixation and clearing. Consecutive staining with several dyes allows 3D co-visualisation of distinct cell wall modifications with fluorescent proteins - used as transcriptional reporters or protein localisation tools - deep within tissues. Moreover, the protocol is easily applied on hand sections of different organs. In combination with confocal microscopy, this improves image quality while decreasing the time and cost of embedding/sectioning. It thus provides a low-cost, efficient method for studying thick plant tissues which are usually cumbersome to visualise. Our ClearSee-adapted protocols significantly improve and speed up anatomical and developmental investigations in numerous plant species, and we hope they will contribute to new discoveries in many areas of plant research. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Viability assessment of Ascaris suum eggs stained with fluorescent dyes using digital colorimetric analysis. (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Zdybel, Jolanta; Próchniak, Marek; Osiński, Zbigniew; Karamon, Jacek; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz


    The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated. Computer analysis of the intensity of green colour was not satisfactory. However, analysis of images in the spectrum of red colour proved useful for the effective differentiation between live or dead eggs. The best parameters were observed using the Annexin V FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (DASI = 41 and 67). The investigation confirmed the usefulness of fluorescent dyes used in conjunction with digital analysis for the assessment of the viability of A. suum eggs. The use of computer software allowed a better objectivity of the assessment, especially in the case of doubtful staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylene blue is a good background stain for tuberculosis light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Van Deun, A; Aung, K J M; Hamid Salim, A; Gumusboga, M; Nandi, P; Hossain, Md A


    Damien Foundation Bangladesh tuberculosis (TB) control projects. To compare blue ink, potassium permanganate and methylene blue background staining for transmitted light-emitting diode (LED) TB fluorescence microscopy (FM). Auramine smears made in triplicate from Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive or negative sputum and stained with one of the background variations were read blind by LED FM. Reference laboratory rechecking of discordant series was used before and after auramine restaining as the gold standard. Of 1977 series evaluated, 991 (50.1%) were made from ZN-positive specimens. There were 919, 942 and 958 FM true-positives with blue ink, permanganate and methylene blue counterstaining, against respectively 12, 12 and 16 false-positives. Methylene blue counterstaining was more sensitive (95.6%, 95%CI 94.2-96.8) than blue ink or permanganate (92.7%, 95%CI 90.9-94.3 and 93.6%, 95%CI 91.9-95.0; respectively P < 0.01 and < 0.05). No AFB could be found in 85% and 18% of 180 discordant series without and with restaining. Methylene blue is at least equivalent to potassium permanganate counterstaining for FM using blue LED transmitted excitation and is cheaper than blue ink. Restaining of all smears prior to first re-reading may be unavoidable for blinded rechecking of auramine-stained smears for external quality assessment.

  12. Development and validation of flow cytometric measurement for parasitemia in cultures of P. falciparum vitally stained with YOYO-1. (United States)

    Li, Qigui; Gerena, Lucia; Xie, Lisa; Zhang, Jing; Kyle, Dennis; Milhous, Wilbur


    The need for improved malaria diagnostics has long been recognized. Human parasitized erythrocytes based on the principles of flow cytometry (FCM) method is described for the determination of parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum cultures using the fluorescence activated cell sorter and DNA-binding fluorescent dye, YOYO-1. The same assay samples can be also evaluated both microscopically and by scintillation counting after use of (3)H-hypoxanthine-labeled parasites. The counts of uninfected, infected, and nucleated cells occurred with high precision. The cells were categorized into different populations according to their physical or chemical properties such as RNase treatment and compensation required optimization. The detection and quantitation limits in the assay were 0.003% and 0.008% parasitemia, respectively. Overall, the parasite counts by FCM measurement correlated highly (r(2) = 0.923-0.968) with the parasitemia measured by (3)H-hypoxanthine incorporation assay when parasites variants incubated with various antimalarial drugs. In addition, the low levels of parasitemia (7.9%-21.3%) detected by microscopy than by FCM may be related to a number of tiny schizonts externally attached to the erythrocyte membranes but were not definitely inside the erythrocyte that normally would never be included in microscopy counting. On the basis of data reported herein, a rapid, high sensitivity, lower sampling error and reliable identification of human parasitized erythrocytes by the principles of FCM have been established. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Cytofluorograf detection of Plasmodium yoelii, Trypanosoma gambiense, and Trypanosoma equiperdum by laser excited fluorescence of stained rodent blood. (United States)

    Jackson, P R; Winkler, D G; Kimzey, S L; Fisher, F M


    Samples of rat blood infected with Plasmodium yoelii (3% parasitized erythrocytes), Trypanosoma gambiense, or Trypanosoma equiperdum (greater than 50 trypanosomes per microscope field at 400 X) were fixed with 0.5% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffered saline, then stained with acridine orange (AO) at 10(-4), 10(-5), or 10(-6) M for 0 to 15 min at 5 C or 25 C and/or ethidium bromide (EB) at 0.05 mg/ml for 20 min at 25 C. Stained cells were analyzed with a laser Cytofluorograf (Bio/Physics Systems, Inc.) to determine if parasites could be detected and differentiated from blood cells by their fluorescent characteristics. Samples of uninfected rat blood with and without leukocytes and P. yoelii-infected blood without leukocytes were treated similarly. In addition, suspensions of T. gambiense and T. equiperdum without all blood cells were stained with AO or EB and analyzed with the Cytofluorograf, as were mixed suspensions of both trypanosome species. EB- but not AO-stained P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes had fluorescent characteristics different from most blood cells. Neither AO- nor EB-stained T. gambiense or T. equiperdum could be differentiated from host blood cells or from each other. The results are discussed with respect to the use of laser flow systems in the detection and analysis of bloodstream dwelling protozoan parasites.

  14. Wavelength dependence of the time course of fluorescence enhancement and photobleaching during irradiation of ethidium bromide-stained nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Galassi


    Full Text Available The variation of fluorescence during irradiation of ethidium bromide-stained nuclei with the 458 nm argon laser line was measured at different wavelengths throughout the emission spectrum. When glycerol was used as a mountant, photoenhancement of fluorescence was observed at all wavelengths, but was greater at the shorter wavelengths. Fluorescence increased by almost one order of magnitude at 500 nm after 40 s of irradiation, compared with only about 10% at wavelengths longer than 600 nm after 2-3 s. In nuclei mounted in phosphate buffer, an initial photoenhancement of fluorescence was detected only at the shorter wavelengths, while continuous photobleaching was observed in the rest of the emission spectrum. When the spectra are normalized to maximum, so as to eliminate the effect of the concurrent photobleaching, it appears that the difference between the time course of fluorescence variation in buffer and glycerol depends largely on the lower photobleaching rate in glycerol. The photoenhancement of fluorescence at shorter wavelengths was found to consist of a band peaking at 485-491 nm in glycerol and at 495-496 nm in buffer. Attenuation of the inner-filter effect contributes minimally to the enhancement of fluores- cence at shorter wavelengths. Since the dimer is known to be non fluorescent, the light-induced disaggregation of dimers to monomers cannot be an explanation for the large increase of fluorescence at the shorter wavelengths. The same laser beam that was used to excite the fluorescence of stained nuclei was also used for monitoring the concomitant variation of transmitted light, from which the variation of absorptance during irradiation was computed. While the expected decrease of absorptance was observed in glycerol, reflecting the photodestruction of the fluorophore, in buffer solution an unexpected initial increase was found, which may reflect the accumulation of an absorbing photoproduct.

  15. A novel application of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and fluorescence imaging for analysing tapetum and microspore development. (United States)

    Chawla, Mrinalini; Verma, Vibha; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay


    The precisely timed process of tapetum development and its degradation involving programmed cell death is an important molecular event during anther development. Through its degeneration, the tapetum not only provides nutritive substances to the developing microspores but also contributes to the pollen wall by way of sporopollenin, which is a complex mixture of biopolymers, containing long-chain fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, phenolics and traces of carotenoids. A number of dyes and staining methods have been used to visualize tapetal structure and its components by using light microscopy techniques, but none of these methods could differentially stain and thus distinguish tapetal cells from other cell types of anther wall. While analysing progression of tapetum development in different cell types in rice anthers, we discovered a unique property of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain, which upon interaction with some specific component(s) in tapetal cells and developing microspores emits fluorescence at ~620 nm. In rice anthers, the PAS-associated fluorescence could be observed initially in tapetum and developing microspores, and subsequent to degeneration of tapetum, the fluorescence was found to emanate mainly from the pollen wall. We also show that PAS-dependent fluorescence in tapetal cells is distinct from the autofluorescence resulting from pollen wall components and is also not caused by interaction of PAS with pollen starch. Henceforth, this novel fluorescence property of PAS stain could prove to be a new tool in the toolkit of developmental biologists to analyse different aspects of tapetum development and its degeneration with little more ease and specificity.

  16. A Novel Staining Protocol for Multiparameter Assessment of Cell Heterogeneity in Phormidium Populations (Cyanobacteria) Employing Fluorescent Dyes (United States)

    Tashyreva, Daria; Elster, Josef; Billi, Daniela


    Bacterial populations display high heterogeneity in viability and physiological activity at the single-cell level, especially under stressful conditions. We demonstrate a novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of individual cells in physiologically heterogeneous populations of cyanobacteria. The protocol employs fluorescent probes, i.e., redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, ‘dead cell’ nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green, and DNA-specific fluorochrome 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, combined with microscopy image analysis. Our method allows simultaneous estimates of cellular respiration activity, membrane and nucleoid integrity, and allows the detection of photosynthetic pigments fluorescence along with morphological observations. The staining protocol has been adjusted for, both, laboratory and natural populations of the genus Phormidium (Oscillatoriales), and tested on 4 field-collected samples and 12 laboratory strains of cyanobacteria. Based on the mentioned cellular functions we suggest classification of cells in cyanobacterial populations into four categories: (i) active and intact; (ii) injured but active; (iii) metabolically inactive but intact; (iv) inactive and injured, or dead. PMID:23437052

  17. Design and synthesis of a novel fluorescent protein probe for easy and rapid electrophoretic gel staining by using a commonly available UV-based fluorescent imaging system. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Sano, Takuma; Chimuro, Tomoyuki


    A new fluorescent molecular probe, methyl 3-(3,5-bis((bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonamido) propanoate, dizinc(II) chloride salt (Dansyl-1-Zn(II)), which possesses Zn(II) complexes and a dansyl group, was designed and synthesized to enable the detection of proteins in solution and in high-throughput electrophoresis by using a UV-based detection system. Dansyl-1-Zn(II) exhibited weak fluorescence in the absence of proteins and strong green fluorescence at approximately 510 nm in the presence of BSA upon irradiation with light at a wavelength of 345 nm. Compared with conventional protocols for in-gel SDS-PAGE protein staining (e.g. silver staining, SYPRO Ruby, and Oriole), the operating times of which range from 90 min to overnight, Dansyl-1-Zn(II) allowed 1-step protein staining (SDS-PAGE →Staining →Detection) and shortened the operating time (35 min) with high sensitivity (LOD: 1 ng or less) under 312-nm or 365-nm light excitation with orange or red emission filters, respectively. Moreover, Dansyl-1-Zn(II) was successfully applied to protein identification by MS via in-gel tryptic digestion, Western blotting, and Native-PAGE. Accordingly, Dansyl-1-Zn(II) may facilitate highly sensitive and high-throughput protein detection, and it may be widely applicable as a convenient tool in various scientific and medical fields. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Efficient fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in metastatic lymph nodes of murine colorectal cancer stained with indigo carmine. (United States)

    Matsuo, Hisataka; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hideo


    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a biochemical converted from 5-aminolevulinc acid (5-ALA) in living cells, is useful for intraoperative fluorescent detection of cancer metastasis in lymph nodes (LNs). However, unknown is whether the fluorescence of PpIX can be detected in the LNs when they coexist with indigo carmine, a blue dye commonly used for identification of sentinel LNs during surgery. To address this issue, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of PpIX fluorescence in the presence of indigo carmine in a mouse LN metastasis model of rectal cancer after administration of 5-ALA. Spectral analysis of pure chemicals revealed that the absorption spectrum of indigo carmine widely overlapped with the fluorescence spectrum of PpIX specifically at the peak of 632nm, a common emission wavelength for detecting PpIX, but not at the other peak of 700nm. Due to such spectral overlap, the PpIX fluorescence intensity was significantly attenuated by mixture with indigo carmine at 632nm, but not at 700nm. Accordingly, fluorescent measurements of the mouse metastatic LN revealed more intense presentation of PpIX at 700nm than at 632nm, indicating that the diagnostic usefulness is greater at 700nm than at 632nm for the indigo carmine-dyed LNs after administration of 5-ALA. From these observations, we propose that the fluorescence measurement is more efficient at 700nm than at 632nm for detection of PpIX in metastatic LNs stained with indigo carmine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid acid catalysts: Stain and shine (United States)

    Chen, Peng


    Catalyst particles for fluid catalytic cracking are vital for the oil-refinery industry, but their activity is hard to diagnose because of their inter- and intra-particle structural inhomogeneity. With fluorescence confocal microscopy and selective staining, one can now pinpoint the catalytic activity within single catalyst particles from an industrial reactor.

  20. Critical tonicity determination of sperm using fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noiles, E.E.; Ruffing, N.A.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mark, L.A.; Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K. (Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (USA)); Horstman, L. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    The use of cryopreserved, rather than fresh, mammalian semen for artificial insemination confers several important medical and/or economic advantages. However, current methods for cryopreservation of both human and bovine spermatozoa result in approximately only a 50% survival rate with thawing, obviously reducing the fertilizing capacity of the semen. A primary consideration during the cooling process is to avoid intracellular ice crystal formation with its lethal consequences to the cell. Current techniques achieve this by controlling the cooling rate. Computation of the time necessary for this dehydration, and hence, the cooling rate, is dependent upon knowledge of the water permeability coefficient (L{sub {rho}}) and its activation energy. The fluorophore, 6-carboxyfluoroscein diacetate (CFDA), which is nonfluorescent, readily crosses the intact plasma membrane. Intracellular esterases hydrolyze CFDA to 6-carboxyfluoroscein, a fluorescent, membrane-impermeable fluorophore. Consequently, spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes fluoresce bright green (Garner et. al., 1986), but those with disrupted membranes do not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use loss of CFDA fluorescence to determine the osmolality at which 50% of the spermatozoa will swell and lyse (critical tonicity, CT). These data will then be used to determine the L{sub {rho}} and its activation energy for sperm, thus increasing the knowledge available in cellular cryopreservation. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Analysis of single blood cells for CSF diagnostics via a combination of fluorescence staining and micro-Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Harz, Michaela; Kiehntopf, Michael; Stöckel, Stephan; Rösch, Petra; Deufel, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen


    This contribution provides a new approach for single blood cell analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the possibility of utilizing simultaneously on the same sample the unique capabilities of the two methods fluorescence staining and Raman spectroscopy. By doing so this technique enables the potential of accurate and rapid cell identification in order to determine cell parameters immediately (e.g. the study of the level of activation or phagocytosis activity of single blood cells). Fluorescence labeling of blood cells offers the great possibility of differentiating easily between the subtypes of white blood cells, while Raman spectroscopy reveals molecular fingerprint information with a spatial resolution down to the diffraction limit. Compared to an unstained cell, the presented results nicely demonstrate that the selected fluorescence dye does not influence the Raman spectrum of a labeled blood cell notably. By the combined application of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data analysis a distinction between white blood cell substructures could be performed. Since several blood cell types also differ in the amount of their cell components, differentiation between several blood cell types is also possible when one blood cell is described in the database by several Raman spectra according their presented sub-microscopic structures. This capability with the possibility of accurate and rapid blood cell identification in cerebrospinal fluid is extremely promising for implementation in clinical diagnostics.

  2. Comparison of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and digital imaging applied for the detection and quantification of staining and stain removal on teeth. (United States)

    Adeyemi, A A; Jarad, F D; Pender, N; Higham, S M


    This study compares the use of QLF with digital imaging in the detection and quantification of the development and removal of stain on teeth. Two experimental phases, tooth staining and tooth whitening, conducted in vitro on labial 12 mm(2) enamel windows made on ten extracted bovine teeth, developed stains in 6-min cycles (2 min in each solution) using artificial saliva, chlorhexidine and tea solutions and removed them using sodium perborate monohydrate in 2-min cycle monitored at the end of each cycle with QLF (Inspektor Research Systems, NL) and digital photography (Fuji, Japan). The stain values were quantified as DeltaQ derived from QLF and DeltaE from digital imaging. This was observed by the two methods correlated with Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Regression equations (R(2)) were also obtained. For both staining and stain removal there was a statistically significant (p<0.01) reverse correlation between DeltaQ values for QLF (r=-0.924, R(2)=85.4%) and DeltaE values for digital imaging (r=-0.994, R(2)=98.8%), respectively. QLF showed a high correlation with digital imaging as a technique for detecting and monitoring tooth stains and tooth whitening in vitro. The potential for QLF with further development as a tool for monitoring staining and whitening of teeth may be possible in vivo in addition to the diagnostic ability for caries detection.

  3. In vivo effects of focused shock waves on tumor tissue visualized by fluorescence staining techniques. (United States)

    Lukes, Petr; Zeman, Jan; Horak, Vratislav; Hoffer, Petr; Pouckova, Pavla; Holubova, Monika; Hosseini, S Hamid R; Akiyama, Hidenori; Sunka, Pavel; Benes, Jiri


    Shock waves can cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells and tissues both in vitro and in vivo. However, understanding the mechanisms of shock wave interaction with tissues is limited. We have studied in vivo effects of focused shock waves induced in the syngeneic sarcoma tumor model using the TUNEL assay, immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3 and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Shock waves were produced by a multichannel pulsed-electrohydraulic discharge generator with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode. In tumors treated with shock waves, a large area of damaged tissue was detected which was clearly differentiated from intact tissue. Localization and a cone-shaped region of tissue damage visualized by TUNEL reaction apparently correlated with the conical shape and direction of shock wave propagation determined by high-speed shadowgraphy. A strong TUNEL reaction of nuclei and nucleus fragments in tissue exposed to shock waves suggested apoptosis in this destroyed tumor area. However, specificity of the TUNEL technique to apoptotic cells is ambiguous and other apoptotic markers (caspase-3) that we used in our study did not confirmed this observation. Thus, the generated fragments of nuclei gave rise to a false TUNEL reaction not associated with apoptosis. Mechanical stress from high overpressure shock wave was likely the dominant pathway of tumor damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Haematoxylin and eosin staining identifies medium to large bacterial aggregates with a reliable specificity: A comparative analysis of follicular bacterial aggregates in axillary biopsies using peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization and haematoxylin and eosin staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Riis, Peter Theut; Bay, Lene


    Although peptide nucleic acid (PNA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are the reference tools in the study of bacterial aggregates/biofilms, it may also be rather time-consuming. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity...... between bacterial aggregates identified by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining vs bacterial aggregates in corresponding PNA-FISH samples. Axillary biopsies were obtained in 24 healthy controls. HE-stained and PNA-FISH samples were investigated using traditional light microscopy and CLSM, respectively...

  5. The evaluation of a novel method comparing quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) with spectrophotometry to assess staining and bleaching of teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeyemi, A.A.; Jarad, F.D.; de Josselin de Jong, E.; Pender, N.; Higham, S.M.


    This study reports the development and evaluation of a novel method using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), which enables its use for quantifying and assessing whole tooth surface staining and tooth whitening. The method was compared with a spectrophotometer to assess reliability. Two

  6. Detection of Charcot-Leyden crystals by fluorescence microscopy of Papanicolaou-stained smears of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and bronchial secretions. (United States)

    Küpper, T; Spies, S; Wehle, K; Pfitzer, P


    Fluorescence microscopy was used to examine Papanicolaou-stained smears of sputum and other secretions from the respiratory tract. Under these conditions Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLC) appear as bright yellow-green fluorescing needles. The study was performed to determine the value of this approach for the diagnosis of allergic lung diseases. The time taken to detect the crystals was recorded and the sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy for the detection of CLC was compared with light microscopy of the same samples. The data show that fluorescence microscopy is superior to light microscopy for the detection of CLC. The characteristic needle-shaped crystal can be recognized easily and fragments of crystals could be easily identified. In doubtful cases of allergic lung diseases, fluorescence microscopy may be used to supplement light microscopy for the detection of Charcot-Leyden crystals.

  7. Haematoxylin and eosin staining identifies medium to large bacterial aggregates with a reliable specificity: A comparative analysis of follicular bacterial aggregates in axillary biopsies using peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization and haematoxylin and eosin staining. (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Theut Riis, Peter; Bay, Lene; Kallenbach, Klaus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jemec, Gregor B E


    Although peptide nucleic acid (PNA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) are the reference tools in the study of bacterial aggregates/biofilms, it may also be rather time-consuming. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity between bacterial aggregates identified by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining vs bacterial aggregates in corresponding PNA-FISH samples. Axillary biopsies were obtained in 24 healthy controls. HE-stained and PNA-FISH samples were investigated using traditional light microscopy and CLSM, respectively. The data demonstrate that HE staining identifies large bacterial aggregates (>10 μm) with a sensitivity of 0.43 and specificity of 1. The methods, however, are not equivalent as demonstrated by a McNemar's test (P=.04). Where bacterial aggregates >10 μm in diameter, HE staining may offer a rapid and practical low-cost tool to evaluate bacterial aggregates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The evaluation of a novel method comparing quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) with spectrophotometry to assess staining and bleaching of teeth. (United States)

    Adeyemi, A A; Jarad, F D; de Josselin de Jong, E; Pender, N; Higham, S M


    This study reports the development and evaluation of a novel method using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), which enables its use for quantifying and assessing whole tooth surface staining and tooth whitening. The method was compared with a spectrophotometer to assess reliability. Two experimental phases, intrinsic stain formation and tooth whitening, were conducted in vitro on 16 extracted bovine teeth. Intrinsic stains were developed via access through lingual surfaces and root canals of these teeth using tea solution (2 g/100 ml, Marks and Spencer Extra Strong Tea, Marks and Spencer, London, UK) for 6 days. Stains were removed using 33% hydrogen peroxide (VWR Prolab, Leicestershire, UK) in cycles over 150 min. Stain development/whitening was monitored with QLF (Inspektor Research systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and spectrophotometry (Easy shade, Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Parameters Delta F for QLF and Delta E for the spectrophotometer were obtained. The progression of stain intensity and removal observed by the methods were tested for correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Intra-examiner reliability for each method was tested. QLF showed a high correlation with spectrophotometry for detecting and monitoring intrinsic tooth stain progression (Pearson coefficient r was -0.987 with correlation significant p < 0.0001). For stain removal, the Pearson coefficient (r) between both methods was -0.906 with no significance p = 0.094. The use of an external reference material in combination with the inner patch QLF analysis technique had the ability to detect and measure whole tooth surface staining and its removal longitudinally. The reliability of the method shows a potential clinical application.

  9. Ex-vivo imaging of excised tissue using vital dyes and confocal microscopy (United States)

    Johnson, Simon; Rabinovitch, Peter


    Vital dyes routinely used for staining cultured cells can also be used to stain and image live tissue slices ex-vivo. Staining tissue with vital dyes allows researchers to collect structural and functional data simultaneously and can be used for qualitative or quantitative fluorescent image collection. The protocols presented here are useful for structural and functional analysis of viable properties of cells in intact tissue slices, allowing for the collection of data in a structurally relevant environment. With these protocols, vital dyes can be applied as a research tool to disease processes and properties of tissue not amenable to cell culture based studies. PMID:22752953

  10. Silver stained polyacrylamide gels and fluorescence-based automated capillary electrophoresis for detection of amplified fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained from white-rot fungi in the genus Trametes. (United States)

    Dresler-Nurmi, A; Terefework, Z; Kaijalainen1, S; Lindström, K; Hatakka, A


    Silver stained denaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGEs) and fluorescent denaturing automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) were used to detect amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns obtained from white-rot fungi belonging to the genus Trametes. AFLP fingerprinting detected by the fluorescence-based method as well as by silver staining showed a high discriminatory power in differentiating nine strains of Trametes ochracea, nine strains of Trametes hirsuta and ten isolates of Trametes versicolor. UPGMA dendrograms derived from fluorescently labelled and silver stained AFLP patterns were similar, but a few differences were detected especially in the clustering of T. ochracea and T. hirsuta strains. Compared to silver-stained AFLP, detection of fluorescent AFLP was fast, reliable and easy to perform and it facilitated surveying with a computerized analysis system. Fluorescent CE seems to be well suited for studying similarity between Trametes species.

  11. FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides as fluorescent probes for staining integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 in tumor tissues. (United States)

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Pennington, Michael; Liu, Shuang


    This study sought to evaluate FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides (FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2) as fluorescent probes for in vitro assays of integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression in tumor tissues. FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were prepared, and their integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity was determined using the displacement assay against (125)I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells. IC50 values of FITC-Galacto-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-RGD2 were calculated to be 28 ± 8, 32 ± 7, and 89 ± 17 nM, respectively. The integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity followed a general trend: FITC-Galacto-RGD2 ∼ FITC-3P-RGD2 > FITC-RGD2. The xenografted tumor-bearing models were established by subcutaneous injection of 5 × 10(6) tumor cells into shoulder flank (U87MG, A549, HT29, and PC-3) or mammary fat pad (MDA-MB-435) of each athymic nude mouse. Three to six weeks after inoculation, the tumor size was 0.1-0.3 g. Tumors were harvested for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Six human carcinoma tissues (colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer) were obtained from recently diagnosed cancer patients. Human carcinoma slides were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated with ethanol, and then used for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as H&E staining. It was found that the tumor staining procedures with FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides were much simpler than those with the fluorescence-labeled integrin αvβ3 antibodies. Since FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were able to co-localize with the fluorescence-labeled integrin β3 antibody, their tumor localization and tumor cell binding are integrin αvβ3-specific. Quantification of the fluorescent intensity in five xenografted tumors (U87MG, MDA-MB-435, A549, HT29, and PC-3) and six human carcinoma tissues revealed an excellent linear relationship

  12. Interference of ATP with the fluorescent probes YOYO-1 andYOYO-3 modifies the mechanical properties of intercalator-stained DNA confined in nanochannels. (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Azad, Zubair; Lim, Shuang Fang; Wang, Hong; Riehn, Robert


    Intercalating fluorescent probes are widely used to visualize DNA in studies on DNA-protein interactions. Some require the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We have investigated the mechanical properties of DNA stained with the fluorescent intercalating dyes YOYO-1 and YOYO-3 as a function of ATP concentrations (up to 2 mM) by stretching single molecules in nanofluidic channels with a channel cross-section as small as roughly 100×100 nm2. The presence of ATP reduces the length of the DNA by up to 11 %. On the other hand, negligible effects are found if DNA is visualized with the minor groove-binding probe 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The apparent drop in extension under nanoconfinement is attributed to an interaction of the dye and ATP, and the resulting expulsion of YOYO-1 from the double helix.

  13. Measurement of Bluetongue Virus Binding to a Mammalian Cell Surface Receptor by an In Situ Immune Fluorescent Staining Technique (United States)

    A quantifiable in situ immune fluorescent assay (IFA) was developed to measure bluetongue virus (BTV) binding to mammalian cells. The utility of the assay was demonstrated with both Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. Since heparin sulfate (HS) has been ...

  14. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel


    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  15. The study of polyplex formation and stability by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of SYBR Green I-stained DNA. (United States)

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Pezzoli, Daniele; Malloggi, Chiara; Candeo, Alessia; Capelli, Giulio; Bassi, Andrea; Volonterio, Alessandro; Taroni, Paola; Candiani, Gabriele


    Polyplexes are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of DNA/RNA and cationic polymers specifically designed to deliver exogenous genetic material to cells by a process called transfection. There is a general consensus that a subtle balance between sufficient extracellular protection and intracellular release of nucleic acids is a key factor for successful gene delivery. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop suitable tools and techniques for enabling the monitoring of the stability of polyplexes in the biological environment they face during transfection. In this work we propose time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with SYBR Green I-DNA dye as a reliable tool for the in-depth characterization of the DNA/vector complexation state. As a proof of concept, we provide essential information on the assembly and disassembly of complexes formed between DNA and each of three cationic polymers, namely a novel promising chitosan-graft-branched polyethylenimine copolymer (Chi-g-bPEI), one of its building block 2 kDa bPEI and the gold standard transfectant 25 kDa bPEI. Our results highlight the higher information content provided by the time-resolved studies of SYBR Green I/DNA, as compared to conventional steady state measurements of ethidium bromide/DNA that enabled us to draw relationships among fluorescence lifetime, polyplex structural changes and transfection efficiency.

  16. New epifluorescence microscope providing pairs of specific fluorescence images of double-stained cells for simultaneous visual perception and for quantification (United States)

    Heiden, Thomas; Tribukait, Bernhard


    A new epi-fluorescence microscope for analysis of cells stained with two fluorochromes which can be spectrally isolated is described. The system makes it possible to perform independent and specific spectral selection of each dye (e.g. DAPI and CY3) while perceiving the two specific images simultaneously by eye. The optics uses splitting of the primary excitation and emission light beams, independent modification of the separated beams, and their reunification. Modifications in the separated beams comprise: (1) isolation of specific wavelengths (365 nm and 546 nm in the excitation light path, 435 - 500 nm and 590 - 750 nm in the emission light beams), (2) wavelength switching without image displacement and blur by means of a light chopper alternating between ultraviolet-excitation/blue-detection and green-excitation/red-detection at frequencies of up to 140 Hz for observation by eye without image flicker, and (3) the possible separate positioning of lenses for compensation of chromatic aberrations. The system demonstrates a good transmission of the chosen wavelengths. A high specificity of double fluorescence analysis with minimal effects of spectral overlap was attained with good temporal resolution. It has been shown that it is feasible to obtain separate chromatic compensations for the use of a microscope objective in spectral regions outside the range for which the objective is corrected. Quantitative and independent measurements of the two fluorescence images by a CCD camera synchronized with the light chopper are feasible. In conclusion, this imaging system is outlined for highly specific visual analysis and exact quantitative measurement of double fluorescence labeled specimens in cytology and histology.

  17. Development of a Method to Determine the Number of Viable Organisms >or- 50 micrometers (Nominally Zooplankton) in Ships’ Ballast Water: A Combination of Two Vital, Fluorescent Stains (United States)


    viability of cultured brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis). This technique, however, has not been as...concentrated using a 50 µm nylon mesh sieve. 2.2 Standard Test Organisms The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana has been used extensively in...aquaculture and research for decades due to the widespread retail sale of cysts and the ease of hatching ( Brine Shrimp Direct, Ogden, UT). To hatch the

  18. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders. (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Meucci, A; Cremonesi, F


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r(2)>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  19. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathy Radha


    Full Text Available Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP and Fanconi anemia (FA patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy-induced chromosome aberrations (CA. The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in slides stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique. An increase in all types of CA was observed in XP and FA lymphocytes irradiated at G0 when compared to controls. The frequency of dicentrics and rings was 6 to 27% higher (at 1 and 2 Gy in XP lymphocytes and 37% higher (at 2 Gy in FA lymphocytes than in controls, while chromosome deletions were higher in irradiated (30% in 1 Gy and 72% in 2 Gy than in control XP lymphocytes and 28 to 102% higher in FA lymphocytes. In G2-irradiated lymphocytes the frequency of CA was 24 to 55% higher in XP lymphocytes than in controls. In most cases the translocation frequencies were higher than the frequencies of dicentrics (21/19.

  20. Immunogold silver staining associated with epi-fluorescence for cucumber mosaic virus localisation on semi-thin sections of banana tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Helliot


    Full Text Available The immunogold-silver staining (IGSS technique in combination with epi-fluorescence detection was used to localise cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles within banana infected tissues. For this purpose, tissue samples (2 mm3 were excised from CMV-infected and highly proliferating meristem cultures of Williams BSJ banana (ITC. 0570, AAA, Cavendish subgroup. These samples were immediately fixed in a 2% paraformaldehyde/0.25% glutaraldehyde mixture, dehydrated in ethanol, and finally embedded in L.R.White resin. Semi-thin sections were cut, mounted on clean treated glass slides and immunostained for CMV particles using gold-labelled secondary antibodies and silver enhancement. Sections were counterstained with basic fuchsin and examined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Negative controls included immuno-stained samples excised from non-virus infected material as well as infected material on which primary or secondary antibodies were not applied. Images of autofluorescence (in red and of epi-reflectance of silver-enhanced immunogold particles (in green were recorded separately and merged, allowing the specific localisation of CMV particles at the cellular level on semi-thin sections of aldehyde-fixed banana tissues. The main advantage of this analytical approach compared to previously published protocols is that it combines a fast staining procedure, stable preparation, a high resolution, and a narrow plane of focus with the flexibility in generation, processing and analysis of images offered by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Finally, the presence of numerous CMV particles within banana meristems constitutes a clear explanation of the very low CMV elimination efficiency when using meristem- tip culture alone.

  1. Exploring the dynamics of fluorescence staining of bacteria with cyanine dyes for the development of kinetic assays (United States)

    Thomas, Marlon Sheldon

    Bacterial infections continue to be one of the major health risks in the United States. The common occurrence of such infection is one of the major contributors to the high cost of health care and significant patient mortality. The work presented in this thesis describes spectroscopic studies that will contribute to the development of a fluorescent assay that may allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. Herein, the optical interactions between six bacterial species and a series of thiacyanine dyes are investigated. The interactions between the dyes and the bacterial species are hypothesized to be species-specific. For this thesis, two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) TOP10 and Enterobacter aerogenes; two Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis; and two Bacillus endospores, B. globigii and B. thuringiensis, were used to test the proposed hypothesis. A series of three thiacyanine dyes---3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide (THIA), 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide (THC) and thiazole orange (THO)---were used as fluorescent probes. The basis of our spectroscopic study was to explore the bacterium-induced interactions of the bacterial cells with the individual thiacyanine dyes or with a mixture of the three dyes. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the different bacterial species altered the absorption properties of the dyes. Mixed-dye solutions gave unique absorption patterns for each bacteria tested, with competitive binding observed between the bacteria and spectrophotometric probes (thiacyanine dyes). Emission spectroscopy recorded changes in the emission spectra of THIA following the introduction of bacterial cells. Experimental results revealed that the emission enhancement of the dyes resulted from increases in the emission quantum yield of the thiacyanine dyes upon binding to the bacteria cellular components. The recorded emission enhancement data were fitted to an exponential (mono

  2. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization. (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena


    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  3. Auramine orange stain with fluorescence microscopy is a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of cervical lymphadenitis due to mycobacterial infection using fine needle aspiration cytology: a case series. (United States)

    Cheng, Alan G; Chang, Anthony; Farwell, D Greg; Agoff, S Nicholas


    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the auramine orange (AO) stain in diagnosing mycobacterial cervical adenitis (MCA) from fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. A retrospective review of 19 patients evaluated at 2 urban hospitals from 2000 to 2003 for suspected MCA. FNA specimens were inoculated to culture media and had direct smears stained by the auramine acid fast method. Mycobacteria were identified in 16 (84.2%) of 19 AO-stained FNA specimens, with results available within 4 hours. Corresponding cultures were positive for mycobacteria in 12 specimens, 9 tuberculous and 3 nontuberculous, and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the 3 AO-negative specimens. Three of the 4 patients with negative cultures had previously taken anti-mycobacterial medications. The AO stain with fluorescence microscopy is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. It is a valuable tool for the otolaryngologists and pathologists in the diagnosis of MCA.

  4. Application of a fluorescent dual stain to assess decontamination of tissue protein and prion amyloid from surgical stainless steel during simulated washer-disinfector cycles. (United States)

    Howlin, R P; Khammo, N; Secker, T; McDonnell, G; Keevil, C W


    Current World Health Organization guidelines pertaining to the reprocessing of surgical instruments in the face of potential iatrogenic transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) are incompatible for the vast majority of devices. This has led to the advent of a range of new decontamination measures. Even without the implementation of these new procedures, the incidence of proven iCJD through surgery remains low. In this study, existing decontamination processes in sterile service departments have been evaluated using simulated washer-disinfector cycles on surgical grade stainless steel wires inoculated with ME7 scrapie homogenate. The consequence of varying the soil drying times and choice of cycle pre-treatment on prion removal were evaluated. Assessment of residual contamination at each cycle phase was carried out with the application of a sensitive fluorescent staining procedure to identify both total protein and prion-associated amyloid. The study confirmed that immediate reprocessing following contamination was beneficial during the pre-treatment phase with either an enzymatic or pre-soak wetting agent. Final total protein levels at the end of the cycles, were not significantly different from those where the soil was allowed to dry. In addition, cycles involving a pre-treatment with either an enzymatic cleaner or pre-soak, whether the soil was allowed to dry or not, showed complete removal of detectable prion amyloid. The results suggest that current decontamination procedures, combined with immediate processing of surgical instruments, have the potential to be highly effective alone at reducing the risk of surgical transmission of CJD. Copyright (c) 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Xu


    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases, 1 min (6 cases, or 2 min (4 cases. Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11% were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89% were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55 or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41. DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH.

  6. Vital Signs (United States)

    Your vital signs show how well your body is functioning. They are usually measured at doctor's offices, often as part of ... slow or fast breathing can also be a sign of a serious breathing problem. Temperature, which measures ...

  7. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eNilsson


    Full Text Available Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity towards distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone.

  8. Malaria over-diagnosis in Cameroon: diagnostic accuracy of Fluorescence and Staining Technologies (FAST) Malaria Stain and LED microscopy versus Giemsa and bright field microscopy validated by polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Parsel, Sean M; Gustafson, Steven A; Friedlander, Edward; Shnyra, Alexander A; Adegbulu, Aderosoye J; Liu, Ying; Parrish, Nicole M; Jamal, Syed A; Lofthus, Eve; Ayuk, Leo; Awasom, Charles; Henry, Carolyn J; McArthur, Carole P


    Malaria is a major world health issue and its continued burden is due, in part, to difficulties in the diagnosis of the illness. The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory testing using microscopy-based techniques or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for all cases of suspected malaria. In regions where Plasmodium species are indigenous, there are multiple etiologies of fever leading to misdiagnoses, especially in populations where HIV is prevalent and children. To determine the frequency of malaria infection in febrile patients over an 8-month period at the Regional Hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the Flourescence and Staining Technology (FAST) Malaria stain and ParaLens AdvanceTM microscopy system (FM) and compared it with conventional bright field microscopy and Giemsa stain (GS). Peripheral blood samples from 522 patients with a clinical diagnosis of "suspected malaria" were evaluated using GS and FM methods. A nested PCR assay was the gold standard to compare the two methods. PCR positivity, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. Four hundred ninety nine samples were included in the final analysis. Of these, 30 were positive via PCR (6.01%) with a mean PPV of 19.62% and 27.99% for GS and FM, respectively. The mean NPV was 95.01% and 95.28% for GS and FM, respectively. Sensitivity was 26.67% in both groups and specificity was 92.78% and 96.21% for GS and FM, respectively. An increased level of diagnostic discrepancy was observed between technicians based upon skill level using GS, which was not seen with FM. The frequency of malarial infections confirmed via PCR among patients presenting with fever and other symptoms of malaria was dramatically lower than that anticipated based upon physicians' clinical suspicions. A correlation between technician skill and accuracy of malaria diagnosis using GS was observed that was less pronounced using FM

  9. Comparison of different staining procedures for the flow cytometric analysis of U-937 cells infected with different Leishmania-species. (United States)

    Abdullah, S M; Flath, B; Presber, H W


    The human macrophage cell line U-937 infected with different Leishmania species, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis (Lma), Leishmania donovani (Ld) and Leishmania infantum (Li), was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Leishmania spp. were labeled with different stains prior to the infection of the U-937 cells (BCECF-Am, PKH2-GL and SYTO 17) or after the infection (AO, FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies, PI). Infected cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and in parallel microscopically after Giemsa staining. The data obtained by these two methods were compared to decide which method is mostly appropriate for detection and estimation of the infection rate. Three fluorescent stains were suitable: BCECF-Am, SYTO 17 and FITC-conjugated MoAb with 0.02% digitonin. None of the vital stains gave evaluable results after 3 days of incubation.

  10. Port-Wine Stains (United States)

    ... for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth > For Parents > Port-Wine Stains Print ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  11. Non-fused Phospholes as Fluorescent Probes for Imaging of Lipid Droplets in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peter R. Nilsson


    Full Text Available Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of specific compartments in cells are essential for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of pyridyl- and thienyl-substituted phospholes and the evaluation of these dyes for fluorescent imaging of cells. The thienyl-substituted phospholes proved to be successful for staining of cultured normal and malignant cells due to their fluorescent properties and low toxicity. Co-staining experiments demonstrated that these probes target lipid droplets, which are, lipid-storage organelles found in the cytosol of nearly all cell types. Our findings confirm that thienyl-substituted phospholes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells, and we foresee that these fluorescent dyes might be used in studies to unravel the roles that lipid droplets play in cellular physiology and in diseases.

  12. Pericardial fluid Gram stain (United States)

    ... a smear. A series of special stains are applied to the sample. This is called a Gram stain . A laboratory specialist looks at the stained slide under the microscope, checking for bacteria. The color, size, and shape of the cells ...

  13. Efficacy of propidium iodide and FUN-1 stains for assessing viability in basidiospores of Rhizopogon roseolus. (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Elena; Majada, Juan; Casares, Abelardo


    The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated. At 6 mo and 1 y, the spores kept in a water suspension survived better than those left within intact, dry gasterocarps. Our work highlights the importance of temperature, nutrients, and vitamins for maturation and germination of spores of R. roseolus during 1 y of storage.

  14. Identification and quantification of high fluorescence-stained lymphocytes as antibody synthesizing/secreting cells using the automated routine hematology analyzer XE-2100. (United States)

    Linssen, J; Jennissen, V; Hildmann, J; Reisinger, E; Schindler, J; Malchau, G; Nierhaus, A; Wielckens, K


    The aim of this study was to classify and quantify the high fluorescence lymphocytes area (HFL-count) from the SYSMEX XE-2100 leucocyte differential channel as antibody-synthesizing or -secreting cells (ASC, plasma cells or lymphoplasmacytoid cells) in reactive diseases. To unequivocally identify the HFL cells, all possibly eligible cell populations have been investigated: activated B-lymphocytes, activated T-lymphocytes, large granular lymphocytes (LGL), activated monocytes, and immature granulocytes. In total, 85 patients were analyzed on the XE-2100 and compared with the automated image analysis system Cellavision Diffmaster 96 based on artificial neural network and immunophenotyping method with the BD FACSCalibur. Reproducibility tests for HFL demonstrated a mean coefficient of variation of 13.9% for very low results and 1.5% for high results. The linearity data showed a good correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between expected and measured HFL. The comparison with possibly eligible cell populations showed no significant correlation between activated monocytes and immature granulocytes, with most immature granulocytes (promyelocyte I or II), natural killer cells or LGLs, activated T-lymphocytes, and sub-T-lymphocytes populations. However, for activated B-lymphocytes an excellent significant correlation with the peripheral blood smear, and the immunophenotyping method has been found with R(2) = 0.900, P smear) do indicate an excellent quantification of the HFL-count, as well. The fully automated SYSMEX XE-2100 HFL-count identifies and quantifies the ASC cells (activated B-lymphocytes) with high precision and reliability in patients without hematology system diseases, thus providing a potential screening and monitoring tool for any patient with suspected infection. Additional studies are required to comprehend in more detail the full clinical utility of an HFL (ASC) count as a potential diagnostic indicator of inflammation, infection, or sepsis. Copyright 2007 Clinical

  15. [Spatial distribution of dead and vital bacteria in the native dental biofilm]. (United States)

    Ji, Ya-Kun; Ling, Jun-Qi


    To examine the spatial distribution of dead and vital bacteria in the early formation of native dental biofilm. An experimental dental biofilm model in the oral cavity was established by enamel slabs and the spatial distribution of dead and vital bacteria in the early colonization of native dental biofilm on the enamel surface was observed by in situ real-time and dynamic observations and optical sections utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and live and dead bacterial fluorescence staining technique. At the initial stage of dental biofilm formation, the structure was sparse and the percentage of dead cells reached 70% - 80% at the inner layers. In the middle layers the structure became denser than in the inner layers, which was mainly composed of vital cells (40% - 70%), and void-like structures were surrounded by vital bacteria. In the outer layers, the structure was sparse and vital cells occupied 20% - 40%. Native dental biofilms showed an uneven spatial distribution of vital and dead microorganisms. The percentage of vital microorganisms was lower adjacent to the enamel surface, increased in the z-axis towards the central parts, and decreased again towards the outer layers. The dead bacteria is an integral component in the early formation of native dental biofilm. Bacteria in the biofilms increased with time forming abundant channels.

  16. Autofluorescence of routinely hematoxylin and eosin- stained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 4, 2008 ... ... Hosokawa S, Nagaike K, Tagawa T (2004). A new immunofluoro-staining method using red fluorescence of PerCP on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. J. Immunol. Methods, 293: 143-151. Rotomskis R, Streckyte G (2004). Fluorescence diagnostics of tumors. Medicina (Kaunas), 40: 1219-1230.

  17. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brian Fennerty


    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  18. Acid-fast stain (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  19. Joint fluid Gram stain (United States)

    ... called a smear. Several different colored stains are applied to the sample. The laboratory personnel will look at the stained smear under a microscope to see if bacteria are present. The color, size, and shape of ...

  20. Dramatic Stained Glass. (United States)

    Prater, Michael


    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  1. Iron Stain on Wood (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  2. Vitalism as Pathos. (United States)

    Osborne, Thomas

    This paper addresses the remarkable longevity (in spite of numerous 'refutations') of the idea of vitalism in the biological sciences and beyond. If there is to be a renewed vitalism today, however, we need to ask - on what kind of original conception of life should it be based ? This paper argues that recent invocations of a generalized, processual variety of vitalism in the social sciences and humanities above all, however exciting in their scope, miss much of the basic originality - and interest - of the vitalist perspective itself. The paper argues that any renewed spirit of vitalism in the contemporary era would have to base itself on the normativity of the living organism rather than on any generalized conceptions of process or becoming. In the terms of the paper, such a vitalism would have to be concrete and 'disciplinary' rather than processual or generalized. Such a vitalism would also need to accommodate, crucially, the pathic aspects of life - pathology, sickness, error; in short everything that makes us, as living beings, potentially weak, without power, at a loss. Sources for such a pathic vitalism might be found above all in the work of Georges Canguilhem - and Friedrich Nietzsche - rather than primarily in Bergson, Whitehead or Deleuze.

  3. Shimmering Stained Glass. (United States)

    Simon, Gail Murray


    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  4. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2017.

  5. [Exogenous tooth discoloration in children: black stains]. (United States)

    Bandon, D; Chabane-Lemboub, A; Le Gall, M


    Black-stains are a coloring frequently met in pediatric dentistry. They can be medically diagnosed as 1-mm borders or unfinished lines formed by a dark exogenous substance which follows the gingival festoon of bet coronary (in cervical third of the crown) temporary teeth and permanent, or they can appear in like points or dark spots. They are caused by bacteria anaerobic chromogenous. The dominant responsible species are actinomyces. Blacks-stains are ferrous depots, formed following a chemical interaction on the surface of the tooth between sulphide of hydrogen (under the effect of the anaerobic bacteria which are producing hydrogen) and the iron contained in the saliva (by a healthy diet) or that released by red blood corpuscles (in case of bloody gums). Black-stains are a shape of characteristic dental plaque by its flora with trend to calcify. It contains an insoluble iron salt with a content raised in calcium and in inorganic phosphor. The coloring Black-stain is a mild pathology and has no incidence on the vitality of the tooth. Certainly these spots are unsightly. The dental surgeon in current practice can deprive them. The pediatrician plays a leading role in the diagnosis and advice to parents and patients affected by these stains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality (United States)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.


    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  7. Quantitative segmentation of fluorescence microscopy images of heterogeneous tissue: Approach for tuning algorithm parameters (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Brown, J. Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    The combination of fluorescent contrast agents with microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain real time images of tissue histology without the need for fixing, sectioning, and staining. The potential of this technology lies in the identification of robust methods for image segmentation and quantitation, particularly in heterogeneous tissues. Our solution is to apply sparse decomposition (SD) to monochrome images of fluorescently-stained microanatomy to segment and quantify distinct tissue types. The clinical utility of our approach is demonstrated by imaging excised margins in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of a sarcoma. Representative images of excised margins were used to optimize the formulation of SD and tune parameters associated with the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that SD is a robust solution that can advance vital fluorescence microscopy as a clinically significant technology.

  8. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.


    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  9. Planetary Vital Signs (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David


    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  10. Rapid staining and imaging of subnuclear features to differentiate between malignant and benign breast tissues at a point-of-care setting. (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Chitalia, Rhea; Krieger, Marlee; Erkanli, Alaattin; Willett, Rebecca M; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    Histopathology is the clinical standard for tissue diagnosis; however, it requires tissue processing, laboratory personnel and infrastructure, and a highly trained pathologist to diagnose the tissue. Optical microscopy can provide real-time diagnosis, which could be used to inform the management of breast cancer. The goal of this work is to obtain images of tissue morphology through fluorescence microscopy and vital fluorescent stains and to develop a strategy to segment and quantify breast tissue features in order to enable automated tissue diagnosis. We combined acriflavine staining, fluorescence microscopy, and a technique called sparse component analysis to segment nuclei and nucleoli, which are collectively referred to as acriflavine positive features (APFs). A series of variables, which included the density, area fraction, diameter, and spacing of APFs, were quantified from images taken from clinical core needle breast biopsies and used to create a multivariate classification model. The model was developed using a training data set and validated using an independent testing data set. The top performing classification model included the density and area fraction of smaller APFs (those less than 7 µm in diameter, which likely correspond to stained nucleoli).When applied to the independent testing set composed of 25 biopsy panels, the model achieved a sensitivity of 82 %, a specificity of 79 %, and an overall accuracy of 80 %. These results indicate that our quantitative microscopy toolbox is a potentially viable approach for detecting the presence of malignancy in clinical core needle breast biopsies.

  11. The Vitality of Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo


    of what we might be conceptualised as the vitality of disease. Medical interventions are increasingly as much about improving (quality of) life as they are about saving and prolonging life. As a consequence, morbid living has come to be disciplined, for example, in patient schools aimed at teaching...... patients to learn how to live with their disease, through rating scales used to measure treatment effect on the ‘quality of life’ of patients in clinical trials and through disease-specific ‘Living with’ guides aimed at patients and carers....

  12. [Vital contact with reality]. (United States)

    Ravagnan, L M


    From the standpoint of existential phenomenology, the contact with reality lies in the very phocus of theory, being closely related to another basic conception: that of being-in-the-world. In order to ratify those conceptions, the author reviews some concepts imported from Kurt Lewin's Field Theory, among which: a) vital psychological space, embedding the subject and in close interchange with him; b) intrapsychic regions, having, to a certain extent, autonomous functions, but being related to each other and integrated into the higher unity of the subject. As both systems are interdependent, any modification of the equilibrium of one of them reverberates into the other's, and changes the general conditions of both of them. Reviewing, at the same time, Minkowski's views on schizophrenia, the author sets forth the production of an inner world that becomes autonomous and possesses a degree of reality that overwhelms the true outer world. There is not only the splitting from reality, but the creation of a whole fantastic field, in which the individual participates with all his vital availability. Both views lead to a similar contention: that in some pathological states, the primal link man-real world, is replaced by a new inner correspondence, focused on the imaginary and having effects similar to those of the real world.

  13. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke


    a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay......The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...

  14. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes (United States)

    Ehala, Martin


    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  15. Near-UV laser treatment of extrinsic dental enamel stains. (United States)

    Schoenly, J E; Seka, W; Featherstone, J D B; Rechmann, P


    The selective ablation of extrinsic dental enamel stains using a 400-nm laser is evaluated at several fluences for completely removing stains with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (400-nm wavelength, 60-nanosecond pulse duration, 10-Hz repetition rate) was used to treat 10 extracted human teeth with extrinsic enamel staining. Each tooth was irradiated perpendicular to the surface in a back-and-forth motion over a 1-mm length using an ∼300-µm-diam 10th-order super-Gaussian beam with fluences ranging from 0.8 to 6.4 J/cm(2) . Laser triangulation determined stain depth and volume removed by measuring 3D surface images before and after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy evaluated the surface roughness of enamel following stain removal. Fluorescence spectroscopy measured spectra of unbleached and photobleached stains in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. Extrinsic enamel stains are removed with laser fluences between 0.8 and 6.4 J/cm(2) . Stains removed on sound enamel leave behind a smooth enamel surface. Stain removal in areas with signs of earlier cariogenic acid attacks resulted in isolated and randomly located laser-induced, 50-µm-diam enamel pits. These pits contain 0.5-µm diam, smooth craters indicative of heat transfer from the stain to the enamel and subsequent melting and water droplet ejection. Ablation stalling of enamel stains is typically observed at low fluences (Laser ablation of extrinsic enamel stains at 400 nm is observed to be most efficient above 3 J/cm(2) with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. Unsound underlying enamel is also observed to be selectively removed after irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Fungal biomass estimation in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using calcofluor white stain]. (United States)

    Vázquez, María B; Amodeo, Martín R; Bianchinotti, María V

    Soil microorganisms are vital for ecosystem functioning because of the role they play in soil nutrient cycling. Agricultural practices and the intensification of land use have a negative effect on microbial activities and fungal biomass has been widely used as an indicator of soil health. The aim of this study was to analyze fungal biomass in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province using direct fluorescent staining and to contribute to its use as an indicator of environmental changes in the ecosystem as well as to define its sensitivity to weather conditions. Soil samples were collected during two consecutive years. Soil smears were prepared and stained with two different concentrations of calcofluor, and the fungal biomass was estimated under an epifluorescence microscope. Soil fungal biomass varied between 2.23 and 26.89μg fungal C/g soil, being these values in the range expected for the studied soil type. The fungal biomass was positively related to temperature and precipitations. The methodology used was reliable, standardized and sensitive to weather conditions. The results of this study contribute information to evaluate fungal biomass in different soil types and support its use as an indicator of soil health for analyzing the impact of different agricultural practices. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake of silica covered Quantum Dots into living cells: Long term vitality and morphology study on hyaluronic acid biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amico, Michele [Dip. Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche, 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Dip. di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Fiorica, Calogero, E-mail: [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy); Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy); Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio [Dip. di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dubertret, Benoit [Laboratoire de Physique et d’Etude des Matèriaux, ESPCI-ParisTech, PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universitè UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy)


    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising very bright and stable fluorescent probes for optical studies in the biological field but water solubility and possible metal bio-contamination need to be addressed. In this work, a simple silica-QD hybrid system is prepared and the uptake in bovine chondrocytes living cells without any functionalization of the external protective silica shield is demonstrated. Moreover, long term treated cells vitality (up to 14 days) and the transfer of silica-QDs to the next cell generations are here reported. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the morphology of the so labelled cells and the relative silica-QDs distribution. Finally, we employ silica-QD stained chondrocytes to characterize, as proof of concept, hydrogels obtained from an amphiphilic derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA-EDA-C {sub 18}) functionalized with different amounts of the RGD peptide. - Highlights: • Non functionalized silica-quantum dots fluorescent nanoparticles uptake is observed. • Morphology studies of such cells could be done by confocal fluorescence microscopy. • Labelled chondrocytes are viable until at least 14 days. • RGD functionalized Hyaluronic Acid hydrogels are studied as cell scaffolds. • Chondrocyte are promptly attached on RGD-functionalized hydrogels.

  18. The Social Function of Staining


    GÜNDÜZ, Alev


    The place of staining which is established in today’s cosmetic perception as a creative way forbeauty, charm and attraction, had been split the path of the fed formatting of the social necessity ofthe past. The adventure of staining person who constantly reshapes the area based for needing, initiallypointed to similar meanings in the mind and body of every individual in the society. A personwho finds self-expression using non-verbal superior language by staining; has created a new sourceof id...

  19. Gram stain of skin lesion (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  20. Vitality of optical vortices (Presentation)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS


    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the vitality of optical vortices to distinguish between vortex dipole creation and annihilation events. Vitality is expressed in terms of the transverse 1st and 2nd order derivatives of the optical field. It can be used...

  1. Effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) on ex vivo dental plaque vitality. (United States)

    Sculean, A; Auschill, T M; Donos, N; Brecx, M; Arweiler, N B


    A common clinical observation following surgical periodontal therapy with an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) is the improved healing of the soft tissues and the limited inflammation of the operated areas. These clinical observations are empirical and difficult to explain. One of the factors influencing the early wound healing might be a potential antimicrobial effect of Emdogain. To investigate the effect of Emdogain on the vitality of ex vivo supragingival dental plaque and to compare this effect to that of a standard 0.2% chlorhexidine solution. 24 patients suffering from adult periodontitis were included in the study. At the beginning of the experiment, all participants were given a professional tooth cleaning. For the following 4 days, they had to refrain from any kind of oral hygiene measures. At day 5, from each of the volunteers, a voluminous plaque biofilm sample was taken with a sterile curette from the vestibular surfaces of the 1st lower molars and divided into 5 equal parts. Each part was mounted with 5 microl of the following solutions: (1) NaCl, (2) enamel matrix derivative dissolved in water (EMD), (3) enamel matrix derivative dissolved in the vehicle (Emdogain), (4) vehicle (propylene glycol alginate, PGA), (5) 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX). After a reaction time of 2 min the test solutions were sucked off, and subsequently the biofilm was stained with a fluorescence dye. The vitality of the plaque flora after the treatments was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean vitality of 76.8+/-8%. The EMD, Emdogain, PGA and CHX showed VF values of 54.4+/-9.2, 21.4+/-10.6%, 19.6+/-11.6% and 32.3+/-11.8%, respectively. Emdogain, PGA and CHX showed statistically highly significant reductions (pEmdogain and PGA were found to be statistically significantly different compared to CHX (pEmdogain might have an antibacterial effect on the vitality of the ex vivo supragingival dental plaque flora.

  2. Identification and quantification of microplastics using Nile Red staining. (United States)

    Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi


    We investigated the applicability of Nile Red (NR), a fluorescent dye, for microplastic analysis, and determined the optimal staining conditions. Five mg/L NR solution in n-hexane effectively stained plastics, and they were easily recognized in green fluorescence. The NR staining method was successfully applied to micro-sized polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyurethane, and poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate), except for polyvinylchloride, polyamide and polyester. The recovery rate of polyethylene (100-300μm) spiked to pretreated natural sand was 98% in the NR stating method, which was not significantly (p<0.05) different with FT-IR identification. The NR staining method was suitable for discriminating fragmented polypropylene particles from large numbers of sand particles in laboratory weathering test samples. The method is straightforward and quick for identifying and quantifying polymer particles in the laboratory controlled samples. Further studies, however, are necessary to investigate the application of NR staining to field samples with organic remnants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aging changes in vital signs (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in vital signs To use the sharing ... Normal body temperature does not change much with aging. But as you get older, it becomes harder ...

  4. Dual fluorophore doped silica nanoparticles for cellular localization studies in multiple stained cells. (United States)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Dringen, Ralf; Rezwan, Kurosch


    Fluorescently labeled nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a wide range of biomedical and nanotoxicological studies to elucidate their interactions with cellular components and their intracellular localization. As commonly used fluorescence microscopes are usually limited in their performance to a few channels which detect the emitted fluorescence light in the red, green and blue color range, the simultaneous colocalization of accumulated fluorescent NPs with cellular markers is often difficult and remains a challenge due to spectral overlay of NP fluorescence and fluorescence of stained cellular components. To overcome this problem we have synthesized three different photostable dual-labeled fluorescent core/shell silica NPs with high fluorescence intensity and well-defined shape, size and surface chemistry. The synthesis route of dual fluorophore doped silica (DFDS) NPs was based on a water-in-oil microemulsion method and includes the separate incorporation of two fluorophores in the core or shell. The suitability of DFDS for colocalization studies was assessed and successfully demonstrated with human osteoblast cells. Parallel visualization of DFDS NPs with two separate microscope channels allowed cellular NP uptake and discrimination from fluorescently stained cellular components, even in triple stained cells that show fluorescence for the cytoskeleton protein actin (green), the nucleus (blue) and collagen (red). Our results demonstrate the feasibility and straightforwardness of the approach for colocalization studies at a single-cell level to discern clearly the accumulation of NPs from triple-stained cellular components. Such NPs with multiple fluorescence characteristics have a great potential to replace single fluorescent NPs for in vitro studies, when multiple staining of cellular components is required. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Special stains in Mohs surgery. (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J; Sobanko, Joseph F; Zhu, Xiaodong; Nunnciato, Terri; Urban, Christopher R


    The excellent cure rates associated with Mohs micrographic surgery depend on accurate interpretation of complete and high-quality microscopic frozen sections. Reliable interpretation of microscopic slides is only possible if the surgeon can distinguish tumor cells from surrounding normal tissue. By highlighting tumor cells with a chromogen that is visible on light microscopy, immunostaining allows the Mohs surgeon to distinguish tumor from normal cells in these challenging scenarios. This article focuses on practical aspects involving the most commonly used immunostains in dermatologic surgery, including MART-1 for melanocytic neoplasms, cytokeratin stains for keratinocytic neoplasms, and CD34 stains for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conjugates of a Photoactivated Rhodamine with Biopolymers for Cell Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Yu. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available Conjugates of the photoactivated rhodamine dyes with biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids are important tools for microscopic investigation of biological tissue. In this study, a precursor of the photoactivated fluorescent dye (PFD has been successfully used for staining of numerous mammalian cells lines and for conjugate formation with chitosan (“Chitosan-PFD” and histone H1 (“Histone H1.3-PFD”. The intensive fluorescence has been observed after photoactivation of these conjugates inside cells (A431, HaCaT, HEK239, HBL-100, and MDCK. Developed procedures and obtained data are important for further application of novel precursors of fluorescent dyes (“caged” dyes for microscopic probing of biological objects. Thus, the synthesized “Chitosan-PFD” and “Histone H1-PFD” have been successfully applied in this study for intracellular transport visualization by fluorescent microscopy.

  7. Plasmolysis and vital staining reveal viable oospores of Peronospora effusa in spinach seed lots (United States)

    Production of oospores by Peronospora effusa, the causal agent of downy mildew on spinach (Spinacia oleracea), was reported on spinach seed over three decades ago. In view of the rapid proliferation of new races of P. effusa worldwide, seed borne transmission has been suspected but methods to test ...

  8. Modified elastic tissue-Masson trichrome stain. (United States)

    Garvey, W


    A combined elastic tissue-Masson technique is presented which stains elastic fibers of all sizes, nuclei and connective tissue. The modified elastic tissue stain consists of hematoxylin, ferric chloride and Verhoeff's iodine; nuclei and elastic fibers are stained blue-black in six minutes without differentiation. By contrast, cytoplasmic elements are stained red, (Biebrich scarlet-acid fuchsin) and collagen is stained green (light green) or blue (aniline blue). The entire staining procedure takes approximately one hour.

  9. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven. (United States)

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana


    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  10. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.


    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of

  11. Enhancement of seminal stains using background correction algorithm with colour filters. (United States)

    Lee, Wee Chuen; Khoo, Bee Ee; Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim


    Evidence in crime scenes available in the form of biological stains which cannot be visualized during naked eye examination can be detected by imaging their fluorescence using a combination of excitation lights and suitable filters. These combinations selectively allow the passage of fluorescence light emitted from the targeted stains. However, interference from the fluorescence generated by many of the surface materials bearing the stains often renders it difficult to visualize the stains during forensic photography. This report describes the use of background correction algorithm (BCA) to enhance the visibility of seminal stain, a biological evidence that fluoresces. While earlier reports described the use of narrow band-pass filters for other fluorescing evidences, here, we utilize BCA to enhance images captured using commonly available colour filters, yellow, orange and red. Mean-based contrast adjustment was incorporated into BCA to adjust the background brightness for achieving similarity of images' background appearance, a crucial step for ensuring success while implementing BCA. Experiment results demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed colour filters' approach using the improved BCA in enhancing the visibility of seminal stains in varying dilutions on selected surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Etika Berbusana Mahasiswa Stain Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Suryani Wijaya


    Full Text Available Ethics is about behavior of human being, such as which one is right or wrong. The ethics is always affecting the human life. The ethics gives people orientation how he/she do manything every time every day. Islamic ethics consists of the way how someone interact each other; how someone should do or not to do, how to sit, how to walk, how to eat or drink, how to sleep, or how to get dressed. Al-Qur’an uses three terms to define about dressing, they are: libas, tsiyah, and sarahi. Dressing has a function as covering the body, as assessoris, as the way to do Islamic taqwa, and as an identiy. Dressing ethics of the female students of STAIN Samarinda has been regulated by the rector regulation No 19 of the year 2002 about relation and dressing ethics for the students of STAIN Samarinda.

  13. Leading concepts towards vital soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.


    This chapter gives an analysis of the basic elements of a vital soil, of soil protection policies and monitoring options. The background to this approach is the increase in soil functions and an overexploitation that has resulted in conflicts as well as in consequences for human health, the health

  14. A Vital Challenge to Materialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.M.

    Life poses a threat to materialism. To understand the phenomena of animate nature, we make use of a teleological form of explanation that is peculiar to biology, of explanations in terms of what I call the ‘vital categories’ – and this holds even for accounts of underlying physico-chemical

  15. Understanding and Forecasting Ethnolinguistic Vitality (United States)

    Karan, Mark E.


    Forecasting of ethnolinguistic vitality can only be done within a well-functioning descriptive and explanatory model of the dynamics of language stability and shift. It is proposed that the Perceived Benefit Model of Language Shift, used with a taxonomy of language shift motivations, provides that model. The model, based on individual language…

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Trucker Safety (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Hispanic Health (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  19. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eLiesche


    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  20. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  1. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  2. Carbon nanoparticle-based fluorescent bioimaging probes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Saha, Arindam; Maity, Amit Ranjan; Ray, Sekhar C; Jana, Nikhil R


    ... metals have severely limited the application potential of these nanocrystals. Here, we report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based, alternative, nontoxic imaging probe that is suitable for biological staining and diagnostics...

  3. Application of Digital Image Analysis and Flow Cytometry To Enumerate Marine Viruses Stained with SYBR Gold† (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Lu, Jing-rang; Binder, Brian J.; Liu, Ying-chun; Hodson, Robert E.


    A novel nucleic acid stain, SYBR Gold, was used to stain marine viral particles in various types of samples. Viral particles stained with SYBR Gold yielded bright and stable fluorescent signals that could be detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera or by flow cytometry. The fluorescent signal strength of SYBR Gold-stained viruses was about twice that of SYBR Green I-stained viruses. Digital images of SYBR Gold-stained viral particles were processed to enumerate the concentration of viral particles by using digital image analysis software. Estimates of viral concentration based on digitized images were 1.3 times higher than those based on direct counting by epifluorescence microscopy. Direct epifluorescence counts of SYBR Gold-stained viral particles were in turn about 1.34 times higher than those estimated by the transmission electron microscope method. Bacteriophage lysates stained with SYBR Gold formed a distinct population in flow cytometric signatures. Flow cytometric analysis revealed at least four viral subpopulations for a Lake Erie sample and two subpopulations for a Georgia coastal sample. Flow cytometry-based viral counts for various types of samples averaged 1.1 times higher than direct epifluorescence microscopic counts. The potential application of digital image analysis and flow cytometry for rapid and accurate measurement of viral abundance in aquatic environments is discussed. PMID:11157214

  4. Bulk acid-fast staining of sputum smears: time to end a taboo. (United States)

    Kam, K M; Yip, C W; Tang, H S; Van Deun, A


    A high-throughput laboratory routinely performing fluorescence microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear with automated bulk staining. To determine the risk of false-positive AFB sputum smears from bulk staining showing as smear-positive, culture-negative specimens, or a decrease in smear- and culture-positives. Direct AFB smear and Löwenstein-Jensen culture were performed for a total of 39,350 routine sputum specimens. Of these, 6633 were randomly selected for individual AFB staining, while the remaining 32,717 were processed by bulk machine staining. Positives for smear and culture were compared. Overall, 111 specimens yielded a positive individually stained smear; of these, 100 (90.1%, 95%CI 83.0-95.0) were also culture-positive compared to 504/543 smear-positives after bulk staining (92.8%, 95%CI 90.6-95.0). The proportions of smear-positive, culture-negative and smear- and culture-positive specimens were respectively 1.8% vs. 2.2% and 90.1% vs. 92.8%, for individual and bulk staining (non-significant). The risk of transferring AFB from positive to negative smears during bulk AFB staining is negligible, if it occurs at all. Bulk staining should not be discouraged, as even in low-income countries this method will save significant resources, particularly manpower, and improve staining results in laboratories with a high workload.

  5. Microdissection of stained archival tissue. (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Douglas-Jones, A G; Morgan, J M


    In many tissues the preinvasive stage of neoplastic progression can be identified histologically as dysplasia or in situ disease. There is much interest in defining the molecular events associated with the early stages of neoplasia. Retrieval of histologically recognisable preinvasive neoplastic tissue uncontaminated by inflammatory or stromal cells is important for genetic studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A novel method for microdissection is described in which 10 microns sections are dewaxed, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, dried, covered with Sellotape, and the tissue cut out using a scalpel blade under direct visual control. The method is quick, eliminates problems of operator tremor, preserves the architecture of the micro-dissected tissue (for photographic documentation) and requires no special equipment. The presence of Sellotape and adhesive in the reaction mixture has no detrimental effect on the ability to extract DNA or to perform PCR.

  6. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Cerva, L


    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  7. The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

  8. Vital Signs-Trucker Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the March 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In 2012 in the United States, about 317,000 motor vehicle crashes involved a large truck. Twenty-six thousand truck drivers and their passengers were injured in these crashes, and about 700 died. Learn what can be done to help truck drivers stay safe.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  9. Plan de empresa Vital Juice


    Perea Primero, Alejandro; García Perea, Mónica Andrea


    Este proyecto de grado tiene como objetivo hacer un plan de negocios para el negocio de batidos naturales y funcionales, Vital Juice. La idea de negocio nace de una búsqueda de creación de empresa con la motivación de salir del mundo corporativo y tener independencia económica en un futuro cercano. Está basada en una experiencia de trabajo en los Estados Unidos en la cadena de tiendas de café Starbucks y de ver el modelo de negocio de Jamba Juice y de Mountain Néctar, ya que este tipo de n...

  10. Histological stain evaluation for machine learning applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C Azar


    Full Text Available Aims: A methodology for quantitative comparison of histological stains based on their classification and clustering performance, which may facilitate the choice of histological stains for automatic pattern and image analysis. Background: Machine learning and image analysis are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications for automatic analysis of histological tissue samples. Pathologists rely on multiple, contrasting stains to analyze tissue samples, but histological stains are developed for visual analysis and are not always ideal for automatic analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirteen different histological stains were used to stain adjacent prostate tissue sections from radical prostatectomies. We evaluate the stains for both supervised and unsupervised classification of stain/tissue combinations. For supervised classification we measure the error rate of nonlinear support vector machines, and for unsupervised classification we use the Rand index and the F-measure to assess the clustering results of a Gaussian mixture model based on expectation-maximization. Finally, we investigate class separability measures based on scatter criteria. Results: A methodology for quantitative evaluation of histological stains in terms of their classification and clustering efficacy that aims at improving segmentation and color decomposition. We demonstrate that for a specific tissue type, certain stains perform consistently better than others according to objective error criteria. Conclusions: The choice of histological stain for automatic analysis must be based on its classification and clustering performance, which are indicators of the performance of automatic segmentation of tissue into morphological components, which in turn may be the basis for diagnosis.

  11. Vital Stats (Vital Statistics Tables and files- Births, Infant Deaths, Fetal Deaths) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VitalStats: A collection of vital statistics products including tables, data files, and reports that allow users to access and examine vital statistics and...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Opioids) (United States)

    ... tests for people using prescription painkillers long term. Teaching patients how to safely use, store, and dispose ... 0:60 seconds] Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses [SPANISH PODCAST – 1:30 minutes] Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller ...

  13. Comparison of Ziehl Neelsen & Auramine O staining methods on direct and concentrated smears in clinical specimens. (United States)

    Hooja, Saroj; Pal, Nita; Malhotra, Bharti; Goyal, Sumit; Kumar, Vipin; Vyas, Leela


    In developing countries like ours with a large number of tuberculosis (TB) cases and limited resources, the diagnosis of TB relies primarily on smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) but its sensitivity is limited in paucibacillary cases. To evaluate the increase in efficacy of smear microscopy when smears are prepared from clinical samples after concentration by Petroff's method and stained by Auramine O (AO) fluorescent dye as against Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining of similar taking culture as the gold standard. Smears were prepared from 393 clinical samples both by direct and after Petroff's concentration and examined by fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl Neelsen method .The concentrated material was also cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the results of the two microscopy methods were compared with the culture results taken as the gold standard. Mycobacterial growth was detected in 137 (35.77%) specimens, out of which three were non-tubercular mycobacteria. Using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity of direct staining was 55.55% for ZN and 71.85% for AO. Direct fluorescent microscopy detected 9.29% paucibacillary sputum samples that were missed on ZN staining. On concentration, the sensitivity increased by 6.67% for ZN and 11.11% for AO. The sensitivity of AFB smear microscopy increased by 27.41% and was statistically significant (p = Light Emitting Diode (LED) based fluorescent microscopes (FM), which are easier to use, fluorescent microscopy can be widely used even in peripheral laboratories where culture facilities are not available.

  14. A novel staining method for quantification and 3D visualisation of capillaries and muscle fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cebasek


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a combined fluorescent staining that clearly demonstrates capillaries and distinguishes them from the basal lamina of muscle fibres in skeletal muscle tissue. The triple staining with CD31, Griffonia (Bandeira simplicifolia lectin (GSL I and laminin efficiently distinguishes vascular endothelium from the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibres in physiological and pathological conditions. The presented triple staining method has several advantages, which facilitate quantitative analysis of the capillary network, and its relation to individual muscle fibres.

  15. 46 CFR 169.642 - Vital systems. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vital systems. 169.642 Section 169.642 Shipping COAST... Electrical Piping Systems § 169.642 Vital systems. For the purpose of this part, the following are considered vital systems— (a) A marine engineering system identified by the OCMI as being crucial to the survival...

  16. Chromosome characterization using single fluorescent dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crissman, Harry A. (Los Alamos, NM); Hirons, Gregory T. (Irvine, CA)


    Chromosomes are characterized by fluorescent emissions from a single fluorescent dye that is excited over two different wavelengths. A mixture containing chromosomes is stained with a single dye selected from the group consisting of TOTO and YOYO and the stained chromosomes are placed in a flow cytometer. The fluorescent dye is excited sequentially by a first light having a wavelength in the ultraviolet range to excite the TOTO or YOYO to fluoresce at a first intensity and by a second light having a wavelength effective to excite the TOTO or YOYO dye to fluoresce at a second intensity. Specific chromosomes may be identified and sorted by intensity relationships between the first and second fluorescence emissions.

  17. Dual phylogenetic staining protocol for simultaneous analysis of yeast and bacteria in artworks (United States)

    González-Pérez, Marina; Brinco, Catarina; Vieira, Ricardo; Rosado, Tânia; Mauran, Guilhem; Pereira, António; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa


    The detection and analysis of metabolically active microorganisms are useful to determine those directly involved in the biodeterioration of cultural heritage (CH). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeted at rRNA (RNA-FISH) has demonstrated to be a powerful tool for signaling them. However, more efforts are required for the technique to become a vital tool for the analysis of CH's microbiological communities. Simultaneous analysis of microorganisms belonging to different kingdoms, by RNA-FISH in-suspension approach, could represent an important progress: it could open the door for the future use of the technique to analyze the microbial communities by flow cytometry, which has shown to be a potent tool in environmental microbiology. Thus, in this work, various already implemented in-suspension RNA-FISH protocols for ex situ analysis of yeast and bacteria were investigated and adapted for allowing the simultaneous detection of these types of microorganisms. A deep investigation of the factors that can affect the results was carried out, focusing particular attention on the selection of the fluorochromes used for labelling the probe set. The resultant protocol, involving the use of EUK516-6-FAM/EUB338-Cy3 probes combination, was validated using artificial consortia and gave positive preliminary results when applied in samples from a real case study: the Paleolithic archaeological site of Escoural Cave (Alentejo, Portugal). This approach represents the first dual-staining RNA-FISH in-suspension protocol developed and applied for the simultaneous investigation of CH biodeteriogenic agents belonging to different kingdoms.

  18. Comparison of immunohistochemical and modified Giemsa stains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BackgroundModified Giemsa staining has been favoured by many researchers because it is easy to perform but, like many other stains, demonstration of the bacteria depends on its morphology. It has been arged in some research circles that some of the organisms in the gastric mucosa may not be true H.pylori.

  19. Nile Red Staining for Oil Determination in Microalgal Cells: A New Insight through Statistical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Halim


    Full Text Available In the wake of global warming and rapid fossil fuel depletion, microalgae emerge as promising feedstocks for sustainable biofuel production. Nile red staining acts as a rapid diagnostic tool to measure the amount of biodiesel-convertible lipid that the cells accumulate. There is a need for the development of a more uniform staining procedure. In its first phase, this study examined the dependence of microalgal Nile red fluorescence (Tetraselmis suecica in terms of its most pertinent staining variables. A quadratic surface model that successfully described the Nile red fluorescence intensity as a composite function of its variables was generated (r2=0.86. Cell concentration was shown to have a significant effect on the fluorescence intensity. Up to a certain threshold, fluorescence intensity was shown to increase with Nile red dye concentration. In its second phase, the study reviewed findings from previous Nile red studies to elucidate some of the fundamental mechanism underlying the diffusion of Nile red dye molecules into the microalgal cells and their subsequent interaction with intracellular lipids. Through the review process, we were able to develop a simple framework that provided a set of guidelines for the standardization of the Nile red staining procedure across different microalgal species.

  20. Visualization of the neurovascular bundles and major pelvic ganglion with fluorescent tracers after penile injection in the rat. (United States)

    Davila, Hugo H; Mamcarz, Maggie; Nadelhaft, Irving; Salup, Raoul; Lockhart, Jorge; Carrion, Rafael E


    To evaluate whether fluorescent tracers can consistently label the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after an intracavernosal penile injection, as the reported incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men after radical prostatectomy (RP) is 55-65% and thus preservation of erectile function, sparing one or both of the NVBs remains one of the most vital factors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old) received penile injections (20 microL; seven rats/group) of either deionized water (DW), Fluoro-Gold (FG), Fast-Blue (FB), Fluoro-Ruby (FR) or green fluorescent pseudorabies virus (GF-PRv). The rats were killed at 2, 3 and 14 days after injection and the NVBs and MPG were harvested and placed directly under fluorescence light. Image analysis was done by computer, coupled to a microscope equipped with a digital camera. Each NVB and MPG were analysed for its staining pattern and consistency. When compared with the FB, FR and GF-PRv rats, the FG-injected rats had better staining of the NVB at 2, 3 and 14 days after injection. Under x200, FG highlighted the axons of the cavernous nerve (CN) and cell bodies (MPG). This indicates that FG injection into the penis induced the strongest CN labelling (positive staining) at 2 and 3 days after injection as compared with FB-, FR- and GF-PRv-injected rats. FG injection into the penis has consistent retrograde staining of the NVBs and MPG after 3 days. Therefore, we predict that FG could potentially be used to improve the identification of the NVB in other models. However, further studies need to be carried out before these tracers can be used in humans.

  1. Negative staining and cryo-negative staining of macromolecules and viruses for TEM. (United States)

    De Carlo, Sacha; Harris, J Robin


    In this review we cover the technical background to negative staining of biomolecules and viruses, and then expand upon the different possibilities and limitations. Topics range from conventional air-dry negative staining of samples adsorbed to carbon support films, the variant termed the "negative staining-carbon film" technique and negative staining of samples spread across the holes of holey-carbon support films, to a consideration of dynamic/time-dependent negative staining. For each of these approaches examples of attainable data are given. The cryo-negative staining technique for the specimen preparation of frozen-hydrated/vitrified samples is also presented. A detailed protocol to successfully achieve cryo-negative staining with ammonium molybdate is given, as well as examples of data, which support the claim that cryo-negative staining provides a useful approach for the high-resolution study of macromolecular and viral structure. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The sixth vital sign in diabetes. (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Singh Balhara, Yatan Pal


    The vital signs are an integral part of clinical methods. In diabetes, determination of plasma glucose can be taken as the fifth vital sign. The sixth vital sign is well being, which can easily be measured by two item questionnaires designed to assess distress, depression and coping skills. This sign is essential for the screening and follow up of persons living with diabetes, as it provides an idea of quality of care, helps plan therapeutic interventions, and serves as a surrogate for prognosis or outcome. Inclusion of the sixth vital sign reflects the relevance of the bio-psychosocial model of health to diabetes care. .

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis


    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...... the foundations of the fluorescence phenomenon, introduces some general methodologies and provides selected examples on applications focused to disentangle structural and dynamical aspects of biological processes....

  4. Routine use of ultraviolet light in medicolegal examinations to evaluate stains and skin trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Hjalgrim, H; Eriksen, B


    The use of ultraviolet light induced fluorescence as an aid in forensic medical examinations of rape victims was evaluated preliminarily in a retrospective, non-consecutive study. In a four-month period, 17 cases were referred by the police for examinations at the Institute of Forensic Pathology....... Ultraviolet light illumination (UVI) was used in seven cases, and in six cases fluorescent skin areas were observed. The fluorescence was due to lesions in four cases and stainings with saliva and semen in other two cases. In at least two cases, skin trauma detected with UVI were unobserved in ordinary light....... It is concluded that UVI should be a routine part of forensic medical examinations. It may assist the forensic medical examiner in finding skin trauma and in locating stains, thus enabling retrieval of material for serological analyses. UVI is simple to carry out, requiring only a small, portable ultraviolet...

  5. Bleaching of a non-vital anterior tooth to remove the intrinsic discoloration. (United States)

    Patil, Anandkumar G; Hiremath, Vinaykumar; Kumar, R Sheetal; Sheetal, Aparna; Nagaral, Suresh


    Intrinsic discoloration of a non-vital permanent incisor tooth due to trauma may have a significant esthetic and social impact on children and adolescents. Treatment options for discolored Non-vital teeth are bleaching, crowns or veneers. However, this restorative crown or veneer approach has a significant drawback of being an invasive technique. Intervention should be minimal destruction of tooth structure and should not compromise future restorative options. The advantage bleaching over crown is that it offers simple conservative approach in removal of stain and whitening discolored teeth without damaging tooth structure.

  6. [Comparison of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection]. (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Man, Su-Qin; Yu, Fa-Zhi; Shen, Ji-Jia


    To compare the effects of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection. A model of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis was established by infecting mice with S. japonicum cercariae, then the hepatic specimens were taken and Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining were performed. Eventually, the area of granuloma and fibrosis were measured by imaging analysis software. When the time of staining was 3-7 min, there was no significant difference of the fibrosis areas between the two methods (P > 0.05); when the time of staining was more than 10 min, the staining area showed by Masson's staining was significantly larger than that showed by Van-Gieson staining, and the difference was statistically significant (P Masson trichrome staining, therefore Van-Gieson staining is a better method to display collagen.

  7. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.


    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects

  8. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva


    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  9. Sharing Vital Signs between mobile phone applications. (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A; Scheffer, Cornie


    We propose a communication library, ShareVitalSigns, for the standardized exchange of vital sign information between health applications running on mobile platforms. The library allows an application to request one or multiple vital signs from independent measurement applications on the Android OS. Compatible measurement applications are automatically detected and can be launched from within the requesting application, simplifying the work flow for the user and reducing typing errors. Data is shared between applications using intents, a passive data structure available on Android OS. The library is accompanied by a test application which serves as a demonstrator. The secure exchange of vital sign information using a standardized library like ShareVitalSigns will facilitate the integration of measurement applications into diagnostic and other high level health monitoring applications and reduce errors due to manual entry of information.

  10. Intracellular and juxtacellular staining with biocytin. (United States)

    Wilson, Charles J; Sachdev, R N S


    Many physiological studies require microscopic examination of the recorded neuron for identification. This unit describes how intracellular and extracellular recording can be combined with single-neuron staining to enable sequential physiological and morphological studies.

  11. Direct anterior composite veneers in vital and non-vital teeth: A retrospective clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho-de-Souza, F.H.; Goncalves, D.S.; Sales, M.P.; Erhardt, M.C.; Correa, M.B.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.


    OBJECTIVES: This retrospective, longitudinal clinical study investigated the performance of direct veneers using different composites (microfilledxuniversal) in vital or non-vital anterior teeth. METHODS: Records from 86 patients were retrieved from a Dental School clinic, comprising 196 direct

  12. Model - Model Pembelajaran pada Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (PGMI STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Hawib Hamzah


    Full Text Available The model of learning is a vital thing in education. A good appropriate model of learning could reach the goal of learning efficently and effectively. The lecturers of education and teacher training program of STAIN Samarinda implement a various teaching and learning models when they perform their teaching, such as: model of contectual teaching, social interaction, informational proces, personal-based learning, behaviorism, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning.

  13. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. (United States)

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko


    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  14. Stain Removal Assessment of Two Manual Toothbrushes with an Interproximal Tooth Stain Index. (United States)

    Farrell, Svetlana; Grender, Julie M; Terézhalmy, Geza; Archila, Luis R


    To assess a newly developed index to measure interproximal stain and evaluate the stain removal efficacy of two commercially available manual toothbrushes. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, two-treatment clinical trial of two weeks' duration. Subjects qualified for the study if they had an average Modified Lobene Stain Index of ≥ 1.5 from two anterior teeth. At baseline, subjects brushed in front of a mirror for one minute under supervision. All subjects were provided with a standard 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice and were randomly assigned either an Oral-B Pulsar manual brush (OBP) or a Colgate Whitening manual brush (CW) to use for two weeks. Stain was reassessed after two weeks of product use. Stain measurements were conducted using the Modified Lobene Stain Index and the new Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index, which allows for assessment of stain in hard-to-reach areas using the same area and intensity scales as the Modified Lobene Stain Index. Use of the two manual brushes resulted in statistically significant reductions in surface stain relative to baseline after two weeks of use. Median stain reductions were 78% and 60% for the OBP and CW, respectively, as measured by the Modified Lobene Stain Index. The mean changes in the composite scores from baseline to week two were 1.85 and 1.57 for the two treatment groups, respectively. Statistically significant reductions from baseline were also found for the intensity and extent of stain measures (p brush and 83% reduction with the CW brush. For the gingival sites, the median stain removal percentages were 83% and 50%, respectively For the body region, a median stain removal of 100% was found for both treatment groups. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for the mean composite scores for either index. Both manual brushes showed effective stain removal, including interproximal hard-to-reach sites. The Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index

  15. The Use of Vital Dyes during Vitreoretinal Surgery - Chromovitrectomy. (United States)

    Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício; Penha, Fernando M; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele


    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. It is well known that indocyanine green is toxic to the retina and consequently not the ideal dye for chromovitrectomy. Different vital dyes has been tested for chromovitrectomy including trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein and brilliant blue. Brilliant blue seems to be the ideal dye for internal limiting membrane due to its afinity, lower toxic profile and to reduce the appearance of apoptosis. Besides the dye itself, the injection technique is crucial to avoid additional toxicity, slow injection, far from the retina and protection of the macular hole are some tips. More recently the use of dyes has been applied to stain perfluorcarbon liquids that may enhance its visualization during vitrectomy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Microfluidic Cell Cycle Analysis of Spread Cells by DAPI Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun


    Full Text Available Single-cell cell cycle analysis is an emerging technique that requires detailed exploration of the image analysis process. In this study, we established a microfluidic single-cell cell cycle analysis method that can analyze cells in small numbers and in situ on a microfluidic chip. In addition, factors that influenced the analysis were carefully investigated. U87 or HeLa cells were seeded and attached to microfluidic channels before measurement. Cell nucleic DNA was imaged by 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining under a fluorescent microscope and subsequently fluorescent intensities of the cell nuclei DNA were converted to depict histograms for cell cycle phases. DAPI concentration, microscopic magnification, exposure time and cell number were examined for optimal cell cycle analysis conditions. The results showed that as few as a few hundred cells could be measured by DAPI staining in the range of 0.4–0.6 μg/mL to depict histograms with typical cell cycle phase distribution. Microscopic magnification during image acquisition, however, could distort the phase distribution. Exposure time did not significantly affect the cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, cell cycle inhibitor rapamycin treatment changed the cell cycle phase distribution as expected. In conclusion, a method for microfluidic single-cell cell cycle analysis of spread cells in situ was developed. Factors such as dye concentration and microscopic magnification had more influence on cell cycle phase distribution. Further studies will focus on detail differentiation of cell cycle phases and the application of such a method for biological meanings.

  17. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist


    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  18. Stained glasses under the nuclear microprobe: A window into history (United States)

    Vilarigues, M.; Fernandes, P.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.


    Stained glass fragments from the 15th, 16th and 20th centuries, belonging to Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitória, Batalha (Portugal), were characterised non-destructively in a nuclear microprobe. The work aimed at finding the composition of the glasses and glass paintings and relating these with the corresponding production periods. The elemental compositions of the glass fragments were obtained by means of scanning micro-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) spectrometry in selected cross-sections. These were complemented by micro X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Characterisation of colour was performed by optical absorption spectroscopy in the UV-vis range, while the corrosion products were identified by optical microscopy and μ-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy in combination with the data generated by μ-PIXE. Nuclear microprobe analysis allowed unveiling the compositions and structures, in particular of glass paintings and corrosion products. While it is not surprising that Fe, Cu and Pb were the main elements identified in the grisaille paintings of all studied periods, as well as Ag and Cu found in the glasses decorated with yellow silver painting, their distribution gave important clues on the materials and techniques used to manufacture these stained glasses. Furthermore, it allowed establishing a definite relation between the compositions found and the periods of production, with the added bonus of correctly reassigning the manufacturing period of some samples.

  19. The CyScope® fluorescence microscope, a reliable tool for tuberculosis diagnosis in resource-limited settings. (United States)

    Lehman, Leopold G; Ngapmen Yamadji, Arlette L; Ngo Sack, Françoise; Bilong Bilong, Charles F


    Poor laboratory equipment and few human resources have made it difficult to implement microscopic diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) on a large scale basis worldwide. Three hundred sputum samples from patients in Cameroon were studied by using the CyScope®, a new light-emitting, diode-based, fluorescence microscope, to compare auramine-rhodamine fluorescence with the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Five fluorescence protocols were tested to reduce manipulation time. Smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli with the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was 27.7% (83 of 300) compared with 33.3% (100 of 300) with the fluorescent method. Staining time with the modified fluorescence protocol could be reduced from 21 minutes to 10 minutes. This study confirmed that the fluorescence staining method is more sensitive than the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. It is suggested that the training of laboratory technicians on fluorescence microscopy should be scaled up for increased disease control.

  20. Sensitive phosphoprotein detection in SDS-PAGE via Anthracene Chrome Red A stain. (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Kap


    Protein phosphorylation, one of the most important post-translational modifications, plays critical roles in many biological processes. Thus, it is necessary to precisely detect, identify and understand the phosphoproteins from protein mixture for the study of cell biology. We introduce a sensitive and specific detection method for phosphoproteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Anthracene Chrome Red A (ACRA) combined with the trivalent metal ion (Al3+ ) is converted to fluorescent complex and the fluorescence is sharply increased by a change of pH environment. Phosphoproteins and non-phosphoproteins can be easily distinguished by the fluorescence quenching due to the structural change of ACRA-Al3+ -phosphoprotein complex, unlike non-phosphoprotein complex. The method using ACRA is a negative staining based on the fluorescence quenching and has a high sensitivity comparable to Pro-Q Diamond stain. ACRA stain can detect 1-2 ng of α-casein and β-casein, 8-16 ng of ovalbumin (OVA) and κ-casein within 130 min. Moreover, the ACRA stain showed similar linear dynamic ranges and RSD to Pro-Q stain. The linear dynamic ranges of ACRA and the values of correlation coefficient were for OVA (8-500 ng, correlation coefficient r = 0.999), α-casein (4-500 ng, r = 0.992), β-casein (4-500 ng, r = 0.996), and κ-casein (8-500 ng, 0.998), respectively. On the other hand, the values of the relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 2.33 to 3.56% for ACRA. The method is sensitive, specific, simple, rapid and compatible with total protein stain such as SYPRO Ruby stain. Therefore, ACRA stain can be an advanced method for phosphoprotein detection in gels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy in living Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, Jaap; Peterman, Erwin J.G.


    Transportation of organelles and biomolecules is vital for many cellular processes. Single-molecule (SM) fluorescence microscopy can expose molecular aspects of the dynamics that remain unresolved in ensemble experiments. For example, trajectories of individual, moving biomolecules can reveal

  2. Portal vein territory identification using indocyanine green fluorescence imaging: Technical details and short-term outcomes. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Mori, Kazuhiro; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro


    Portal vein (PV) territory identification during liver resection may be performed using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging technique. However, the technical details of the fluorescence staining technique have not been fully elucidated. This study was performed to demonstrate the technical details of PV territory identification using fluorescence imaging and evaluates the short-term outcomes. From 2011 to 2015, 105 underwent liver resection at the University of Tokyo Hospital with one of the following fluorescence staining techniques by transhepatic PV injection or intravenous injection of ICG: single staining (n = 36), multiple staining (n = 31), counterstaining (n = 22), negative staining (n = 13), or paradoxical negative staining (n = 3). The PV territory was identified as a region with fluorescence or a defect of fluorescence using one of the five staining techniques. ICG was administered by transhepatic PV injection in all but the negative staining technique, which employed intravenous injection. No adverse events associated with the ICG administration occurred. The mortality, postoperative total morbidity, and the major complication (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III) rates were 0.0%, 14.3%, and 7.6%. We have demonstrated the technical details of five types of fluorescence staining techniques. These techniques are safe to perform and facilitate clear visualization of the PV territory in real time, enhancing the efficacy of anatomical removal of such territories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Use of 5-Cyano-2,3-Ditolyl-Tetrazolium Chloride Staining as an Indicator of Biocidal Activity in a Rapid Assay for Anti-Acanthamoeba Agents


    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Narumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi


    The usefulness of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining to determine the respiratory activity of Acanthamoeba was evaluated in this study. Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts have a red fluorescence after staining with CTC. To determine the effectiveness of CTC staining as a CTC biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba, the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 5037) were treated with serial concentrations of disinfectant solutions, namely, polyhexamethylene biguan...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Methadone) (United States)

    ... Vital Signs Current Issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Antibiotic Resistance Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Diseases & Conditions Food Safety ... MMWR Science Clips Prescription Painkiller Overdoses Use and Abuse of Methadone as a Painkiller Recommend on Facebook ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving (United States)

    ... the number of teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get ... Vital Signs Issue: Drinking and Driving Among High School Students Aged ≥16 Years — United States, 1991-2011. ...

  6. Vital directions for mathematics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Leatham, Keith R


    In this book, experts discuss vital issues in mathematics education and what they see as viable directions for research in mathematics education to address them. Their recommendations take the form of overarching principles and ideas that cut across the field.

  7. Viability Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Vital Dyes: Dry Mounts Overestimate the Number of “Ghost” Oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.


    Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatmentand staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst v...

  8. An optimized staining technique for the detection of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria within tissue. (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra C; Roy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Christy, Robert J; Burmeister, David M


    Bacterial infections are a common clinical problem in both acute and chronic wounds. With growing concerns over antibiotic resistance, treatment of bacterial infections should only occur after positive diagnosis. Currently, diagnosis is delayed due to lengthy culturing methods which may also fail to identify the presence of bacteria. While newer costly bacterial identification methods are being explored, a simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool would aid in immediate and accurate treatments for bacterial infections. Histologically, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Gram stains have been employed, but are far from optimal when analyzing tissue samples due to non-specific staining. The goal of the current study was to develop a modification of the Gram stain that enhances the contrast between bacteria and host tissue. A modified Gram stain was developed and tested as an alternative to Gram stain that improves the contrast between Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and host tissue. Initially, clinically relevant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were visualized in vitro and in biopsies of infected, porcine burns using routine Gram stain, and immunohistochemistry techniques involving bacterial strain-specific fluorescent antibodies as validation tools. H&E and Gram stain of serial biopsy sections were then compared to a modification of the Gram stain incorporating a counterstain that highlights collagen found in tissue. The modified Gram stain clearly identified both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and when compared to H&E or Gram stain alone provided excellent contrast between bacteria and non-viable burn eschar. Moreover, when applied to surgical biopsies from patients that underwent burn debridement this technique was able to clearly detect bacterial morphology within host tissue. We describe a modification of the Gram stain that provides improved contrast of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms within host

  9. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities. (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar


    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Matthey, S; Nicholson, D; Ruhs, S; Alden, B; Knock, M; Schultz, K; Schmuecker, A


    The Bartels respiratory virus panel detection kit is an indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) method that uses pooled and individual antisera for tissue culture confirmation of seven respiratory viruses. We evaluated these reagents for detecting viral antigen in shell vial cultures and by direct staining of cells from respiratory specimens. The isolation from 254 specimens of respiratory viruses in shell vial cultures compared with standard tube cultures was highly sensitive (94%) and specific (97.3%). The numbers of viral isolates detected in three consecutive years of testing with shell vial cultures were 68 of 254 (26.8%), 101 of 381 (26.5%), and 122 of 430 (28.4%). IFA direct staining of all 1,065 specimens resulted in 183 (17.2) being uninterpretable because of inadequate numbers of cells or interfering fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of the interpretable IFA direct stains in comparison with shell vial cultures were 85.9 and 87.1%, respectively. For detection of 881 adequate specimens, Bartels respiratory syncytial virus IFA direct staining compared with an Ortho Diagnostics Systems direct fluorescent-antibody test for respiratory syncytial virus RSV was highly sensitive (95.5%) and specific (97%). Shell vial cultures combined with Bartels IFA reagents are a rapid alternative to standard tube cultures. Bartels IFA direct staining with individual antisera provides useful same-day screening of respiratory specimens, but the antiserum pool was not effective in screening for positive specimens because of excessive amounts of nonspecific fluorescence.

  11. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain. (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H


    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  12. Staining ability and biocompatibility of brilliant blue G: preclinical study of brilliant blue G as an adjunct for capsular staining. (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Kagimoto, Tadahisa; Ueno, Akifumi; Hata, Yasuaki; Kubota, Toshiaki; Goto, Yoshinobu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro


    To evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of brilliant blue G (BBG) for capsular visualization for continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis. The capsular staining ability of BBG was evaluated at graded concentrations of 10.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/mL in enucleated pig's eyes. The biocompatibility of BBG was assessed in rat's eyes for 2 months. The eyes were analyzed using light, fluorescence, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) was used to detect apoptotic cells, and endothelial cell counts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared using indocyanine green and trypan blue. The BBG improved capsular visualization, and a complete capsulorrhexis could be performed. In the rat model, no apparent toxic effect was observed using biomicroscopy during 2 months. Histologically, BBG showed satisfactory biocompatibility. Apoptotic cell death of the endothelial cells was detected in only the trypan blue group. In contrast to BBG, indocyanine green and trypan blue showed degeneration of corneal endothelial cells using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The BBG contributed to better capsular visualization and caused no apparent complications to the corneal endothelium.Clinical Relevance The BBG is effective and safe capsular staining for continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis.

  13. Pulpal inflammation after vital tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiny Andriani


    Full Text Available Background: In-office vital tooth bleaching is a treatment to remove tooth stains. Tooth sensitivity is one of side effect commonly complained by patients receiving this treatment. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine histological inflammatory cells infiltration of dental pulp after application of 38% H2O2 as a vital tooth bleaching agent. Methods: Under informed consent, a total of 15 premolars from 8 healthy subjects scheduled for orthodontic extraction were used in this study. Thirty eight percent H2O2 was applied on the buccal surface of the treated group. The treated teeth were extracted after 1 hour, 5, 8, and 15 days. All specimens were embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned serially and stained with Hematoxyllin Eosin. Histological specimens were then observed under a light microscope. Results: All treated groups showed a slight disorganization of odontoblasts layer and slight inflammation in the pulp tissue adjacent to the 38% H2O2 application site. The number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN had increased significantly 1 hour after application of 38% H2O2 (p<0.05, while macrophages had significantly increased 5 days after the application (p<0.05. The most intense PMN and macrophages infiltration was found 5 days after the application and gradually decreased 8 days after application of38% H2O2. Conclusion: Application of 38% H2O2 as a vital tooth bleaching agent induces acute inflammation in human dental pulp; however, the inflammation will decrease 8 days after the application.Latar belakang: Perawatan pemutihan gigi vital metode in-office merupakan tindakan untuk menghilangkan pewarnaan pada gigi. Salah satu efek samping yang sering dikeluhkan oleh pasien yang menjalani perawatan ini adalah sensitivitas gigi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati infiltrasi sel inflamasi pada pulpa gigi setelah aplikasi H2O2 38% sebagai bahan pemutih gigi. Metode: Sampel penelitian ini berupa 15 gigi premolar yang berasal dari 8

  14. Simple and Specific Dual-Wavelength Excitable Dye Staining for Glycoprotein Detection in Polyacrylamide Gels and Its Application in Glycoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Chiang


    Full Text Available In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH, was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising.

  15. Simple and Specific Dual-Wavelength Excitable Dye Staining for Glycoprotein Detection in Polyacrylamide Gels and Its Application in Glycoproteomics (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Yu-Jen; Lu, Ya-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Kuang H.; Li, Ding-Tzai; Shi, Fong-Ku; Chen, Ching-Chuan; Hsu, Jue-Liang


    In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH), was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising. PMID:21976968

  16. Fluorescence Microscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Dermatophytosis. (United States)

    Estela Cubells, Jose R; Victoria Martínez, Ana M; Martínez Leboráns, Lorena; Alegre de Miquel, Víctor


    Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized tissues. Dermatophytes can cause discomfort but are not usually life threatening. However, the infection can spread and may lead to systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available diagnostic methods include potassium hydroxide (KOH) testing and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. However, most diagnostic techniques cannot be performed rapidly; days to weeks may be required for conclusive results. Certain dermatophytes autofluoresce and can be observed under fluorescence microscopy. The authors examined a series of 24 cases of hematoxylin and eosin-stained dermatophytoses using fluorescence microscopy and compared the results with those obtained using PAS staining. The diagnostic performance of fluorescence microscopy was better than that of PAS staining. Fluorescence microscopy allowed the detection of all the cases that were detected using PAS staining. In addition, fluorescence microscopy facilitated the detection of weak fluorescence in 2 cases with ambiguous PAS results. These results support the integration into clinical practice of fluorescence microscopy as a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating cases of suspected dermatophytosis.

  17. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 16, 1991 ... T. F. H. G. JACKSON, PH.D. V. GATHIRAM, F,C.P.(S.A.). Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Natal,. Durban. J. VAN DEN ENDE, F.F. PATH. (S.A.). A=pted 30 Mat 1990. have similar sizes,-shapes and staining characteristics to yeasts and other coccidia, diagnostic difficulties can be expected.

  18. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows (United States)

    Brew, Charl Anne


    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  19. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Slomovic, Allan R.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. METHODS: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  20. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton


    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  1. Canker Stain Affects Delaware Sycamores Pest Alert (United States)

    Alan Iskra; Gary Schwetz; Michael Valenti


    An often fatal disease of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), known as canker stain, is caused by the fungus, Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani. This fungus, indigenous to the United States, occurs in urban and forested areas from New Jersey to Georgia and west to Missouri and Louisiana. Other trees affected are the Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) and...

  2. Action of food preservatives on 14-days dental biofilm formation, biofilm vitality and biofilm-derived enamel demineralisation in situ. (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Netuschil, Lutz; Beier, Daniel; Grunert, Sebastian; Heumann, Christian; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Sculean, Anton; Nagy, Katalin; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias


    The aims of this double-blind, controlled, crossover study were to assess the influence of food preservatives on in situ dental biofilm growth and vitality, and to evaluate their influence on the ability of dental biofilm to demineralize underlying enamel over a period of 14 days. Twenty volunteers wore appliances with six specimens each of bovine enamel to build up intra-oral biofilms. During four test cycles of 14 days, the subjects had to place the appliance in one of the assigned controls or active solutions twice a day for a minute: negative control 0.9 % saline, 0.1 % benzoate (BA), 0.1 % sorbate (SA) and 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX positive control). After 14 days, the biofilms on two of the slabs were stained to visualize vital and dead bacteria to assess biofilm thickness (BT) and bacterial vitality (BV). Further, slabs were taken to determine mineral loss (ML), by quantitative light-induced laser fluorescence (QLF) and transversal microradiography (TMR), moreover the lesion depths (LD). Nineteen subjects completed all test cycles. Use of SA, BA and CHX resulted in a significantly reduced BV compared to NaCl (p  0.05) for both parameters. TMR analysis revealed the highest LD values in the NaCl group (43.6 ± 44.2 μm) and the lowest with CHX (11.7 ± 39.4 μm), while SA (22.9 ± 45.2 μm) and BA (21.4 ± 38.5 μm) lay in between. Similarly for ML, the highest mean values of 128.1 ± 207.3 vol% μm were assessed for NaCl, the lowest for CHX (-16.8 ± 284.2 vol% μm), while SA and BA led to values of 83.2 ± 150.9 and 98.4 ± 191.2 vol% μm, respectively. With QLF for both controls, NaCl (-33.8 ± 101.3 mm(2) %) and CHX (-16.9 ± 69.9 mm(2) %), negative values were recorded reflecting a diminution of fluorescence, while positive values were found with SA (33.9 ± 158.2 mm(2) %) and BA (24.8 ± 118.0 mm(2) %) depicting a fluorescence gain. These differences were non-significant (p > 0.05). The biofilm model

  3. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva


    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate...... the empirical evidence in this field. The purpose of this study was to review and quantify the impact of vital exhaustion on the development and progression of CHD. METHODS: Prospective and case-control studies reporting vital exhaustion at baseline and CHD outcomes at follow-up were derived from PubMed, Psyc...... by two authors. RESULTS: Thirteen prospective (n = 52,636) and three case-control (cases, n = 244; controls, n = 457) studies assessed vital exhaustion and could be summarized in meta-analyses. The pooled adjusted risk of CHD in healthy populations was 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...

  4. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain. (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy


    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  5. Evaluation of Protamine Level in Human Sperm Samples Using Chromomycin A3 and Aniline Blue Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdi Qujeq


    Full Text Available Background: Current microscopic experimental methods cannot diagnose DNA damages present in spermatozoa .Therefore, some methods are needed to address the abnormality of the genetic material status on the sperm samples. As reported by many investigators aniline blue staining technique has been used for identifying sperm chromatin condensation. Also, chromomycin A3 is used for evaluation of the degree of protamination of spermatozoa. This study aimed at evaluating these two different staining techniques on human sperm protamine status. Materials and Methods: Sperm samples were collected from 72 males [including 37 infertile men: (seven asetenotratospermic, two trato-espermic, and one azo-spermic and 35 healthy fertile men]   attending the research and clinical center for infertility affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences. Measurement of sperm motility, volume and density of semen samples were carried out in andrology laboratory. In estimation with light microscopy aniline blue tool, in each slide, blue stained were assumed as normal spermatozoa, but dark blue stained were regarded as abnormal spermatozoa. Bright yellow stained chromomycin-reacted spermatozoa (CMA3+ were observed under fluorescent microscope with 460 nm filter considered as normal and yellowish green were assumed as abnormal. Statistical analysis results were expressed as mean ± SD. Results: The rate of reacted spermatozoa to aniline blue in the infertile group was higher than that of the healthy control group 42.8% ±8.7 vs. 17.9% ±6.4. Also, the rate of reacted spermatozoa to CMA3 in infertile and normal group was [53.6 ± 8.7 and 24.7% ±5.1], respectively. Conclusion: Infertility status could be assessed by staining the spermatozoa via aniline blue and CMA3 techniques. Combination of these two staining methods had the best predictive values for semen analysis compared to using just one method. Our results showed that both CMA3 and AB staining methods were

  6. Specific Staining of Wall Mannan in Yeast Cells with Fluorescein-Conjugated Concanavalin A (United States)

    Tkacz, J. S.; Cybulska, E. Barbara; Lampen, J. O.


    A procedure is given for the coupling of fluorescein isothiocyanate to concanavalin A, a protein which specifically combines with a variety of polysaccharides, and for the subsequent isolation of the reactive conjugate. This fluorescent conjugate stains Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not Schizosaccharomyces pombe or Rhodotorula glutinis. The cell walls of the latter two organisms do not contain branched homopolymers of α-linked mannose. Furthermore, the staining of S. cerevisiae is competitively inhibited by either unlabeled concanavalin A or methyl-α-d-manno-pyranoside. On the basis of this evidence, it is concluded that the staining of S. cerevisiae results from the specific interaction of the fluorescein-concanavalin A conjugate with the α-mannan present in the cell wall of this yeast. Images PMID:5541005

  7. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp]. (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li


    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  8. [Confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy]. (United States)

    Dingming, Huang; Qian, Lu; Qian, Liao; Ling, Ye; Xuedong, Zhou


    Dental pulp tissue plays a role in forming dentin, providing nutrition, conducting pain, and generating protective responses to environmental stimuli. Bacterial infection is the main cause of pulp disease, where histopathological changes are the histological basis for determining the choice of treatment and the evaluation of therapeutic effect. Thus, particular attention should be given to eliminate infection, as well as preserve and maintain pulpal health in teeth that show reversible or limited pulpal injuries. Vital pulp therapy, especially its indications and prognostic factors, has been a research hotspot that often causes confusion among clinicians. In this paper, we briefly introduce the confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy in terms of indications, pulp condition assessment, infection elimination, and capping material selection. In addition, we develop a clinical pathway and an operation normalization of vital pulp therapy to better perform the therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU


    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  10. Vital pulpa tedavilerinde lazer uygulaması


    Odabaş, Mesut Enes


    Lazer, vital pulpa tedavilerinde hemoraji kontrolü ve sterilizasyon gibi önemli avantajlar sağlamaktadır. Aynı zamanda lazer, pulpa dokusunu atravmatik olarak uzaklaştırabilmekte; hemostaz sağlayıp minimal oranda pıhtı formasyonu oluşturmakta ve bakterilerin eliminasyonunu sağlamaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı pulpa teşhisi, pulpa kaplaması ve amputasyon yöntemi içeren vital pulpa tedavilerinde lazer kullanımınıözetlemektir

  11. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...

  12. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century]. (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen


    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  13. Laser Excited Fluorescence For Forensic Diagnostics (United States)

    McKinney, Robert E.


    The application of laser excited fluorescence to the detection and identification of latent fingerprints was first accomplished ten years ago. The development of the technology has progressed rapidly with the introduction of commercial equipment by several manufacturers. Systems based on Argon-ion, Copper-vapor, and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are compared. The theoretical basis of detection by fluorescence is discussed along with the more useful techniques of dye staining. Other applications of the laser excited fluorescence in forensic investigation include gunshot residue analysis, serology, collection of trace evidence, and document examination.

  14. Objective Local Vitality and Linguistic Networks as Predictors of Perceived Vitality (United States)

    Vincze, László; Harwood, Jake


    The present paper investigates the relationship between objective ethnolinguistic vitality, individual networks of linguistic contacts (INLCs) and perceived vitality among German-speaking (N = 415) and Italian-speaking (N = 379) adolescents in South Tyrol, Italy. Supporting our hypothesis, we found that INLC has a greater effect on perceived…

  15. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic...

  16. Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus santalinus. (United States)

    Sen Gupta, P C; Mukherjee, A K


    A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown. The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile stain are described.

  17. Direct anterior composite veneers in vital and non-vital teeth: a retrospective clinical evaluation. (United States)

    Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; Gonçalves, Daiana Silveira; Sales, Michele Peres; Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Opdam, Niek J M; Demarco, Flávio Fernando


    This retrospective, longitudinal clinical study investigated the performance of direct veneers using different composites (microfilled×universal) in vital or non-vital anterior teeth. Records from 86 patients were retrieved from a Dental School clinic, comprising 196 direct veneers to be evaluated. The FDI criteria were used to assess the clinical evaluation. The survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test. The multivariate Cox regression with shared frailty was used to investigate the factors associated with failure. A total of 196 veneers were evaluated, with 39 failures. The mean time of service for the veneers was 3.5 years, with a general survival rate of 80.1%. In the qualitative evaluation of the restorations, microfilled composite showed slighty better esthetics. The annual failure rates (AFR) were 4.9% for veneers in vital teeth and 9.8% for non-vital teeth with statistical significance (p=0.009). For microfilled and universal veneers the respective AFRs were 6.0% and 6.2% (p>0.05). Veneers made in non-vital teeth had a higher risk of failure over time compared to those made in vital teeth (HR 2.78; 95% CI 1.02-7.56), but the type of material was not a significant factor (p=0.991). The main reason for failure was fracture of the veneer. Direct composite veneers showed a satisfactory clinical performance. Veneers performed in vital teeth showed a better performance than those placed in non-vital teeth. No difference in the survival rate for different composites was found, although microfilled composites showed a slightly better esthetic appearance. Direct composite veneers show good results in esthetic dentistry nowadays. Composite veneers in vital teeth have a lower risk of failure than those in non-vital teeth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Entrepreneurship education: a vital instrument for youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concern of this paper is to explore Entrepreneurship Education (EE) as one of the vital tools for youth empowerment, industrial development and consolidation of national integration in Nigeria. To achieve this feat, the paper takes its roots from the role of EE in youth empowerment programmes, national integration and ...

  19. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  20. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  1. Statistical alliance for vital events: Strengthening reporting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical alliance for vital events: Strengthening reporting & program uses of facility-based child & maternal mortality. Most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur without medical attention, and as a result, the causes of death (COD) remain unknown. This lack of information greatly limits evidence-based planning and slows ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Asthma in the US (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  6. [Fluorescence microscopy detection of dermatophytes with Blankophor]. (United States)

    Haack, D; Zeller, R; Böhm, K H


    It is the first time that a fluorescent microscopic rapid-stain process is compared with the alkali method and with mycological culture examination. 810 skin scrapings primarily from horse, cat, and dog were available for analysis. The preparation of the samples for the fluorescent microscope test is easy and quick. The fluorescent stain solution keeps sufficiently long. When the slide preparations are looked at under the fluorescent microscope, the mycological elements light up and can easily be distinguished under survey enlargement. This leads to a considerable reduction of evaluation time. The microscopic proof of dermatophytes is considerably improved by the introduction of the fluorescent microscopic technique into mycological diagnosis, as this process is clearly superior to the alkali method. Dermatophytes are identified and finally evaluated after finishing the cultural analysis. Furthermore, the fluorescent microscopic proof of yeasts of the kind of Pityrosporum yeasts and of Demodex mites is possible. The not inconsiderable costs of the technical equipment may stand in the way of general and routine use of the fluorescent microscope for diagnosing dermatophytes. However, for laboratories with a large number of submitted skin scrapings, this process can be rated as a useful enrichment of their diagnostic potential.

  7. An indirect immunofluorescence double staining procedure for the simultaneous flow cytometric measurement of iodo- and chlorodeoxyuridine incorporated into DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P. J.; Stap, J.; Tukker, C. J.; van Oven, C. H.; Veenhof, C. H.; Aten, J. A.


    In this paper we describe an indirect fluorescence double staining procedure for the simultaneous detection of IdUrd and CldUrd in the same cell nucleus. Two commercially available antibodies were selected for this purpose. A rat anti-BrdUrd monoclonal antibody from Sera-lab was found to bind

  8. Determining if DNA Stained with a Cyanine Dye Can Be Digested with Restriction Enzymes. (United States)

    Maschmann, April; Masters, Cody; Davison, Melissa; Lallman, Joshua; Thompson, Drew; Kounovsky-Shafer, Kristy L


    Visualization of DNA for fluorescence microscopy utilizes a variety of dyes such as cyanine dyes. These dyes are utilized due to their high affinity and sensitivity for DNA. In order to determine if the DNA molecules are full length after the completion of the experiment, a method is required to determine if the stained molecules are full length by digesting DNA with restriction enzymes. However, stained DNA may inhibit the enzymes, so a method is needed to determine what enzymes one could use for fluorochrome stained DNA. In this method, DNA is stained with a cyanine dye overnight to allow the dye and DNA to equilibrate. Next, stained DNA is digested with a restriction enzyme, loaded into a gel and electrophoresed. The experimental DNA digest bands are compared to an in silico digest to determine the restriction enzyme activity. If there is the same number of bands as expected, then the reaction is complete. More bands than expected indicate partial digestion and less bands indicate incomplete digestion. The advantage of this method is its simplicity and it uses equipment that a scientist would need for a restriction enzyme assay and gel electrophoresis. A limitation of this method is that the enzymes available to most scientists are commercially available enzymes; however, any restriction enzymes could be used.

  9. A novel, modernized Golgi-Cox stain optimized for CLARITY cleared tissue. (United States)

    Kassem, Mustafa S; Fok, Sandra Y Y; Smith, Kristie L; Kuligowski, Michael; Balleine, Bernard W


    High resolution neuronal information is extraordinarily useful in understanding the brain's functionality. The development of the Golgi-Cox stain allowed observation of the neuron in its entirety with unrivalled detail. Tissue clearing techniques, e.g., CLARITY and CUBIC, provide the potential to observe entire neuronal circuits intact within tissue and without previous restrictions with regard to section thickness. Here we describe an improved Golgi-Cox stain method, optimised for use with CLARITY and CUBIC that can be used in both fresh and fixed tissue. Using this method, we were able to observe neurons in their entirety within a fraction of the time traditionally taken to clear tissue (48h). We were also able to show for the first-time that Golgi stained tissue is fluorescent when visualized using a multi-photon microscope, allowing us to image synaptic spines with a detail previously unachievable. These novel methods provide cheap and easy to use techniques to investigate the morphology of cellular processes in the brain at a new-found depth, speed, utility and detail, without previous restrictions of time, tissue type and section thickness. This is the first application of a Golgi-Cox stain to cleared brain tissue, it is investigated and discussed in detail, describing different methodologies that may be used, a comparison between the different clearing techniques and lastly the novel interaction of these techniques with this ultra-rapid stain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Roberts


    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  11. Fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D


    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Isolation, Culture, and Staining of Single Myofibers. (United States)

    Gallot, Yann Simon; Hindi, Sajedah M; Mann, Aman K; Kumar, Ashok


    Adult skeletal muscle regeneration is orchestrated by a specialized population of adult stem cells called satellite cells, which are localized between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. The process of satellite cell-activation, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation that occurs during muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ex vivo by isolation of single myofibers from skeletal muscles and culturing them under suspension conditions. Here, we describe an improved protocol to evaluate ex vivo satellite cells activation through isolation of single myofibers from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mice and culturing and staining of myofiber-associated satellite cells with the markers of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation.

  13. Ansiedad y acontecimientos vitales en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la posible relación entre acontecimientos vitales (AV y ansiedad en población adolescente. Para la evaluación de AV se ha usado el AV.I.A (Inventarlo de Acontecimeintos Vitales en Infancia y Adolescencia (adaptado de P. Morató y para la evaluación de la ansiedad, el S.T.A.I.C. (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Children (Spielberger, 1973. La muestra consta de 695 adolescentes de 14 a 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que un mayor número de AV negativos repercute en la elevación de las tasas de ansiedad.

  14. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  15. Integration of Instrumentation for Measuring Vital Signs (United States)


    with ECO, NIBP, IBP, SpO2 and temperature. Protocol’s president claims this unit can oscillometrically measure blood pressure in a helicopter (personal...A1 RA 21 Blood pressurel Noninvasivel Medicall _______ Temperatures Heart ratel Blood oxygen It PecI CON ’ il. SECURITY CLASIWICATION is. SECUAITY...medical personnel. Vital signs that were deemed important included Sao02, electrocardiogram (ECO), respiration rate, and blood pressure. SaO2 gives a

  16. Vital Signs-Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.



    Awwaad, Reem Youssef Amin


    Well-functioning urban environments are good causes of societies living healthily and happily. The performance of the public realm plays an important role, in this regard, where societies are in direct contact with their physical environment. Urban environments should be created in which economic prosperity, social cohesion, and citizenship occur. The concept of urban vitality achieves this through being concerned with the socio-cultural, experiential, and spatial dimensions of the urban envi...

  18. Community Vitality in Dynamic Temporal Networks


    Fu Cai; Li Min; Zou Deqing; Qu Shuyan; Han Lansheng; James J. Park


    Current researches on temporal networks mainly tend to detect community structure. A number of community detection algorithms can obtain community structure on each time slice or each period of time but rarely present the evolution of community structure. Some papers discussed the process of community structure evolution but lacked quantifying the evolution. In this paper, we put forward the concept of Community Vitality (CV), which shows a community's life intensity on a time slice. In the p...

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  20. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  1. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  2. Unexpected interference in cell surface staining by monoclonal antibodies to unrelated antigens. (United States)

    De Vita, Martina; Catzola, Valentina; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Fossati, Marco; Battaglia, Alessandra; Zamai, Loris; Fattorossi, Andrea


    The possible occurrence of an erroneous immunophenotyping due to interference between monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is often overlooked when the epitopes are assumed to be not close to each other. This is particularly important when exploring immune cell populations whose identification is still investigational. The commonly held view is that myeloid derived suppressor cells can be identified as either HLA-DR(neg/dim) cells or interleukin-4 receptor-α (CD124)(+) cells among peripheral blood monocytes. We made the serendipitous observation that the fluorescence signal provided by the PE-CD124 MoAb was attenuated when the PE-CF594-HLA-DR MoAb was added to the staining tube. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were stained with the PE-CD124 MoAb and, as control, PE -CD40, -CD4 and -CD14, and either the PE-CF594-HLA-DR MoAb or its unlabeled form. B cells, which also express CD124, were analyzed for comparison. The PE-CF594-HLA-DR MoAb but not its unlabeled form reduced PE-CD124 MoAb staining on monocytes and B cells. No other monocyte and B cell surface marker staining was affected by the PE-CF594-HLA-DR MoAb. The PE-CF594-HLA-DR MoAb interfered with the PE-CD124 MoAb likely because of steric hindrance by bulky fluorochromes, although a quenching due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer might also cooperate to the PE-CD124 MoAb staining attenuation. Present observations highlight the importance of interference between MoAbs as a source of error when analyzing multicolor flow cytometry data. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. A Flexible Vital Sign Representation Framework for Mobile Healthcare


    Mei, H.; Widya, I.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Erfianto, Bayu


    This paper proposes a framework for patient’s vital sign representations. This framework offers the flexibility to extend or to augment represented vital signs, e.g. with trend signs or professional’s annotations. It further enables multi standard representations of vital signs and meta-level information for processing of represented vital signs. Vital signs represented in accordance with this framework are therefore suitable for forwarding, processing and rendering within a heterogeneous mob...

  4. Ki-67 Membranous Staining: Biologically Relevant or an Artifact of Multiplexed Immunofluorescent Staining. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Pang, Zhengyu; Clarke, Gina M; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Liu, Kela; Cheung, Alison M Y; Filkins, Robert J; Yaffe, Martin J


    In the process of developing a multiplex of 8 common breast cancer biomarkers (Her2/neu, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, NaK-ATPase, cytokeratin 8/18, and myosin smooth muscle) on a single formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slide using a sequential staining, imaging, and dye bleaching technology developed by General Electric Company, membranous Ki-67 staining was observed and colocalized with Her2/neu staining. Using immunohistochemistry as gold standards, we discovered that membranous Ki-67 was an artifact caused by the binding of cyanine 5-conjugated rabbit polyclonal Ki-67 antibody to a secondary cyanine 3-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit antibody which was previously applied and bound to rabbit Her2/neu antibody in our multiplexing experiment. After blocking with rabbit serum, a successful protocol for 8 biomarker multiplexing without cross-reactivity of antibodies from the same species was developed.

  5. Digital staining of pathological tissue specimens using spectral transmittance (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Abe, Tokiya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yagi, Yukako; Ohyama, Nagaaki


    Staining of tissue specimens is a classical procedure in pathological diagnosis to enhance the contrast between tissue components such that identification and classification of these components can be easily performed. In this paper, a framework for digital staining of pathological specimens using the information derived from the L-band spectral transmittance of various pathological tissue components is introduced, particularly the transformation of a Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) stained specimen to its Masson-Trichrome (MT) stained counterpart. The digital staining framework involves the classification of tissue components, which are highlighted when the specimen is actually stained with MT stain, e.g. fibrosis, from the HE-stained image; and the linear mapping between specific sets of HE and MT stained transmittance spectra through pseudo-inverse procedure to produce the LxL transformation matrices that will be used to transform the HE stained transmittance to its equivalent MT stained transmittance configuration. To generate the digitally stained image, the decisions of multiple quadratic classifiers are pooled to form the weighting factors for the transformation matrices. Initial results of our experiments on liver specimens show the viability of multispectral imaging (MSI) for the implementation of digital staining in the pathological context.

  6. [Histochemical staining using silver salts using a microwave oven]. (United States)

    Balaton, A


    Some metallic impregnations--Fontana-Masson, Warthin-Starry, Grocott's methenamine silver, Grimelius' and Dieterle's stains have been modified to use a microwave oven. Microwave bombardment markedly reduces the staining times and produces a cleaner background.

  7. Port wine stain on a child's face (image) (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  8. Comparison of verdeluz orange G and modified Gallego stains. (United States)

    Kunche, A; Kiresur, M A; Ananthaneni, A; Guduru, V S; Puneeth, H K; Bagalad, B


    Tumors of the oral cavity include combinations of hard and soft tissues that may be difficult to identify using routine hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Although combination stains can demonstrate hard and soft tissues, trichrome stains, such as VanGieson and Masson, cannot differentiate dental hard tissues, such as dentin, cementum and osteoid. Modified Gallegos (MGS) and verdeluz orange G-acid fuchsin (VOF) stains can differentiate components of teeth. We used 10 tissue sections of decalcified bone and 10 pathologic tissue sections that contained different calcified tissues including peripheral ossifying fibroma, odontoma, central ossifying fibroma and cemento-ossifying fibroma. Sections were stained with H & E, VOF or MGS. H and E stained both hard tissues pink. VOF stained bone purple-red, cementum red and collagen blue. MGS stained bone green-blue, cementum red and collagen blue. VOF staining intensity and differentiation was better than MGS staining. VOF staining demonstrated hard tissue components distinctly and exhibited good contrast with the surrounding connective tissue. VOF also is a simple, single step, rapid staining procedure.

  9. Histological study on the staining potentials of Aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological study on the staining potentials of Aqueous extract of Ceratonia Siliqua bark. EE Okpidu, AU Okon, GP Oyadonghan, LA Ogbodo, ECN Onyenekwe. Abstract. This study was designed to determine the staining potentials of aqueous extract of Ceratonia Siliqua bark adapted for the first time as a counter stain in ...

  10. Comparism of Various Staining Techniques in the Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    5 and the cyclospora species. Their life cycle requires an external intermediate host, usually an animal, ..... Rigor and Franco though observed a superiority of the MZN stain above the trichrome stain ... of disease in diseased population hence its relevance in diagnosis, was noted to be high in trichrome and auramine stains.

  11. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  12. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  13. Nonlinear Behaviour of Vital Physiological Systems (United States)

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    Nonlinearity is an intrinsic property of biological and physiological systems. Strictly speaking, almost all physiological processes are nonlinear. The linear behaviour seems to be rather an exception which is applicable only for small changes in physiological processes. Vital physiological systems such as heartbeat, respiration, blood circulation, oxygenation, and body temperature exhibit strong nonlinearities in order to fulfil their respective functions in time and space domains, and, on the other hand, to account for limiting environmental conditions. Nonlinearities ensure an effective use of body resources such as limited energy, available biological space for reactions, and finite time to provide a substantive output.

  14. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  15. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.



    Valdés R.,Enrique; Pilasi M.,Carlos; Núñez U,Tatiana


    Se presenta un caso clínico con diagnóstico final de Tirotoxicosis gestacional que debuta con una complicación excepcional, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva e hipertensión pulmonar severa. Se presenta la experiencia del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo que su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos son la base del pronóstico de esta patología de riesgo vital para el binomio madre-hijo

  18. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  19. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists. (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni


    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  20. High-Resolution Fluorescence Microscope Imaging of Erythroblast Structure. (United States)

    Smith, Alyson S; Nowak, Roberta B; Fowler, Velia M


    During erythropoiesis, erythroblasts undergo dramatic morphological changes to produce mature erythrocytes. Many unanswered questions regarding the molecular mechanisms behind these changes can be addressed with high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Immunofluoresence staining enables localization of specific molecules, organelles, and membrane components in intact cells at different phases of erythropoiesis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy can provide high-resolution, three-dimensional images of stained structures, which can be used to dissect the molecular mechanisms driving erythropoiesis. The sample preparation, staining procedure, imaging parameters, and image analysis methods used directly affect the quality of the confocal images and the amount and accuracy of information that they can provide. Here, we describe methods to dissect erythropoietic tissues from mice, to perform immunofluorescence staining and confocal imaging of various molecules, organelles and structures of interest in erythroblasts, and to present and quantitatively analyze the data obtained in these fluorescence images.

  1. Real-time histological imaging of kidneys stained with food dyes using multiphoton microscopy. (United States)

    Nagao, Yasuaki; Kimura, Kazushi; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira


    We have developed a real-time imaging technique for diagnosis of kidney diseases which is composed of two steps, staining renal cells safely with food dyes and optical sectioning of living renal tissue to obtain histological images by multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Here, we demonstrated that the MPM imaging with food dyes, including erythrosine and indigo carmine, could be used as fluorescent agents to visualize renal functions and structures such as glomerular bloodstreams, glomerular filtration, and morphology of glomeruli and renal tubules. We also showed that the kidneys of IgA nephropathy model-mice stained with the food dyes presented histopathological characteristics different from those observed in normal kidneys. The use of the food dyes enhances the quality of tissue images obtained by MPM and offers the potential to contribute to a clinical real-time diagnosis of kidney diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy in oral cytodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Prakash


    Full Text Available Context and Aims: The oral cavity is the most predominant location in the head and neck region for primary malignant epithelial tumors. Oral cancer is estimated to be the sixth most common malignancy. Early recognition is imperative for successful treatment and good prognosis. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and reasonably effective technique for rapid initial evaluation of a suspicious oral lesion. The present study was conducted to determine the reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy for cytodiagnosis as a more rapid and easier method for the final evaluation of the cytological specimen. Materials and Methods: Smears were collected from 20 individuals with oral lesions suspicious of malignancy, oral lesions not suggestive of malignancy and normal buccal mucosa. One smear was stained with Papanicolaou stain and another one with acridine orange stain. The differences in the study group and control group were compared by means of the χ2 (Chi-square test. The results were considered statistically significant whenever P was <0.05. Results: The acridine orange fluorescence stain reliably demonstrated malignant cells based on the differential fluorescence - a cytochemical criterion. The efficacy of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. However, the acridine orange fluorescence stain did not differentiate effectively between malignant cells and rapidly proliferating cells, as the technique is based on the nucleic acid content. Conclusion: The fluorescent acridine orange method can be used reliably for the screening of carcinomas and it is especially helpful in the follow-up detection of recurrent carcinoma in previously treated cases.

  3. Antibacterial effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative on in vivo dental biofilm vitality. (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Donos, Nikolaos; Sculean, Anton


    The purpose of this observer-blind, randomised, five-cell crossover study was to examine the antibacterial efficacy of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) on established supragingival plaque in vivo. Saline (NaCl) served as a negative control solution and chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive one. Additionally, the propylene glycol alginate (PGA) vehicle and the 24% ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA) gel were tested. After professional oral prophylaxis, 14 volunteers refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for the following 48 h to build up plaque. In randomised order, the following procedures were applied: (a) 10 ml of CHX (0.2%) or (b) 10 ml of NaCl were used as a mouthrinse for 1 min each. In the cases of (c) EMD (Emdogain), (d) PGA, or (e) 24% EDTA (PrefGel), 1 ml of each were applied with a syringe on the teeth. Two hours after application, plaque samples were taken from one upper and one lower molar, and the vitality of the biofilm microbiota was examined using the vital fluorescence technique. Biofilm vitality (VF%) was lower for EMD, PGA, and CHX by 19% ( P<0.0001), 22% ( P=0.001), and 35% ( P<0.0001), respectively, than in negative controls. The EDTA showed similar vitality values to NaCl and was therefore not able to affect the biofilm flora significantly. The EMD and PGA displayed significantly reduced biofilm vitality compared to negative controls, which, however, could not reach the effect of the positive control (0.2% CHX). The present results demonstrate for the first time a direct influence of EMD on the vitality of supragingival dental plaque in vivo.

  4. Electrostatic control of the coffee stain effect (United States)

    Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar


    The ``coffee stain effect,'' as first explained by Deegan et al. 1997, has received a great deal of attention amongst modellers and experimentalists in recent years, perhaps due in part to its obvious casual familiarity. However, it maintains interest because of its intriguing reliance on an interplay of a trio of effects: contact line pinning, inhomogeneous mass flux, and resulting capillarity-driven flow. What is more, the effect, and especially its suppression or reversal, find applications in fields as diverse as sample recovery, mass spectroscopy and the printing of Organic LEDs. We examine the motion a nanoparticle-laden droplet deposited on a precursor film, incorporating the effects of capillarity, concentration-dependent rheology, together with a heated substrate and resultant mass flux and Marangoni effects. We allow the substrate to act as an electrode and incorporate a second electrode above the droplet. The potential difference together with a disparity in electrical properties between the two regions results in electrical (Maxwell) stresses at the interface. We show via lubrication theory and via direct numerical simulations that the ring effect typically observed may be suppressed or augmented via appropriate use of electric fields. EPSRC DTG

  5. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Diaz-Herrera, B. [Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico de Energias Renovables (ITER), Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, 38611 S/C Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail:; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Experimental Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)


    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO{sub 3} solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er{sup 3+} ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  6. Development of a remote vital signs sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, M.D.; Pacheco, M.S.; Rivas, R.R.


    This paper describes the work at Sandia National Laboratories to develop sensors that remotely detect unique life-form characteristics, such as breathing patterns or heartbeat patterns. This paper will address the Technical Support Working Group`s (TSWG) objective: to develop a remote vital signs detector which can be used to assess someone`s malevolent intent. The basic concept of operations for the projects, system development issues, and the preliminary results for a radar device currently in-house and the implications for implementation are described. A survey that identified the in-house technology currently being evaluated is reviewed, as well as ideas for other potential technologies to explore. A radar unit for breathing and heartbeat detection is being tested, and the applicability of infrared technology is being explored. The desire for rapid prototyping is driving the need for off-the-shelf technology. As a conclusion, current status and future directions of the effort are reviewed.

  7. Ley de urgencia y riesgo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Leoncio Tay, Dr.


    Full Text Available El artículo expone las disposiciones vigentes que deben ser observadas en las Unidades de Emergencias en el momento de atender pacientes que están cursando una urgencia médica con compromiso vital o riesgo de la pérdida total la función de un órgano o extremidad, que requiere una atención médica inmediata e impostergable, condición que debe presentarse simultáneamente. Se detalla el marco jurídico administrativo y el proceso operativo que se debe considerar para el buen desarrollo de la aplicación de la Ley de Urgencia. La Ley comporta beneficios para los pacientes, como el acceso a la atención sin mediar garantía previa y el respaldo económico, para lo cual se deben cumplir ciertas condiciones.

  8. PNA FISH: an intelligent stain for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. (United States)

    Stender, Henrik


    Fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH) is a novel diagnostic technique combining the simplicity of traditional staining procedures with the unique performance of PNA probes to provide rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases; a feature that makes PNA FISH well suited for routine application and enables clinical microbiology laboratories to report important information for patient therapy within a time frame not possible using classic biochemical methods. Having transitioned from an academic curiosity into an advanced diagnostic tool, PNA probes are now debuting on the infectious disease stage, representing the new generation of therapy-directing diagnostics.

  9. Understanding External Cervical Resorption in Vital Teeth. (United States)

    Mavridou, Athina M; Hauben, Esther; Wevers, Martine; Schepers, Evert; Bergmans, Lars; Lambrechts, Paul


    The aim of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) structure and the cellular and tissue characteristics of external cervical resorption (ECR) in vital teeth and to understand the phenomenon of ECR by combining histomorphological and radiographic findings. Twenty-seven cases of vital permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The extracted teeth were further analyzed by using nanofocus computed tomographic imaging, hard tissue histology, and scanning electron microscopy. All examined teeth showed some common characteristics. Based on the clinical and experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism of ECR was proposed. At the first stage (ie, the initiation stage), ECR was initiated at the cementum below the gingival epithelial attachment. At the second stage (ie, the resorption stage), the resorption invaded the tooth structure 3-dimensionally toward the pulp space. However, it did not penetrate the pulp space because of the presence of a pericanalar resorption-resistant sheet. This layer was observed to consist of predentin, dentin, and occasionally reparative mineralized (bonelike) tissue, having a fluctuating thickness averaging 210 μm. At the last advanced stage (ie, the repair stage), repair took place by an ingrowth and apposition of bonelike tissue into the resorption cavity. During the reparative stage, repair and remodeling phenomena evolve simultaneously, whereas both resorption and reparative stages progress in parallel at different areas of the tooth. ECR is a dynamic and complex condition that involves periodontal and endodontic tissues. Using clinical, histologic, radiographic, and scanning microscopic analysis, a better understanding of the evolution of ECR is possible. Based on the experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism for the initiation and growth of ECR is proposed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  10. Centre of Excellence for Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    VIDEO SERIES. Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics systems. This video series features interviews with civil registration and vital statistics systems experts from around the world. Learn more Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics systems ...

  11. A Flexible Vital Sign Representation Framework for Mobile Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, H.; Widya, I.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Erfianto, Bayu


    This paper proposes a framework for patient’s vital sign representations. This framework offers the flexibility to extend or to augment represented vital signs, e.g. with trend signs or professional’s annotations. It further enables multi standard representations of vital signs and meta-level

  12. Importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio en el ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A lo largo del ciclo vital, los individuos experimentan una serie de acontecimientos que, sin duda, influyen en su desarrollo individual y colectivo. Tales acontecimientos parecen introducir cambios en la vida de los sujetos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio, desde la consideración de que el estudio de los mismos es consustancial con el estudio del ciclo vital. Desde este punto de partida, se ha establecido la existencia de diversos tipos de clasificaciones de acontecimientos, como la aportada por Rodrigo (1985, que plantea la existencia de tres tipos de eventos, eventos normativos relacionados con la edad, eventos normativos relacionados con el tiempo histórico, y finalmente, un tercer tipo de acontecimientos considerados como no normativos, que solamente son experimentados por algunos sujetos a lo largo de su vida. Analizaremos aquellos factores que adquieren significado en el desarrollo de los acontecimientos vitales y en la forma como los perciben los individuos que los experimentan, desde la revisión de los principales modelos explicativos, polarizados en dos grandes paradigmas, organicista y mecanicista, así como el intento de aproximación a través de modelos contextúales-dialécticos a una posición intermedia entre el paradigma organicista y el paradigma mecanicista.ABSTRACT: Throughout the vital cycle, individuals undergo experiences which no doubt exert an influence on their development. The present article analyzes the importance of vital events as change factors. We assume their inseparability. Adopting the classification established by Rodrigo (1985 we distinguish three classes of events, namely, normative events related to age, normative events related to historical time and non normative events which are not universally experienced by all subjects. We will analyze those factors which have relevant meaning in the development of vital events

  13. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2


    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  14. An automated double staining procedure for bone and cartilage. (United States)

    Miller, D M; Tarpley, J


    Differential skeletal staining is an important part of developmental toxicologic studies. Traditionally these studies have required time-consuming differentiation of one or both stains used and careful attention to the maceration step to prevent specimen destruction. We present a fully automated protocol which does not require differentiation of either dye and incorporates a controlled maceration step which is highly reproducible. This has resulted in high quality staining that is reproducible, stable, and can be done in volume with minimal personnel time. The process involves the staining of skinned, eviscerated specimens fixed in 95% ethanol. Using an automated tissue processor, the specimen is stained in alcian blue for 24 hr, macerated in 3% potassium hydroxide for 24 hr and stained with murexide for 24 hr. The specimens are cleared and preserved in glycerol. Within three days specimens have red stained bone and blue stained cartilage. The procedure was developed using 20-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses to evaluate the feasibility of using the procedure for teratology studies involving the fetal skeleton. Evenly stained specimens can be examined within three days and stored for years without loss of staining.

  15. New Methylene Blue Stain for Malaria Detection on Thin Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu D. Mulay


    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is the most important parasitic infection of man. Microscopy remains gold standard in malaria diagnosis. Management of malaria requires rapid detection of parasite in human blood. Hence there is a need to develop another diagnostic method with less limitation, which will address this issue. Aim and Objectives: To find a low cost reliable and accurate method for malaria detection on peripheral smear. Material and Methods: A prospective study of 40 cases was done. Two thin smears were prepared for each case; one was stained with Leishman stain and other with new methylene blue stain and examined under oil immersion. The smears were examined individually by two pathologists and results were prepared. Different parasitic morphologic forms were looked for. Parasitemia percentage was calculated. We also compared number of fields required to diagnose with both stains in positive cases. Results: In this study we found that 25 (83.3% cases were detected in less than 50 fields using New Methylene blue stain against 18 (60.0% cases with Leishman stain. We also found 100% sensitivity and specificity for New Methylene blue stain, whereas Leishman stain showed 90% sensitivity and specificity of 85%. Conclusion: The detection of malaria parasite was considerably easy with New Methylene Blue stain and required less time in comparison with Leishman stain.

  16. [Application of histochemical staining in diagnosis of osteosarcomas]. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Gong, Xi-qi; Ma, Fu-cheng; Zhao, Yi-ling; Zhu, Xiao-hui


    To study the histochemical staining in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. To compare the effectiveness of picrosirius red, improved Ponceau trichrome and Masson trichrome staining methods on bone formation tissues in conventional osteosarcoma, paraosteal osteosarcoma, periosteal osteosarcoma, extraskeletal osteosarcoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, malignant fibrohistiocytoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosis with ossification and calcification. With modified Ponceau trichrome staining, bone formation tissues showed a homogenous, orange-red interblended with blue in color. From osteoid to mature bone the color changed from orange-red, light blue to dark blue. Fibrotic tissue was stained blue in color with striated appearance. Cartilage was not stained. Picrosirius red method gave bone formation tissues homogenous staining. Along with bone maturation, from osteoid tissue to mineralized bones, the color showed changes from light red, yellow, orange-red, red to dark purple. The cartilage demonstrated homogenous light red in color. Fibrous tissue stained red interblended with yellow in color, striated in shape. With Masson trichrome staining osteoid displayed pale blue and mineralized bone showed dark blue in color. Fibrotic tissue showed a striated blue staining. The modified Ponceau trichrome and Picrosirius red staining methods are better than Masson trichrome to demonstrate bone formation tissue in osteosarcoma. The former two methods could be also used in study on bone formation.

  17. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - part 3: amino acid staining. (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Bandey, Helen; Savage, Kathleen; NicDaéid, Niamh


    Enhancement of footwear impressions, using ninhydrin or ninhydrin analogues is not considered common practice and such techniques are generally used to target amino acids present in fingermarks where the reaction gives rise to colour and possibly fluorescence. Ninhydrin and two of its analogues were used for the enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on various types, colours and porosities of fabric. Test footwear impressions on fabric were prepared using a specifically built rig to minimise the variability between each impression. Ninhydrin enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on light coloured fabric yielded good enhancement results, however the contrast was weak or non-existent on dark coloured fabrics. Other ninhydrin analogues which have the advantage of fluorescence failed to enhance the impressions in blood on all fabrics. The sequential treatment of impressions in blood on fabric with other blood enhancing reagents (e.g. protein stains and heme reagents) was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  18. General Staining and Segmentation Procedures for High Content Imaging and Analysis. (United States)

    Chambers, Kevin M; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S; Dolman, Nick J; Janes, Michael S


    Automated quantitative fluorescence microscopy, also known as high content imaging (HCI), is a rapidly growing analytical approach in cell biology. Because automated image analysis relies heavily on robust demarcation of cells and subcellular regions, reliable methods for labeling cells is a critical component of the HCI workflow. Labeling of cells for image segmentation is typically performed with fluorescent probes that bind DNA for nuclear-based cell demarcation or with those which react with proteins for image analysis based on whole cell staining. These reagents, along with instrument and software settings, play an important role in the successful segmentation of cells in a population for automated and quantitative image analysis. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures for labeling and image segmentation in both live and fixed cell samples. The chapter will also provide troubleshooting guidelines for some of the common problems associated with these aspects of HCI.

  19. Introduction to fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Ghiran, Ionita C


    This chapter is an overview of basic principles of fluorescence microscopy, including a brief history on the invention of this type of microscopy. The chapter highlights important points related to properties of fluorochromes, resolution in fluorescence microscopy, phase contrast and fluorescence, fluorescence filters, construction of a fluorescence microscope, and tips on the correct use of this equipment.

  20. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain (United States)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.


    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  1. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes. (United States)

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A


    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  2. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I. (United States)

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield


    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  3. Ingroup vitality and intergroup attitudes in a linguistic minority. (United States)

    Liebkind, Karmela; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Teräsaho, Mia


    In this study we argue that predictions of the impact of group status, status stability and status legitimacy on intergroup attitudes can be refined using the subjective perceptions of various dimensions of ingroup vitality. We tested the main and moderating effects of perceived present, future and the legitimacy of present ingroup vitality and perceived discrimination on intergroup attitudes in a nation-wide probability sample (N= 1,411) of Swedish-speaking Finns, controlling for ingroup identification. We found that those who perceived the legitimacy of present ingroup vitality to be low had more negative intergroup attitudes than those who perceived the legitimacy to be high. Perceived present and future ingroup vitality had no main effects on the dependent variable. Instead, perceived future ingroup vitality moderated the effect of perceived discrimination on intergroup attitudes. In addition, the perceived legitimacy of present ingroup vitality mediated the effect of perceived present ingroup vitality on intergroup attitudes.

  4. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains. (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W


    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  5. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo


    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...... sources makes it difficult to decide which equipment is the best for treating port-wine stains....

  6. Fluorescence detection: SPIE volume 743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E.R.


    This book contains proceedings arranged into four sessions. They are: Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques; Fluorescence in analysis and materials characterization; Fluorescence in medicine and biochemistry; and Fluorescence in criminalistics.

  7. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology


    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia


    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two w...

  8. Histopathological evaluation of ocular microsporidiosis by different stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on comparing stains in the detection of microsporidia in corneal biopsies. Hence we wanted to evaluate various stains for their ability to detect microsporidia in corneal tissue sections. Methods Four cases diagnosed with microsporidiosis on Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff's stained sections of the corneal button between January 2002 and December 2004, were included. Further sections were prospectively stained with calcofluor white, Gram, Giemsa, Masson's trichrome, acridine orange, Gomori's methenamine silver, Gram's chromotrope and modified acid fast stain. The stained sections were analyzed for the spore characteristics in terms of size, shape, color contrast, cell wall morphology, waist band in cytoplasm and ease of detection. Results All sections showed microsporidial spores as 3 – 5 μm, oval bodies. 1% acid fast, Gram's chromotrope and GMS stains provided a reliable diagnosis of microsporidia as diagnostic waist band could be identified and good contrast helped distinguish the spores from inflammatory debris. Conclusion Considering the ease of performance, cost effectiveness and rapidity of the technique, 1% acid fast stain and Gram's chromotrope stain are ideal for the detection of microsporidia.

  9. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren. (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim


    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Filipino children and to determine a possible association between black stain and caries levels. The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (i) the prevalence of black stain does not differ between children from schools with oral health intervention programs and those from schools without an intervention program, (ii) the prevalence of black stain does not differ in children attending easily accessible and remote schools, (iii) caries prevalence and caries experience do not differ in children with and without black stain and (iv) the caries distribution at the surface level does not differ in children with and without black stain. In total, 32 elementary schools were included. 19 schools with a comprehensive school-based preventive oral health program, seven schools with a basic preventive program and six control schools. All sixth graders of these schools (n=1748) aged 11.7+/-1.1 years were clinically examined for black stain. DMFT was assessed in 1121 children by seven calibrated dentists using WHO criteria. DMFS was scored in 627 children by two calibrated dentists. Black stain was found in 16% of this population. The prevalence of black stain did not differ significantly between children attending schools with different oral health intervention programs. Thus, hypothesis 1 was accepted. The prevalence of black stain was significantly higher (Pcaries prevalence and caries experience than children without black stain. Thus, hypothesis 3 was rejected. No difference was found in the DMFS pattern of occlusal, smooth and proximal surfaces between children with and without black stain. Thus hypothesis 4 was accepted. The presence of black stain is

  10. A comparison of various minimally invasive techniques for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarushi Gupta


    Full Text Available Context: Dental fluorosis is caused by successive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of minimally invasive techniques for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children in vivo. Design: Ninety children in the age group of 10–17 years were selected. Materials and Methods: The study sample was equally and randomly divided into three groups; Group 1: In-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP activated by light-emitting diode (LED bleaching unit (35% HP, Group 2: Enamel microabrasion (EM followed by in-office bleaching with 44% carbamide peroxide gel (EM, Group 3: In-office bleaching with 5% sodium hypochlorite (5% NaOCl. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. Results: Bleaching with 35% HP activated by LED bleaching unit and EM followed by bleaching with 44% carbamide peroxide were equally effective for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children in vivo. However, bleaching with 5% NaOCl could not completely remove moderate to severe stains. It was effective in removing only mild stains. Bleaching and microabrasion procedures caused slight decrease in tooth sensitivity readings by electric pulp vitality tester which continued to increase over time. However, none of the patients reported sensitivity in their teeth at any point of time. Patients were highly satisfied with the treatment outcome postoperatively but reported slight relapse of color in the three groups. Conclusions: Bleaching and microabrasion techniques can consider as an interesting alternatives to conventional operative treatment options.

  11. A comparison of various minimally invasive techniques for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children. (United States)

    Gupta, Aarushi; Dhingra, Renuka; Chaudhuri, Payal; Gupta, Anil


    Dental fluorosis is caused by successive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of minimally invasive techniques for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children in vivo. Ninety children in the age group of 10-17 years were selected. The study sample was equally and randomly divided into three groups; Group 1: In-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) activated by light-emitting diode (LED) bleaching unit (35% HP), Group 2: Enamel microabrasion (EM) followed by in-office bleaching with 44% carbamide peroxide gel (EM), Group 3: In-office bleaching with 5% sodium hypochlorite (5% NaOCl). Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. Bleaching with 35% HP activated by LED bleaching unit and EM followed by bleaching with 44% carbamide peroxide were equally effective for the removal of dental fluorosis stains in children in vivo. However, bleaching with 5% NaOCl could not completely remove moderate to severe stains. It was effective in removing only mild stains. Bleaching and microabrasion procedures caused slight decrease in tooth sensitivity readings by electric pulp vitality tester which continued to increase over time. However, none of the patients reported sensitivity in their teeth at any point of time. Patients were highly satisfied with the treatment outcome postoperatively but reported slight relapse of color in the three groups. Bleaching and microabrasion techniques can consider as an interesting alternatives to conventional operative treatment options.

  12. Purpose and Vitality of Rumours: Political Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus


    Full Text Available The article deals with social instrumental intention of rumours and their expression. It also reveals the social and political role of rumours in controlling the behaviour of a group of members and preserving its identity. The dual nature of rumours is analyzed as well as gnosiological, psychological and sociological reasons. On the one hand, the roots of rumour vitality are hidden in the dualism of this phenomenon, where in a strange way contradictory things get on well together ­ private and public, moral and immoral, the truth and the lie, between which it is not easy to draw a clear boundary even in everyday life. On the other hand, a rumour is alive because of our constant thirst for additional and fresher information, trying to perceive a person, an action or a phenomenon better. At the same time, it stimulates the proclaimers of the official political information to find the ways for the provided information to be more accurate, open, exhaustive as possible, presented in an understandable and accessible form. There the power of the effect of a rumour lays, a phenomenon without authorship, but with an authority to which, more or less, all of us are to obey. 

  13. Defining the vital condition for organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamperetti Nereo


    Full Text Available Abstract The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called "dead donor rule". Such change would involve the societal and legal abandonment of the above rule and the introduction of mandated choice. In this commentary, we review some of the problems associated with the proposed changes as well as the problems associated with the current model. We emphasize the continuing problems with the definition of death and the physiological process of dying; we discuss the difficulties associated with a dichotomous view of death; we review the difficulties with non-beating heart donation and emphasize the current limitations of society's understanding of these complex issues. We conclude that public education remains the best approach and that such education should not be merely promotion of a particular ideology but honest debate of what is socially and morally acceptable and appropriate given the changes in vital organ support technology and the need to respect patient autonomy.

  14. The Chemically Synthesized Ageladine A-Derivative LysoGlow84 Stains Lysosomes in Viable Mammalian Brain Cells and Specific Structures in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Mordhorst


    Full Text Available Based on the chemical structure and the known chemical synthesis of the marine sponge alkaloid ageladine A, we synthesized the ageladine A-derivative 4-(naphthalene-2-yl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine trifluoroacetate (LysoGlow84. The two-step synthesis started with the Pictet-Spengler reaction of histamine and naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde to a tetrahydropyridine intermediate, which was dehydrogenated with activated manganese (IV oxide to LysoGlow84. Structure and purity of the synthesized LysoGlow84 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity emitted by LysoGlow84 depended strongly on the pH of the solvent with highest fluorescence intensity recorded at pH 4. The fluorescence maximum (at 315 nm excitation was observed at 440 nm. Biocompatibility of LysoGlow84 was investigated using cultured rat brain astrocytes and the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Exposure of the astrocytes for up to 6 h to micromolar concentrations of LysoGlow84 did not compromise cell viability, as demonstrated by several viability assays, but revealed a promising property of this compound for staining of cellular vesicles. Conventional fluorescence microscopy as well as confocal scanning microscopy of LysoGlow84-treated astrocytes revealed co-localization of LysoGlow84 fluorescence with that of LysoTracker® Red DND-99. LysoGlow84 stained unclear structures in Macrostomum lignano, which were identified as lysosomes by co-staining with LysoTracker. Strong fluorescence staining by LysoGlow84 was further observed around the worms’ anterior gut and the female genital pore which were not counterstained by LysoTracker Red. Thus, LysoGlow84 is a new promising dye that stains lysosomes and other acidic compartments in cultured cells and in worms.

  15. The chemically synthesized ageladine A-derivative LysoGlow84 stains lysosomes in viable mammalian brain cells and specific structures in the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. (United States)

    Mordhorst, Thorsten; Awal, Sushil; Jordan, Sebastian; Petters, Charlotte; Sartoris, Linda; Dringen, Ralf; Bickmeyer, Ulf


    Based on the chemical structure and the known chemical synthesis of the marine sponge alkaloid ageladine A, we synthesized the ageladine A-derivative 4-(naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine trifluoroacetate (LysoGlow84). The two-step synthesis started with the Pictet-Spengler reaction of histamine and naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde to a tetrahydropyridine intermediate, which was dehydrogenated with activated manganese (IV) oxide to LysoGlow84. Structure and purity of the synthesized LysoGlow84 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity emitted by LysoGlow84 depended strongly on the pH of the solvent with highest fluorescence intensity recorded at pH 4. The fluorescence maximum (at 315 nm excitation) was observed at 440 nm. Biocompatibility of LysoGlow84 was investigated using cultured rat brain astrocytes and the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Exposure of the astrocytes for up to 6 h to micromolar concentrations of LysoGlow84 did not compromise cell viability, as demonstrated by several viability assays, but revealed a promising property of this compound for staining of cellular vesicles. Conventional fluorescence microscopy as well as confocal scanning microscopy of LysoGlow84-treated astrocytes revealed co-localization of LysoGlow84 fluorescence with that of LysoTracker® Red DND-99. LysoGlow84 stained unclear structures in Macrostomum lignano, which were identified as lysosomes by co-staining with LysoTracker. Strong fluorescence staining by LysoGlow84 was further observed around the worms' anterior gut and the female genital pore which were not counterstained by LysoTracker Red. Thus, LysoGlow84 is a new promising dye that stains lysosomes and other acidic compartments in cultured cells and in worms.

  16. Development of a prehospital vital signs chart sharing system. (United States)

    Nakada, Taka-aki; Masunaga, Naohisa; Nakao, Shota; Narita, Maiko; Fuse, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya


    Physiological parameters are crucial for the caring of trauma patients. There is a significant loss of prehospital vital signs data of patients during handover between prehospital and in-hospital teams. Effective strategies for reducing the loss remain a challenging research area. We tested whether the newly developed electronic automated prehospital vital signs chart sharing system would increase the amount of prehospital vital signs data shared with a remote trauma center prior to hospital arrival. Fifty trauma patients, transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan, were studied. The primary outcome variable was the number of prehospital vital signs shared with the trauma center prior to hospital arrival. The prehospital vital signs chart sharing system significantly increased the number of prehospital vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, shared with the in-hospital team at a remote trauma center prior to patient arrival at the hospital (P prehospital vital signs during ambulance transfer between patients who had severe bleeding and non-severe bleeding within 24 hours after injury onset. Vital signs data collected during ambulance transfer via patient monitors could be automatically converted to easily visible patient charts and effectively shared with the remote trauma center prior to hospital arrival. The prehospital vital signs chart sharing system increased the number of precise vital signs shared prior to patient arrival at the hospital, which can potentially contribute to better trauma care without increasing labor and reduce information loss during clinical handover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of tetrachromic VOF stain to other histochemical staining techniques for characterizing stromal soft and hard tissue components. (United States)

    Belaldavar, C; Hallikerimath, S; Angadi, P V; Kale, A D


    The components of hard tissues including dentin, enamel, cementum, bone and other calcified deposits, and mature and immature collagen pose problems for identification in routine hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained sections. Use of combinations of stains can demonstrate the components of hard tissues and soft tissues distinctly. We assessed the efficacy of the Verde Luz-orange G-acid fuchsin (VOF) stain for differentiating hard and soft connective tissues and compared results with other histochemical staining techniques. Eighty tissue sections comprising developing tooth (30), ossifying fibroma (30) and miscellaneous pathologies (20) expected to contain varying types of calcified tissues were stained with H & E, VOF, and Masson's trichrome (MT). In developing tooth, VOF demonstrated better differentiation of hard tissues, while it was comparable to MT for ossifying fibroma and miscellaneous pathologies. The intensity of staining was greater with VOF than with the other stains studied. VOF stains hard tissue components distinctly and gives good contrast with the surrounding connective tissue. VOF is comparable to MT, but has added advantages including single step staining, rapid and easy procedures, and it distinguishes the maturity of the tissues.

  18. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O


    In this 12(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 Quality and competence in the medical laboratory and ISO...

  19. Christendom's Narratives and the Stained Glass Designs of Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stained glass paintings, the most distinctive accessory in the interior repertoire of Christian ecclesiastic spaces, is the subject matter of this study. This paper attempts a recast of Christendom's narratives in the stained glass designs of Yusuf Cameron Adebayo Grillo as the distinctive overarching mechanism of the ...

  20. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H


    for biological staining, standardization of all procedures and reagents is mandatory. In this paper, I focus particularly on dyes and consider the possibilities for obtaining standardized dyes. In general practice, most biological staining takes place with available commercial dyes. These dyes may or may...

  1. Diagnostic utility of the genital Gram stain in ED patients. (United States)

    Stefanski, Peter; Hafner, John W; Riley, Shanda L; Sunga, Kharmene L Y; Schaefer, Timothy J


    The study aimed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of the genital Gram stain in an emergency department (ED) population. A linked-query of an urban, tertiary-care, university- affiliated hospital laboratory database was conducted for all completed Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA probes, Trichomonas vaginalis wet preps, and genital Gram stains performed on ED patient visits between January and December 2004. Positive criteria for a Gram stain included greater than 10 white blood cells per high-power field, gram-negative intracellular/extracellular diplococci (suggesting N gonorrhoeae), clue cells (suggesting T vaginalis), or direct visualization of T vaginalis organisms. DNA probes were used as the gold standard definition for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infection. Of 1511 initially eligible ED visits, 941 were analyzed (genital Gram stain and DNA probe results both present), with a prevalence of either C trachomatis or N gonorrhoeae of 11.4%. A positive genital Gram stain was 75.7% sensitive and 43.3% specific in diagnosing either C trachomatis and/or N gonorrhoeae infection, and 80.4% sensitive and 32.2% specific when the positive cutoff was lowered to more than 5 white blood cells/high-power field. No Gram stains were positive for T vaginalis (with 47 positive wet mounts), and clue cells were noted on 117 Gram stains (11.6%). Gram stains in isolation lack sufficient diagnostic ability to detect either C trachomatis or N gonorrhoeae infection in the ED.

  2. The use of special stains in liver biopsy interpretation: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of liver biopsies reported in two histopathology laboratories between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. These were stained with H and E and the following standard special stains for liver tissue histology – Perl's Prussian blue, reticulin, Sirius red, Shikata ...

  3. Lawsonia inermis And Hibiscus sabdariffa : Posible Histological Stains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of various concentrations of aqueous extracts of Lawsonia inermis and Hibiscus sabdariffa to stain histological tissues was demonstrated. The results with sections of tongue and kidney of the laboratory rat, cut at 6microns thickness showed that only the cellular cytoplasm was stained. However, combinations of ...

  4. [Lugol staining for esophageal carcinoma and influence of radiotherapy]. (United States)

    Miyamoto, H; Adachi, W; Koike, S; Koide, N; Iida, F


    For evaluating the endoscopic staining of the esophageal carcinoma with lugol solution, 50 patients who underwent esophagectomy for carcinoma were subjected to this study. Among the 50 patients, 21 were radiated before surgery and 29 were not radiated. The findings of the lugol staining were compared between endoscopic staining and staining on removed specimens. Non-staining area demonstrated by endoscopic procedure almost agreed with that by the procedure on removed specimen in non-radiation group, but both areas of 28.6% cases disagreed in radiation group. On the second step, the extent of non-staining area demonstrated by the procedure of removed specimen was compared with histological extent of carcinoma. The non-staining area on the removed specimen was more extended than histological extent of carcinoma; 10.3% in the non-radiation group and 71.4% in the radiation group. As one of the causes of the large non-corresponding rate in the radiation group, radiation esophagitis was demonstrated. It can be finally concluded that the reliability of endoscopic lugol staining is reduced by preoperative irradiation.

  5. Are port wines stains a feature of tuberous sclerosis? (United States)

    Ben-Amitai, D; Halachmi, S; Lapidoth, M


    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem inherited disorder characterized by the development of tumour-like growths in brain, skin and other organs. Although cutaneous vascular anomalies are not considered a common manifestation, we have encountered co-occurrence of port wine stains and tuberous sclerosis. To assess the prevalence of port wine stain in patients with previously diagnosed tuberous sclerosis. All cases diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis at two tertiary care centres from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. Cases with clinically documented port wine stains were included for evaluation. Of 24 patients diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis, three (12.5%) had clinically evident port wine stains. The prevalence of port wine stains in this series of tuberous sclerosis patients was significantly higher than the 0.3% prevalence of port wine stain in the general population. Port wine stain rate in this population was significantly greater than the expected rate. Further studies are needed to assess the frequency of port wine stains in tuberous sclerosis and to clarify whether the finding should be added to the list of cutaneous features of tuberous sclerosis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The usefulness of thionin for staining cartilage sections embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA) and the effect of decalcification on cartilage sections embedded in paraffin and GMA were assessed. Short decalcification periods using 5% formic acid or 10% EDTA did not influence the staining properties

  7. Vital Energy and Afterlife: Implications for Cognitive Science of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Monteiro Roazzi


    Full Text Available Literature investigating people’s concepts of supernatural agency (such as ghosts and deities points to an intuitive theory of mind underlying such ideas, however, recent studies suggest that intuitive ideas over vital energy could also be involved. The present paper focuses on examining the culture and development of people’s conceptions on vital energy. A search was made using the keyword vital energy targeting literature from Anthropology, Psychology and Cognitive Science. A literature review over this topic was made yielding reflections over the development of vital energy concepts. Results suggest that an intuitive biology, grounded on ideas of biological energy (vital energy, may underlie an understanding of soul, spirit, and supernatural energy. Future empirical studies should target the development of vital energy intuitive theories with different age ranges and cultures.

  8. In vivo imaging of Ca2+ accumulation during cotton fiber initiation using fluorescent indicator YC3.60. (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Cao, Hui-Zhen; Hou, Lei; Song, Shui-Qing; Zeng, Jian-Yan; Pei, Yan


    Non-tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient indicated by genetically expressing a FRET-based calcium sensor YC3.60 was established in spherical expanding cotton fibers, which is vital for cotton fiber initiation. Cotton fiber is a single cell elongated from ovule epidermis. It is not only the most important natural fiber used in the textile industry but also an ideal model for studying cell differentiation and elongation. Before linear cell growth, cotton fibers undergo spherical expansion at the beginning of initiation. Ca2+, as an important secondary messenger, plays a central role in polarized cell growth including cotton fiber elongation. However, the role of Ca2+ in fiber initiation is far from well understood. In this paper, through ovule culture we demonstrate that Ca2+ is crucial for fiber initiation. Using transgenic cotton expressing the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator YC3.60, we show cellular and intracellular distribution of Ca2+ in cotton ovule epidermis and fiber cells. In the initiating fiber cell, Ca2+ accumulated mainly at the base of the cell, while in the fast elongating cell, the Ca2+ was enriched in the tip region. This cellular distribution of Ca2+ reported by YC3.60 was confirmed by the staining with a Ca2+-sensitive dye fluo-3/AM. Compared to the fluorescent dye staining, the YC3.60 system can reveal more detailed information on the intracellular distribution without photobleaching. Taken together, our data suggest that Ca2+ plays an important role in spherical expansion of cotton fiber initials.

  9. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh


    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  10. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections. (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk


    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  11. Combined in Situ Zymography, Immunofluorescence, and Staining of Iron Oxide Particles in Paraffin-Embedded, Zinc-Fixed Tissue Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyk Schellenberger


    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  12. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores (United States)

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh


    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  13. Instant live-cell super-resolution imaging of cellular structures by nanoinjection of fluorescent probes. (United States)

    Hennig, Simon; van de Linde, Sebastian; Lummer, Martina; Simonis, Matthias; Huser, Thomas; Sauer, Markus


    Labeling internal structures within living cells with standard fluorescent probes is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a novel intracellular staining method that enables us to carefully control the labeling process and provides instant access to the inner structures of living cells. Using a hollow glass capillary with a diameter of cell-permeable and nonpermeable fluorescent probes to cells.

  14. Restoring Faculty Vitality in Academic Medicine When Burnout Threatens. (United States)

    Shah, Darshana T; Williams, Valerie N; Thorndyke, Luanne E; Marsh, E Eugene; Sonnino, Roberta E; Block, Steven M; Viggiano, Thomas R


    Increasing rates of burnout-with accompanying stress and lack of engagement-among faculty, residents, students, and practicing physicians have caused alarm in academic medicine. Central to the debate among academic medicine's stakeholders are oft-competing issues of social accountability; cost containment; effectiveness of academic medicine's institutions; faculty recruitment, retention, and satisfaction; increasing expectations for faculty; and mission-based productivity.The authors propose that understanding and fostering what contributes to faculty and institutional vitality is central to preventing burnout during times of change. They first look at faculty vitality and how it is threatened by burnout, to provide a framework for a greater understanding of faculty well-being. Then they draw on higher education literature to determine how vitality is defined in academic settings and what factors affect faculty vitality within the context of academic medicine. Next, they propose a model to explain and examine faculty vitality in academic medicine, followed by a discussion of the need for a greater understanding of faculty vitality. Finally, the authors offer conclusions and propose future directions to promote faculty vitality.The authors encourage institutional decision makers and other stakeholders to focus particular attention on the evolving expectations for faculty, the risk of extensive faculty burnout, and the opportunity to reduce burnout by improving the vitality and resilience of these talented and crucial contributors. Faculty vitality, as defined by the institution, has a critical role in ensuring future institutional successes and the capacity for faculty to thrive in a complex health care economy.

  15. Fluorescence microscopy for measuring fibril angles in pine tracheids (United States)

    Ralph O. Marts


    Observation and measurement of fibril angles in increment cores or similar small samples from living pine trees was facilitated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Although some autofluorescence was present, brighter images could be obtained by staining the specimens with a 0.1% aqueous solution of a fluorochrome (Calcozine flavine TG extra concentrated, Calcozine...

  16. Single Molecule Fluorescence: from Physical Fascination to Biological Relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.


    Confocal fluorescence microscopy is particularly well-known from the beautiful images that have been obtained with this technique from cells. Several cellular components could be nicely visualized simultaneously by staining them with different fluorophores. Not only for ensemble applications but

  17. CDC Signos Vitales-Seguridad de los camioneros (Vital Signs-Trucker Safety)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Este podcast se basa en la edición de marzo del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En el 2012 en los Estados Unidos, ocurrieron cerca de 317 000 choques asociados a camiones pesados. Veintiséis mil camioneros y sus pasajeros sufrieron lesiones en esos choques, y cerca de 700 murieron. Infórmese sobre lo que se puede hacer para que los camioneros estén seguros.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  18. Homogeneous luminescent stain etched porous silicon elaborated by a new multi-step stain etching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajji, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopôle de Borj-Cédria BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur d’Electronique et de Communication de Sfax, route Menzel Chaker Km 0.5, BP 868, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Khalifa, M.; Slama, S. Ben; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopôle de Borj-Cédria BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)


    This paper presents a new method to produce porous silicon which derived from the conventional stain etching (SE) method. But instead of one etching step that leads to formation of porous layer, the substrate is subjected to an initial etching step with a duration Δt{sub 0} followed by a number of supplementary short steps that differs from a layer to another. The duration of the initial step is just the necessary time to have a homogenous porous layer on the whole surface of the substrate. It was found that this duration is largely dependent of the doping type and level of the silicon substrate. The duration of supplementary steps was kept as short as possible to prevent the formation of bubbles on the silicon surface during silicon dissolution which leads generally to inhomogeneous porous layers. It is found from surface investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that multistep stain etching (MS-SE) method allows to produce homogeneous porous silicon nanostructures compared to the conventional SE method. The chemical composition of the obtained porous layers has been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that porous layers produced by SE and MS-SE methods have comparable spectra indicating that those layers are composed of nanocrystallites with comparable sizes. But the intensity of photoluminescence of layer elaborated by MS-SE method is higher than that elaborated by the SE method. Total reflectance characteristics show that the presented method allows the production of porous silicon layers with controllable thicknesses and optical properties. Results for porous silicon layers elaborated on heavily doped n-type silicon show that the reflectance can be reduced to values less than 3% in the major part of the spectrum.

  19. Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan


    Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface

  20. CTC staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone using confocal laser scanning microscopy. (United States)

    Bartosch, S; Mansch, R; Knötzsch, K; Bock, E


    A method was established for staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone by using the tetrazolium salt 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Applying 5 mM CTC for 2 h to pure cultures of representative stone-inhabiting microorganisms showed that chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi-in contrast to lithoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria-were able to reduce CTC to CTF, the red fluorescing formazan crystals of CTC. Optimal staining conditions for microorganisms in stone material were found to be 15 mM CTC applied for 24 h. The cells could be visualized on transparent and nontransparent mineral materials by means of CLSM. A semi-automated method was used to count the cells within the pore system of the stone. The percentage of CTC-stained bacteria was dependent on temperature and humidity of the material. At 28 degrees C and high humidity (maximum water holding capacity) in the laboratory, about 58% of the total bacterial microflora was active. On natural stone exposed for 9 years at an urban exposure site in Germany, 52-56% of the bacterial microflora was active at the east, west, and north side of the specimen, while only 18% cells were active at the south side. This is consistent with microclimatic differences on the south side which was more exposed to sunshine thus causing UV and water stress as well as higher temperatures on a microscale level. In combination with CLSM, staining by CTC can be used as a fast method for monitoring the metabolic activity of chemoorganotrophic bacteria in monuments, buildings of historic interest or any art objects of natural stone. Due to the small size of samples required, the damage to these objects and buildings can be minimized.

  1. Effect of a 16% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Gel on Enamel Staining Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghavamnasiri


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the growing popularity of vital bleaching by CarbamidePeroxide it is imperative to understand the effect of such agents on enamel and dentine.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel; Vivastyle on enamel staining susceptibility.Materials and Methods: Thirty bovine specimens were selected and randomly divided into two groups of fifteen. The experimental group was subjected to Vivastyle gel and then was immersed in coffee, for half an hour daily for three weeks. The control group was only immersed in coffee. The teeth were evaluated by colorimeter readings to measure L*, a*, b* of each tooth. Total color differences between two colors (ΔE were calculated using the following formula: ΔE= [(ΔL* 2 + (Δa* 2+ (Δb* 2].ΔE1 represent color difference after bleaching; ΔE2: bleached and immersed in coffee,and ΔE3 immersed in coffee.Results: Mean color difference were: 9.478, 13.808, and 7.230 for ΔE1, ΔE2, and ΔE3 respectively. Paired comparison by Duncan test showed that there was a significant difference between ΔE1 and ΔE2 (P0.000. t-test showed that there was no significant difference between ΔE3 and ΔE1. (P=0.08, however, ΔE3 had significant difference with ΔE2 (P0.000.Conclusion: After vital bleaching, the enamel staining susceptibility is significantly increased.

  2. Taenia taeniaeformis: effectiveness of staining oncospheres is related to both temperature of treatment and molecular weight of dyes utilized. (United States)

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Busboom, Jan R; Nelson, Mark L; Hancock, Dale D; Tang, Juming; Jasmer, Douglas P


    Methods to determine viability of taeniid oncospheres following treatments with potential lethality have practical application in efforts to control transmission. Here we investigated several methods, in lieu of infectivity studies, to assess oncosphere viability and determine lethal temperature treatment regimens. In the first experiment, a standard treatment to exshell oncospheres with 0.5% hypochlorite was assessed for influence on oncosphere recovery of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Recovery of eggs and exshelled oncospheres decreased with increasing time in hypochlorite, which indicated that hypochlorite can damage eggs and oncospheres, translating into potential overestimation of lethality of experimental treatments. Losses in hypochlorite were accentuated when eggs were pretreated at 75 degrees C, but not lower temperatures, including 65 degrees C, indicating a sharp threshhold between 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C where eggs and oncospheres became hypersensitive to subsequent hypochlorite treatment. To further investigate this change in relation to temperature, non-vital (acridine orange, AO) and vital (propidium iodide, PI; trypan blue, TB) dyes were used to assess staining of oncospheres (exshelled or not) under conditions ranging from room temperature up to 95 degrees C. The behaviors of dyes as related to internal staining of oncospheres were described using non-linear regression and a sigmoid four-parametric model to determine the inflection point (T50). Each of the dyes differed significantly in T50 estimates, e.g. AO (69.22+/-0.53), PI (73.89+/-0.52) and TB (79.43+/-0.45). For these dyes, the T50 increased in relation to the increasing molecular weight of the dyes. Collectively, the results suggested that barriers to chemical permeability exist in eggs that breakdown incrementally with increasing temperatures above 65 degrees C. This staining behavior and the likelihood that the temperatures involved are above a lethal threshhold clarify a basic

  3. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) transgenic mouse as a model for imaging pancreatic exocrine cells. (United States)

    Tran Cao, Hop S; Kimura, Hiroaki; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Snyder, Cynthia S; Reynoso, Jose; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael


    The use of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging has opened many new areas of research. Among the important advances in the field have been the development of transgenic mice expressing various fluorescent proteins. To report whole-body and organ-specific fluorescence imaging to characterize the transgenic cyan fluorescent protein mouse. Mice were imaged using two devices. Brightfield images were obtained with the OV100 Small Animal Imaging System (Olympus Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Fluorescence imaging was performed under the cyan fluorescent protein filter using the iBox Small Animal Imaging System (UVP, Upland, CA, USA). All animals were sacrificed immediately before imaging. They were imaged before and throughout multiple steps of a complete necropsy. Harvested organs were also imaged with both devices. Selected organs were then frozen and processed for histology, fluorescence microscopy, and H&E staining. Fluorescence microscopy was performed with an Olympus IMT-2 inverted fluorescence microscope. Determination of fluorescence intensity of different organs. Surprisingly, we found that there is differential enhancement of fluorescence among organs; most notably, the pancreas stands out from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, displaying the strongest fluorescence of all organs in the mouse. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the cyan fluorescent protein fluorescence resided in the acinar cells of the pancreas and not the islet cells. The cyan fluorescent protein mouse should lead to a deeper understanding of pancreatic function and pathology, including cancer.

  4. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.


    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  5. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga


    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  6. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg


    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  7. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal. (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu


    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  8. Flow Cytometry: A Novel Approach for Indirect Assessment of Protamine Deficiency by CMA3 Staining, Taking into Account the Presence of M540 or Apoptotic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Modaresi


    Full Text Available Background: Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining, either by the slide method or fluorescence microscopy,is widely used for indirect assessment of protamine deficiency in a semen sample. Flow cytometry isthe most suitable tool to improve assessment accuracy, both in terms of statistical analysis and forprevention of observer variation. This study provides a simple procedure to account for merocyanine540 (M540 or apoptotic bodies, which result in underestimation of the percentage of CMA3 positivity,by using propidium iodide (PI staining. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the percentage of CMA3by PI staining to exclude M540 bodies that prevent underestimation of CMA3 staining.Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study. Semen samples collected from 104infertile men who referred to the Andrology Unit of the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center wereinitially assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Samples were washedtwice with Ham’s. Each sample was divided into two portions, a control and the other processed fordensity gradient centrifugation (DGC. Each portion was assessed for CMA3 staining by both theslide and flow cytometry methods. Coefficients of correlation and student t-test were carried outusing the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5.Results: Detection of CMA3 staining was more appropriate with fluorescence detector 3 (FL-3rather than fluorescence detector 2 (FL-2 in the evaluation of protamine deficiency to excludeM540 bodies.Conclusion: This study, for the first time, provides the basis for assessment of CMA3 staining forflow cytometry. However, since the maximum excitation for CMA3 is not covered by the 488 nmlaser, we recommend further experimentation using a flow cytometer with optimal excitation.

  9. An in vitro screening assay for dental stain cleaning. (United States)

    Wang, Changxiang; Lucas, Robert; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R


    The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model for stain removal from natural enamel for the assessment and comparison of oral hygiene products. Bovine teeth (n = 8 per group) were ground/polished to provide flat enamel specimens and ferric-tannate deposits were precipitated onto the enamel surfaces. The ferric-tannate stained enamel specimens were brushed using an in vitro tooth-brushing simulator with slurries containing commercially available toothpaste products, dental abrasive particles, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) solutions of different concentrations. The colour of the enamel surfaces was measured using a spectrophotometer before and after stain application as well as after the brushing treatments. Differences in stain removal efficacy were found between the toothpastes categorised as whitening and non-whitening comprising of different types of dental abrasives (hydrated silica and alumina). A mean value of 27% for stain removal was detected for the three non-whitening toothpastes and 59% of stain removal was detected for the three whitening toothpastes after 1000 strokes. Compared with the slurry with Zeodent 113 abrasive alone, the addition of STP provided better performance for stain removal under the same brushing conditions (mean value of 62% for Zeodent 113 abrasive alone and 72% with the addition of 5% (w/w) STP after 1000 strokes). No difference was evident between the STP concentration of 5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w). The ferric-tannate/bovine enamel model reported here provides good stain retention, is rapidly and easily prepared, and is shown to be progressively and reproducibly sensitive to toothbrushing using different toothpastes and surfactant/chelating agent solutions. Importantly, it provides good discrimination between various oral hygiene products. The stain removal assay reported here has considerable potential to enable comparative assessments of different toothpaste types in terms of their cleaning capabilities.

  10. Formation and microscopical application of a fluorescent 1,10-phenanthroline derivative of ruthenium red. (United States)

    Bertolesi, G E; de Cidre, L L; Stockert, J C


    In this work we describe the formation and microscopical application of a fluorescent derivative of Ruthenium Red (RR) obtained by heating the dye in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (OP). The RR-OP reaction product showed absorption maxima at 416 and 444 nm and intense fluorescence emission at 578 nm under 440 nm exciting light. Neither RR nor OP solutions alone were fluorescent when excited at 440 nm. Using fluorescence microscopy, chicken blood cell smears stained 5 min with the RR-OP derivative showed the chromatin of erythrocyte nuclei with a bright orange fluorescence under violet-blue (436 nm) exciting light.

  11. [A study of a laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro]. (United States)

    Chen, Jianghao; Qi, Man


    To explore the feasibility of using laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro. 8 primary molars with approximal caries were collected, and caries were removed in vitro. The laser fluorescence readings of dentin before and after caries removal were recorded. To judge the degree of caries removal by caries detector, polarizing microscope and dental microhardness tester. The correlation of DIAGNO-dent reading with Viker's Hardness was analyzed. The feasibility of using laser fluorescence for assessing caries removal was explored. The average Viker's Hardness of dentin after caries removal with staining was (46.99 +/- 12.44) HV, and the average Viker's Hardness of normal control was (67.39 +/- 16.59) HV. There was significant difference between the two groups (P laser fluorescence readings before and after caries removal with staining (P > 0.05). And there was significant difference between the laser fluorescence readings before and after the caries removal without staining (P caries residue in sample, no matter stain or not. The laser fluorescence could not distinguish stained dentin from caries, and is not suitable for assessing caries removal.

  12. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W


    of Regulatory Affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the opening session of the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 2-4 June 2010 in Seoul, Republic......The 11th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) provides our first impressions of the REACH and ECHA programs. We intend to give a more thorough account of what these important programs actually mean in later editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission. Under the heading...

  13. Clinical studies to determine the effectiveness of a whitening toothpaste at reducing stain (using a forced stain model). (United States)

    Moran, J; Claydon, N C A; Addy, M; Newcombe, R


    Two single centre, randomized single-blind, crossover studies were performed, to compare the effect of a test toothpaste with a conventional fluoride paste in the inhibition and removal of extrinsic dental stain promoted by repeated chlorhexidine/tea rinses. These studies used 24 subjects in each of two separate clinical trials. On the Friday before each trial period, the subjects received a prophylaxis to remove all staining, plaque and calculus deposits. On the following Monday, subjects were checked whether they were stain free and then under direct supervision they rinsed with a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, immediately followed by a rinse with a warm black tea solution. This cycle was repeated hourly eight times throughout the day and on the following days until the Friday. In addition subjects also received daily a single toothpaste slurry rinse or control water rinse in the morning and lunchtime. No other form of oral hygiene was permitted during this period. On the Friday, both stain area and intensity was assessed using the Lobene Stain Index. For the stain removal study, stain was promoted again using chlorhexidine and tea rinses. After 4 days, stain was measured both prior to and immediately after brushing with the allocated toothpaste for 2 min. Subjects were then instructed to use the toothbrush at home according to their normal oral hygiene practices. On the following Wednesday, the amount of stain present was re-assessed. Each subject subsequently received a thorough prophylaxis to remove all plaque calculus and staining before starting the following periods of the study. The study showed no difference in the ability of the test whitening toothpaste, control toothpaste and water control at inhibiting stain. There was also only a small difference (3.5% for product of area and intensity) between the ability of the two toothpastes to help remove stain after a single brushing. The difference was however in favour of the test product which approached a

  14. Quantitative validation of immunofluorescence and lectin staining using reduced CLARITY acrylamide formulations. (United States)

    Krolewski, D M; Kumar, V; Martin, B; Tomer, R; Deisseroth, K; Myers, R M; Schatzberg, A F; Lee, F S; Barchas, J D; Bunney, W E; Akil, H; Watson, S J


    The CLARITY technique enables three-dimensional visualization of fluorescent-labeled biomolecules in clarified intact brain samples, affording a unique view of molecular neuroanatomy and neurocircuitry. It is therefore, essential to find the ideal combination for clearing tissue and detecting the fluorescent-labeled signal. This method requires the formation of a formaldehyde-acrylamide fixative-generated hydrogel mesh through which cellular lipid is removed with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Several laboratories have used differential acrylamide and detergent concentrations to achieve better tissue clearing and antibody penetration, but the potential effects upon fluorescent signal retention is largely unknown. In an effort to optimize CLARITY processing procedures we performed quantitative parvalbumin immunofluorescence and lectin-based vasculature staining using either 4 or 8% sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent in combination with different acrylamide formulas in mouse brain slices. Using both confocal and CLARITY-optimized lightsheet microscope-acquired images, we demonstrate that 2% acrylamide monomer combined with 0.0125% bis-acrylamide and cleared with 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate generally provides the most optimal signal visualization amongst various hydrogel monomer concentrations, lipid removal times, and detergent concentrations.

  15. Fundamentals of fluorescence and fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Wolf, David E


    This chapter discusses the fundamental physics of fluorescence. The application of fluorescence to microscopy represents an important transition in the development of microscopy, particularly as it applies to biology. It enables quantitating the amounts of specific molecules within a cell, determining whether molecules are complexing on a molecular level, measuring changes in ionic concentrations within cells and organelles, and measuring molecular dynamics. This chapter also discusses the issues important to quantitative measurement of fluorescence and focuses on four of quantitative measurements of fluorescence--boxcar-gated detection, streak cameras, photon correlation, and phase modulation. Although quantitative measurement presents many pitfalls to the beginner, it also presents significant opportunities to one skilled in the art. This chapter also examines how fluorescence is measured in the steady state and time domain and how fluorescence is applied in the modern epifluorescence microscope. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Documentation of pediatric vital signs by EMS providers over time. (United States)

    Hewes, Hilary; Hunsaker, Shari; Christensen, Mathew; Whitney, Jolene; Dalrymple, Tia; Taillac, Peter


    Pediatric patients make up approximately 10% of EMS transports nationwide. Previous studies demonstrated that pediatric patients do not consistently have a full set of vitals signs obtained in the prehospital setting [1]. In certain conditions, such as traumatic head injury and shock, unrecognized hypotension and/or hypoxia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality [2,3]. To measure how often EMS providers obtain blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (Po), and respiratory rate (RR) on pediatric transport patients in the state of Utah from 2007 to 2014. To assess whether educational interventions improved the percentage of pediatric transport patients with a full set of vital signs documented. The trend of documenting the four critical vital signs improved over time for all four categories. Measurement of Po increased most consistently across all age groups. Blood pressure remained the most inconsistently obtained vital sign, especially in younger pediatric patients. The educational interventions introduced in late 2010 correlated with an increase in vital sign attainment. Assessment of pediatric vitals signs is a critical part of the evaluation and care of pediatric patients in the prehospital setting. Utah EMS providers improved their practice of documenting four pediatric vital signs over time after educational interventions. Obtaining a BP, especially in younger children, continues to be a challenge. More work remains to achieve the state goal of documenting all vital signs in >90% of pediatric transports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Full crown preparation of a vital tooth is outdated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, S.P.; van Pelt, A.W.


    The restorative solutions for esthetic problems are becoming minimal invasive. Adhesive technology and materials as composite luting cements are biocompatible and therefor less harmfull for vital pulps. Necrosis of vital pulps hardly occurs and the survival of porcelain veneers is very good. The

  18. 46 CFR 111.60-9 - Segregation of vital circuits. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of vital circuits. 111.60-9 Section 111.60-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-9 Segregation of vital circuits. (a) General. A...

  19. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus patula trees infected by Sirex noctilio using digital multispectral imagery. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality.

  20. An expanded model of faculty vitality in academic medicine. (United States)

    Dankoski, Mary E; Palmer, Megan M; Nelson Laird, Thomas F; Ribera, Amy K; Bogdewic, Stephen P


    Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher education broadly and in academic medical centers specifically, this study proposes an expanded model of the unique factors that contribute to faculty vitality in academic medicine. We developed an online survey on the basis of a conceptual model (N = 564) and used linear regression to investigate the fit of the model. We examined the relationships of two predictor variables measuring Primary Unit Climate and Leadership and Career and Life Management with an overall Faculty Vitality index comprised of three measures: Professional Engagement, Career Satisfaction, and Productivity. The findings revealed significant predictive relationships between Primary Unit Climate and Leadership, Career and Life Management, and Faculty Vitality. The overall model accounted for 59% of the variance in the overall Faculty Vitality Index. The results provide new insights into the developing model of faculty vitality and inform initiatives to support faculty in academic medical centers. Given the immense challenges faced by faculty, now more than ever do we need reliable evidence regarding what sustains faculty vitality.

  1. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity. (United States)

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity.

  2. Detection and identification of body fluid stains using antibody-nanoparticle conjugates. (United States)

    Frascione, Nunzianda; Thorogate, Richard; Daniel, Barbara; Jickells, Sue


    Body fluids are considered one of the most important evidence types in forensic casework. The presence and location of blood, semen and saliva can provide crucial information to investigators. Current practice relies on an accurate visual examination followed by the use of presumptive tests to determine the identity of the body fluid type. Further laboratory based tests are required to unequivocally confirm the identity of a stain. Body fluid stains can be difficult to detect with the naked eye, particularly on dark backgrounds and hence vital evidence may be overlooked. Current methods are fluid-type specific, with a separate, and different, test required for each body fluid. The laborious nature of such analysis and the impossibility of being carried out at the crime scene, leads to a delay in the investigation process that could prove detrimental to the solving of the case. Hence, there is a need for sensitive, specific and direct methods which can simultaneously detect, differentiate, and locate human fluids on items of forensic evidence. Here, we describe the preparation of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies specific to blood and saliva components and their use in detecting small traces against non-contrasting substrates including glass, ceramic tile, paper and black fabric. The advantage of our technique is that it can simultaneously detect blood and saliva and can spatially locate and differentiate these body fluid types. Most importantly, our technology, which exploits the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, works in situ with no need to remove the body fluid stains for testing and with no washing steps and does not interfere with downstream DNA profiling. Thus, our technology represents a novel and effective alternative to existing methods.

  3. Microbiological and microscopic analysis of the pulp of non-vital traumatized teeth with intact crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Firmino Bruno


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80% for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15% did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15% exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in

  4. Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka


    Sep 14, 2016 ... After fixation of specimens, the cut- up was done, specimens were put in cassettes ... Rinse in stock solution of acetic acid. 2. Stain in giemsa .... analysis of tendon collagen using two-dimensional polarized light microscopy.

  5. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O


    This review starts with a short discussion of what is meant by a pure dye and a brief description of how dyes are produced. A listing of the types of impurities encountered in dyes is made, followed by technical investigations and assessments of dyes and their impurities including methods...... for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  6. Spectral analysis of blood stains at the crime scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, G.J.


    In this thesis, we propose the use of several optical techniques for the detection, identification, and age estimation of blood stains. We explore the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared wavelength range for this purpose.

  7. The effect of decalcifying solutions on hemosiderin staining. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Bellis, Maria


    To determine whether routine decalcification may reduce the amount of stainable iron that is visible on tissue sections, samples of liver and lung tissue with excessive iron stores were placed in three standard decalcifying solutions (i) formic acid [33%], formaldehyde [4%], and NaCl [0.85%]; (ii) formic acid [30%], formaldehyde [4%], and water; and (iii) nitric acid [5%] for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. After exposure to the decalcifying solutions, the tissues were stained with Perls stain. The slides were examined blind and the intensity of iron staining was scored semiquantitatively from 0 to 3+. The trend in all samples over the course of the experiment (96 h) was for reduction in the intensity of hemosiderin staining. As the amount of stainable hemosiderin in tissues may be significantly altered by decalcification, the absence of hemosiderin in tissues adjacent to a fracture site does not necessarily indicate that the injury was acute. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. News from the Biological Stain Commission, No. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O


    In the 17(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the 20(th) meeting of ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test...... systems held on October 15 - 17, 2014 in Toronto, Canada, and from the 29(th) meeting of CEN/TC 140 In vitro diagnostic medical devices held on February 3, 2015 in Berlin, Germany....

  9. Immunohistochemical CD3 staining detects additional patients with celiac disease. (United States)

    Mubarak, Amani; Wolters, Victorien M; Houwen, Roderick H J; ten Kate, Fiebo J W


    To investigate whether performing immunohistochemical CD3 staining, in order to improve the detection of intra-epithelial lymphocytosis, has an additional value in the histological diagnosis of celiac disease. Biopsies obtained from 159 children were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated using the Marsh classification. CD3 staining was subsequently evaluated separately and independently. Differences in evaluation between the routine HE sections and CD3 staining were present in 20 (12.6%) cases. In 10 (6.3%) patients the diagnosis of celiac disease (Marsh II and III) changed on examination of CD3 staining: in 9 cases, celiac disease had initially been missed on the HE sections, while 1 patient had been over-diagnosed on the routine sections. In all patients, the final diagnosis based on CD3 staining, was concordant with serological results, which was not found previously. In the other 10 (12.3%) patients, the detection of sole intra-epithelial lymphocytosis (Marsh I) improved. Nine patients were found to have Marsh I on CD3 sections, which had been missed on routine sections. Interestingly, the only patient with negative serology had Giardiasis. Finally, in 1 patient with negative serology, in whom Marsh I was suspected on HE sections, this diagnosis was withdrawn after evaluation of the CD3 sections. Staining for CD3 has an additional value in the histological detection of celiac disease lesions, and CD3 staining should be performed when there is a discrepancy between serology and the diagnosis made on HE sections.

  10. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W


    In the 15(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the plenary meetings of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laborat...... laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on August 22-24, 2012 in Berlin, Germany. An additional discussion of the use of food dyes in India also is included....

  11. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.


    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlis Solichin


    Full Text Available Mediums management and pre-mediums represent an absolute done in an higher education institute, because Mediums and premediums in education management represent the absolut condition in the effort to reach the target which is expected. Thereby, Every the education organizer have to pay attention and conscripting the mind and energy to carry out education management that is professional and fulfill Standard National Education ( SNP. This Research copes to comprehend the mediums and pre-mediums management of education in STAIN Pamekasan, because during this time of mediums and basic mediums management are not yet showing its idealitas. This research is focussed at; a How mediums and pre-mediums menegement in STAIN Pamekasan ?,and b what Factors influencing mediums and pre-mediums management in STAIN Pamekasan ?. This research uses the qualitative type by using observation, interview, and documentation method. Based the rearch done, to be expressed that the first of STAIN Pamekasan conduct mediums and pre-mediums manegement still have the centralization character of top down, either in the case of planning, organizational, observation, and assessment of mediums and pre-mediums management owned, second in some cases of STAIN Pamekasan do not yet manage the mediums and pre-mediums management because they are caused by factor is its lack of management professionalism, either when doing the planning, organizational, treatment and observation or evaluation. Based the matter above, hence, suggested that STAIN Pamekasan carry out the mediums and pre-mediums management of education professionally.

  13. Lugol staining pattern and histology of esophageal lesions. (United States)

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Matsushima, T; Matsuda, H; Kuwano, H; Sugimachi, K


    To analyze the relationship between Lugol unstained areas and their histologic features, we applied the Lugol test to 24 specimens of resected esophagus. The staining patterns were graded into four types: grade I, hyperstaining; grade II, normal greenish brown staining; grade III, less intense staining; and grade IV, unstained. Most of the grade IV lesions were invasive carcinomas, carcinomas in situ, or severe dysplasia. The carcinomas in situ and the intraepithelial extension of the carcinomas, which were difficult to detect, were clearly shown as grade IV. On the other hand, moderate to mild dysplasia or atrophy showed grade III staining. Grade IV lesions showed well-demarcated sharp margins, whereas grade III lesions showed ill-demarcated dull margins. The grade III carcinomas, however, by the Lugol test, showed well-demarcated margins. Histologic evaluation disclosed that the staining intensity reflected well the thickness of the glycogen-containing cell layer in the lesion. The sharpness of the margin reflected the abrupt or gradual change from the glycogen-containing to non-containing cell layers. These findings suggest 1) the usefulness of the staining pattern of the Lugol test for the diagnosis of esophageal lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma and severe dysplasia, and 2) the usefulness of the Lugol test for precise delineation of the proximal resection line during surgery of esophageal carcinomas with unexpected wide extension.

  14. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D


    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  15. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server


    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  16. Effectiveness of carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate in non-vital discolored teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide gel (CP16%, tetrahydrate sodium perborate (SP and mixture (CP16% + SP, in walking bleaching of non-vital discolored teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty single-rooted human premolars with intact crowns were used and initial color was assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The teeth were stained using rabbit fresh blood for 18 days and photos of discolored teeth and color evaluation were performed. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15, according to bleaching agent used: G1 CP16% gel; G2 CP16% gel + SP; G3 SP + distilled water; G4: control. The bleaching agents were replaced twice at 7-day intervals for 21 days. All teeth were evaluated by two endodontists at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and the color changes were assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: The experimental groups presented statistically similar bleaching results (p>0.05 at the end of 7, 14 and 21 days. These groups presented significantly higher bleaching efficacy than control group (G4 (p<0.05. The mixture CP16% + SP promoted return of original color in 100% of teeth at the end of 21 days. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that three bleaching agents were effective in bleaching of stained teeth with blood products, especially at the end of 21 days.

  17. Effectiveness of carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate in non-vital discolored teeth. (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Rodrigues, Cristiana Martins


    To evaluate the efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide gel (CP16%), tetrahydrate sodium perborate (SP) and mixture (CP16% + SP), in walking bleaching of non-vital discolored teeth. Sixty single-rooted human premolars with intact crowns were used and initial color was assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The teeth were stained using rabbit fresh blood for 18 days and photos of discolored teeth and color evaluation were performed. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15), according to bleaching agent used: G1) CP16% gel; G2) CP16% gel + SP; G3) SP + distilled water; G4: control. The bleaching agents were replaced twice at 7-day intervals for 21 days. All teeth were evaluated by two endodontists at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and the color changes were assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p=0.05). The experimental groups presented statistically similar bleaching results (p>0.05) at the end of 7, 14 and 21 days. These groups presented significantly higher bleaching efficacy than control group (G4) (p<0.05). The mixture CP16% + SP promoted return of original color in 100% of teeth at the end of 21 days. It was concluded that three bleaching agents were effective in bleaching of stained teeth with blood products, especially at the end of 21 days.

  18. Phototoxicity of indocyanine green and Brilliant Blue G under continuous fluorescent illumination on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. (United States)

    Takayama, Kei; Sato, Tomohito; Karasawa, Yoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ito, Masataka; Takeuchi, Masaru


    We compared the phototoxicity of indocyanine green (ICG) and Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in cultured RPE cells under fluorescent lamp illumination imitating ambient light. Cultured human RPE line cells were stained with ICG or BBG solution at concentrations of clinical use, and cultured in a colorless medium for 24 hours in the dark or under illumination from a fluorescent lamp. After culture, cell morphology and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed. Cell viability and cell death rate were evaluated. Absorption spectral changes of BBG before and after incubation were measured. ICG-stained cells cultured under illumination changed to an oval morphology with increased number of apoptotic cells, whereas ICG-stained cells cultured in the dark, and BBG-stained cells cultured under illumination and dark conditions maintained a flat morphology without increase in apoptotic cells. Cell viability decreased and cell death rate increased only in cells stained by ICG followed by culture under illumination. Staining cells with ICG at one-tenth concentration of clinical usage induced no cytotoxicity after culture under illumination. Approximately 30% of total BBG retained in the stained cells was released into the culture supernatant after incubation for 24 hours. The absorption spectrum of BBG did not change after fluorescent light irradiation. Illumination with a fluorescent lamp caused cell death via apoptosis in ICG-exposed, but not in BBG-exposed cultured RPE cells. BBG may be a safer dye than ICG because of low light-induced cytotoxicity and rapid elution from stained cells.

  19. Emergency Department Vital Signs and Outcomes After Discharge. (United States)

    Gabayan, Gelareh Z; Gould, Michael K; Weiss, Robert E; Derose, Stephen F; Chiu, Vicki Y; Sarkisian, Catherine A


    Vital signs are critical markers of illness severity in the emergency department (ED). Providers need to understand the abnormal vital signs in older adults that are problematic. We hypothesized that in patients age > 65 years discharged from the ED, there are abnormal vital signs that are associated with an admission to an inpatient bed within 7 days of discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from a regional integrated health system of members age > 65 years during the years 2009 to 2010. We used univariate contingency tables to assess the relationship between hospital admission within 7 days of discharge and vital sign (including systolic blood pressure [sBP], heart rate [HR], body temperature, and pulse oximetry [SpO2 ] values measured closest to discharge) using standard thresholds for abnormal and thresholds derived from the study data. Of 104,025 ED discharges, 4,638 (4.5%) were followed by inpatient admission within 7 days. Vital signs had a greater odds of admission beyond a single cutoff. The vital signs with at least twice the odds of admission were sBP  101 beats/min (OR = 2.00 95% CI = 1.75-2.29), body temperature > 37.3°C (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.90-2.41), and pulse oximetry sign abnormalities per the analysis had the highest odds of admission. A majority of patients discharged with abnormal vital signs per the analysis were not admitted within 7 days of ED discharge. While we found a majority of patients discharged with abnormal vital signs as defined by the analysis, not to be admitted after discharge, we identified vital signs associated with at least twice the odds of admission. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. The value of intraoperative Gram stain in revision spine surgery. (United States)

    Shifflett, Grant D; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bjerke-Kroll, Benjamin T; Kueper, Janina; Koltsov, Jayme B; Sama, Andrew A; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P; Hughes, Alexander P


    Intraoperative cultures and Gram stains are often obtained in cases of revision spine surgery even when clinical signs of infection are not present. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this behavior remain unproven. The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of routine intraoperative Gram stains in revision spine surgery. This was a retrospective clinical review performed at an academic center in an urban setting. One hundred twenty-nine consecutive adult revision spine surgeries were performed. The outcome measures included intraoperative Gram stains. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 594 consecutive revision spine surgeries performed by four senior surgeons between 2008 and 2013 to identify patients who had operative cultures and Gram stains performed. All revision cases including cervical, thoracic, and lumbar fusion and non-fusion, with and without instrumentation were reviewed. One hundred twenty-nine (21.7%) patients had operative cultures obtained and were included in the study. The most common primary diagnosis code at the time of revision surgery was pseudarthrosis, which was present in 41.9% of cases (54 of 129). Infection was the primary diagnosis in 10.1% (13 of 129) of cases. Operative cultures were obtained in 129 of 595 (21.7%) cases, and 47.3% (61 of 129) were positive. Gram stains were performed in 98 of 129 (76.0%) cases and were positive in 5 of 98 (5.1%) cases. Overall, there was no correlation between revision diagnosis and whether or not a Gram stain was obtained (p=.697). Patients with a history of prior instrumentation were more likely to have a positive Gram stain (pstaining was found to have a sensitivity of 10.9% (confidence interval [CI] 3.9%-23.6%) and specificity of 100% (CI 93.1%-100%). The positive and negative predictive values were 100% (CI 48.0%-100%) and 57.3% (CI 45.2%-66.2%), respectively. Kappa coefficient was calculated to be 0.1172 (CI 0.0194-0.2151). The cost per discrepant

  1. A comparative study on the different staining methods and number of specimens for the detection of acid fast bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa


    Full Text Available The presence of acid fast bacilli in multiple specimens was investigated comparatively with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and fluorescence microscopy (FM staining in order to determine sensitivity in detecting tuberculosis (TB. A total of 465 specimens obtained from 295 patients were analysed at Harran University Medical School Hospital between March 1998 and March 2000. The culture was employed as the reference method. Sixty-eight patients (23.1% were diagnosed as having TB by culture. The ZN and FM staining sensitivities were 67.6% (46/68 and 85.2% (58/68 respectively. Two hundred and one patients (68.1% submitted one specimen to the laboratory. TB positivity was detected in 42 (20.9% of these patients by culture. The sensitivities of ZN and FM stains were found to be 61% and 83% in these patients. However, in 18 patients (6.1% who submitted two specimens to the laboratory, the TB was positive in six of them (33.3% and ZN and FM sensitivities were 66% and 83% respectively. When three specimens or more were collected from the patients (76 patients, 25.8%, TB positivity was determined in 20 of them (26.3% and the sensitivities were 80% and 92% in the ZN- and FM-stained smears, respectively. Our data indicate that in the diagnosis of TB, FM has greater sensitivity than ZN. In particular, in the case of a single specimen, the diagnostic value of FM is quite significant. It is, therefore, possible to conclude that both ZN and FM staining can be used for the diagnosis of TB when there are more than two specimens. However, if only one or two specimens are available, FM staining is preferable.

  2. A rapid-screening approach to detect and quantify microplastics based on fluorescent tagging with Nile Red (United States)

    Maes, Thomas; Jessop, Rebecca; Wellner, Nikolaus; Haupt, Karsten; Mayes, Andrew G.


    A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

  3. Use of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining as an indicator of biocidal activity in a rapid assay for anti-Acanthamoeba agents. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Narumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi


    The usefulness of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining to determine the respiratory activity of Acanthamoeba was evaluated in this study. Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts have a red fluorescence after staining with CTC. To determine the effectiveness of CTC staining as a CTC biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba, the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 5037) were treated with serial concentrations of disinfectant solutions, namely, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and commercial soft contact lens (SCL) disinfectant solutions. The treated Acanthamoeba organisms were stained with CTC, and their respiratory activity was determined by the intensity of fluorescence in a fluorescence microplate reader. The survival rates of the same samples were determined by a culture-dependent biocidal assay using the Spearman-Karber method. Our results showed that the respiratory activities determined by the CTC biocidal assay and the survival rates determined by the culture-dependent biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts decreased in a dose-dependent way after PHMB treatments, and the results were significantly correlated (r = 0.83 and P activities in the trophozoites and cysts treated with SCL disinfectant solutions were significantly correlated with the survival rate (r = 0.70 and P biocidal assay can be used as an alternative method to a culture-dependent biocidal assay. The CTC biocidal assay is a rapid and simple method to test the effectiveness of disinfectant solutions against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts.

  4. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  5. Stink bug feeding induces fluorescence in developing cotton bolls. (United States)

    Xia, Jinjun; Mustafic, Adnan; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A


    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  6. Comparison of Vitality Between Two Streets of Tehran


    Mehrnaz Molavi; Fatemeh Jalili


    This is the urban spaces that make living in a city pleasant and the urban landscape delightful. Vitality, an indispensable feature in the life of a city, is an undeniable gap in many urban spaces today. Spaces lacking vitality make no passion to stop within them and no incentive to pass by them. Over time urban spaces are getting uncrowded and deprived of social life and this event puts the current urban spaces of a country seriously in danger. Given the vitality impact on desirability of ur...

  7. Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining. (United States)

    Buurmans, Inge L C; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A; Vogt, Eelco T C; Weckhuysen, Bert M


    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials.

  8. Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining (United States)

    Buurmans, Inge L. C.; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V.; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A.; Vogt, Eelco T. C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.


    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials.

  9. Chromomycin A/sub 3/ as a fluorescent probe for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.


    Chemical, physical and optical properties of chromomycin A/sub 3/ are examined so as to ascertain appropriate staining and analysis procedures for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained cervical cells are compared with those of chromomycin a/sub 3/-stained deoxyribonucleic acid. Conditions for deoxyribonucleic acid-specific staining of cervical cells are presented, and staining specificity of cervical cells with chromomycin A/sub 3/ is compared to that obtained with ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Also presented is a brief review of two parameter flow cytometry as a prescreening procedure for detection of cervical neoplasia. Results of flow cytometry and cell sorting are interpreted based on the deoxyribonucliec acid-specificity of chromomycin A/sub 3/ staining.

  10. Chromomycin A/sub 3/ as a fluorescent probe for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, R.H.


    Chemical, physical and optical properties of chromomycin A/sub 3/ are examined so as to ascertain appropriate staining and analysis procedures for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained cervical cells are compared with those of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained deoxyribonucleic acid. Conditions for deoxyribonucleic acid-specific staining of cervical cells are presented, and staining specificity of cervical cells with chromomycin A/sub 3/ is compared to that obtained with ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Also presented is a brief review of two parameter flow cytometry as a prescreening procedure for detection of cervical neoplasia. Results of flow cytometry and cell sorting are interpreted based on the deoxyribonucleic acid-specificity of chromomycin A/sub 3/ staining.

  11. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin


    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  12. Evaluation of intracellular telomerase activity through cascade DNA logic gates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sequences used in this study, fluorescence spectroscopy of logic gate activation using synthetic TS oligonucleotide with different numbers of elongation repeats, flow cytometry data, confocal images of counter staining, time course, control samples, and L-02 and Hep G-2 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01953f Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Huang, Shan; Li, Jingjing; Rui, Kai; Bi, Sai


    Telomerase plays a vital role in cancer and aging, and telomerase activity detection has drawn great attention recently. However, a feasible in situ imaging system for intracellular telomerase is still a challenge. Here, we develop a novel approach to image intracellular telomerase activity using DNA-based computation. A cascade nucleic acid logic gate that responded to intracellular telomerase was constructed. A telomerase substrate (TS) probe, extended by intracellular telomerase, worked as an input to initiate computation cascades. In this way, intracellular telomerase could be clearly indicated by fluorophore labeled nucleic acids as the output. Through one-step incubation, evaluation of the intracellular telomerase activity for a HeLa cell line and the ability to differentiate cancer cells from normal cells could be realized. Furthermore, the response of intracellular telomerase activity to a telomerase-inhibiting model drug was observed using the proposed method. Thus, this intracellular telomerase computation device will allow improvements in studying the relationship between telomerase and cancer, and may help to develop telomerase inhibitors. This finding also expands the applications of DNA computational techniques in cells. PMID:28451163

  13. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study (United States)


    C -1 D FLUORESCENT LAMP SPECIFICATION SHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D -1 E LED WAVES’ LED ...friendly products, advances in efficiency, and lower production costs for lamps . The conversion of fluorescent bulbs to LED technology has many benefits...repeatedly turned on and off. (5) LEDs can be used in existing fluorescent lighting fixtures using LED retrofit kits or replacement lamps . (6

  14. Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging (United States)

    Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.


    Imaging techniques are a vital part of clinical diagnostics, biomedical research and nanotechnology. Optical molecular imaging makes use of relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are particularly attractive because they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but are instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides, interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. Squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below -20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near-infrared light that can pass through a living mouse.

  15. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 forward. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Indicators from this data...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Colorectal Cancer Tests Save Lives (United States)

    ... is right for them. Know their own family history and any personal risks they may have for CRC. Encourage friends and ... Vital Signs Issue details: Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Use — United States, 2012, Morbidity and ...

  17. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital for survival in Solanum tuberosum L. in vivo condition. Bengyella Louis, Pranab Roy, Tamgue Ousman, Sayanika Waikhom Devi, Narayan Chandra Talukdar ...

  18. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Lotan, Reuben; Stewart, David


    .... In addition, the clinical trials that will be conducted in the VITAL Research Program will demonstrate the true rate of lung cancer recurrence and second primary tumor incidence in patients at high...

  19. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis. (United States)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne; Munck, Lars Kristian; Engel, Peter Johan Heiberg


    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Traditionally, MC encompasses the 2 subgroups lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis, but recently, an additional subgroup, MC incomplete, has been introduced. Distinguishing between the subgroups relies exclusively on histopathologic evaluation. In the present study, 4 pathologists evaluated 156 archived biopsies originally diagnosed as LC or LC incomplete (LCi). Each pathologist assigned a diagnosis of LC, LCi, or nonspecific inflammation to all cases at 2 independent assessments. At the first assessment, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stainings were available. At the second assessment, a supplementary CD3 immunohistochemical staining was also available. The aim was to evaluate whether a supplementary CD3 would increase the diagnostic agreement among pathologists, and whether a CD3 stain would change the diagnosis based on HE staining only. After the complete assessment, the cases were divided into 3 groups, that is, full agreement, partial agreement, and disagreement. The CD3 staining increased the number of cases with full agreement from 60 to 78. One hundred thirty-one cases with agreement or partial diagnostic agreement based on HE + CD3 were compared with the HE diagnoses. In 44 (34%) of 131 cases, CD3 changed the diagnosis. Cases assigned to the LCi category based on HE were often changed by a supplementary CD3. Conclusively, it is recommended to use a CD3 before giving the histopathologic diagnosis of LCi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Usefulness of the stool Wright's stain in the emergency department. (United States)

    DuBois, D; Binder, L; Nelson, B


    A prospective study was conducted to determine if a Wright's stain of stool specimen to detect fecal leukocytes was accurate in predicting the presence of a bacterial pathogen on stool culture. Entry criteria were patient age greater than or equal to 3 months and diarrhea of greater than 1 day. The patient population was drawn from an urban county hospital emergency department on the Texas-Mexican border. A total of 69 patients were evaluated by both routine stool culture and stool Wright's stain. Twenty-three were evaluated for parasitic pathogens. There were seventeen cultures positive for bacterial pathogens and twenty-three positive Wright's stains. Bacterial isolates included Shigella, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Also detected were Giardia, Shistosoma, Blastocytis and Cryptosporidium. The sensitivity of a Wright's stain positive for fecal leukocytes for the presence of a bacterial pathogen by culture was 82%, with a specificity of 83%. These were significantly correlated with a positive culture for a bacterial pathogen (P less than .01). The predictive value of a positive result was 61%, and predictive value of a negative result was 94%, for bacterial pathogens. The Wright's stain is a useful tool for the early presumptive diagnosis of infectious bacterial diarrhea in the emergency department.

  1. Determining the vitality of urban centres / Mariske van Aswegen


    Van Aswegen, Mariske


    This study was initiated to potentially provide an encompassing Index of Vitality for urban centres. The Vitality Index’s goal is to evaluate and measure urban centres in terms of growth and general performance on various levels. This will enable measurement of the general economic, social, physical, environmental, institutional and spatial performance of towns within a region, ultimately reflecting the spatial importance of the urban centre in the region. The main problem s...

  2. Comparison of Vitality Between Two Streets of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Molavi


    Full Text Available This is the urban spaces that make living in a city pleasant and the urban landscape delightful. Vitality, an indispensable feature in the life of a city, is an undeniable gap in many urban spaces today. Spaces lacking vitality make no passion to stop within them and no incentive to pass by them. Over time urban spaces are getting uncrowded and deprived of social life and this event puts the current urban spaces of a country seriously in danger. Given the vitality impact on desirability of urban spaces and the research concern toward this on-the-wane quality, two important streets of Tehran, Enghelab and Vali-e-Asr, were compared to investigate the effective factors in vitality more thoroughly and in terms of several needs of people in urban spaces. According to different spirits of the two streets as well as positive and negative effective factors, the amount of vitality criteria in both spaces was studied through surveys. In this regard, 200 questionnaires, prepared by the authors, have been analyzed. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and the results were demonstrated in charts. These figures confirm the vitality potential of both spaces. However, it was concluded that the spirit in each of the spaces was different as the atmosphere of the Vali-e-Asr Street was commercial-recreational and the atmosphere of the Enghelab Street was commercial-cultural. The vitality amount of each of them is compared on the basis of their spirits. To strengthen the vitality and encourage people to engage more with the space, some suggestions have been finally presented.

  3. Vital Geographies: Life, Luck, and the Human Condition


    Kearns, Gerry


    Life has been problematized anew by recent social change and scientific innovation. There are important and little studied geographical dimensions to any such understanding of “the politics of life itself,” however. A geographical perspective involves, first, highlighting the spatial aspects of both states and capital, two rather neglected dimensions of vital politics. Elaborating the geographical constitution of vital politics entails further describing the related powers of know...

  4. Deleterious effect of dithizone-DMSO staining on insulin secretion in rat and human pancreatic islets. (United States)

    Conget, J I; Sarri, Y; González-Clemente, J M; Casamitjana, R; Vives, M; Gomis, R


    Dithizone (DTZ) is a selective stain for pancreatic islets which facilitates their identification, being of special interest in human islet isolation assessment. Nevertheless, there are few studies concerning its potential toxic effects on islet function. In our study, we have evaluated the effects of DTZ (dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] 1% w/v) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 100 micrograms/ml) on insulin response to glucose in human and rat islets. Likewise, we studied the effect of incubation time, in the presence of DTZ at the above-mentioned concentrations, on insulin release. Only when DTZ was employed at low concentrations and for a short period of incubation (10 min) was there no impairment of pancreatic islet function. Moreover, even at this low concentration, DTZ became deleterious for islet function when the incubation period with the dye was prolonged for 30 min. Culture (24 h) of previously stained islets produced a partial recovery of insulin response. In conclusion, our findings indicate (a) DTZ should not be employed to collect islets for functional studies because of its deleterious effect on beta-cell function, (b) DTZ's deleterious effects on beta-cell function should be considered if this dye is used to purify islets by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for transplantation.

  5. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin staining differentiates carcinoma in situ lesion from normal oesophagus (United States)

    Chen, Jianxin; Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan


    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a powerful, important tool for tissues imaging at the molecular level. In this paper, this technique was extended to histological investigations, differentiating carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesion from normal oesophagus by imaging histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The results show that the histology procedures of dehydration, paraffin embedding, and de-paraffinizing highlighted two photon excited fluorescence of cytoplasm and nucleolus of epithelial cell and collagen in stroma. MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of CIS lesion including changes of squamous cells and full epithelium, identification of basement membrane, especially prominent nucleolus. The studies described here show that MPM has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging by employing on histological section specimens without H&E staining.

  6. When one plus one equals more than two - a novel stain for renal biopsies is a combination of two classical stains


    Brodsky, Sergey V.; Albaward, Alia; Satoskar, Anjali A.; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Nadasdy, Tibor


    Histologic evaluation of renal biopsies includes multiple ancillary stains, including Periodic acid-Schiff ’s (PAS) and Masson’s trichrome (Trichrome). Herein we report an innovative doublestain, derived from two standard stains (PAS and Trichrome). This novel stain not only has advantages of both ancestor stains, but became more distinguishable and colorful, when basement membranes stain darkviolet, whereas the interstitial collagen remains blue. This allows the pa...

  7. Association of Hearing Impairment and Emotional Vitality in Older Adults (United States)

    Contrera, Kevin J.; Betz, Josh; Deal, Jennifer A.; Choi, Janet S.; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Harris, Tamara; Helzner, Elizabeth; Martin, Kathryn R.; Mehta, Kala; Pratt, Sheila; Rubin, Susan M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Garcia, Melissa; Simonsick, Eleanor M.


    Objectives: To better understand the potential impact of hearing impairment (HI) and hearing aid use on emotional vitality and mental health in older adults. Method: We investigated the cross-sectional association of HI with emotional vitality in 1,903 adults aged 76–85 years in the Health ABC study adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Hearing was defined by the speech frequency pure tone average (no impairment 40 dB). Emotional vitality was defined as having a high sense of personal mastery, happiness, low depressive symptomatology, and low anxiety. Results: Compared with individuals with no HI, participants with moderate or greater HI had a 23% lower odds of emotional vitality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.99). Hearing aid use was not associated with better emotional vitality (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81–1.20). Discussion: HI is associated with lower odds of emotional vitality in older adults. Further studies are needed to examine the longitudinal impact of HI on mental health and well-being. PMID:26883806

  8. Measurement of wheat germ agglutinin binding with a fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Model, Michael A; Reese, Jennifer L; Fraizer, Gail C


    Signal intensity in fluorescence microscopy is often measured relative to arbitrary standards. We propose a calibration method based on a solution of the same fluorophore, whose binding to cells needs to be quantified. The method utilizes the low sensitivity of intensity to the object distance in wide-field imaging of uniform materials. Liquid layers of slowly varying depth were prepared by immersing a spherical lens into a drop of a fluorophore placed on a slide. Flatfield-corrected images of the contact and surrounding areas showed linear dependence of the gray level on the depth of fluorescent liquid. This allowed conversion of the measured intensity into the number of molecules per unit area. The method was applied to different cell types stained by WGA-Alexa 488 and WGA-TRITC. Consistent results were obtained by comparing microscopy with flow cytometry, comparing imaging through different objectives and comparing different WGA conjugates. Reproducibility of calibration was within 97% when low magnification was used. Fluorescence of free and bound WGA was found to be different, however, and therefore precise measurement of the number of cell-bound molecules was problematic in this particular system. We conclude that the method achieves reliable measurement of cellular staining in the units of soluble fluorophore. For probes whose fluorescent properties are unaffected by binding, quantification of staining in true molecular units should be possible.

  9. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms (United States)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Izazaga-Pérez, R.; Villalobos-Mendoza, B.; Carrasco, E.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.


    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result.

  10. A Staining Protocol for Identifying Secondary Compounds in Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan A. Retamales


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous. Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements.

  11. A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae1 (United States)

    Retamales, Hernan A.; Scharaschkin, Tanya


    • Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements. PMID:25309840

  12. A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae. (United States)

    Retamales, Hernan A; Scharaschkin, Tanya


    Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements.

  13. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.


    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  14. Positive staining for cellulose in oral pulse granuloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkkunen, Sirke; Wolff, Henrik; Haglund, Caj


    the hyaline rings contain cellulose. Study Design: Using a newly developed staining method for cellulose, we studied 18 histologic samples diagnosed as OPG, in addition to 3 samples originally diagnosed as "normal" foreign body reactions. In our study, visualization of cellulose is based on its specific...... binding to the carbohydrate binding module of β-1,4-glycanase. Results: All samples diagnosed as OPG were positive for cellulose staining localized in hyaline rings. In addition, 1 lesion (of 3), first diagnosed as a foreign body reaction without the presence of hyaline rings, was positive for cellulose...... by horseradish peroxidase staining. Conclusions: We show for the first time that cellulose is present in OPG lesions, indicating that cellulose might be the initial cause of formation of these lesions....

  15. Extrinsic Stain Removal Effectiveness of a New Whitening Dentifrice. (United States)

    Ghassemi, A; Vorwerk, L; Hooper, W; Cirigliano, A; DeSciscio, P; Nathoo, S


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Arm & Hammer (A&H) Truly Radiant Rejuvenating toothpaste in removing extrinsic tooth stain compared to that of a conventional fluoride/silica-containing dentifrice. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-design study with two groups of subjects who brushed unsupervised with their assigned dentifrice for two minutes, twice daily, for five days. Extrinsic stain was measured on the labial surfaces of the eight incisor teeth by the Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) at baseline and following five days of product use. After balancing for baseline MLSI, beverage and tobacco use, fifty-four healthy adults with existing stain were randomly distributed into two comparable groups: Arm and Hammer Truly Radiant Rejuvenating toothpaste or Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste (negative control). Within-treatment comparisons between baseline and day five were made using matched-pair t-tests, and between-treatment comparisons of MSLI scores were performed using ANCOVA, with baseline scores as covariates. Twenty-eight subjects in the Truly Radiant Rejuvenating toothpaste group and twenty-six subjects in the negative control group completed the study. The groups had comparable mean scores at baseline (p > 0.05). The Truly Radiant Rejuvenating toothpaste produced a statistically significant 23.1% total (composite) stain reduction from baseline after five days of product use (p 0.05). Between-treatment analysis showed statistically significantly (p toothpaste compared to the Colgate control following five days of product use. There were no adverse events reported during the study. The A&H Truly Radiant Rejuvenating toothpaste is safe and effective in reducing extrinsic stain compared to a regular toothpaste control.

  16. Chemical aspects of santalin as a histological stain. (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Mukherjee, A K


    Recent research on the chemical nature of the red dyes isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus and certain West African plants, viz., Baphia nitida, Pterocarpus osun and Pterocarpus soyauxii, have been reviewed. P. santalinus contains santalins A, B and C, but no santarubin. Santalins and santarubins have been found in P. osun, P. soyauxii and B. nitida. The structural formulae of the santalins are presented and their differences from santarubins indicated. Santalins A and B have some similarities in structure with hematein. This is probably responsible for their staining properties; the possible mechanism of staining is discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Lysenko


    Full Text Available Staining impression smears from organ and tissues with peroxidase conjugated antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antigens, followed by visualization with diaminobenzidine and Kinyoun stains, ensured the painting of acid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms to rubin red, acid-susceptible ones to brown, and tissue cells and microorganisms of other species to blue. Typical bacilli were absent in the lymph nodes of patients and animals with latent infection, but acid-resistant (rubin-red granular forms were encountered in the granulomatous masses. Brown fat cells containing mycobacterial antigens, as well as acid-susceptible granular, reticular, fungoid, and rod-like forms were also found in considerable quantities.

  18. About vital staining of the eye and eyelids. I. The anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the eyelid margins and the lacrimal puncta by E. Marx. 1924. (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Korb, Donald R; Blackie, Caroline A; Knop, Erich; Marx, E


    This article is a translation of the original article authored by Eugen Marx and published in 1924.1 Amazingly, many of the issues addressed in the 1924 publication are now, >80 years later, of prime interest for both understanding the lid margin and ocular surface and thus for dry eye diagnosis and treatment. To assist the reader and possibly to provoke further contemplation on a particular section of the translation, we have inserted comments, identified throughout the text. All references, in their original format, have been included in this translation, except those referred to in a few paragraphs that were not readily understood in today's technical language and which were omitted. The first figure of the original article is not included in this translation because it was referred to in one of the few omitted paragraphs.

  19. [The vitalism of Paul-Joseph Barthez (1734-1806)]. (United States)

    Han, Hee Jin


    In The Logic of Life (1970), Francois Jacob (1920- ), Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine (1965), proclaimed the end of vitalism based on the concept of life. More than two decades before this capital sentence condemning vitalism was pronounced, Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995), a French philosopher of medicine, already acknowledged that eighteenth-century vitalism was scientifically retrograde and politically reactionary or counter-revolutionary insofar as it was rooted in the animism of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734). The negative preconception of the term 'vitalism' came to be established as an orthodox view, since Claude Bernard (1813-1878) unfairly criticized contemporary vitalism in order to propagate his idea of experimental medicine. An eminent evolutionary biologist like Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) still defended similar views in This is Biology (1997), arguing that if vitalists were decisive and convincing in their rejection of the Cartesian model (negative heuristics), however they were equally indecisive and unconvincing in their own explanatory endeavors (positive heuristics). Historically speaking, vitalists came to the forefront for their outstanding criticism of Cartesian mechanism and physicochemical reductionism, while their innovative concepts and theories were underestimated and received much less attention. Is it true that vitalism was merely a pseudo-science, representing a kind of romanticism or mysticism in biomedical science? Did vitalists lack any positive heuristics in their biomedical research? Above all, what was actually the so.called 'vitalism'? This paper aims to reveal the positive heuristics of vitalism defined by Paul.Joseph Barthez (1734-1806) who was the founder of the vitalist school of Montpellier. To this end, his work and idea are introduced with regard to the vying doctrines in physiology and medicine. At the moment when he taught at the medical school of Montpellier, his colleagues advocated the mechanism of Rene

  20. Effects of the Gram stain on microspheres from thermal polyamino acids. (United States)



    Fox, Sidney W. (The Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Shuhei Yuyama. Effects of the Gram stain on microspheres from thermal polyamino acids. J. Bacteriol. 85:279-283. 1963.-Microspheres produced from acid proteinoid accept the Gram stain. The stain is negative, but microspheres produced from mixtures containing a sufficient proportion of lysine proteinoid stain positive. Microspheres produced from mixtures containing the appropriate proportions contain individuals which stain positive and others which stain negative.


    Fox, Sidney W.; Yuyama, Shuhei


    Fox, Sidney W. (The Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Shuhei Yuyama. Effects of the Gram stain on microspheres from thermal polyamino acids. J. Bacteriol. 85:279–283. 1963.—Microspheres produced from acid proteinoid accept the Gram stain. The stain is negative, but microspheres produced from mixtures containing a sufficient proportion of lysine proteinoid stain positive. Microspheres produced from mixtures containing the appropriate proportions contain individuals which stain positive and others which stain negative. Images PMID:13959050

  2. Crystal violet stain as a selective stain for the assessment of mitotic figures in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran B; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Gupta, Nidhi


    Assessment of mitotic figures (MFs) is routinely practiced as prognostic indicator in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but identification of MFs poses a problem in terms of staining characteristics. To evaluate effectiveness of crystal violet stain for staining of MFs and its comparison with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain. Study sample includes archival tissues embedded in paraffin blocks diagnosed as OED (n = 30) and OSCC (n = 30). The control group comprised of tissue specimen from oral mucosa of healthy volunteers (n = 30). Two serial sections of each tissue specimen were stained separately with H and E stain and 1% crystal violet stain. The stained sections were observed under microscope for identification and counting of MFs. Data obtained was statistically analyzed by using the Man-Whitney U test. A significant increase in number of MFs was observed in OED and OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa. There was a highly significant increase in number of MFs in crystal violet stained tissue sections when compared with H and E stain. Metaphase is the most commonly observed phase of mitosis in crystal violet stain when compared with H and E stain for all three groups. Crystal violet stain can be considered as selective stain for mitotic figures.

  3. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka


    Full Text Available Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the suspensor remained nonfluorescent. The fluorescing cutin layer occurred on the apical and side surface of the embryo, undergoing differentiation into the shoot axis and root initials. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by presence of the cuticle.

  4. Controlled comparison of bioMérieux VITAL and BACTEC NR-660 systems for detection of bacteremia and fungemia in pediatric patients.


    Zaidi, A K; Mirrett, S; McDonald, J C; Rubin, E E; McDonald, L C; Weinstein, M P; Gupta, M; Reller, L B


    The bioMérieux VITAL automated blood culture system measures a decrease in fluorescence to detect the presence of microorganisms in blood. To assess the performance of VITAL with AER aerobic medium versus that of the nonradiometric BACTEC NR-660 PEDS PLUS medium for the detection of sepsis in children, a total of 12,146 blood specimens were collected at three university medical centers and inoculated into AER and PEDS PLUS bottles that were weighed before and after filling. The sample volumes...

  5. Lichen and moss bags as monitoring devices in urban areas. Part I: influence of exposure on sample vitality. (United States)

    Tretiach, M; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Baruffo, L; Carletti, L; Crisafulli, P; Giordano, S; Modenesi, P; Orlando, S; Pittao, E


    Samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were exposed for 6 weeks in nylon bags in two air pollution monitoring stations in Trieste and Naples (Italy) with different climates and pollution loads to evaluate influence of environmental conditions on sample vitality. This was assessed before and after exposure by transmission electron microscopy observations, K cellular location, and measurements of C, N, S and photosynthetic pigments content, CO2 gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Almost all data sets indicate that exposures caused some damage to the species, considerably heavier in the moss, especially in Naples. The two cryptogams differed significantly in accumulation and retention of C, N, and S, the lichen clearly reflecting NO2 availability. The difference in vitality loss was related to the different ecophysiology of the species, because concentrations of phytotoxic pollutants were low during exposure. Critical notes on the analytical techniques are also given.

  6. Image-guided cancer surgery : the value of near-infrared fluorescence imaging during oncologic and gastrointestinal procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Floris Paul Reinier


    Intraoperative imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a relatively new technique that can be used to visualize tumor tissue, sentinel nodes and vital anatomical structures. This thesis is divided in three parts. In part one the ability to visualize surgical margins using NIR fluorescence

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction: bench-to-bedside optical monitoring of tissue vitality (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Dekel, Nava; Oren, Levi; Deutsch, Assaf; Pewzner, Eliyahu


    In normal cell the mitochondria are the major source of energy for cellular functions. They serve as biosensors for oxidative stress and involved also in termination of cell function by apoptosis. The involvement of mitochondria in pathological states such as neurodegenerative diseases, sepsis, stroke and cancer are well documented. The involvement of mitochondrial respiration and function in cancer development, proliferation and possible therapy were initiated 75 years ago by Otto Warburg. Monitoring of NADH fluorescence in vivo as an intracellular oxygen indicator was established in the 1950-1970 by Britton Chance and collaborators. In the last 20 years we developed and used a multiparametric monitoring system enabling real time assessment of mitochondria NADH, microcirculatory blood flow and volume as well as HbO II oxygenation. In order to use this technology in clinical practice the commercial developed device-the "CritiView" was tested in animal models as well as in patients hospitalized in the critical care departments. In patients we tested the viability of the urethral wall (a less-vital tissue) by a 3 way Foley urinary catheter that contains the optical probe. The catheter was introduced to patients underwent open heart by-pass surgery or abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) operations. The monitoring started immediately after the insertion of the catheter to the patient and was stopped when the patient was discharged from the operation room. The results show that monitoring of the vitality of the Urethral wall provides information in correlation to the surgical procedure performed. In the AAA patients the occlusion of the aorta led to severe ischemia developed in the urethral wall and recovery of signals were recorded after the reopening of the aorta. In patients under went heart bypass surgery the urethra vitality was decreased dramatically during the operation and recovery was noted in most patients after the discharge of the patient from the operation room.

  8. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies causes 55, 000 annual human deaths globally and about 10,000 people are exposed annually in Nigeria. Diagnosis of animal rabies in most African countries has been by direct microscopic examination. In Nigeria, the Seller's stain test (SST) was employed until 2009. Before then, both SST and dFAT ...

  9. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils (United States)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger


    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  10. Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka


    Sep 14, 2016 ... the tissue physical structure (for example, tightly versus loosely packed), and the amino acid composition of the elements of the tissue (Kiernan, 2002). ... colleagues (Sweat et al., 1964) to seek a better method. Picrosirius red F3BA was found to consistently stain thin collagen fibers, did not fade, and was ...

  11. The Stained Glass Paintings of Nigeria's Prime Artists, YCA Grillo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Abstract. Many lamps same Light' investigates the place of agency in the transmutation of indigenous imageries in the art works of the pictorial turn. Through an investigation that entailed an empirical analysis of the works of two Nigerian prime stained glass artists, Yusuf Grillo and David Dale, this study established that in ...

  12. Activity staining method of chitinase on chitin agar plate through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for detection of chitinase activity on chitin agar plate after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. Different staining dyes such as calcofluor white M2R, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine B, ruthenium red and congo red were separately incorporated in chitin agar plates. After running polyacrylamide ...

  13. Modelling multiple laser pulses for port wine stain treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruysse, W.; van Gemert, M. J.; Smithies, D. J.; Nelson, J. S.


    Many port wine stains (PWS) are still resistant to pulsed dye laser treatment. However, anecdotal information suggests that multiple-pulse laser irradiation improves patient outcome. Our aims in this note are to explain the underlying mechanism and estimate the possible thermal effects of multiple

  14. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Dapson, R W


    In this fifth issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory Affairs, the BSC's International Affairs Committee provides more information from the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Committee that took place on June 2-4, 2008 ...

  15. 'Many Lamps Same Light': The Stained Glass Paintings of Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many lamps same Light' investigates the place of agency in the transmutation of indigenous imageries in the art works of the pictorial turn. Through an investigation that entailed an empirical analysis of the works of two Nigerian prime stained glass artists, Yusuf Grillo and David Dale, this study established that in spite of ...

  16. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.


    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and

  17. Biocytin staining of glia and neurons in brain slices. (United States)

    Kang, Jian


    This protocol describes the use of biocytin to visualize and distinguish the morphology of glia and neurons in rat brain slices. Patch pipettes are used to load biocytin into different cell types. The slices are subsequently fixed, stained, and mounted in preparation for imaging. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Credibility of Chromomycin A3 Staining in Prediction of Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Aboutorabi


    Full Text Available Background: Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining has been used to assess protamine deficiency.The aim of this study was to determine credibility of CMA3 along with semen parameters forassessment of fertility potential.Materials and Methods: Semen analysis and CMA3 staining were carried out on 234 fertile and178 subfertile individuals. Semen analysis was assessed according to WHO criteria. Protaminedeficiency was assessed by CMA3 staining.Results: Means, range of variables, coefficients of correlation and receiver operating characteristic(ROC analyses of semen parameters and protamine deficiency were determined. Mean values ofthree main sperm parameters and the percentage of sperm with negative CMA3 were significantlydifferent between fertile and sub fertile groups. The results of CMA3 assessment showed significantcorrelation with sperm density, percentage of motility and normal morphology in the total population,while in the subfertile group the results of CMA3 showed significant correlation with sperm densityand normal morphology. However in fertile men, the only significant correlation was observedbetween sperm with negative CMA3 and normal morphology. ROC analyses revealed that CMA3staining has a higher potential to predict fertility status, compared to semen parameters.Conclusion: Assessment of protamine deficiency could be considered as one of the complementarytests along with semen analysis for assessment of fertility.

  19. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Monse, B.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van


    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black

  20. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  1. Are vital signs indicative for bacteremia in newborns? (United States)

    Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; Özlü, Ferda; Sertdemir, Yaşar


    Neonatal systemic infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality both in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate if vital signs had a predictive power in neonatal sepsis as an early marker. This study was designed as a matched case-control study. Vital signs were monitorized prior to infection in newborns that had healthcare-associated blood stream infection (BSI). Maximum and minimum values of the vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature) of the babies at rest were recorded from the nurse observation charts five days prior to clinical sepsis and compared with vital signs of healthy, age-matched babies. Maximum mean heart rates, respiratory rates and systolic blood pressure levels of the patients in BSI group were significantly higher than the control group in the past three days prior to clinical deterioration. Monitoring vital signs closely might be helpful in a newborn infant to define a BSI. In future, a respiratory and blood pressure predictive monitoring system such as heart rate variability index may be developed for newborn patients with sepsis.

  2. Perfluorodecalin-soluble fluorescent dyes for the monitoring of circulating nanocapsules with intravital fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Laudien, J; Naglav, D; Groβ-Heitfeld, C; Ferenz, K B; de Groot, H; Mayer, C; Schulz, S; Schnepf, A; Kirsch, M


    Perfluorodecalin (PFD) is an established artificial oxygen carrier due to its physical capability to solve the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide. PFD-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) (PACA) nanocapsules are already discussed as effective artificial oxygen carriers, and their principal suitability for intravenous administration had been shown. To further elucidate their action in vivo, it is imperative to characterise their preclinical safety and particularly their biodistribution. For these purposes, intravital fluorescence microscopy would display an attractive technique in order to monitor the PACA nanocapsules in vivo, but unfortunately, it is impossible to stain the PACA nanocapsules with a fluorescent dye fulfilling special criteria required for in vivo microscopy. In order to develop such a dye, a long-chained fluorinated thiol was used to modify a BODIPY derivative that is a highly fluorescent organic compound belonging to the difluoro-boraindacene family, as well as to functionalise mesoscopic systems, such as CdSe/ZnS-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, a functionalisation of porphyrin derivatives was investigated by placing divalent ions in the centre of these systems. Due to the high solubility of all synthesised dyes in PFD, it should be possible to stain PFD-filled particles in general. However, only the functionalised BODIPY derivative was suitable for in vivo monitoring of the PFD-filled PACA nanocapsules.

  3. Role of histochemical stains in differentiating hemangioma and vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Jitendra Patel


    Full Text Available Background: Benign vascular lesions such as vascular malformation and hemangioma at times pose difficulty in diagnosis both for clinicians and pathologists. Vascular malformations are difficult to treat while hemangiomas resolve spontaneously in most instances. There are instances when vascular malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVMs have been misdiagnosed as hemangiomas and vice-versa. Clinical and radiological correlation with histopathological confirmation of these anomalies is important for the management of these lesionsAim: The aim was to study the histological characteristics of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and to study the utility of histochemical stains in their diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied fifty cases retrieved from the records of Department of Pathology which were diagnosed as hemangioma (n=32 and vascular malformation (n=18 on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stain over a period of 18 months. The cases were analyzed based on findings of histochemical stains such as Verhoeff-van Gieson (VVG, Masson's trichrome (MT, and toluidine blue. Results: After reviewing all the cases with the use of histochemical stains, two of the three cases originally diagnosed as hemangioma turned out to be AVM and one to be venous malformation. An increased number of intra-lesional nerves were found in 16 of 19 cases of AVM and in both cases of venous and lymphatic malformation. Hemangiomas did not show increase in nerve bundles. Mast cells were found to be increased in proliferating hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas as compared to AVMs. Conclusion: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations should be clearly differentiated to reduce the risk of treatment failure and recurrence. With the use of histochemical stains such as VVG, MT and toluidine blue, the diagnostic difficulty can be reduced and definitive diagnosis is possible.

  4. Photophysical and structural properties of the fluorescent nucleobase analogues of the tricyclic cytosine (tC) family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preus, Søren; Kilså, Kristine; Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus


    Fundamental insight into the unique fluorescence and nucleobase-mimicking properties of the fluorescent nucleobase analogues of the tC family is not only vital in explaining the behaviour of these probes in nucleic acid environments, but will also be profitable in the development of new and impro......Fundamental insight into the unique fluorescence and nucleobase-mimicking properties of the fluorescent nucleobase analogues of the tC family is not only vital in explaining the behaviour of these probes in nucleic acid environments, but will also be profitable in the development of new...... and improved fluorescent base analogues. Here, temperature-dependent fluorescence quantum yield measurements are used to successfully separate and quantify the temperature-dependent and temperature-independent non-radiative excited-state decay processes of the three nucleobase analogues tC, tCO and t...

  5. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth. (United States)

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam


    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed.

  6. [CW bio-radar vital sign detector and experiment study]. (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhao, Zhangyan; Zhang, Haiying


    Non-contact vital sign detection technique provides an effective usage in health monitoring applications. A vital sign detector was designed based on microwave bio-radar technique. Using Doppler principle, continuous wave bioradar was designed for tiny body movement detection, short-time Fourier transform and interpolation algorithm were adopted for heart and respiration rate extraction, embedded system was used for system integration, real-time signal processing software was designed on it. Experiments were done by using simulation device and human body for research and performance evaluation. The result shows that the proposed prototype can be used for single target vital signs detection at the distance of 90 cm, and the heart rate result shows a 96% recognition rate.

  7. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging


    Ettinger, Andreas; Wittmann, Torsten


    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein (FP) tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio and to provide a suitable environment for ...

  8. Noise considerations for vital signs CW radar sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    The use of continuous wave (CW) radars for measuring human vital signs have recently received a lot of attention due to its many promising applications like monitoring people at hospitals or infants at home without the need for wired sensors. This paper briefly presents the typical CW radar setup...... and the underlying signal theory for such sensors. Then to point out and especially clarify one of the most important effects aiding the design of vital signs radars (VSR), a more detailed discussion concerning phase noise cancellation (or filtering) by range correlation is given. This discussion leads to some...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eko Rikmiarif


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan dengan tingkat kapasitas vital paru pada pekerja pembuat genteng di Desa Singorojo Kabupaten Jepara tahun 2011. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian analitik yang menjelaskan korelasi antara variabel bebas dan variabel terikat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah cross sectional. Teknik penarikan sampel menggunakan total sampling. Variabel penelitian terdiri dari variabel bebas yaitu pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan, sedangkan variabel terikat adalah kapasitas vital paru. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan metode pengukuran, kuesioner, dan dokumentasi. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis univariat dengan analisis deskriptif dan uji bivariat dengan spearman test melalui bantuan komputer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai korelasi spearman -0,923 dengan nilai probabilitas (p value 0,0001 (< 0,05, yang artinya bahwa tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara pemakaian alat pelindung pernapasan dengan tingkat kapasitas vital paru pada pekerja pembuat genteng di Desa Singorojo Kabupaten Jepara tahun 2011. Simpulan penelitian adalah ada ada hubungan antara praktik penggunaan APD pernafasan (masker dengan Tingkat Kapasitas Vital Paru. The research objective was to determine the relationship between the use of respiratory protective equipment with the level of vital lung capacity in workers in the village of tile maker Singorojo Jepara regency in 2011. This type of research was the analytical research that explains the correlation between independent variables and the dependent variable. The method used in this study was cross sectional. Sampling technique using total sampling. Variable study consists of the independent variable is the use of respiratory protective equipment, while the dependent variable was the vital lung capacity. Data collection techniques with methods of measurement, questionnaires, and documentation. Methods of data

  10. Personalidad, resiliencia y satisfacción vital


    Solo de Zaldívar del Amo, Paloma


    El presente trabajo analiza la relación existente entre resiliencia, satisfacción vital y las variables de personalidad extraversión, neuroticismo y piscoticismo. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 110 sujetos, todos ellos estudiantes de psicología que completaron los cuestionarios Escala de Resiliencia (RS-18), Versión Reducida del Cuestionario Revisado de Personalidad de Eysenck (EPQ-RA-24) y Cuestionario de Satisfacción Vital (SWLS) a través de la plataforma virtual de la Universidad de ...

  11. Proflavine Hemisulfate as a Fluorescent Contrast Agent for Point-of-Care Cytology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P Prieto

    Full Text Available Proflavine hemisulfate, an acridine-derived fluorescent dye, can be used as a rapid stain for cytologic examination of biological specimens. Proflavine fluorescently stains cell nuclei and cytoplasmic structures, owing to its small amphipathic structure and ability to intercalate DNA. In this manuscript, we demonstrated the use of proflavine as a rapid cytologic dye on a number of specimens, including normal exfoliated oral squamous cells, cultured human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and leukocytes derived from whole blood specimens using a custom-built, portable, LED-illuminated fluorescence microscope. No incubation time was needed after suspending cells in 0.01% (w/v proflavine diluted in saline. Images of proflavine stained oral cells had clearly visible nuclei as well as granular cytoplasm, while stained leukocytes exhibited bright nuclei, and highlighted the multilobar nature of nuclei in neutrophils. We also demonstrated the utility of quantitative analysis of digital images of proflavine stained cells, which can be used to detect significant morphological differences between different cell types. Proflavine stained oral cells have well-defined nuclei and cell membranes which allowed for quantitative analysis of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, as well as image texture analysis to extract quantitative image features.

  12. The use of fluorescent Nile red and BODIPY for lipid measurement in microalgae. (United States)

    Rumin, Judith; Bonnefond, Hubert; Saint-Jean, Bruno; Rouxel, Catherine; Sciandra, Antoine; Bernard, Olivier; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Bougaran, Gaël


    Microalgae are currently emerging as one of the most promising alternative sources for the next generation of food, feed, cosmetics and renewable energy in the form of biofuel. Microalgae constitute a diverse group of microorganisms with advantages like fast and efficient growth. In addition, they do not compete for arable land and offer very high lipid yield potential. Major challenges for the development of this resource are to select lipid-rich strains using high-throughput staining for neutral lipid content in microalgae species. For this purpose, the fluorescent dyes most commonly used to quantify lipids are Nile red and BODIPY 505/515. Their fluorescent staining for lipids offers a rapid and inexpensive analysis tool to measure neutral lipid content, avoiding time-consuming and costly gravimetric analysis. This review collates and presents recent advances in algal lipid staining and focuses on Nile red and BODIPY 505/515 staining characteristics. The available literature addresses the limitations of fluorescent dyes under certain conditions, such as spectral properties, dye concentrations, cell concentrations, temperature and incubation duration. Moreover, the overall conclusion of the present review study gives limitations on the use of fluorochrome for screening of lipid-rich microalgae species and suggests improved protocols for staining recalcitrant microalgae and recommendations for the staining quantification.

  13. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole


    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  14. Temporal appearance of structural and nonstructural bluetongue viral proteins in infected cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Gebhard, D H; MacLachlan, N J


    The temporal appearance of 4 viral proteins was detected in bluetongue virus (BTV)-infected Vero cells by indirect immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to BTV structural proteins VP2 and VP7 and nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2. Bluetongue viral proteins were detected at distinct intervals after inoculation of Vero cells; VP7 was first detected 3 hours after inoculation, NS1 and NS2 at 5 hours after inoculation, whereas VP2 was not detected until 8 hours after inoculation. Patterns of fluorescence varied with the fixative used, but each MAb induced a distinct pattern of fluorescence in infected cells. Flow cytometry, which was used with each of the 4 MAb, proved to be an accurate and sensitive method of detecting BTV-infected P3 mouse myeloma cells. The temporal appearance of each viral protein in BTV-infected P3 cells was similar to that detected in BTV-infected Vero cells. Advantages of flow cytometry over conventional immunofluorescence staining to detect BTV-infected cells included: (1) enumeration of the proportion of infected cells in a population; (2) further characterization of infected cells, including estimates of their viability; and (3) computer-assisted storage and analysis of data obtained.

  15. Advances in Automated Plankton Imaging: Enhanced Throughput, Automated Staining, and Extended Deployment Modes for Imaging FlowCytobot (United States)

    Sosik, H. M.; Olson, R. J.; Brownlee, E.; Brosnahan, M.; Crockford, E. T.; Peacock, E.; Shalapyonok, A.


    Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) was developed to fill a need for automated identification and monitoring of nano- and microplankton, especially phytoplankton in the size range 10 200 micrometer, which are important in coastal blooms (including harmful algal blooms). IFCB uses a combination of flow cytometric and video technology to capture high resolution (1 micrometer) images of suspended particles. This proven, now commercially available, submersible instrument technology has been deployed in fixed time series locations for extended periods (months to years) and in shipboard laboratories where underway water is automatically analyzed during surveys. Building from these successes, we have now constructed and evaluated three new prototype IFCB designs that extend measurement and deployment capabilities. To improve cell counting statistics without degrading image quality, a high throughput version (IFCB-HT) incorporates in-flow acoustic focusing to non-disruptively pre-concentrate cells before the measurement area of the flow cell. To extend imaging to all heterotrophic cells (even those that do not exhibit chlorophyll fluorescence), Staining IFCB (IFCB-S) incorporates automated addition of a live-cell fluorescent stain (fluorescein diacetate) to samples before analysis. A horizontally-oriented IFCB-AV design addresses the need for spatial surveying from surface autonomous vehicles, including design features that reliably eliminate air bubbles and mitigate wave motion impacts. Laboratory evaluation and test deployments in waters near Woods Hole show the efficacy of each of these enhanced IFCB designs.

  16. Simultaneous single molecule atomic force and fluorescence lifetime imaging (United States)

    Schulz, Olaf; Koberling, Felix; Walters, Deron; Koenig, Marcelle; Viani, Jacob; Ros, Robert


    The combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with single-molecule-sensitive confocal fluorescence microscopy enables a fascinating investigation into the structure, dynamics and interactions of single biomolecules or their assemblies. AFM reveals the structure of macromolecular complexes with nanometer resolution, while fluorescence can facilitate the identification of their constituent parts. In addition, nanophotonic effects, such as fluorescence quenching or enhancement due to the AFM tip, can be used to increase the optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit, thus enabling the identification of different fluorescence labels within a macromolecular complex. We present a novel setup consisting of two commercial, state-of-the-art microscopes. A sample scanning atomic force microscope is mounted onto an objective scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime microscope. The ability to move the sample and objective independently allows for precise alignment of AFM probe and laser focus with an accuracy down to a few nanometers. Time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) gives us the opportunity to measure single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes. We will be able to study molecular complexes in the vicinity of an AFM probe on a level that has yet to be achieved. With this setup we simultaneously obtained single molecule sensitivity in the AFM topography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of YOYO-1 stained lambda-DNA samples and we showed silicon tip induced single molecule quenching on organic fluorophores.

  17. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael


    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  18. Cytological detection of spermatozoa: comparison of three staining methods. (United States)

    Allery, J P; Telmon, N; Mieusset, R; Blanc, A; Rougé, D


    Sperm detection can be an important factor in confirming sexual assault in cases of rape. This paper compares three of the most commonly used staining methods cited in the scientific literature: Christmas tree. hematoxylin-eosin, and alkaline fuchsin. The population studied was composed of 174 consenting women seen at the Male Infertility Center in Toulouse. France. The date of their last sexual intercourse was accurately known. Alkaline fuchsin did not seem effective in detecting spermatozoa in vaginal samples. Compared with hematoxylin-eosin, Christmas tree stain appeared to be the most useful test in the first 72 h. Two external factors were associated with decreased detection of spermatozoa: time since in tercourse and sperm volume.

  19. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten


    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...... results on the abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of ABSP therefore reflect general patterns of TEP. The abundance of ABSP in the size range 3-162 urn and retained by 3 um pore size filters averaged 3.6 ± 2.49 x 10s ml"1 (± SD), which is among the highest concentrations reported...... for comparable size spectra of TEP. On average, 35 % of ABSP (by number) were colonized by bacteria and 8.6 x 105 bacteria ml"1 lake water were attached to ABSP, which corresponds to 7% of the total bacterial abundance....

  20. Standard test method for determination of resistance to staining

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method is intended to determine the resistance to staining of ceramic tile surfaces. 1.2 The resistance to staining is determined by maintaining test solutions in contact with ceramic tile surfaces for a specified period of time. After exposure, the surface is cleaned in a defined manner, and the test specimens are inspected visually for change. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. [Standardization of Blastocystis hominis diagnosis using different staining techniques]. (United States)

    Eymael, Dayane; Schuh, Graziela Maria; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli


    The present study was carried out from March to May 2008, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques for diagnosing Blastocystis hominis in a sample of the population attended at the Biomedicine Laboratory of Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul. On hundred feces samples from children and adults were evaluated. After collection, the samples were subjected to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (HPJ), sedimentation in formalin-ether (Ritchie) and staining by means of Gram and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). The presence of Blastocystis hominis was observed in 40 samples, when staining techniques were used (MGG and Gram), while sedimentation techniques were less efficient (32 positive samples using the Ritchie technique and 20 positive samples using the HPJ technique). Our results demonstrate that HPJ was less efficient than the other methods, thus indicating the need to include laboratory techniques that enable parasite identification on a routine basis.

  2. CDC Vital Signs–Arthritis in America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  3. Ten Indicators of Vitality in Smaller Academic Libraries (United States)

    Pappas, David


    This paper provides a means of quickly ascertaining the relative health of smaller academic libraries by presenting a top ten list of vitality indicators. The list is based on an observational convenience sampling of thirty smaller academic libraries across the United States. The indicators making the list were those which appeared most often in…

  4. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns. (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha


    To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (ptouch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.

  5. LongoVital in the prevention of recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Hougen, H P; Klausen, B


    LongoVital (LV) (DK. Reg. No. 5178/75) is a herbal based tablet enriched with recommended doses of vitamins. The present study was undertaken to investigate prevention of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) during 6 months' daily intake of LV as compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomized...

  6. Vital Signs-Children Need More Fruits and Vegetables!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the August 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Children in the U.S. aren't eating enough fruits and vegetables. Learn what you can do to impact this problem.  Created: 8/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2014.

  7. Expert Talks: Understanding civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 13, 2017 ... Case studies and successes in CRVS reform. Cambodia, New Zealand, Peru, Uganda, and others offer important lessons in strengthening civil registration and vital statistics systems. These interviews feature innovative case studies that have led to new and improved CRVS approaches.

  8. Deteksi 4 Tanda Vital Pasien Rumah Sakit Berbasis Fuzzy Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haris Rangkuti


    Full Text Available  To assist the performance of medical technicians in nursing patients effectively and efficiently, information technology appears as a dominant support. Utilizing information technology, patient’s diagnoses can be reported to a doctor as soon as possible, as well as the patient's condition which needs to be monitored regularly. It is necessary to build a monitoring information system of hospital that is able to present timely information regarding the patient's condition characterized by four vital signs which are temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. For the four vital signs monitoring, fuzzy logic concept is implemented. If vital signs approach 1, the patient is close to recovery. Conversely, if the signs are 0, the patient still needs medical treatment. This system also helps nurses in order to provide answers to the families of patients who want to know the development of the patient's condition, as well as the recovery based on the average percentage of Fuzzy max of four vital signs. By Fuzzy-based monitoring system, monitoring the patient's condition becomes simpler and easier. 

  9. Maternal mortality ratio – trends in the vital registration data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracking the level of maternal mortality reliably in developing countries is extremely challenging. In an ideal setting, vital statistics, based on good-quality medical certification of the cause of death, would provide the number of deaths from maternal causes. In developed countries it is sometimes necessary to supplement.

  10. Vital Signs – Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  11. Social Security: Strengthening a Vital Safety Net for Latinos (United States)

    Cruz, Jeff


    Since 1935, Social Security has provided a vital safety net for millions of Americans who cannot work because of age or disability. This safety net has been especially critical for Americans of Latino decent, who number more than 50 million or nearly one out of every six Americans. Social Security is critical to Latinos because it is much more…

  12. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko


    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  13. Vital Signs – Making Health Care Safer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.  Created: 3/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  14. Effects of Tooth Whitening Agents in Non Vital Teeth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C Harshitha


    ..., hydrogen peroxide, cervical root resorption, bleaching, non-vital teeth INTRODUCTION Tooth whitening is of great importance in dental aesthetics. Whitening may be visually perceived and measured within a few days or weeks, depending on the technique used for peroxide delivery and retension, and the method of assessment(1). Tooth bleaching ca...

  15. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine


    Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...

  16. Determinants of muscular and functional vitality in oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taekema, Diana Gretha


    An intriguing question with regard to ageing research is why some people age successfully and why others are burdened with chronic diseases and functional disability. Researchers aim to identify the candidate determinants associated with the preservation of vitality during a long life course. In

  17. Job satisfaction and basic vital needs satisfaction among working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalva I.


    Generally, all basic vital needs were satisfied on the lower level among married women. So, a presence of work-life imbalance indirectly has been shown in the married women, who have to sacrifice a better paid job for the sake of having more free time for the family. Such rejection of some social roles in working women (moms has been reported in literature.

  18. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, A.J.; Wals, A.E.J.


    In this contribution a key policy ‘tool’ used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described

  19. Derivation and validation of a universal vital assessment (UVA) score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Christopher C; Hazard, Riley; Saulters, Kacie J


    BACKGROUND: Critical illness is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Identifying patients with the highest risk of death could help with resource allocation and clinical decision making. Accordingly, we derived and validated a universal vital assessment (UVA...

  20. CDC Vital Signs–Opioid Prescribing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 7/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  1. Telemarketing as a Vital Part of Enrollment Management. (United States)

    Young, Lee D.


    Describes how telemarketing can be vital part of college's or university's enrollment management campaign if it is done wisely and nonintrusively. Shares author's experience as coordinator of telemarketing activity at one university. Concludes that development of effective telemarketing program can enhance the institution's ability to achieve its…

  2. Internet skills : vital assets in an information society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloisius Maria


    Internet Skills, vital assets in an information society starts with a brief history of communication technologies. It appears that in the course of history, these technologies have changed and have put increasing demands on the people that use them. Moreover, the stakes for not being able to keep up

  3. Vital Signs – Alcohol Screening and Counseling?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.  Created: 1/7/2014 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/7/2014.

  4. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  5. Development of a vital-sign/fluid-balance flow sheet. (United States)

    Ozuna, L A; Adkins, A T


    An improved flow sheet for recording vital signs and fluid balance on a medical oncology unit was developed and tested using quality-assurance techniques. The new form, which replaced three separate forms, measurably improved documentation on all quality-assurance monitors tested. Additional benefits include cost-savings and decreased time expenditures by nursing staff.

  6. Harnessing the power of civil registration and vital statistics systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Harnessing the power of civil registration and vital statistics systems. A doctor speaks to a woman with her baby in Afghanistan. Graham Crouch/World Bank. Event date: February 27, 2018 to February 28, 2018. Location: IDRC. 150 Kent Street, 8th floor. Ottawa, ON. Canada. Time: 9:00am - 5:45pm. This conference will ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriani Armen


    Full Text Available Development of science and technology of sports can be done by conducting research, transfer of technology, socialization, scientific meeting and cooperation among research institute having specialization of science and technology of sport. This study aims to see concretely the contribution of vital capacity of the lung to cardiorespiratory endurance. The population of this study is non-regular students of FIK UNP's education department who took athletic courses totaling 159 people. The sampling technique was done by proportional random sampling and got 32 samples. Data was collected at sport medicine laboratory and FIK UNP track, vital pulmonary capacity was measured by spirometer, cardiorespiratory assay test was measured by VO2 Max test of Balke method, calculated running distance for 15 minutes. Analysis of research data with product moment correlation technique with significant level α 0.05. The data were analyzed by excel and SPSS version 12. From the data analysis, it was found that there was "no significant relationship" between vital lung capacity and cardiorespiratory resistance, and the contribution was only 0.08%. So it can be concluded that the endurance ability kardiorespiratori not much determined by the vital capacity of the lung.

  8. Career Vitality of Professors: A Cognitive Restructuring Model. (United States)

    Bumpus, J. Frank

    An attributional model that conceptualizes the pressures that reduce professors' personal and career vitality is presented. The model is based primarily on the locus of control literature and especially the reformulated model of learned helplessness by Lynn Abramson, Martin Seligman, and John Teasdale. The analysis deals only with the cognitive…

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: HIV and Injection Drug Use (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  14. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality. The effectiveness of visual assessments is questionable because they are qualitative, subjective and dependent on the skill of the surveyor. Remote sensing technology provides a synoptic ...

  15. Doctors' lifestyles vital for SA's health – global expert

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He says research shows that doctors who smoke and present as overweight or obese are 'far less likely' to counsel their patients or become effective disease prevention agents, let alone engage in any public discourse on legislative health measures. Speaking at a Discovery Vitality Institute media breakfast at Cape Town's ...

  16. Visualizing sodium dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes using fluorescent nanosensors


    Dubach, J. Matthew; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Clark, Heather A.


    Regulation of sodium flux across the cell membrane plays a vital role in the generation of action potentials and regulation of membrane excitability in cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. Alteration of sodium channel function has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy, long QT syndrome, and heart failure. However, single cell imaging of sodium dynamics has been limited due to the narrow selection of fluorescent sodium indicators available to researchers. Here we report, the detect...

  17. Stains and Stories: Latent narrative in worn clothing


    Goldsmith, Shelly


    Stains and Stories is a series of textile-based installations and limited-edition prints, which form part of an ongoing project to examine perceived latent matter (memories and experiences) in worn clothing. The work seeks to present complex ideas about easily accessible objects (clothes), in order to provoke contemplation about human experience and enhance psychological knowledge. I consulted with Dr. Alison Fendley, Senior Biologist at the Forensic Science Service, in developing approa...

  18. Development of new staining technology "eastern blotting" using monoclonal antibody. (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro


    Ginsenosides contained in Panax species were separated by silica gel TLC blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane which was dipped in a sodium periodide (NaIO(4)) solution and reacted with protein, preparing a ginsenoside-protein conjugate for binding a ginsenoside on a PVDF membrane. The blotted spots were stained by anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1MAb, respectively. The newly established immunostaining method, eastern blotting was applied for the determination of ginsenosides possessing protopanaxadiol and/or protopanaxatriol. Double staining of eastern blotting for ginsenosides using anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb and anti-ginsenoside-Rg1 MAb promoted complete identification of ginsenosides in Panax species. This technique has been devised for the chromatographic separation and identification of ginsenosides using polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. It caused an acceptable separation of ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd in various ginseng extracts. Newly developed technique is quite simple and applies for immunoassay system. Ginsenosides separated using a PES membrane were directly treated with a NaIO(4) solution and then reacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for making a ginsenoside-protein conjugate. After the blocking, anti-ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb recognized a ginsenoside on a PES membrane and then a sec-ond antibody labeled with enzyme reacted to the first antibody. Finally a substrate was oxidized with the enzyme and de-veloped the staining of ginsenosides. The staining spots of ginsenosides on membrane were quantitatively evaluated by NIH Image indicating at least 62.5 ng of each ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rc and -Rd were detected with clarity. The determination range of three ginsenosides was from 0.125 to 2.0 µg of direct amount on PES membrane.

  19. Corneal blood staining following autologous blood injection for hypotony maculopathy. (United States)

    Ayyala, R S; Urban, R C; Krishnamurthy, M S; Mendelblatt, D J


    Hypotony is a common complication following trabeculectomy in which antimetabolites are used. Autologous blood injection is an accepted form of treatment for hypotony that occurs secondary to overfiltration; however, injection into the filtering bleb has been associated with a rise in intraocular pressure for some patients with chronic postoperative hypotony. The authors describe a patient in whom corneal blood staining with raised intraocular pressure and loss of vision occurred as a result of autologous blood injection.

  20. Solid-Color Stains on Western Redcedar and Redwood Siding (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    You have decided to put wood siding on your new house. Several questions are probably going through your mind: “What’s the best type of wood?” “Should I use paint or stain?” “Should I apply the finish before or after I install the siding?”

  1. Cervicovaginal microbial flora in methenamine silver staining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Afshar Moghaddam


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vagina like all other mucosal organs owns its especial bacterial/microbial flora. Though may be pathogen in other circumstances, members of vaginal normal flora do not cause disease on healthy vaginal mucosa. In this study, we tried to determine the relationship between microscopic findings on Methenamine silver stained cervicovaginal smears and clinical symptoms. METHODS: A total of 389 cervicovaginal smears were examined cytologically from April to August 2005, among which 103 satisfactory smears of patients who were normally menstruating were subsequently selected. The originally Papanicolaou–stained smears were stained with Methenamine silver method. The cervicovaginal flora in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was classified into four groups. The relationship between the type of genital flora and the presence of Candida or Actinomyces spp was also determined. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using Chi–square test. RESULTS: In 103 evaluated patients, 46 (44.7% were symptomatic and the rest were asymptomatic. The most prevalent genital microbial flora in both symptomatic (21.7% and asymptomatic (37.9% patients was type II (Lactobacilli. Microbial frequency differences were significant for types II (P = 0.034 and III (P = 0.039 in both groups. Coexistence of microbial flora of type I (P = 0.02 and type IV (P = 0.033 with Candida was statistically significant. Coexistence of all types of microbial flora with Actinomyces was not proved significant. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic women, except those with potential pathogens, tend to have Lactobacillus flora. Therefore, it is advisable that all Lactobacilli types be investigated through microbiological methods in symptomatic patients. In silver stained slides, there was a clear relationship between the type of vaginal microbial flora and the presence of Candida spp. KEY WORDS: Microbial flora, cervicovaginal smears, methenamine silver, symptomatic, asymptomatic.

  2. Detection of early lymphocyte activation by the fluorescent cell membrane probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine. (United States)

    Halliday, G M; Nairn, R C; Pallett, M A; Rolland, J M; Ward, H A


    N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) becomes fluorescent after binding to hydrophobic regions of cell membranes. Rat and mouse lymphoid cell suspensions stained with NPN showed changes in fluorescence emission 30 min after stimulation with mitogen or antigen, detected by microfluorimetry. Incubation of NPN-labelled mouse and rat thymocytes with phytohaemagglutinin or concanavalin A (Con A) caused an increase in mean cell fluorescence intensity. The response to Con A was inhibited by sodium azide and alpha-methyl mannoside. Stimulation of spleen cells from mice by allogeneic cells, or from tumour-bearing rats by tumour antigen consistently resulted in decreased fluorescence. The 'mixed lymphocyte response' detected only certain genetic differences between mouse strains and was proportional to the ratio of stimulator to responder cell number. The NPN staining procedure offers a simple and rapid assay of immunoreactivity and a means of studying early subcellular changes following lymphocyte activation.

  3. Deep-red emissive crescent-shaped fluorescent dyes: substituent effect on live cell imaging. (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Bingjiang; Niu, Guangle; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Zhang, Hongyan; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Pengfei


    A series of crescent-shaped fluorescent dyes (CP1-CP6) were synthesized by hybridizing coumarin and pyronin moieties with different amino substituents at both ends. The molecular structures and photophysical properties of these fluorescent dyes were investigated through X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results show that the fluorescent dyes exhibited crescent-shaped structures, deep-red emissions (approximately 650 nm), and significant Stokes shifts. In live-cell-imaging experiments, CP1 stains mitochondria, whereas CP3 and CP6 stain the lysosomes in a cytoplasm and the RNA in nucleoli. The relationships between different amino substituent groups and the imaging properties of CP dyes were discussed as well. Additionally, findings from the cytotoxicity and photostability experiments on living cells indicated the favorable biocompatibility and high photostability of the CP dyes.

  4. Experiments with Fluorescent Lamps (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov


    The experiments described below show the irradiance and illuminance spectra of two fluorescent lamps in relation to their color temperatures, and the efficacy in comparison to that of an incandescent lamp. Spectra of "warm white" and "cool daylight" fluorescent lamps are demonstrated.

  5. LEDs for fluorescence microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, I.T.; Garini, Y.; Dietrich, H.R.C.; Van Oel, W.; Liqui Lung, G.


    Traditional light sources for fluorescence microscopy have been mercury lamps, xenon lamps, and lasers. These sources have been essential in the development of fluorescence microscopy but each can have serious disadvantages: lack of near monochromaticity, heat generation, cost, lifetime of the light

  6. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis


    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  7. Cost-effective elimination of lipofuscin fluorescence from formalin-fixed brain tissue by white phosphor light emitting diode array. (United States)

    Sun, Yulong; Chakrabartty, Avi


    Autofluorescence of aldehyde-fixed tissues greatly hinders fluorescence microscopy. In particular, lipofuscin, an autofluorescent component of aged brain tissue, complicates fluorescence imaging of tissue in neurodegenerative diseases. Background and lipofuscin fluorescence can be reduced by greater than 90% through photobleaching using white phosphor light emitting diode arrays prior to treatment with fluorescent probes. We compared the effect of photobleaching versus established chemical quenchers on the quality of fluorescent staining in formalin-fixed brain tissue of frontotemporal dementia with tau-positive inclusions. Unlike chemical quenchers, which reduced fluorescent probe signals as well as background, photobleaching treatment had no effect on probe fluorescence intensity while it effectively reduced background and lipofuscin fluorescence. The advantages and versatility of photobleaching over established methods are discussed.

  8. Adaptations of Goldner's Masson trichrome stain for the study of undecalcified plastic embedded bone. (United States)

    Gruber, H E


    Specialized adaptations for application of Goldner's Masson trichrome stain to plastic embedded undecalcified bone specimens are presented. This stain can be used successfully on methyl-glycol methacrylate, glycol methacrylate and Spurr embedded bones. The stain affords the advantage of good cellular staining due to the hematoxylin component with concomitant sharp discrimination of mature bone matrix which stains green, immature new bone matrix which stains red, and calcified cartilage which stains very pale green. Use of red filters during photomicrography aids in bone-osteoid discrimination in black and white photographs.

  9. Teeth whitening versus the influence of extrinsic factors on teeth stains. (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Madejczyki, Marlena; Grajewskai, Iwona; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta


    The improvement of teeth colour is the effect of using whitening toothpastes, professional removal of dental deposits, pulpless teeth and vital teeth whitening. The aim of the study was evaluation of various methods of teeth whitening in relation to sex and age of the investigated as well as the extrinsic factors causing teeth stains such as cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Questionnaire survey was conducted in the group of 204 patients, reporting for a dental treatment at the Chair and Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin as well as private dental practice in Lublin. Questionnaire survey was elaborated for the needs of the planned investigation and included questions concerning, among others, socio-demographic data of the investigated, methods of teeth whitening, cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Statistic analysis was performed with the use of descriptive statistics, Chi2 test, Mann-Whitney test. The values of p whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with men (χ2 = 7.96, p whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with the people drinking coffee occasionally and those who didn't drink it (χ2 = 9.99, p < χ0.05).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimun ---


    Full Text Available Evaluating study of arab Ianguage in STAIN Pamekasan represents one of the among study activity chain starts from study planning process, study execution and last is study evaluation. Evaluate at ability target (maharah language which must be evaluated, and also at elements (‘anashir language. As have been tolerated, that in arab Ianguage study at least there are four abilities (maharah which must be mastered by educative participant to get predicate that he is one who have ability in the arab Ianguage field. The Maharah is Maharah Istima'(ability to correct reading, maharah al-Kalam (ability to converse, maharah Kitabah (ability to write, and maharah al-Qiraah (ability to read. Methodologically, study evaluation process of arab Ianguage in STAIN Pamekasan researched by using the qualitative approach with research type of case which its target is all currator lecturers of Arab Ianguage subject. Research result is obtained as follows: a Step of assessment starting from preparation, execution, data-processing and follow-up, b evaluation form intended here is some instruments used by all lecturer to get information about college student efficacy, in STAIN Pamekasan the pattern mentioned becomes two, that is tes form and non tes form, c all lecturers more tend to using one approach of Ianguage tes, that is integrative approach

  11. Survival of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in modified Romanowsky staining solutions. (United States)

    Misan, Angus; Chan, Wei Yee; Trott, Darren; Hill, Peter B


    Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip ® ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin). A clinical isolate of S. pseudintermedius was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated Quick Dip ® solutions (methanol fixative, eosin, methylene blue), and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) controls. Each solution was tested for the presence of viable bacteria by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) at various time points. Solutions also were examined under high power microscopy to count the number of visible bacteria at each time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was able to survive in the clean and contaminated Quick Dip ® stains for at least one hour, but by 24 h no viable bacteria remained. Survival of the bacteria was not supported in the fixative at any time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius remained visible under high power microscopy for up to 2 weeks in all organically contaminated solutions of the Quick Dip ® set. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius only remains viable in eosin and methylene blue for short periods of time, but the prolonged visibility of dead organisms could theoretically lead to the misdiagnosis of cytology samples. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Positive staining for cellulose in oral pulse granuloma. (United States)

    Virkkunen, Sirke; Wolff, Henrik; Haglund, Caj; Højgaard, Casper; Winther, Jakob Rahr; Willemoës, Martin; Vogel, Ulla; Hagström, Jaana


    Oral pulse granuloma (OPG) is an oral inflammatory lesion characterized by the presence of hyaline rings with numerous multinucleated giant cells. The etiopathogenesis of this lesion is thus far unclear, as is the composition of the hyaline rings. Our aim was to investigate whether the hyaline rings contain cellulose. Using a newly developed staining method for cellulose, we studied 18 histologic samples diagnosed as OPG, in addition to 3 samples originally diagnosed as "normal" foreign body reactions. In our study, visualization of cellulose is based on its specific binding to the carbohydrate binding module of β-1,4-glycanase. All samples diagnosed as OPG were positive for cellulose staining localized in hyaline rings. In addition, 1 lesion (of 3), first diagnosed as a foreign body reaction without the presence of hyaline rings, was positive for cellulose by horseradish peroxidase staining. We show for the first time that cellulose is present in OPG lesions, indicating that cellulose might be the initial cause of formation of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ``Gold corrosion'': red stains on a gold Austrian Ducat (United States)

    Gusmano, G.; Montanari, R.; Kaciulis, S.; Montesperelli, G.; Denk, R.

    Stains of different colours have been observed on historic and modern gold coins in several countries. An Austrian Ducat at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has developed some red spots on its surface over the years. The same defects have also been observed in modern coins of higher gold purity. The spots have been examined by OM, SEM, EDS, XPS and AES. Optical microscopy showed that ``red'' defects exhibit in fact a nuance of colours. The surface analysis put in evidence the presence in the stains, in addition to gold, of silver and sulphur. The values of the modified Auger parameter α' of silver correspond to those of Ag2S; thus, it can be assumed that the stains are composed of silver sulphide (Ag2S). It was not possible to determine whether the presence of silver on the surface is due to segregation towards the surface or to external particles of silver embedded in the matrix. Depth profiling performed on modern coins suffering from the same problem allowed us to demonstrate that the nuance of colours is due to the inhomogeneous thickness of the spots. Moreover, it was demonstrated that spots are formed by two layers: an outer layer of silver sulphide and an inner layer of silver.

  14. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Yagi, Yukako


    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method.

  15. Multicolor, Fluorescent Supercapacitor Fiber. (United States)

    Liao, Meng; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Jingxia; Xie, Songlin; Fu, Xuemei; Sun, Xuemei; Wang, Bingjie; Peng, Huisheng


    Fiber-shaped supercapacitors have attracted broad attentions from both academic and industrial communities due to the demonstrated potentials as next-generation power modules. However, it is important while remains challenging to develop dark-environment identifiable supercapacitor fibers for enhancement on operation convenience and security in nighttime applications. Herein, a novel family of colorful fluorescent supercapacitor fibers has been produced from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets. Fluorescent dye particles are introduced and stably anchored on the surfaces of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes to prepare hybrid fiber electrodes with a broad range of colors from red to purple. The fluorescent component in the dye introduces fluorescent indication capability to the fiber, which is particularly promising for flexible and wearable devices applied in dark environment. In addition, the colorful fluorescent supercapacitor fibers also maintain high electrochemical performance under cyclic bending and charge-discharge processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The effect of different doses of hyaluronan on sperm morphology, motility, vitality and fertilization capability in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sayadi


    Full Text Available Background: Hyaluronan has an important role on the permeability and motility of sperm and the interaction of gametes and these can play a considerable role on the fertility rate. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the effect of different doses of hyaluronan on the morphology, motility, vitality and fertility rate of mice. Methods: We used 40 mice (6-8 week in this study which twenty of them were male and the rest were female. The sperm of each male mouse were divided into four groups. The group 1 (control: They were maintained in RPMI media without any hyaluronan supplementation for 2 hour. Hyaluronan with the doses of 750, 1000 and 1250 µg/ml were added into RPMI media in groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After 2 hour. incubation, the numbers of sperms were assessed, using haemocytometer. Also, their morphology with papanicolaeu staining and their vitality with Eosin B dye were assessed. As well as sperms motility measured under inverted microscope by observation and fertility rate evaluated after routine IVF by counting two-cell stage embryos. Results: Our results demonstrated that, the dose of 750 µ g/ml has the greatest effect on the motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms. The effect of dose of 1000 µ g/ml also was positive on them. On the other hand, none of these doses had any effect on sperm morphology. Conclusion: Hyaluronan may have an influence on motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms and the dose of 750µ g/ml had a significant effect on these factors.

  17. Analysis of the Microbiota of Black Stain in the Primary Dentition


    Yue Li; Qian Zhang; Fangfei Zhang; Ruoxi Liu; He Liu; Feng Chen


    Black tooth stain is a characteristic extrinsic discoloration commonly seen on the cervical enamel following the contour of the gingiva. To investigate the relationship between black tooth stain and the oral microbiota, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the microbial composition of dental plaque and saliva among caries-free children with and without black stain. Dental plaque and saliva, as well as black stain, were sampled from 10 children with and 15 children without black stain. ...

  18. Filipin is a reliable in situ marker of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of germinating conidia (spores) of Penicillium discolor and stains intensively at the site of germ tube formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.R.; Smant, W.; De Boer, W.; Dijksterhuis, J.


    Filipin, a widely used fluorescent sterol marker is also a potent antibiotic. In this study we address the reliability of filipin as a monitor of ergosterol in fungal cells. A revised staining protocol was developed to minimize any biological effect of the compound. Germinating conidia of

  19. Localization of actin in normal human hepatocytes using fluorescent phallotoxins and immunohistochemical amplification. (United States)

    Benkoel, L; Brisse, J; Capo, C; Benoliel, A M; Bongrand, P; Garcia, T; Chamlian, A


    Two different methods, fluorescent phallotoxins and immunohistochemical amplification systems were used to visualize actin in normal human hepatocytes. With fluorescent phallotoxins (NBD-phallacidin or rhodamine phalloidin), F-actin was distributed along the plasma membranes and at the bile canaliculi. With immunohistochemical methods (biotin-avidin, biotin-streptavidin, silver enhancement), actin was found at the same level, however a cytoplasmic staining was observed and discussed as G-actin localization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Khajuria


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pap stain is an excellent method to review the cytological specimen; however, it is time consuming and costly. Various modifications have been developed in Pap stain of which latest is Modified Ultrafast Pap (MUFP stain which is hybrid of the technique by Romanowsky and conventional Pap stain to reduce the staining time to 90 seconds. AIM Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and applicability of MUFP stain in fine needle aspiration smears of various organs. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was carried out in the cytopathology laboratory of GMC, Jammu for a period of 6 months from December 2015 to May 2016. A total no of 200 specimens were collected. The samples included 80 lymph node aspiration samples, 40 thyroid FNA samples, 50 breast FNA samples, 25 soft tissue aspirations and 5 salivary gland aspirations. Two smears were kept for fixation in 95% ethanol for staining with standard Pap stain and 2 were air dried for MUFP staining. RESULTS A correct diagnosis was achieved in all the cases. Background was similar in both staining methods. However, well-preserved cell morphology, crisp nuclear outline, good overall staining were well seen with MUFP method when compared with the standard Pap method. CONCLUSION The findings of this study support the use of MUFP method in cytology laboratory over standard Pap method.

  1. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.


    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. DaCosta


    Full Text Available Early identification of dysplasia remains a critical goal for diagnostic endoscopy since early discovery directly improves patient survival because it allows endoscopic or surgical intervention with disease localized without lymph node involvement. Clinical studies have successfully used tissue autofluorescence with conventional white light endoscopy and biopsy for detecting adenomatous colonic polyps, differentiating benign hyperplastic from adenomas with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In Barrett's esophagus, the detection of dysplasia remains problematic because of background inflammation, whereas in the squamous esophagus, autofluorescence imaging appears to be more dependable. Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Other point spectroscopic modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering, continue to be evaluated in clinical studies, but still suffer the significant disadvantages of being random and nonimaging. A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots. This is an area of great promise, but still in its infancy, and preclinical studies are currently under way.

  3. Fluorescence and confocal imaging of mammalian cells using conjugated oligoelectrolytes with phenylenevinylene core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milczarek, Justyna; Pawlowska, Roza; Zurawinski, Remigiusz; Lukasik, Beata; Garner, Logan E.; Chworos, Arkadiusz


    Over the last few years, considerable efforts are taken, in order to find a molecular fluorescent probe fulfilling their applicability requirements. Due to a good optical properties and affinity to biological structures conjugated oligoelectrolytes (COEs) can be considered as a promising dyes for application in fluorescence-based bioimaging. In this work, we synthetized COEs with phenylenevinylene core (PV-COEs) and applied as fluorescent membranous-specific probes. Cytotoxicity effects of each COE were probed on cancerous and non-cancerous cell types and little to no toxicity effects were observed at the high range of concentrations. The intensity of cell fluorescence following the COE staining was determined by the photoluminescence analysis and fluorescence activated cell sorting method (FACS). Intercalation of tested COEs into mammalian cell membranes was revealed by fluorescent and confocal microscopy colocalization with commercial dyes specific for cellular structures including mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. The phenylenevinylene conjugated oligoelectrolytes have been found to be suitable for fluorescent bioimaging of mammalian cells and membrane-rich organelles. Due to their water solubility coupled with spontaneous intercalation into cells, favorable photophysical features, ease of cell staining, low cytotoxicity and selectivity for membranous structures, PV-COEs can be applied as markers for fluorescence imaging of a variety of cell types.

  4. More than meets the eye: associations of vaginal bacteria with gram stain morphotypes using molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a highly prevalent condition associated with adverse health outcomes. Gram stain analysis of vaginal fluid is the standard for confirming the diagnosis of BV, wherein abundances of key bacterial morphotypes are assessed. These Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bacteroides, and Mobiluncus morphotypes were originally linked to particular bacterial species through cultivation studies, but no studies have systematically investigated associations between uncultivated bacteria detected by molecular methods and Gram stain findings. In this study, 16S-rRNA PCR/pyrosequencing was used to examine associations between vaginal bacteria and bacterial morphotypes in 220 women with and without BV. Species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR and fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH methods were used to document concentrations of two bacteria with curved rod morphologies: Mobiluncus and the fastidious BV-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1. Rank abundance of vaginal bacteria in samples with evidence of curved gram-negative rods showed that BVAB1 was dominant (26.1%, while Mobiluncus was rare (0.2% of sequence reads. BVAB1 sequence reads were associated with Mobiluncus morphotypes (p<0.001. Among women with curved rods, mean concentration of BVAB1 DNA was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus (p<0.001 using species-specific quantitative PCR. FISH analyses revealed that mean number of BVAB1 cells was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus cells in women with highest Nugent score (p<0.001. Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. were significantly associated with the "Bacteroides morphotype," whereas Bacteroides species were rare. Gram-negative rods designated Mobiluncus morphotypes on Gram stain are more likely BVAB1. These findings provide a clearer picture of the bacteria associated with morphotypes on vaginal Gram stain.

  5. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM


    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  6. Fluorescent discharge lamp (United States)

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.


    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  7. Fluorescent discharge lamp (United States)

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.


    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  8. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM


    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  9. 36 CFR 1223.14 - What elements must a vital records program include? (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements must a vital... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MANAGING VITAL RECORDS § 1223.14 What elements must a vital records program include? To achieve compliance with this section, an agency's vital records program must...

  10. Energía vital. La corriente de Relaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gudeman


    Full Text Available Vital energy' is a central idea in the economies of Panama and Colombia. Known as 'strength' or 'force', and assembled from the environment, this current connects all activities in the local economies and establishes relationships, from kin to strangers. Humans compose vital energy, but its sources are limited, and it is expended in use. Its availability is a gift from God and part of the unpredictable fortune that everyone faces. This economy exhibits a contrast between a social current and a market currency. It offers a materialist perspective, provides a critique of standard economics, suggests that sharing rather than reciprocity or rational choice is the 'fundamental' economic practice, and shows how an economy may be a kind of ritual legitimated by a belief in divine power that is displayed through personal fortune.

  11. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity. (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  12. Development anomaly and non-vitality: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Kailasam


    Full Text Available Anatomic aberrations are seen in human dentition. The maxillary incisor region of the permanent dentition where these anatomical aberrations are commonly seen is considered an area of embryonic hazard. Aberrations affecting the internal and external morphology can at times be the cause of complex pathological conditions involving the pulpal and periodontal tissues and can pose a challenge to the clinician for the diagnosis and clinical management. Detecting and treating the anomalies at an early phase is essential as it poses a threat for the loss of vitality of the concerned teeth. The aim of this paper is to highlight the fact two different developmental anomalies of maxillary incisors, namely palatoradicular groove and Turner′s hypoplasia, led to the loss of vitality of the same.

  13. Quantification of polysaccharides fixed to Gram stained slides using lactophenol cotton blue and digital image processing. (United States)

    Ericksen, Bryan


    Dark blue rings and circles emerged when the non-specific polysaccharide stain lactophenol cotton blue was added to Gram stained slides. The dark blue staining is attributable to the presence of capsular polysaccharides and bacterial slime associated with clumps of Gram-negative bacteria.  Since all bacterial cells are glycosylated and concentrate polysaccharides from the media, the majority of cells stain light blue. The contrast between dark and light staining is sufficient to enable a digital image processing thresholding technique to be quantitative with little background noise. Prior to the addition of lactophenol cotton blue, the Gram-stained slides appeared unremarkable, lacking ubiquitous clumps or stained polysaccharides.  Adding lactophenol cotton blue to Gram stained slides is a quick and inexpensive way to screen cell cultures for bacterial slime, clumps and biofilms that are invisible using the Gram stain alone.

  14. [Maternal mortality in Mexico: measurement based on vital statistics]. (United States)

    Aguirre, A


    "Vital statistics are the most comprehensive source of information on maternal mortality in Mexico.... It is clear that maternal mortality has decreased throughout the twentieth century and will continue to do so. There are signs of a higher underestimation of mortality [due to] abortion. And there are regional differentials of maternal mortality.... Professional and/or institutional attention during childbirth has a great impact on maternal mortality decline. There are also socio-economic differentials by marital status, milieu, and schooling...." (EXCERPT)

  15. CDC Vital Signs–Cancer and Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the October 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. Unfortunately, two out of three U.S. adults weigh more than recommended. Find out what can be done to help people get to and keep a healthy weight.  Created: 10/4/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2017.

  16. Vital Signs-Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the May 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Adults with disabilities who get no aerobic physical activity are 50 percent more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer. Learn what you can do to help.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  17. CDC Vital Signs–HIV Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the December 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 15 percent of people who have HIV don't know they have it. Learn about the importance of testing, early diagnosis, and treatment.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  18. Vital Signs – When Food Bites Back

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the June 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. It discusses food poisoning and specifically, Listeria. If you're 65 or older, have a weakened immune system, or are pregnant, you must be especially careful when selecting, preparing, and storing food.  Created: 6/4/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/4/2013.

  19. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survival capacity, extrinsic mortality occurs when an extrinsic challenge exceeds the remaining vitality and intrinsic mortality occurs with the complete loss of vitality by aging. Total mortality depends on the stochastic loss rate of vitality and the magnitude and frequency of extrinsic challenges. Parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. RESULTS Fitting the model to two centuries of adult Swedish period data, intrinsic mortality dominated in old age and gradually declined over years. Extrinsic mortality increased with age and exhibited step-like decline over years driven by high-magnitude, low-frequency challenges in the 19th century and low-magnitude high-frequency challenges in the 20th century. CONCLUSIONS The Swedish mortality was driven by asynchronous intrinsic and extrinsic processes, coinciding with well-known epidemiological patterns involving lifestyle and health care. Because the processes are largely independent, predicting future mortality requires projecting trends of both processes. COMMENTS The model merges point-of-view and classical hazard rate mortality models and yields insights not available from either model individually. To obtain a closed form the intrinsic-extrinsic interactions were simplified, resulting in biased, but correctable, parameters estimates.

  20. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes


    Ting Li; James Anderson


    BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survi...