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Sample records for visuo-spatial ability factors

  1. Visuo-spatial abilities are key for young children's verbal number skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Véronique; Schiltz, Christine; Martin, Romain; Hornung, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Children's development of verbal number skills (i.e., counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and verbal abilities have been discussed as contributing to the development of these foundational skills. To understand the cognitive nature of verbal number skills in young children, the current study assessed the relation of preschoolers' verbal and visuo-spatial abilities to their verbal number skills. In total, 141 children aged 5 or 6 years participated in the current study. Verbal number skills were regressed on vocabulary, phonological awareness and visuo-spatial abilities, and verbal and visuo-spatial working memory in a structural equation model. Only visuo-spatial abilities emerged as a significant predictor of verbal number skills in the estimated model. Our results suggest that visuo-spatial abilities contribute to a larger extent to children's verbal number skills than verbal abilities. From a theoretical point of view, these results suggest a visuo-spatial, rather than a verbal, grounding of verbal number skills. These results are potentially informative for the conception of early mathematics assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disparities in visuo-spatial constructive abilities in Williams syndrome patients with typical deletion on chromosome 7q11.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Tokita, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Seiji; Nakamura, Miho

    2017-02-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is known for its uneven cognitive abilities, especially the difficulty in visuo-spatial cognition, though there are some inter-individual phenotypic differences. It has been proposed that the difficulty in visuo-spatial cognition of WS patients can be attributed to a haploinsufficiency of some genes located on the deleted region in 7q11.23, based on an examination of atypical deletions identified in WS patients with atypical cognitive deficits. According to this hypothesis, the inter-individual differences in visuo-spatial cognitive ability arise from variations in deletion. We investigated whether there were inter-individual differences in the visuo-spatial constructive abilities of five unrelated WS patients with the typical deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 that includes the candidate genes contributing visuo-spatial difficulty in WS patients. We used tests with three-dimensional factors such as Benton's three-dimensional block construction test, which are considered to be more sensitive than those with only two-dimensional factors. There were diverse inter-individual differences in the visuo-spatial constructive abilities among the present participants who shared the same typical genomic deletion of WS. One of the participants showed almost equivalent performances to typically developing adults in those tests. In the present study, we found a wide range of cognitive abilities in visuo-spatial construction even among the patients with a common deletion pattern of WS. The findings suggest that attributing differences in the phenotypes entirely to genetic factors such as an atypical deletion may not be always correct. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visuo-Spatial Imagery Impairment in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Cognitive and SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gardini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cognitive profile and the cerebral perfusion pattern in a highly educated 70 year old gentleman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA. Visuo-perceptual abilities, spatial memory, spatial representation and navigation, visuo-spatial mental imagery, semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory were assessed. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF was imaged with SPECT. Cognitive testing showed visual-perceptual impairment, apperceptive visual and landmark agnosia, topographical disorientation with way-finding deficits, impaired map learning and poor mental image generation. Semantic memory was normal, while episodic-autobiographical memory was impaired. Reduced rCBF was found mainly in the right hemisphere, in the precentral gyrus, posterior cingulate and middle temporal gyri, cuneus and precuneus, in the left superior temporal and lingual gyri and in the parahippocampus bilaterally. Hypoperfusion in occipito-parietal regions was associated with visuo-spatial deficits, whereas deficits in visuo-spatial mental imagery might reflect dysfunction related to hypoperfusion in the parahippocampus and precuneus, structures which are responsible for spatial and imagery processing. Dissociating performance between preserved semantic memory and poor episodic-autobiographical recall is consistent with a pattern of normal perfusion in frontal and anterior temporal regions but abnormal rCBF in the parahippocampi. The present findings indicate that PCA involves visuo-spatial imagery deficits and provide further validation to current neuro-cognitive models of spatial representation and topographical disorientation.

  4. Co-speech iconic gestures and visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana

    2014-11-01

    Three experiments tested the role of verbal versus visuo-spatial working memory in the comprehension of co-speech iconic gestures. In Experiment 1, participants viewed congruent discourse primes in which the speaker's gestures matched the information conveyed by his speech, and incongruent ones in which the semantic content of the speaker's gestures diverged from that in his speech. Discourse primes were followed by picture probes that participants judged as being either related or unrelated to the preceding clip. Performance on this picture probe classification task was faster and more accurate after congruent than incongruent discourse primes. The effect of discourse congruency on response times was linearly related to measures of visuo-spatial, but not verbal, working memory capacity, as participants with greater visuo-spatial WM capacity benefited more from congruent gestures. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants performed the same picture probe classification task under conditions of high and low loads on concurrent visuo-spatial (Experiment 2) and verbal (Experiment 3) memory tasks. Effects of discourse congruency and verbal WM load were additive, while effects of discourse congruency and visuo-spatial WM load were interactive. Results suggest that congruent co-speech gestures facilitate multi-modal language comprehension, and indicate an important role for visuo-spatial WM in these speech-gesture integration processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of short-term memory and visuo-spatial skills in numerical magnitude processing: Evidence from Turner syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Attout

    Full Text Available Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS, a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks. The tasks differed on the nature of the magnitude to be processed (continuous, discrete and symbolic magnitude, on visuo-spatial processing requirement (no/high and on STM demands (low in simultaneous presentation vs. high in sequential presentation. Our results showed a lower acuity when participants with TS compared the numerical magnitudes of stimuli presented sequentially (low visuo-spatial processing and high STM load: Dot sequence and Sound sequence while no difference was observed in the numerical comparison of sets presented simultaneously. In addition, the group difference in sequential tasks disappeared when controlling for STM abilities. Finally, both groups demonstrated similar performance when comparing continuous or symbolic magnitude stimuli and they exhibited comparable subitizing abilities. These results highlight the importance of STM abilities in extracting numerosity through a sequential presentation and underline the importance of considering the impact of format presentation on magnitude judgments.

  6. Sports training enhances visuo-spatial cognition regardless of open-closed typology

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    Ting-Yu Chueh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of open and closed sport participation on visuo-spatial attention and memory performance among young adults. Forty-eight young adults—16 open-skill athletes, 16 closed-skill athletes, and 16 non-athletes controls—were recruited for the study. Both behavioral performance and event-related potential (ERP measurement were assessed when participants performed non-delayed and delayed match-to-sample task that tested visuo-spatial attention and memory processing. Results demonstrated that regardless of training typology, the athlete groups exhibited shorter reaction times in both the visuo-spatial attention and memory conditions than the control group with no existence of speed-accuracy trade-off. Similarly, a larger P3 amplitudes were observed in both athlete groups than in the control group for the visuo-spatial memory condition. These findings suggest that sports training, regardless of typology, are associated with superior visuo-spatial attention and memory performance, and more efficient neural resource allocation in memory processing.

  7. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  8. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Multisensory Integration Affects Visuo-Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Sanabria, Daniel; Lupianez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate how spatial attention, driven by unisensory and multisensory cues, can bias the access of information into visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). In a series of four experiments, we compared the effectiveness of spatially-nonpredictive visual, auditory, or audiovisual cues in capturing participants' spatial…

  10. Detection of auditory signals in quiet and noisy backgrounds while performing a visuo-spatial task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha W Rawool

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ability to detect important auditory signals while performing visual tasks may be further compounded by background chatter. Thus, it is important to know how task performance may interact with background chatter to hinder signal detection. Aim: To examine any interactive effects of speech spectrum noise and task performance on the ability to detect signals. Settings and Design: The setting was a sound-treated booth. A repeated measures design was used. Materials and Methods: Auditory thresholds of 20 normal adults were determined at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz in the following conditions presented in a random order: (1 quiet with attention; (2 quiet with a visuo-spatial task or puzzle (distraction; (3 noise with attention and (4 noise with task. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA with three repeated factors (quiet versus noise, visuo-spatial task versus no task, signal frequency. Results: MANOVA revealed significant main effects for noise and signal frequency and significant noise–frequency and task–frequency interactions. Distraction caused by performing the task worsened the thresholds for tones presented at the beginning of the experiment and had no effect on tones presented in the middle. At the end of the experiment, thresholds (4 kHz were better while performing the task than those obtained without performing the task. These effects were similar across the quiet and noise conditions. Conclusion: Detection of auditory signals is difficult at the beginning of a distracting visuo-spatial task but over time, task learning and auditory training effects can nullify the effect of distraction and may improve detection of high frequency sounds.

  11. Melatonin administration impairs visuo-spatial performance and inhibits neocortical long-term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Flores, Francisco; Valladares, Luis; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Paula; Hernández, Alejandro

    2006-10-01

    Melatonin has been shown to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices of rats. Since LTP may be one of the main mechanisms by which memory traces are encoded and stored in the central nervous system, it is possible that melatonin could modulate cognitive performance by interfering with the cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved in LTP. We investigated in rats the effects of intraperitoneally-administered melatonin (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg), its saline-ethanol solvent, or saline alone, on the acquisition of visuo-spatial memory as well as on the ability of the cerebral cortex to develop LTP in vivo. Visuo-spatial performance was assessed daily in rats, for 10 days, in an 8-arm radial maze, 30 min after they received a single daily dose of melatonin. Visual cortex LTP was determined in sodium pentobarbital anesthetized rats (65 mg/kg i.p.), by potentiating transcallosal evoked responses with a tetanizing train (312 Hz, 500 ms duration) 30 min after administration of a single dose of melatonin. Results showed that melatonin impaired visuo-spatial performance in rats, as revealed by the greater number of errors committed and time spent to solve the task in the radial maze. Melatonin also prevented the induction of neocortical LTP. It is concluded that melatonin, at the doses utilized in this study, could alter some forms of neocortical plasticity involved in short- and long-term visuo-spatial memories in rats.

  12. Visuo-Spatial Attention in ADHD Children: Investigating the Asymmetry

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    Faranak Aliabadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was comparing visuo-spatial attention between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Inattentive (ADHD-I type and normal children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study fifteen (7-10 years of age children were classified with ADHD-I type and 15 normal children were matched for age, sex, and IQ. They were selected trough simple random sampling. Measurement tools were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children 4th edition (WISC-IV, the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and the Star Cancellation Test. Results: The results suggest that there is no significant difference between ADHD-I and normal children from the visuo-spatial standpoint (P>0.05. But three ADHD-I children exhibited signs of unilateral neglect. Discussion: Although, in this study the visuo-spatial attention was not different between ADHD-I group and normal group, considering this form of attention as an item in assessment and therapeutic interventions should not be neglected.

  13. Does visuo-spatial working memory generally contribute to immediate serial letter recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, A; Rummer, R; Schweppe, J

    2013-01-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of the visual similarity effect in verbal working memory, a finding that suggests that the visuo-spatial sketch pad-the system in Baddeley's working memory model specialised in retaining nonverbal visual information-might be involved in the retention of visually presented verbal materials. Crucially this effect is implicitly interpreted by the most influential theory of multimedia learning as evidence for an obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We claim that it is only involved when the functioning of the working memory component normally used for processing verbal material is impaired. In this article we review the studies that give rise to the idea of obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad and suggest that some findings can be understood with reference to orthographic rather than visual similarity. We then test an alternative explanation of the finding that is most apt to serve as evidence for obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We conclude that, in healthy adults and under normal learning conditions, the visual similarity effect can be explained within the framework of verbal working memory proposed by Baddeley (e.g., 1986, 2000) without additional premises regarding the visuo-spatial sketch.

  14. Fractionation of visuo-spatial memory processes in bipolar depression: a cognitive scaffolding account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, P.; Gray, J.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of neurocognitive performance in bipolar disorder (BD) have demonstrated impairments in visuo-spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to use an object-location memory (OLM) paradigm to assess specific, dissociable processes in visuo-spatial memory and examine

  15. Fractionation of visuo-spatial memory processes in bipolar depression: a cognitive scaffolding account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, P.; Gray, J.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of neurocognitive performance in bipolar disorder (BD) have demonstrated impairments in visuo-spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to use an object-location memory (OLM) paradigm to assess specific, dissociable processes in visuo-spatial memory and examine

  16. How to enhance route learning and visuo-spatial working memory in aging: a training for residential care home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitolo, Micaela; Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Carbone, Elena; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a route-learning training in a group of older adults living in a residential care home. We verified the presence of training-specific effects in tasks similar to those trained - route-learning tasks - as well as transfer effects on related cognitive processes - visuo-spatial short-term memory (VSSTM; Corsi Blocks Test (CBT), forward version), visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM; CBT, backward version; Pathway Span Tasks; Jigsaw Puzzle Test) - and in self-report measures. The maintenance of training benefits was examined after 3 months. Thirty 70-90-year-old residential care home residents were randomly assigned to the route-learning training group or to an active control group (involved in non-visuo-spatial activities). The trained group performed better than the control group in the route-learning tasks, retaining this benefit 3 months later. Immediate transfer effects were also seen in visuo-spatial span tasks (i.e., CBT forward and backward version and Pathway Span Task); these benefits had been substantially maintained at the 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that a training on route learning is a promising approach to sustain older adults' environmental learning and some related abilities (e.g., VSSTM and VSWM), even in residential care home residents.

  17. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  18. Domain general sequence operations contribute to pre-SMA involvement in visuo-spatial processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles eLeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed mental rotation in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement.

  19. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men's superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement.

  20. Visuo-spatial interference affects the identification of emotional facial expressions in unmedicated Parkinson's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Guillén, Carmen Casares; Barba, Rosa Jurado; io Valladolid, Gabriel Rub; Arjona, José Antonio Molina; Ellgring, Heiner

    2012-02-15

    There is evidence that visuo-spatial capacity can become overloaded when processing a secondary visual task (Dual Task, DT), as occurs in daily life. Hence, we investigated the influence of the visuo-spatial interference in the identification of emotional facial expressions (EFEs) in early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the identification of 24 emotional faces that illustrate six basic emotions in, unmedicated recently diagnosed PD patients (16) and healthy adults (20), under two different conditions: a) simple EFE identification, and b) identification with a concurrent visuo-spatial task (Corsi Blocks). EFE identification by PD patients was significantly worse than that of healthy adults when combined with another visual stimulus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus, M; Mascia, M L; Fastame, M C; Melis, V; Pilloni, M C; Penna, M P

    2015-01-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment

  2. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  3. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D’Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men’s superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement. PMID:27445734

  4. Spatial Asynchronous Visuo-Tactile Stimuli influence Ownership of Virtual Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anastassia; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    This poster describes a within-subject study of the virtual body ownership (VBO) illusion using anatomically similar but morphologically different body of a virtual bat. Participants experienced visuo-tactile stimulation of their arms while seeing an object touching the wing of the bat. The mapping...... between the real and the virtual touch points varied across three conditions: no spatial deviation between visual and tactile input, 50% deviation, and 70% deviation. The results suggest that the degree of experienced VBO varies across the conditions. The illusion was broken in the absence of visuo...

  5. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  6. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Chiara; Kemény, Ferenc; Gangl, Melanie; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina; Landerl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191) of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling). Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials) was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect). Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing), we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing). Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the causal status of

  7. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Banfi

    Full Text Available Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191 of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling. Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect. Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing, we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing. Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the

  8. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Anne; Honekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large heterogeneity that is unaccounted for. No clear differences were found for Mental Rotation. ASD samples showed a stronger local processing preference for...

  9. Covert is better than overt when rehearsing Visuo-Spatial information in working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godijn, R.J.; Theeuwes, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether eye movements facilitate retention of visuo-spatial information in working memory. In two experiments, participants memorised the sequence of the spatial locations of six digits across a retention interval. In some conditions, participants were free to move

  10. Effect of Insulin on Visuo-Spatial Memory and Histology of Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    the neuronal networks, based on long-term potentiation (LTP) ... insulin syringe daily between the hours of 8:00 – 9:00 am. The mice ... findings. Assessment of long-term visuo-spatial learning and ... (Handycam, SONY, Japan) recorded movement of the mice for later .... laboratory methods, and which this work did not seek.

  11. ViSA: a neurodynamic model for visuo-spatial working memory, attentional blink, and conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus; Salmas, Paola; Nakatani, Chie; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-10-01

    Two separate lines of study have clarified the role of selectivity in conscious access to visual information. Both involve presenting multiple targets and distracters: one simultaneously in a spatially distributed fashion, the other sequentially at a single location. To understand their findings in a unified framework, we propose a neurodynamic model for Visual Selection and Awareness (ViSA). ViSA supports the view that neural representations for conscious access and visuo-spatial working memory are globally distributed and are based on recurrent interactions between perceptual and access control processors. Its flexible global workspace mechanisms enable a unitary account of a broad range of effects: It accounts for the limited storage capacity of visuo-spatial working memory, attentional cueing, and efficient selection with multi-object displays, as well as for the attentional blink and associated sparing and masking effects. In particular, the speed of consolidation for storage in visuo-spatial working memory in ViSA is not fixed but depends adaptively on the input and recurrent signaling. Slowing down of consolidation due to weak bottom-up and recurrent input as a result of brief presentation and masking leads to the attentional blink. Thus, ViSA goes beyond earlier 2-stage and neuronal global workspace accounts of conscious processing limitations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Visuo-spatial processing in a dynamic and a static working memory paradigm in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise; Volken, Henri

    2007-01-01

    patients with schizophrenia and matched controls in a new working memory paradigm involving dynamic (the Ball Flight Task - BFT) or static (the Static Pattern Task - SPT) visual stimuli. In the BFT, the responses of the patients were apparently based on the retention of the last set of segments...... that visuo-spatial working memory can simply be dissociated into visual and spatial sub-components....

  13. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  14. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  15. Visual unimodal grouping mediates auditory attentional bias in visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Lupiáñez, Juan; Sanabria, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Audiovisual links in spatial attention have been reported in many previous studies. However, the effectiveness of auditory spatial cues in biasing the information encoding into visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) is still relatively unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue by combining a cuing paradigm with a change detection task in VSWM. Moreover, we manipulated the perceptual organization of the to-be-remembered visual stimuli. We hypothesized that the auditory effect on VSWM would depend on the perceptual association between the auditory cue and the visual probe. Results showed, for the first time, a significant auditory attentional bias in VSWM. However, the effect was observed only when the to-be-remembered visual stimuli were organized in two distinctive visual objects. We propose that these results shed new light on audio-visual crossmodal links in spatial attention suggesting that, apart from the spatio-temporal contingency, the likelihood of perceptual association between the auditory cue and the visual target can have a large impact on crossmodal attentional biases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Visuo-spatial processing in a dynamic and a static working memory paradigm in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise; Volken, Henri

    2007-01-01

    patients with schizophrenia and matched controls in a new working memory paradigm involving dynamic (the Ball Flight Task - BFT) or static (the Static Pattern Task - SPT) visual stimuli. In the BFT, the responses of the patients were apparently based on the retention of the last set of segments...... that visuo-spatial working memory can simply be dissociated into visual and spatial sub-components....... of the perceived trajectory, whereas control subjects relied on a more global strategy. We assume that the patients' performances are the result of a reduced capacity in chunking visual information since they relied mainly on the retention of the last set of segments. This assumption is confirmed by the poor...

  17. Spatial ability in computer-aided design courses

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Ribé, Jordi; Alpiste Penalba, Francesc; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that spatial ability is an important factor in the study of Industrial Engineering. Spatial ability is fundamentally important to the work of an engineer, as it is vital for project design. Among other elements, spatial ability correlates with factors such as good academic results and a natural ability to learn how to use I.T systems and computer programs. Furthermore, the new framework drawn up by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guides us as to the...

  18. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  19. Deficits in Visuo-Motor Temporal Integration Impacts Manual Dexterity in Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobusako, Satoshi; Sakai, Ayami; Tsujimoto, Taeko; Shuto, Takashi; Nishi, Yuki; Asano, Daiki; Furukawa, Emi; Zama, Takuro; Osumi, Michihiro; Shimada, Sotaro; Morioka, Shu; Nakai, Akio

    2018-01-01

    The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group. The former was comprised of 29 children with clumsy manual dexterity, while the latter consisted of 42 children with normal manual dexterity. Visuo-motor temporal integration ability and automatic-imitation function were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task and motor interference task, respectively. Further, the current study investigated whether autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits, and depressive symptoms differed among the two groups, since these symptoms are frequent comorbidities of DCD. In addition, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to extract factors affecting clumsy manual dexterity. In the results, the delay-detection threshold (DDT) and steepness of the delay-detection probability curve, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration ability, were significantly prolonged and decreased, respectively, in children with pDCD. The interference effect, which indicated automatic-imitation function, was also significantly reduced in this group. These results highlighted that children with clumsy manual dexterity have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration and automatic-imitation function. There was a significant correlation between manual dexterity, and measures of visuo-motor temporal integration, and ASD traits and ADHD traits and

  20. The impact of path crossing on visuo-spatial serial memory: encoding or rehearsal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    The determinants of visuo-spatial serial memory have been the object of little research, despite early evidence that not all sequences are equally remembered. Recently, empirical evidence was reported indicating that the complexity of the path formed by the to-be-remembered locations impacted on recall performance, defined for example by the presence of crossings in the path formed by successive locations (Parmentier, Elford, & Maybery, 2005). In this study, we examined whether this effect reflects rehearsal or encoding processes. We examined the effect of a retention interval and spatial interference on the ordered recall of spatial sequences with and without path crossings. Path crossings decreased recall performance, as did a retention interval. In line with the encoding hypothesis, but in contrast with the rehearsal hypothesis, the effect of crossing was not affected by the retention interval nor by tapping. The possible nature of the impact of path crossing on encoding mechanisms is discussed.

  1. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  2. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  3. Mapping of the Underlying Neural Mechanisms of Maintenance and Manipulation in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Using An n-back Mental Rotation Task: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Gemma; Alexander, Bonnie; Laycock, Robin; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of the underlying neural mechanisms of visuo-spatial working memory (WM) has been shown to consistently elicit activity in right hemisphere dominant fronto-parietal networks. However to date, the bulk of neuroimaging literature has focused largely on the maintenance aspect of visuo-spatial WM, with a scarcity of research into the aspects of WM involving manipulation of information. Thus, this study aimed to compare maintenance-only with maintenance and manipulation of visuo-spatial stimuli (3D cube shapes) utilizing a 1-back task while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were acquired. Sixteen healthy participants (9 women, M = 23.94 years, SD = 2.49) were required to perform the 1-back task with or without mentally rotating the shapes 90° on a vertical axis. When no rotation was required (maintenance-only condition), a right hemispheric lateralization was revealed across fronto-parietal areas. However, when the task involved maintaining and manipulating the same stimuli through 90° rotation, activation was primarily seen in the bilateral parietal lobe and left fusiform gyrus. The findings confirm that the well-established right lateralized fronto-parietal networks are likely to underlie simple maintenance of visuo-spatial stimuli. The results also suggest that the added demand of manipulation of information maintained online appears to require further neural recruitment of functionally related areas. In particular mental rotation of visuospatial stimuli required bilateral parietal areas, and the left fusiform gyrus potentially to maintain a categorical or object representation. It can be concluded that WM is a complex neural process involving the interaction of an increasingly large network.

  4. Lack of awareness for spatial and verbal constructive apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Maria Cristina; Piras, Federica; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether constructive apraxia (CA) should be considered a form of apraxia or, rather, the motor expression of a more pervasive impairment in visuo-spatial processing. Constructive disorders were linked to visuo-spatial disorders and to deficits in appreciating spatial relations among component sub-parts or problems in reproducing three-dimensionality. We screened a large population of brain-damaged patients for CA. Only patients with constructive disorders and no signs of neglect and/or aphasia were selected. Five apractic subjects were tested with both visuo-spatial and verbal tasks requiring constructive abilities. The former ones were tests such as design copying, while the latter were experimental tasks built to transpose into the linguistic domain the constructive process as phrasing by arranging paper scraps into a sentence. A first result showed a constructive impairment in both the visuo-spatial and the linguistic domain; this finding challenges the idea that CA is confined to the visuo-spatial domain. A second result showed a systematic association between CA and unawareness for constructive disorders. Third, lack of awareness was always associated with a lesion in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region deemed as involved in managing a conflict between intentions and sensory feed-back. Anosognosia for constructive disorders and the potential role of the right prefrontal cortex in generating the impairment, are discussed in the light of current models of action control. The core of CA could be the inability to detect any inconsistency between intended and executed action rather than a deficit in reproducing spatial relationship. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visuo-spatial working memory is an important source of domain-general vulnerability in the development of arithmetic cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W S; Swigart, Anna G; Menon, Vinod

    2013-09-01

    The study of developmental disorders can provide a unique window into the role of domain-general cognitive abilities and neural systems in typical and atypical development. Mathematical disabilities (MD) are characterized by marked difficulty in mathematical cognition in the presence of preserved intelligence and verbal ability. Although studies of MD have most often focused on the role of core deficits in numerical processing, domain-general cognitive abilities, in particular working memory (WM), have also been implicated. Here we identify specific WM components that are impaired in children with MD and then examine their role in arithmetic problem solving. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, the MD group demonstrated lower arithmetic performance and lower visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) scores with preserved abilities on the phonological and central executive components of WM. Whole brain analysis revealed that, during arithmetic problem solving, left posterior parietal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and fusiform gyrus responses were positively correlated with VSWM ability in TD children, but not in the MD group. Additional analyses using a priori posterior parietal cortex regions previously implicated in WM tasks, demonstrated a convergent pattern of results during arithmetic problem solving. These results suggest that MD is characterized by a common locus of arithmetic and VSWM deficits at both the cognitive and functional neuroanatomical levels. Unlike TD children, children with MD do not use VSWM resources appropriately during arithmetic problem solving. This work advances our understanding of VSWM as an important domain-general cognitive process in both typical and atypical mathematical skill development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of drawing pattern, organizational ability, and visuospatial memory in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared drawing pattern, organizational ability, and visuo- spatial memory in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighty male students (40 with, and 40 without ADHD, were recruited from schools in Tehran. The participants were screened and diagnosed respectively utilizing a researcher-made checklist, and DSM-IV (2000. Rey- Osterreith Complex Figure Form-A was used to collect the data. The results of analysis revealed that drawing pattern, organizational ability, and visuo- spatial memory are lower in children with ADHD (p<0.05. Accordingly, it can be suggested that children with ADHD have significant deficits in aforementioned cognitive and executive functions. The clinical implications have been discussed.

  7. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  8. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha2C-adrenoceptor density in the cerebral cortex during postnatal life and impairs neocortical long-term potentiation and visuo-spatial performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Valladares, Luis; Sierralta, Walter; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Fernández, Victor; Burgos, Héctor; Hernández, Alejandro

    2005-06-01

    Mild reduction in the protein content of the mother's diet from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but leads to significant enhancements in the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during early postnatal life. Since central noradrenaline and some of its receptors are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation, this study evaluated the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha2C-adrenoceptor density in the frontal and occipital cortices, induction of LTP in the same cortical regions and the visuo-spatial memory. Pups born from rats fed a 25% casein diet throughout pregnancy served as controls. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats showed a threefold increase in neocortical alpha2C-adrenoceptor density. At 60 days-of-age, alpha2C-adrenoceptor density was still elevated in the neocortex, and the animals were unable to maintain neocortical LTP and presented lower visuo-spatial memory performance. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha2C-adrenoceptors during postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could functionally affect the synaptic networks subserving neocortical LTP and visuo-spatial memory formation.

  9. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  10. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style

    OpenAIRE

    Tasc?n, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, Jos? M.

    2017-01-01

    Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displa...

  11. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  13. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  14. Factors Affecting the Clinical Measurement of Visuo-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzamiglio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.

  15. Development of visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in typical preschool and school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, Giulia; Cioni, Giovanni; Tinelli, Francesca

    2018-07-01

    Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age. Participants were tested through a clinical protocol, involving visual exploration of black-and-white photographs of common objects, haptic exploration of real objects, and visuo-haptic transfer of these two types of information. Results show an age-dependent development of object recognition abilities for visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic modalities. A significant effect of time on development of unimodal and crossmodal recognition skills was found. Moreover, our data suggest that multisensory processes for common object recognition are active at 4 years of age. They facilitate recognition of common objects, and, although not fully mature, are significant in adaptive behavior from the first years of age. The study of typical development of visuo-haptic processes in childhood is a starting point for future studies regarding object recognition in impaired populations.

  16. Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S L; Schaie, K W

    1986-09-01

    We examined the effects of cognitive training with elderly participants from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Subjects were classified as having remained stable or having declined over the previous 14-year interval on each of two primary abilities, spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Subjects who had declined on one of these abilities received training on that ability; subjects who had declined on both abilities or who had remained stable on both were randomly assigned to the spatial orientation or inductive reasoning training programs. Training outcomes were examined within an ability-measurement framework with empirically determined factorial structure. Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. These effects were general, in that no significant interactions with decline status or gender were found. Thus, training interventions were effective both in remediating cognitive decline on the target abilities and in improving the performance of stable subjects.

  17. Relationship between Reading/Writing Skills and Cognitive Abilities among Japanese Primary-School Children: Normal Readers versus Poor Readers (Dyslexics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N.; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Shinya, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-five Japanese primary-school children aged from 8 (Grade-2) to 12 (Grade-6) were tested for their abilities to read/write in Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji, for their size of vocabulary and for other cognitive abilities including arithmetic, visuo-spatial and phonological processing. Percentages of the children whose…

  18. Psychological Measures of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial abilities are divided into three categories: mental rotation, spatial relation and visualization. Several tests are cited in foreign literature that are frequently used in order to assess these abilities, but for Romanian specialists they are not on hand. The present paper is introducing new assessment tools for static spatial abilities that were successfully used along with already validated instruments. Data on statistical qualities of the new instruments are also discussed.

  19. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive

  20. Multisensory Cues Capture Spatial Attention Regardless of Perceptual Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    We compared the ability of auditory, visual, and audiovisual (bimodal) exogenous cues to capture visuo-spatial attention under conditions of no load versus high perceptual load. Participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of visual targets preceded by either unimodal or bimodal cues under conditions of high perceptual load (in…

  1. A foundation for savantism? Visuo-spatial synaesthetes present with cognitive benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Mayo, Neil; Spiller, Mary-Jane

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with 'time-space' synaesthesia have conscious awareness of mappings between time and space (e.g., they may see months arranged in an ellipse, or years as columns or spirals). These mappings exist in the 3D space around the body or in a virtual space within the mind's eye. Our study shows that these extra-ordinary mappings derive from, or give rise to, superior abilities in the two domains linked by this cross-modal phenomenon (i.e., abilities relating to time, and visualised space). We tested ten time-space synaesthetes with a battery of temporal and visual/spatial tests. Our temporal battery (the Edinburgh [Public and Autobiographical] Events Battery - EEB) assessed both autobiographical and non-autobiographical memory for events. Our visual/spatial tests assessed the ability to manipulate real or imagined objects in 3D space (the Three Dimensional Constructional Praxis test; Visual Object and Space Perception Battery, University of Southern California Mental Rotation Test) as well as assessing visual memory recall (Visual Patterns Test - VPT). Synaesthetes' performance was superior to the control population in every assessment, but was not superior in tasks that do not draw upon abilities related to their mental calendars. Our paper discusses the implications of this temporal-spatial advantage as it relates to normal processing, synaesthetic processing, and to the savant-like condition of hyperthymestic syndrome (Parker et al., 2006).

  2. Assessment of Intellectual and Visuo- Spatial Abilities in Children and Adults with Williams Syndrome / Evaluación de habilidades intelectuales y visuoespaciales de niños y adultos con Síndrome de Williams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Williams-Beuren syndrome (SWB, also known as Williams syndrome, is a contiguous gene deletion of the region 7q.11.23. The main clinical characteristics are typical faces, supravalvular aortic stenosis, failure to thrive, short stature, transient neonatal hypercalcemia, delayed language, friendly personality, hyperacusis and intellectual disability. The diagnosis of SWB is confirmed by the detection of micro deletion by different techniques of molecular cytogenetics, FISH, MLPA or polymorphic markers. This study assessed the verbal intelligence quotient (IQ and performance and visuospatial skills in children and adults with WBS. The composed group was of 31 WBS patients (19 M and 12 F, whose ages ranged from 9 to 26 years (M 14.45 y. All patients had the diagnosis confirmed molecularly. The tests used were the WISC-III, WAIS-III and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. The results indicated a total IQ ranged from 51 to 86 (M 63: 22 with mild intellectual disability, 4 with moderate intellectual disability, 4 borderlines and 1 below the normal media. All patients had marked visual-spatial deficits. The results suggest nonverbal reasoning, visuo-spatial perception, spatial representation, working memory, motor planning and executive functions are very affected in this group.

  3. The neural correlates of visuo-spatial working memory in children with autism spectrum disorder: effects of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, Vanessa M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Powell, Tamara L; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J

    2014-01-01

    Research on the neural bases of cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shown that working memory (WM) difficulties are associated with abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, cognitive load impacts these findings, and no studies have examined the relation between WM load and neural underpinnings in children with ASD. Thus, the current study determined the effects of cognitive load on WM, using a visuo-spatial WM capacity task in children with and without ASD with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used fMRI and a 1-back colour matching task (CMT) task with four levels of difficulty to compare the cortical activation patterns associated with WM in children (7-13 years old) with high functioning autism (N = 19) and matched controls (N = 17) across cognitive load. Performance on CMT was comparable between groups, with the exception of one difficulty level. Using linear trend analyses, the control group showed increasing activation as a function of difficulty level in frontal and parietal lobes, particularly between the highest difficulty levels, and decreasing activation as a function of difficulty level in the posterior cingulate and medial frontal gyri. In contrast, children with ASD showed increasing activation only in posterior brain regions and decreasing activation in the posterior cingulate and medial frontal gyri, as a function of difficulty level. Significant differences were found in the precuneus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial premotor cortex, where control children showed greater positive linear relations between cortical activity and task difficulty level, particularly at the highest difficulty levels, but children with ASD did not show these trends. Children with ASD showed differences in activation in the frontal and parietal lobes-both critical substrates for visuo-spatial WM. Our data suggest that children with ASD rely mainly on posterior brain regions associated with visual and lower level

  4. Lack of Awareness for Spatial and Verbal Constructive Apraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Maria Cristina; Piras, Federica; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether constructive apraxia (CA) should be considered a form of apraxia or, rather, the motor expression of a more pervasive impairment in visuo-spatial processing. Constructive disorders were linked to visuo-spatial disorders and to deficits in appreciating spatial relations among component sub-parts or problems in…

  5. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  6. Effects of nicotine on visuo-spatial selective attention as indexed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, A; Thiel, C M; Fink, G R

    2006-08-11

    Nicotine has been shown to specifically reduce reaction times to invalidly cued targets in spatial cueing paradigms. In two experiments, we used event-related potentials to test whether the facilitative effect of nicotine upon the detection of invalidly cued targets is due to a modulation of perceptual processing, as indexed by early attention-related event-related potential components. Furthermore, we assessed whether the effect of nicotine on such unattended stimuli depends upon the use of exogenous or endogenous cues. In both experiments, the electroencephalogram was recorded while non-smokers completed discrimination tasks in Posner-type paradigms after chewing a nicotine polacrilex gum (Nicorette 2 mg) in one session and a placebo gum in another session. Nicotine reduced reaction times to invalidly cued targets when cueing was endogenous. In contrast, no differential effect of nicotine on reaction times was observed when exogenous cues were used. Electrophysiologically, we found a similar attentional modulation of the P1 and N1 components under placebo and nicotine but a differential modulation of later event-related potential components at a frontocentral site. The lack of a drug-dependent modulation of P1 and N1 in the presence of a behavioral effect suggests that the effect of nicotine in endogenous visuo-spatial cueing tasks is not due to an alteration of perceptual processes. Rather, the differential modulation of frontocentral event-related potentials suggests that nicotine acts at later stages of target processing.

  7. How Do Different Aspects of Spatial Skills Relate to Early Arithmetic and Number Line Estimation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Cornu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the predictive role of spatial skills for arithmetic and number line estimation in kindergarten children (N = 125. Spatial skills are known to be related to mathematical development, but due to the construct’s non-unitary nature, different aspects of spatial skills need to be differentiated. In the present study, a spatial orientation task, a spatial visualization task and visuo-motor integration task were administered to assess three different aspects of spatial skills. Furthermore, we assessed counting abilities, knowledge of Arabic numerals, quantitative knowledge, as well as verbal working memory and verbal intelligence in kindergarten. Four months later, the same children performed an arithmetic and a number line estimation task to evaluate how the abilities measured at Time 1 predicted early mathematics outcomes. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that children’s performance in arithmetic was predicted by their performance on the spatial orientation and visuo-motor integration task, as well as their knowledge of the Arabic numerals. Performance in number line estimation was significantly predicted by the children’s spatial orientation performance. Our findings emphasize the role of spatial skills, notably spatial orientation, in mathematical development. The relation between spatial orientation and arithmetic was partially mediated by the number line estimation task. Our results further show that some aspects of spatial skills might be more predictive of mathematical development than others, underlining the importance to differentiate within the construct of spatial skills when it comes to understanding numerical development.

  8. Effects of Gender Differences and Spatial Abilities within a Digital Pentominoes Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability is a critical skill in geometric learning. Several studies investigate how to use digital games to improve spatial abilities. However, not every learner favors this kind of support. To this end, there is a need to examine how human factors affect learners' reactions to the use of a digital game to support geometric learning. In…

  9. Effect of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on digital working memory and spatial localization in a healthy Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Chen, Dongmei; Ge, Wanhua; Lv, Changchao; Zhang, Kejin; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Fuchang

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive abilities are complex human traits influenced by genetic factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a unique polypeptide growth factor, has an influence on the differentiation and survival of neurons in the nervous system. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6265) in the human gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution in the pro-BDNF protein, was thought to associate with psychiatric disorders and might play roles in the individual difference of cognitive abilities. However, the specific roles of the gene in cognition remain unclear. To investigate the relationships between the substitution and cognitive abilities, a healthy population-based study and the PCR-SSCP method were performed. The results showed the substitution was associated with digital working memory (p = 0.02) and spatial localization (p = 0.03), but not with inhibition, shifting, updating, visuo-spatial working memory, long-term memory, and others (p > 0.05) among the compared genotype groups analyzed by general linear model. On the other hand, the participants with BDNF (GG) had higher average performance in digital working memory and spatial localization than the ones with BDNF (AA). The findings of the present work implied that the variation in BDNF might play positive roles in human digital working memory and spatial localization.

  10. Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Klaartje; Feredoes, Eva; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the frontal eye-fields (FEF) in the dorsal attention network (DAN) guide top-down selective attention. In addition, converging evidence implies a causal role for the FEF in attention shifting, which is also known to recruit the ventral attention network (VAN) and fronto-striatal regions. To investigate the causal influence of the FEF as (part of) a central hub between these networks, we applied thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) off-line, combined with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) during a cued visuo-spatial attention shifting paradigm. We found that TBS over the right FEF impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in both hemifields following attention shifts, while only left hemifield performance was affected when participants were cued to maintain the focus of attention. These effects recovered ca. 20min post stimulation. Furthermore, particularly following attention shifts, TBS suppressed the neural signal in bilateral FEF, right inferior and superior parietal lobule (IPL/SPL) and bilateral supramarginal gyri (SMG). Immediately post stimulation, functional connectivity was impaired between right FEF and right SMG as well as right putamen. Importantly, the extent of decreased connectivity between right FEF and right SMG correlated with behavioural impairment following attention shifts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that influences from right FEF on SMG in the ventral attention network causally underly attention shifts, presumably by enabling disengagement from the current focus of attention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

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    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  12. The Yin and the Yang of visuo-spatial neglect: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J C; Halligan, P W

    1994-09-01

    We report a patient (R.B.) who has shown gross left visuo-spatial neglect over the 3 years since he sustained a right parietal infarct. Although his neglect is severe on such tasks as line bisection, cancellation, and drawing, there are some domains of preserved perceptual performance: he can perceive subjective contours, he can use lateral symmetry as a cue to figure-ground segregation, and he benefits from some forms of global cueing. In a series of five experiments, we show that R.B. has a selective inability to analyse and copy accurately the left contours of geometric nonsense-figures. These results hold even when there is a single vertical contour (to be copied) that divides a rectangle or a circle into two sub-figures; this physically-identical boundary is copied more accurately when it is cued as the right edge of the left sub-figure than when it is cued as the left edge of the right sub-figure. These effects are not influenced by a manipulation in which R.B. is required to trace the outline of the relevant sub-figure with his finger immediately prior to drawing his copy. The results are interpreted in terms of classical Gestalt theories of figure-ground assignment. Pre-attentive (global) figure-ground parsing is basically intact; but when focal attention is demanded, only the right side of an object is coded as figure.

  13. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  14. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  15. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  16. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  17. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all pshort-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. The magnetic touch illusion: A perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterstam, Arvid; Zeberg, Hugo; Özçiftci, Vedat Menderes; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-10-01

    To accurately localize our limbs and guide movements toward external objects, the brain must represent the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) visual space. Specific multisensory neurons encode peripersonal space in the monkey brain, and neurobehavioral studies have suggested the existence of a similar representation in humans. However, because peripersonal space lacks a distinct perceptual correlate, its involvement in spatial and bodily perception remains unclear. Here, we show that applying brushstrokes in mid-air at some distance above a rubber hand-without touching it-in synchrony with brushstrokes applied to a participant's hidden real hand results in the illusory sensation of a "magnetic force" between the brush and the rubber hand, which strongly correlates with the perception of the rubber hand as one's own. In eight experiments, we characterized this "magnetic touch illusion" by using quantitative subjective reports, motion tracking, and behavioral data consisting of pointing errors toward the rubber hand in an intermanual pointing task. We found that the illusion depends on visuo-tactile synchrony and exhibits similarities with the visuo-tactile receptive field properties of peripersonal space neurons, featuring a non-linear decay at 40cm that is independent of gaze direction and follows changes in the rubber hand position. Moreover, the "magnetic force" does not penetrate physical barriers, thus further linking this phenomenon to body-specific visuo-tactile integration processes. These findings provide strong support for the notion that multisensory integration within peripersonal space underlies bodily self-attribution. Furthermore, we propose that the magnetic touch illusion constitutes a perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Tale of Two Types of Perspective Taking: Sex Differences in Spatial Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarampi, Margaret R; Heydari, Nahal; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in favor of males have been documented in measures of spatial perspective taking. In this research, we examined whether social factors (i.e., stereotype threat and the inclusion of human figures in tasks) account for these differences. In Experiment 1, we evaluated performance when perspective-taking tests were framed as measuring either spatial or social (empathetic) perspective-taking abilities. In the spatial condition, tasks were framed as measures of spatial ability on which males have an advantage. In the social condition, modified tasks contained human figures and were framed as measures of empathy on which females have an advantage. Results showed a sex difference in favor of males in the spatial condition but not the social condition. Experiments 2 and 3 indicated that both stereotype threat and including human figures contributed to these effects. Results suggest that females may underperform on spatial tests in part because of negative performance expectations and the character of the spatial tests rather than because of actual lack of abilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  2. Visuo-perceptual capabilities predict sensitivity for coinciding auditory and visual transients in multi-element displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Gehrer, Nina A

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a coherent representation of the outside world, auditory and visual information are integrated during human information processing. There is remarkable variance among observers in the capability to integrate auditory and visual information. Here, we propose that visuo-perceptual capabilities predict detection performance for audiovisually coinciding transients in multi-element displays due to severe capacity limitations in audiovisual integration. In the reported experiment, we employed an individual differences approach in order to investigate this hypothesis. Therefore, we measured performance in a useful-field-of-view task that captures detection performance for briefly presented stimuli across a large perceptual field. Furthermore, we measured sensitivity for visual direction changes that coincide with tones within the same participants. Our results show that individual differences in visuo-perceptual capabilities predicted sensitivity for the presence of audiovisually synchronous events among competing visual stimuli. To ensure that this correlation does not stem from superordinate factors, we also tested performance in an unrelated working memory task. Performance in this task was independent of sensitivity for the presence of audiovisually synchronous events. Our findings strengthen the proposed link between visuo-perceptual capabilities and audiovisual integration. The results also suggest that basic visuo-perceptual capabilities provide the basis for the subsequent integration of auditory and visual information.

  3. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  4. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  5. Perceptual load affects exogenous spatial orienting while working memory load does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Finoia, Paola; Raffone, Antonino; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether or not increasing visual perceptual load or visual working memory (WM) load would affect the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention, in order to assess whether or not exogenous orienting is genuinely automatic. In Experiment 1, we manipulated visual perceptual load by means of a central morphing shape that in some trials morphed into a particular target shape (a rectangle) that participants had to detect. In Experiment 2, the possibility that the presentation of any changing stimulus at fixation would eliminate exogenous orienting was ruled out, by presenting two alternating letters at fixation. In Experiment 3, we manipulated visual WM load by means of arrays consisting of three (low-load) or five (high-load) randomly located coloured squares. The participants had to remember these items in order to judge whether a cued square had been presented in the same or different colour at the end of each trial. In all the experiments, exogenous visuo-spatial attentional orienting was measured by means of an orthogonal spatial cuing task, in which the participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of a visual target previously cued by a spatially nonpredictive visual cue. The results showed that increasing the perceptual load of the task eliminated the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention. By contrast, increasing the WM load had no effect on spatial orienting. These results are discussed in terms of the light that they shed on claims regarding the automaticity of visuo-spatial exogenous orienting.

  6. Perceiving space and optical cues via a visuo-tactile sensory substitution system: a methodological approach for training of blind subjects for navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segond, Hervé; Weiss, Déborah; Kawalec, Magdalena; Sampaio, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    A methodological approach to perceptual learning was used to allow both early blind subjects (experimental group) and blindfolded sighted subjects (control group) to experience optical information and spatial phenomena, on the basis of visuo-tactile information transmitted by a 64-taxel pneumatic sensory substitution device. The learning process allowed the subjects to develop abilities in spatial localisation, shape recognition (with generalisation to different points of view), and monocular depth cue interpretation. During the training phase, early blind people initially experienced more difficulties than blindfolded sighted subjects (having previous perceptual experience of perspective) with interpreting and using monocular depth cues. The amelioration of the performance for all blind subjects during training sessions and the quite similar level of performance reached by two groups in the final navigation tasks suggested that early blind people were able to develop and apply cognitive understanding of depth cues. Both groups showed generalisation of the learning from the initial phases to cue identification in the maze, and subjectively experienced shapes facing them. Subjects' performance depended not only on their perceptual experience but also on their previous spatial competencies.

  7. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  8. Spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  10. Development of the Spatial Ability Test for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…

  11. Vision holds a greater share in visuo-haptic object recognition than touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    approach of multisensory integration would predict that haptics as the less efficient sense for object recognition gains more from integrating additional visual information than vice versa. To test for asymmetries between vision and touch in visuo-haptic interactions, we measured regional changes in brain...... processed the target object, being more pronounced for haptic than visual targets. This preferential response of visuo-haptic regions indicates a modality-specific asymmetry in crossmodal matching of visual and haptic object features, suggesting a functional primacy of vision over touch in visuo...

  12. Body representation difficulties in children and adolescents with autism may be due to delayed development of visuo-tactile temporal binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ropar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests visuo-tactile binding is temporally extended in autism spectrum disorders (ASD, although it is not clear whether this specifically underlies altered body representation in this population. In the current study children and adolescents with ASD, and typically developing controls, placed their hand into mediated reality system (MIRAGE and saw two identical live video images of their own right hand. One image was in the proprioceptively correct location (veridical hand and the other was displaced to either side. While visuo-tactile feedback was applied via brushstroke to the participant’s (unseen right finger, they viewed one hand image receiving synchronous brushstrokes and the other receiving brushstrokes with a temporal delay (60, 180 and 300 ms. After brushing, both images disappeared from view and participants pointed to a target, with direction of movement indicating which hand was embodied. ASD participants, like younger mental aged-matched controls, showed reduced embodiment of the spatially incongruent, but temporally congruent, hand compared to chronologically age-matched controls at shorter temporal delays. This suggests development of visuo-tactile integration may be delayed in ASD. Findings are discussed in relation to atypical body representation in ASD and how this may contribute to social and sensory difficulties within this population. Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Temporal binding window, Visuo-tactile processing, Embodied action

  13. Memória visuo-espacial a curto prazo: os efeitos da supressão articulatória e de uma tarefa aritmética Short-term visuo-spatial memory: the effect of the articulatory suppression and an arithmetic task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Galera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos para avaliar a natureza da informação armazenada pelo sistema de memória visuo-espacial a curto prazo. No primeiro experimento, uma tarefa de localização espacial foi realizada simultaneamente com tarefas intervenientes de supressão articulatória e de subtração aritmética. A tarefa de supressão articulatória afeta de forma negativa a recordação das letras, mas não a dos padrões visuais. Apesar disso, a recordação das letras se mantém superior à recordação dos padrões visuais. Este resultado sugere que o armazenamento dos padrões visuais não utiliza o laço fonológico, e que a tarefa de supressão articulatória, embora iniba o uso do laço fonológico, pode não inibir o acesso à informação semântica. No segundo experimento estabelecemos o efeito da similaridade visual sobre a capacidade de recordação da posição espacial. Os resultados confirmam o uso de códigos visuais e sugerem que a capacidade de armazenamento de estímulos visuais é limitada, mas não se restringe ao efeito de recência.We investigated the nature of the information stored in visuo-spatial short-term memory in two experiments. In the first experiment, a spatial localization task was performed simultaneously with articulatory suppression and arithmetical subtraction tasks. The articulatory suppression has a negative effect on the performance with letters, but not with visual patterns. Despite that, the recall of the letters is better than the recall of the visual patterns. This result suggests that the storage of the visual patterns does not use the phonological loop, and that the articulatory suppression, even if it inhibits the use of the phonological loop, cannot inhibit the access to the semantic information. In the second experiment we established the effect of the visual similarity on the capacity of memory for the spatial position. The results confirm the use of visual codes and suggest that the

  14. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  15. Age-related differences in cortical activity during a visuo-spatial working memory task with facial stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Schechtman Belham

    Full Text Available Emotion, importantly displayed by facial expressions, is one of the most significant memory modulators. The interaction between memory and the different emotional valences change across lifespan, while young adults (YA are expected to better recall negative events (Negativity Bias Hypothesis, older adults (OA tend to focus on positive stimuli (Positivity Effect Hypothesis. This research work aims at verifying whether cortical electrical activity of these two age groups would also be differently influenced by emotional valences in a visuo-spatial working memory task. 27 YA (13 males and 25 OA (14 males, all healthy volunteers, underwent electroencephalographic recordings (21 scalp electrodes montage, while performing the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task using a touch screen with different stimuli categories: neutral, positive and negative faces and geometric pictures. YA obtained higher scores than OA, and showed higher activation of theta and alpha bands in the frontal and midline regions, besides a more evident right-hemispheric asymmetry on alpha band when compared to OA. For both age groups, performance in the task was worse for positive faces than to negative and to neutral faces. Facial stimuli induced a better performance and higher alpha activation on the pre-frontal region for YA, and on the midline, occipital and left temporal regions for OA when compared to geometric figures. The superior performance of YA was expected due to the natural cognitive deficits connected to ageing, as was a better performance with facial stimuli due to the evolutionary importance of faces. These results were related to cortical activity on areas of importance for action-planning, decision making and sustained attention. Taken together, they are in accordance with the Negativity Bias but do not support the Positivity Effect. The methodology used was able to identify age-related differences in cortical activity during emotional mnemonic processing and

  16. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  17. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Spatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…

  18. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  19. The robot hand illusion: inducing proprioceptive drift through visuo-motor congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Daniele; Caffa, Elisa; Hernandez-Arieta, Alejandro; Brugger, Peter; Maravita, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The representation of one's own body sets the border of the self, but also shapes the space where we interact with external objects. Under particular conditions, such as in the rubber hand illusion external objects can be incorporated in one's own body representation, following congruent visuo-tactile stroking of one's own and a fake hand. This procedure induces an illusory sense of ownership for the fake hand and a shift of proprioceptive localization of the own hand towards the fake hand. Here we investigated whether pure visuo-motor, instead of visuo-tactile, congruency between one's own hand and a detached myoelectric-controlled robotic hand can induce similar embodiment effects. We found a shift of proprioceptive hand localization toward the robot hand, only following synchronized real hand/robot hand movements. Notably, no modulation was found of the sense of ownership following either synchronous or asynchronous-movement training. Our findings suggest that visuo-motor synchrony can drive the localization of one's own body parts in space, even when somatosensory input is kept constant and the experience of body ownership is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  1. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harjunen, Ville J.; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spap?, Michiel M.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver’s body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands...

  2. Are the deficits in navigational abilities present in the Williams syndrome related to deficits in the backward inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eFoti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is associated with a distinct profile of relatively proficient skills within the verbal domain compared to the severe impairment of visuo-spatial processing. Abnormalities in executive functions and deficits in planning ability and spatial working memory have been described. However, to date little is known about the influence of executive function deficits on navigational abilities in WS. This study aimed at analyzing in WS individuals a specific executive function, the backward inhibition (BI that allows individuals to flexibly adapt to continuously changing environments. A group of WS individuals and a mental age- and gender-matched group of typically developing (TD children were subjected to three task-switching experiments requiring visuospatial or verbal material to be processed. Results showed that WS individuals exhibited clear BI deficits during visuospatial task-switching paradigms and normal BI effect during verbal task-switching paradigm. Overall, the present results suggest that the BI involvement in updating environment representations during navigation may influence WS navigational abilities.

  3. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  4. Spatial ability of slow learners based on Hubert Maier theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, I.; Pramudya, I.; Kusmayadi, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Slow learners are children who have low learning achievement (under the average of normal children) in one or all of the academic field, but they are not classified as a mentally retarded children. Spatial ability developed according to age and level of knowledge possessed, both from the neighborhood and formal education. Analyzing the spatial ability of students is important for teachers, as an effort to improve the quality of learning for slow learners. Especially on the implementation of inclusion school which is developing in Indonesia. This research used a qualitative method and involved slow learner students as the subject. Based on the data analysis it was found the spatial ability of slow learners, there were: spatial perception, students were able to describe the other shape of object when its position changed; spatial visualisation, students were able to describe the materials that construct an object; mental rotation, students cannot describe the object being rotated; spatial relation, students cannot describe the relations of same objects; spatial orientation, students were able to describe object from the others perspective.

  5. Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2010-06-01

    To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test. Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia. The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores. In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The

  6. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  7. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  8. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  9. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early deaf subjects. Granger

  10. Does participation in art classes influence performance on two different cognitive tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Manuel; Maihöfner, Christian; Bolwerk, Anne; Lang, Frieder R

    2017-04-01

    Effects of two mentally stimulating art interventions on processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition were compared in three samples. In a randomized 10-week art intervention study with a pre-post follow-up design, 113 adults (27 healthy older adults with subjective memory complaints, 50 healthy older adults and 36 healthy younger adults) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: visual art production or cognitive art evaluation, where the participants either produced or evaluated art. ANOVAs with repeated measures were computed to observe effects on the Symbol-Digit Test, and the Stick Test. Significant Time effects were found with regard to processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition. Additionally, there was found a significant Time × Sample interaction for processing speed. The effects proved robust after testing for education and adding sex as additional factor. Mental stimulation by participation in art classes leads to an improvement of processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition. Further investigation is required to improve understanding of the potential impact of art intervention on cognitive abilities across adulthood.

  11. Developmental change of visuo-spatial working memory in children: quantitative evaluation through an Advanced Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Naomi; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Ohta, Hidenobu; Kajimoto, Osami; Kaga, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the developmental change in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) in typically developed children using a specially designed Advanced Trail Making Test for children (ATMT-C). We developed a new method for evaluating VSWM efficiency in children using a modified version ATMT to suit their shorter sustained attention. The ATMT-C consists of two parts; a number-based ATMT and a hiragana (Japanese phonogram)-based ATMT, both employing symbols familiar to young children. A total of 94 healthy participants (6-28 years of age) were enrolled in this study. A non-linear developmental change of VSWM efficiency was observed in the results from the ATMT-C. In the number-based ATMT, children under 8 years of age showed a relatively rapid increase in VSWM efficiency while older children (9-12 years) had a more gradual increase in VSWM efficiency. Results from the hiragana-based ATMT-C showed a slightly delayed increase pattern in VSWM efficiency compared to the pattern from the number-based ATMT. There were no significant differences in VSWM efficiency for gender, handedness and test order. VSWM in children gradually matures in a non steady-state manner and there is an important stage for VSWM maturation before reaching 12 years of age. VSWM efficiency may also vary depending on developmental condition of its cognitive subsystems. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Students’ Spatial Ability through Open-Ended Approach Aided by Cabri 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatna, N.

    2017-09-01

    The use of computer software such as Cabri 3D for learning activities is very unlimited. Students can adjust their learning speed according to their level of ability. Open-ended approach strongly supports the use of computer software in learning, because the goal of open-ended learning is to help developing creative activities and mathematical mindset of students through problem solving simultaneously. In other words, creative activities and mathematical mindset of students should be developed as much as possible in accordance with the ability of spatial ability of each student. Spatial ability is the ability of students in constructing and representing geometry models. This study aims to determine the improvement of spatial ability of junior high school students who obtained learning with open-ended approach aided by Cabri 3D. It adopted a quasi-experimental method with the non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design and the 2×3 factorial model. The instrument of the study is spatial ability test. Based on analysis of the data, it is found that the improvement of spatial ability of students who received open-ended learning aided by Cabri 3D was greater than students who received expository learning, both as a whole and based on the categories of students’ initial mathematical ability.

  13. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  14. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  15. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55 ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2015

  16. The impact of augmented information on visuo-motor adaptation in younger and older adults.

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    Mathias Hegele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustment to a visuo-motor rotation is known to be affected by ageing. According to previous studies, the age-related differences primarily pertain to the use of strategic corrections and the generation of explicit knowledge on which strategic corrections are based, whereas the acquisition of an (implicit internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation is unaffected. The present study aimed to assess the impact of augmented information on the age-related variation of visuo-motor adjustments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed aiming movements controlling a cursor on a computer screen. Visual feedback of direction of cursor motion was rotated 75 degrees relative to the direction of hand motion. Participants had to adjust to this rotation in the presence and absence of an additional hand-movement target that explicitly depicted the input-output relations of the visuo-motor transformation. An extensive set of tests was employed in order to disentangle the contributions of different processes to visuo-motor adjustment. Results show that the augmented information failed to affect the age-related variations of explicit knowledge, adaptive shifts, and aftereffects in a substantial way, whereas it clearly affected initial direction errors during practice and proprioceptive realignment. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, older participants apparently made no use of the augmented information, whereas younger participants used the additional movement target to reduce initial direction errors early during practice. However, after a first block of trials errors increased, indicating a neglect of the augmented information, and only slowly declined thereafter. A hypothetical dual-task account of these findings is discussed. The use of the augmented information also led to a selective impairment of proprioceptive realignment in the younger group. The mere finding of proprioceptive realignment in adaptation to a visuo

  17. The Interrelationship of Sex, Visual Spatial Abilities, and Mathematical Problem Solving Ability in Grade Seven. Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann Koch

    This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…

  18. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination performance, but results suggest a better verbal memory performance associated with high estrogen levels; short term memory performance didn’t show to be sensitive to fluctuations in estrogen levels.

  19. Line and word bisection in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Chiara V; Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S

    2014-01-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect typically set the mid-point of horizontal lines to the right of the objective center. By contrast, healthy participants exhibit a reversed bias (pseudoneglect). The same effect has been described also when bisecting orthographic strings. In particular, for this latter kind of stimulus, some recent studies have shown that visuo-perceptual characteristics, like stimulus length, may contribute to both the magnitude and the direction bias of the bisection performance (Arduino et al. in Neuropsychologia 48:2140-2146, 2010). Furthermore, word stress was shown to modulate reading performances in both healthy participants, and patients with left spatial neglect and neglect dyslexia (Cubelli and Beschin in Brain Lang 95:319-326, 2005; Rusconi et al. in Neuropsychology 18:135-140, 2004). In Experiment I, 22 right-brain-damaged patients (11 with left visuo-spatial neglect) and 11 matched neurologically unimpaired control participants were asked to set the subjective mid-point of word letter strings, and of lines of comparable length. Most patients exhibited an overall disproportionate rightward bias, sensitive to stimulus length, and similar for words and lines. Importantly, in individual patients, biases differed according to stimulus type (words vs. lines), indicating that at least partly different mechanisms may be involved. In Experiment II, the putative effects on the bisection bias of ortho-phonological information (i.e., word stress endings), arising from the non-neglected right hand side of the stimulus were investigated. The orthographic cue induced a rightward shift of the perceived mid-point in both patients and controls, with short words stressed on the antepenultimate final sequence inducing a smaller rightward deviation with respect to short words stressed on the penultimate final sequence. In conclusion, partly different mechanisms, including both visuo-spatial and lexical factors, may support

  20. Young children's spatial structuring ability and emerging number sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents research into the role of young children’s spatial structuring ability in the development of number sense, particularly in terms of insight into numerical relations. We take Battista and Clements’ (1996, p. 503) definition to define the act of spatial structuring as “the mental

  1. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  2. The Relationship Between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Motamedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage and the Newton and Bristol spatial ability questionnaire with reliability value of .85. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and spatial ability (r = .59 and p = 00.00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and the spatial perceived ability (r = .60 and p = .00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and mental rotation ability (r = .48 and p = .00 and there was a meaningful relationship between computer game use and spatial visualization ability (r = .48 and p = .00. In general, the findings showed there was a positive and a significant relationship between the use of computer games and spatial abilities in students.

  3. Spatial ability and training in virtual neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.

  4. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  6. Teaching Classical Mechanics Concepts Using Visuo-Haptic Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Luis; Noguez, Julieta; Robledo-Rella, Victor; Escobar-Castillejos, David; Gonzalez-Nucamendi, Andres

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the design and implementation of several physics scenarios using haptic devices are presented and discussed. Four visuo-haptic applications were developed for an undergraduate engineering physics course. Experiments with experimental and control groups were designed and implemented. Activities and exercises related to classical…

  7. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  8. The Role of Visual-Spatial Abilities in Dyslexia: Age Differences in Children's Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Giulia; Vicari, Stefano; Tomassetti, Serena; Menghini, Deny

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a highly complex process in which integrative neurocognitive functions are required. Visual-spatial abilities play a pivotal role because of the multi-faceted visual sensory processing involved in reading. Several studies show that children with developmental dyslexia (DD) fail to develop effective visual strategies and that some reading difficulties are linked to visual-spatial deficits. However, the relationship between visual-spatial skills and reading abilities is still a controversial issue. Crucially, the role that age plays has not been investigated in depth in this population, and it is still not clear if visual-spatial abilities differ across educational stages in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual-spatial abilities in children with DD and in age-matched normal readers (NR) according to different educational stages: in children attending primary school and in children and adolescents attending secondary school. Moreover, in order to verify whether visual-spatial measures could predict reading performance, a regression analysis has been performed in younger and older children. The results showed that younger children with DD performed significantly worse than NR in a mental rotation task, a more-local visual-spatial task, a more-global visual-perceptual task and a visual-motor integration task. However, older children with DD showed deficits in the more-global visual-perceptual task, in a mental rotation task and in a visual attention task. In younger children, the regression analysis documented that reading abilities are predicted by the visual-motor integration task, while in older children only the more-global visual-perceptual task predicted reading performances. Present findings showed that visual-spatial deficits in children with DD were age-dependent and that visual-spatial abilities engaged in reading varied across different educational stages. In order to better understand their potential role in affecting reading

  9. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  10. Learning to echolocate in sighted people: a correlational study on attention, working memory and spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkel, M R; van Lier, R; Steenbergen, B

    2017-03-01

    Echolocation can be beneficial for the orientation and mobility of visually impaired people. Research has shown considerable individual differences for acquiring this skill. However, individual characteristics that affect the learning of echolocation are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined individual factors that are likely to affect learning to echolocate: sustained and divided attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. To that aim, sighted participants with normal hearing performed an echolocation task that was adapted from a previously reported size-discrimination task. In line with existing studies, we found large individual differences in echolocation ability. We also found indications that participants were able to improve their echolocation ability. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between improvement in echolocation and sustained and divided attention, as measured in the PASAT. No significant correlations were found with our tests regarding working memory and spatial abilities. These findings may have implications for the development of guidelines for training echolocation that are tailored to the individual with a visual impairment.

  11. Action video games improve reading abilities and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting in English-speaking children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Sandro; Trevisan, Piergiorgio; Ronconi, Luca; Bertoni, Sara; Colmar, Susan; Double, Kit; Facoetti, Andrea; Gori, Simone

    2017-07-19

    Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality. In our study, we tested reading skills and phonological working memory, visuo-spatial attention, auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli localization, and cross-sensory attentional shifting in two matched groups of English-speaking children with dyslexia before and after they played AVG or non-action video games. The speed of words recognition and phonological decoding increased after playing AVG, but not non-action video games. Furthermore, focused visuo-spatial attention and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting also improved only after AVG training. This unconventional reading remediation program also increased phonological short-term memory and phoneme blending skills. Our report shows that an enhancement of visuo-spatial attention and phonological working memory, and an acceleration of visual-to-auditory attentional shifting can directly translate into better reading in English-speaking children with dyslexia.

  12. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  13. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Xie, Changchun [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [BC Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Sjödin, Andreas [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dietrich, Kim N. [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [BC Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003–2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2 s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] −9.3, −1.1), 4.5 s (95% CI −8.1, −0.9), and 4.7 s (95% CI −9.0, −0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4 s, 95% CI −0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, −47, −99, and −100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations. - Highlights: • The VMWM test was used to assess visual spatial abilities in children at 8 years. • BDE-153 at 3 years was adversely associated with visual spatial learning. • BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years was associated with better visual spatial learning. • Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual

  14. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003–2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2 s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] −9.3, −1.1), 4.5 s (95% CI −8.1, −0.9), and 4.7 s (95% CI −9.0, −0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4 s, 95% CI −0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, −47, −99, and −100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations. - Highlights: • The VMWM test was used to assess visual spatial abilities in children at 8 years. • BDE-153 at 3 years was adversely associated with visual spatial learning. • BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years was associated with better visual spatial learning. • Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual

  15. Dispersal Ability Determines the Role of Environmental, Spatial and Temporal Drivers of Metacommunity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, André A.; Ceschin, Fernanda; Declerck, Steven A. J.; De Meester, Luc; Bonecker, Cláudia C.; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio A.; Rodrigues, Liliana; Rodrigues, Luzia C.; Train, Sueli; Velho, Luiz F. M.; Bini, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, community ecologists are focusing on the relative importance of local environmental factors and proxies to dispersal limitation to explain spatial variation in community structure. Albeit less explored, temporal processes may also be important in explaining species composition variation in metacommunities occupying dynamic systems. We aimed to evaluate the relative role of environmental, spatial and temporal variables on the metacommunity structure of different organism groups in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil). We used data on macrophytes, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, periphyton, and phytoplankton collected in up to 36 habitats during a total of eight sampling campaigns over two years. According to variation partitioning results, the importance of predictors varied among biological groups. Spatial predictors were particularly important for organisms with comparatively lower dispersal ability, such as aquatic macrophytes and fish. On the other hand, environmental predictors were particularly important for organisms with high dispersal ability, such as microalgae, indicating the importance of species sorting processes in shaping the community structure of these organisms. The importance of watercourse distances increased when spatial variables were the main predictors of metacommunity structure. The contribution of temporal predictors was low. Our results emphasize the strength of a trait-based analysis and of better defining spatial variables. More importantly, they supported the view that “all-or- nothing” interpretations on the mechanisms structuring metacommunities are rather the exception than the rule. PMID:25340577

  16. Enhanced visuo-haptic integration for the non-dominant hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Doehrmann, Oliver; Naumer, Marcus J

    2015-07-21

    Visuo-haptic integration contributes essentially to object shape recognition. Although there has been a considerable advance in elucidating the neural underpinnings of multisensory perception, it is still unclear whether seeing an object and exploring it with the dominant hand elicits the same brain response as compared to the non-dominant hand. Using fMRI to measure brain activation in right-handed participants, we found that for both left- and right-hand stimulation the left lateral occipital complex (LOC) and anterior cerebellum (aCER) were involved in visuo-haptic integration of familiar objects. These two brain regions were then further investigated in another study, where unfamiliar, novel objects were presented to a different group of right-handers. Here the left LOC and aCER were more strongly activated by bimodal than unimodal stimuli only when the left but not the right hand was used. A direct comparison indicated that the multisensory gain of the fMRI activation was significantly higher for the left than the right hand. These findings are in line with the principle of "inverse effectiveness", implying that processing of bimodally presented stimuli is particularly enhanced when the unimodal stimuli are weak. This applies also when right-handed subjects see and simultaneously touch unfamiliar objects with their non-dominant left hand. Thus, the fMRI signal in the left LOC and aCER induced by visuo-haptic stimulation is dependent on which hand was employed for haptic exploration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two speed factors of visual recognition independently correlated with fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Namba, Yuri; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a moderate but significant relationship between processing speed in visuo-cognitive tasks and general intelligence. On the other hand, findings from neuroscience proposed that the primate visual system consists of two major pathways, the ventral pathway for objects recognition and the dorsal pathway for spatial processing and attentive analysis. Previous studies seeking for visuo-cognitive factors of human intelligence indicated a significant correlation between fluid intelligence and the inspection time (IT), an index for a speed of object recognition performed in the ventral pathway. We thus presently examined a possibility that neural processing speed in the dorsal pathway also represented a factor of intelligence. Specifically, we used the mental rotation (MR) task, a popular psychometric measure for mental speed of spatial processing in the dorsal pathway. We found that the speed of MR was significantly correlated with intelligence scores, while it had no correlation with one's IT (recognition speed of visual objects). Our results support the new possibility that intelligence could be explained by two types of mental speed, one related to object recognition (IT) and another for manipulation of mental images (MR).

  18. Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Conrad

    Full Text Available Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1 whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2 whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also cause symptoms of neglect or extinction. Therefore, patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular failure (VF were tested for symptoms of hemineglect.Twenty-eight patients with acute VF were assessed for signs of vestibular deficits and spatial neglect using clinical measures and various common standardized paper-pencil tests. Neglect severity was evaluated further with the Center of Cancellation method. Pathological neglect test scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction determined by the subjective visual vertical and caloric testing.Three patients showed isolated pathological scores in one or the other neglect test, either ipsilesionally or contralesionally to the VF. None of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of spatial hemineglect or extinction.A vestibular tone imbalance due to unilateral failure of the vestibular endorgan does not cause spatial hemineglect, but evidence indicates it causes mild attentional deficits in both visual hemifields.

  19. Long-term memory for verbal and visual information in Down syndrome and Williams syndrome: performance on the Doors and People test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Phillips, Caroline

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Williams syndrome and Down syndrome may be associated with specific short-term memory deficits. Individuals with Williams syndrome perform relatively poorly on tests of visuo-spatial short-term memory and individuals with Down syndrome show a relative deficit on verbal short-term memory tasks. However, these patterns of impairments may reflect the impact of generally impaired visuo-spatial processing skills in Williams syndrome, and verbal abilities in Down syndrome. The current study explored this possibility by assessing long-term memory among 15 individuals with Williams syndrome and 20 individuals with Down syndrome using the Doors and People test, a battery which assesses recall and recognition of verbal and visual information. Individuals' performance was standardised for age and level of intellectual ability with reference to that shown by a sample of 110 typically developing children. The results showed that individuals with Down syndrome have no differential deficits in long-term memory for verbal information, implying that verbal short-term memory deficits in this population are relatively selective. Instead both individuals with Down syndrome and with Williams syndrome showed some evidence of relatively poor performance on tests of long-term memory for visual information. It is therefore possible that visuo-spatial short-term memory deficits that have previously been demonstrated in Williams syndrome may be secondary to more general problems in visuo-spatial processing in this population.

  20. Music experience influences laparoscopic skills performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel; Bingener, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (PMen who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument.

  1. Virtual Reality Learning Activities for Multimedia Students to Enhance Spatial Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Molina-Carmona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality is an incipient technology that is proving very useful for training different skills. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to design virtual reality learning activities that can help students to develop their spatial ability. To prove the hypothesis, we have conducted an experiment consisting of training the students using an on-purpose learning activity based on a virtual reality application and assessing the possible improvement of the students’ spatial ability through a widely accepted spatial visualization test. The learning activity consists of a virtual environment where some simple polyhedral shapes are shown and manipulated by moving, rotating and scaling them. The students participating in the experiment are divided into a control and an experimental group, carrying out the same learning activity with the only difference of the device used for the interaction: a traditional computer with screen, keyboard and mouse for the control group, and virtual reality goggles with a smartphone for the experimental group. To assess the experience, all the students have completed a spatial visualization test twice: just before performing the activities and four weeks later, once all the activities were performed. Specifically, we have used the well-known and widely used Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Rotation (PSVT-R, designed to test rotational visualization ability. The results of the test show that there is an improvement in the test results for both groups, but the improvement is significantly higher in the case of the experimental group. The conclusion is that the virtual reality learning activities have shown to improve the spatial ability of the experimental group.

  2. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  3. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  4. Cell Matrix Remodeling Ability Shown by Image Spatial Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a critical step of many biological and pathological processes. However, most of the studies to date lack a quantitative method to measure ECM remodeling at a scale comparable to cell size. Here, we applied image spatial correlation to collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) images to quantitatively evaluate the degree of collagen remodeling by cells. We propose a simple statistical method based on spatial correlation functions to determine the size of high collagen density area around cells. We applied our method to measure collagen remodeling by two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), which display different degrees of invasiveness, and a fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3). We found distinct collagen compaction levels of these three cell lines by applying the spatial correlation method, indicating different collagen remodeling ability. Furthermore, we quantitatively measured the effect of Latrunculin B and Marimastat on MDA-MB-231 cell line collagen remodeling ability and showed that significant collagen compaction level decreases with these treatments. PMID:23935614

  5. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Philippe Rybarczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the direction of a driver’s gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks towards the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street makes a turn at the corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behaviour, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the path completion, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to easily and precisely manipulate the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. Results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables i a significant smoothness of the trajectory and ii a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the 2/3 Power Law. These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the path formation seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding.

  6. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  7. Cognitive specialization for verbal vs. spatial ability in men and women : Neural and behavioral correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Thompson, Melissa E.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; de Reus, Marcel A.; Pommy, Jessica; Seaman, Brandi; Jung, Rex E.

    2016-01-01

    An important dimension of individual differences, independent of general cognitive ability (GCA), is specialization for verbal or spatial ability. In this study we investigated neuroanatomic, network, and personality features associated with verbal vs. spatial ability. Healthy young adults (N = 244)

  8. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  9. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  10. Improving Junior High School Students' Spatial Reasoning Ability through Model Eliciting Activities with Cabri 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatiana; Darhim; Nurlaelah, Elah

    2018-01-01

    One of students' abilities which can facilitate them to understand geometric concepts is spatial reasoning ability. Spatial reasoning ability can be defined as an ability involving someone's cognitive processing to present and manipulate spatial figures, relationship, and figure formations. This research aims to find out significant difference on…

  11. The Build-Up Course of Visuo-Motor and Audio-Motor Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimori Sugano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor timing is recalibrated after a brief exposure to a delayed feedback of voluntary actions (temporal recalibration effect: TRE (Heron et al., 2009; Stetson et al., 2006; Sugano et al., 2010. We introduce a new paradigm, namely ‘synchronous tapping’ (ST which allows us to investigate how the TRE builds up during adaptation. In each experimental trial, participants were repeatedly exposed to a constant lag (∼150 ms between their voluntary action (pressing a mouse and a feedback stimulus (a visual flash / an auditory click 10 times. Immediately after that, they performed a ST task with the same stimulus as a pace signal (7 flashes / clicks. A subjective ‘no-delay condition’ (∼50 ms served as control. The TRE manifested itself as a change in the tap-stimulus asynchrony that compensated the exposed lag (eg, after lag adaptation, the tap preceded the stimulus more than in control and built up quickly (∼3–6 trials, ∼23–45 sec in both the visuo- and audio-motor domain. The audio-motor TRE was bigger and built-up faster than the visuo-motor one. To conclude, the TRE is comparable between visuo- and audio-motor domain, though they are slightly different in size and build-up rate.

  12. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  13. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability : Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of

  14. The Relationship between Spatial Visualization Ability and Students' Ability to Model 3D Objects from Engineering Assembly Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of…

  15. Temporal Sequence of Visuo-Auditory Interaction in Multiple Areas of the Guinea Pig Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masataka; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction. PMID:23029483

  16. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cimadevilla, José M

    2017-01-01

    Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.

  17. Relationships between hand laterality and verbal and spatial skills in 436 healthy adults balanced for handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, E; Jobard, G; Zago, L; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between manual laterality and cognitive skills remains highly controversial. Some studies have reported that strongly lateralised participants had higher cognitive performance in verbal and visuo-spatial domains compared to non-lateralised participants; however, others found the opposite. Moreover, some have suggested that familial sinistrality and sex might interact with individual laterality factors to alter cognitive skills. The present study addressed these issues in 237 right-handed and 199 left-handed individuals. Performance tests covered various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. A principal component analysis yielded two verbal and one spatial factor scores. Participant laterality assessments included handedness, manual preference strength, asymmetry of motor performance, and familial sinistrality. Age, sex, education level, and brain volume were also considered. No effect of handedness was found, but the mean factor scores in verbal and spatial domains increased with right asymmetry in motor performance. Performance was reduced in participants with a familial history of left-handedness combined with a non-maximal preference strength in the dominant hand. These results elucidated some discrepancies among previous findings in laterality factors and cognitive skills. Laterality factors had small effects compared to the adverse effects of age for spatial cognition and verbal memory, the positive effects of education for all three domains, and the effect of sex for spatial cognition.

  18. The malleability of spatial ability under treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-based robotics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n=75) ages 9-14 was drawn from 16 public school districts' gifted programs, including as many females (n=28) and children from groups traditionally underrepresented in gifted programs (n=18) as available. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental (n=38) and a control group (n=37) for an intervention study. All participants took the CogAT (form 6) Verbal Battery and the Project TALENT Spatial Ability Assessments. The experimental group participated in a simulation of the FIRST LEGO League (FLL) competition for 20 hours total over five consecutive days. All participants took the spatial measure another time. Experimental males evidenced significant and meaningful gains in measured spatial ability (Cohen's d = 0.87). Females did not evidence significant gains in measured spatial ability. This may be due to sampling error, gender differences in prior experience with LEGO, or differences in facets of spatial ability in the treatment or measurements. Further research studies with larger samples of females, other treatments and measurement tools, and longer treatment periods are recommended. The literature review revealed that FLL is beneficial for STEM engagement in both genders and its use in schools is recommended. The present study provides additional evidence for FLL's usefulness in increasing the number of individuals in the STEM pipeline. Keywords: spatial, gilled, talent, robotics, FIRST LEGO League, science

  19. The Impact of Handedness, Sex, and Cognitive Abilities on Left–Right Discrimination: A Behavioral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Martin; Mellet, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between left–right discrimination (LRD) performance and handedness, sex and cognitive abilities. In total, 31 men and 35 women – with a balanced ratio of left-and right-handers – completed the Bergen Left–Right Discrimination Test. We found an advantage of left-handers in both identifying left hands and in verifying “left” propositions. A sex effect was also found, as women had an overall higher error rate than men, and increasing difficulty impacted their reaction time more than it did for men. Moreover, sex interacted with handedness and manual preference strength. A negative correlation of LRD reaction time with visuo-spatial and verbal long-term memory was found independently of sex, providing new insights into the relationship between cognitive skills and performance on LRD. PMID:29636718

  20. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-21

    To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience. Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.

  1. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Spatial Visualization ability improves with and without studying Technical Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María José; Escrig, Rebeca; Prieto, Gerardo; Elosúa, M Rosa

    2018-03-27

    The results of several studies suggest that spatial ability can be improved through direct training with tasks similar to those integrated in the tests used to measure the ability. However, there is a greater interest in analyzing the effectiveness of indirect training such as games or of learning subjects that involve spatial processes to a certain extent. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze whether the indirect training in Technical Drawing improved the Spatial Visualization ability of Architecture students. For this purpose, a group of students enrolled in Fundamentals of Architecture were administered two tests, a Spatial Visualization task and an Abstract Reasoning task, at the beginning and the end of a semester, after having received training through the subjects "Technical Drawing I: Geometry and Perception" and "Projects I." The results of this group were compared with those of a control group of students enrolled in a Mathematics degree, who were also pre-post evaluated but had not received the training in Technical Drawing. The study showed a significant pre-post improvement in both, Visualization and reasoning. However, this improvement occurred in both groups, thereby concluding that this improvement was not due to indirect training. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between men and women in any of the groups or conditions. These results clarify those of an earlier study where improvement in Visualization after training in Technical Drawing was found but did not include a comparison with a control condition. The control condition has proved to be important in order to consider the limitations of the effect of Technical Drawing on said improvement.

  3. Acquisition of Dental Skills in Preclinical Technique Courses: Influence of Spatial and Manual Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…

  4. The contribution of spatial ability to mathematics achievement in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Katie A; Flouri, Eirini; Farran, Emily K

    2017-11-01

    Strong spatial skills are associated with success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Although there is convincing evidence that spatial skills are a reliable predictor of mathematical achievement in preschool children and in university students, there is a lack of research exploring associations between spatial and mathematics achievement during the primary school years. To address this question, this study explored associations between mathematics and spatial skills in children aged 5 and 7years. The study sample included 12,099 children who participated in both Wave 3 (mean age=5; 02 [years; months]) and Wave 4 (mean age=7; 03) of the Millennium Cohort Study. Measures included a standardised assessment of mathematics and the Pattern Construction subscale of the British Ability Scales II to assess intrinsic-dynamic spatial skills. Spatial skills at 5 and 7years of age explained a significant 8.8% of the variation in mathematics achievement at 7years, above that explained by other predictors of mathematics, including gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and language skills. This percentage increased to 22.6% without adjustment for language skills. This study expands previous findings by using a large-scale longitudinal sample of primary school children, a population that has been largely omitted from previous research exploring associations between spatial ability and mathematics achievement. The finding that early and concurrent spatial skills contribute to mathematics achievement at 7years of age highlights the potential of spatial skills as a novel target in the design of mathematics interventions for children in this age range. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A hierarchy for relational reasoning in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; Michelle McClelland, M; Donovan, Colin M

    2011-05-01

    The human brain possesses a unique capacity to reason about abstract relationships among items in our environment. The neural organization of reasoning abilities has remained elusive. Two approaches toward investigating human reasoning have involved studying visuo-spatial reasoning abilities and studying analogical reasoning. These approaches have both revealed anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement, but no prior studies have jointly investigated these two forms of reasoning to understand any potential convergence of activation within the PFC. Using fMRI, we tested the extent to which these two forms of reasoning (visuo-spatial and analogical) overlap in PFC activation. We conducted a visuo-spatial reasoning task that required processing multiple changes across three abstract pictures. This task activated a progressively anterior series of PFC regions when multiple relations had to be integrated. We also conducted a four-term analogy task in a stage-wise manner and compared results from this task to semantic and perceptual control conditions that did not require integrating relations across the problems. We found greater activation for analogical reasoning in the series of PFC regions that were sequentially involved in the visuo-spatial reasoning task. These findings indicate that stages of neural processing overlap for different domains within human reasoning. The pattern of differences across the analogy task suggests a hierarchical organization for relational reasoning across domains in which posterior frontal cortex is active across concrete reasoning tasks, while progressively more anterior regions are recruited to process increasingly abstract representations in reasoning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  7. Differences in Spatial Memory Recognition Due to Cognitive Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tascón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity. Forty young healthy individuals took part in this study. Participants performed the Embedded Figures Test for field independence or dependence assessment and a new spatial memory recognition test. The spatial memory recognition test demanded to memorize a green box location in a virtual room picture. Thereafter, during ten trials participants had to decide if a green box was located in the same position as in the sample picture. Five of the pictures were correct. The information available in the virtual room was manipulated. Hence, two different experimental conditions were tested: a virtual room containing all landmarks and a virtual room with only two cues. Accuracy and reaction time were registered. Analyses demonstrated that higher field independent individuals were related to better spatial memory performance in two landmarks condition and were faster in all landmark condition. In addition, men and women did not differ in their performance. These results suggested that cognitive style affects spatial memory performance and this phenomenon is modulated by environment complexity. This does not affect accuracy but time spent. Moreover, field dependent individuals are unable to organize the navigational field by relying on internal reference frames when few landmarks are available, and this causes them to commit more errors.

  8. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  9. A "virtually minimal" visuo-haptic training of attention in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Assaf Y; Ramaiya, Milan; Larson, Eric B; Zollman, Felise S; Hsu, Nancy; Pacini, Sonia; Shah, Amit; Patton, James L

    2013-08-09

    Although common during the early stages of recovery from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), attention deficits have been scarcely investigated. Encouraging evidence suggests beneficial effects of attention training in more chronic and higher functioning patients. Interactive technology may provide new opportunities for rehabilitation in inpatients who are earlier in their recovery. We designed a "virtually minimal" approach using robot-rendered haptics in a virtual environment to train severely injured inpatients in the early stages of recovery to sustain attention to a visuo-motor task. 21 inpatients with severe TBI completed repetitive reaching toward targets that were both seen and felt. Patients were tested over two consecutive days, experiencing 3 conditions (no haptic feedback, a break-through force, and haptic nudge) in 12 successive, 4-minute blocks. The interactive visuo-haptic environments were well-tolerated and engaging. Patients typically remained attentive to the task. However, patients exhibited attention loss both before (prolonged initiation) and during (pauses during motion) a movement. Compared to no haptic feedback, patients benefited from haptic nudge cues but not break-through forces. As training progressed, patients increased the number of targets acquired and spontaneously improved from one day to the next. Interactive visuo-haptic environments could be beneficial for attention training for severe TBI patients in the early stages of recovery and warrants further and more prolonged clinical testing.

  10. The Malleability of Spatial Ability under Treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-Based Robotics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n = 75)…

  11. The relationship between language and spatial ability an analysis of spatial language for reconstructing the solving of spatial tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Mizzi, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates how different fifth-grade students solve spatial-verbal tasks and the role of language in this process. Based on a synthesis of theoretical foundations and methodological issues for supporting the relationship between spatial ability and language, this present study examines and classifies strategies used by students as well as the obstacles they encounter when solving spatial tasks in the reconstruction method. Contents Theoretical Framework Design and Implementation Results and Discussion from the Inductive Data Analyses Target Groups Scholars and students of mathematics education Teachers of mathematics in primary and secondary schools About the Author Angel Mizzi works as a research assistant and lecturer at the University of Duisburg-Essen, where he has successfully completed his PhD studies in mathematics education.

  12. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  13. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...

  14. Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality with Unobstructed Tool-Hand Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Francesco; Garre, Carlos; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Visuo-haptic mixed reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see-through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual objects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the virtual objects. Unfortunately, the use of commodity haptic devices poses obstruction and misalignment issues that complicate the correct integration of a virtual tool and the user's real hand in the mixed reality scene. In this work, we propose a novel mixed reality paradigm where it is possible to touch and see virtual objects in combination with a real scene, using commodity haptic devices, and with a visually consistent integration of the user's hand and the virtual tool. We discuss the visual obstruction and misalignment issues introduced by commodity haptic devices, and then propose a solution that relies on four simple technical steps: color-based segmentation of the hand, tracking-based segmentation of the haptic device, background repainting using image-based models, and misalignment-free compositing of the user's hand. We have developed a successful proof-of-concept implementation, where a user can touch virtual objects and interact with them in the context of a real scene, and we have evaluated the impact on user performance of obstruction and misalignment correction.

  15. Hearing visuo-tactile synchrony - Sound-induced proprioceptive drift in the invisible hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnai, Gergely; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Hegedüs, Gábor; Kincses, Péter; Kállai, János; Kovács, Márton; Simon, Eszter; Nagy, Zsófia; Janszky, József

    2017-02-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and its variant the invisible hand illusion (IHI) are useful for investigating multisensory aspects of bodily self-consciousness. Here, we explored whether auditory conditioning during an RHI could enhance the trisensory visuo-tactile-proprioceptive interaction underlying the IHI. Our paradigm comprised of an IHI session that was followed by an RHI session and another IHI session. The IHI sessions had two parts presented in counterbalanced order. One part was conducted in silence, whereas the other part was conducted on the backdrop of metronome beats that occurred in synchrony with the brush movements used for the induction of the illusion. In a first experiment, the RHI session also involved metronome beats and was aimed at creating an associative memory between the brush stroking of a rubber hand and the sounds. An analysis of IHI sessions showed that the participants' perceived hand position drifted more towards the body-midline in the metronome relative to the silent condition without any sound-related session differences. Thus, the sounds, but not the auditory RHI conditioning, influenced the IHI. In a second experiment, the RHI session was conducted without metronome beats. This confirmed the conditioning-independent presence of sound-induced proprioceptive drift in the IHI. Together, these findings show that the influence of visuo-tactile integration on proprioceptive updating is modifiable by irrelevant auditory cues merely through the temporal correspondence between the visuo-tactile and auditory events. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  17. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and approximate number system to early mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-12-01

    Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there is no agreement about the recruitment of the different memory components or of intelligence. In relation to specific factors, great debate subsists regarding the role of the approximate number system (ANS). Starting from these considerations, we wanted to conduct a wide assessment of memory components and ANS, by controlling for the effects associated with intelligence and also exploring possible relationships between all precursors. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 157 children was tested at both beginning and end of their Grade 1. Both general (memory and intelligence) and specific (ANS) precursors were evaluated by a wide battery of tests and put in relation to concurrent and subsequent math skills. Memory was explored in passive and active aspects involving both verbal and visuo-spatial components. Path analysis results demonstrated that memory, and especially the more active processes, and intelligence were the strongest precursors in both assessment times. ANS had a milder role which lost significance by the end of the school year. Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently. Both general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. A “virtually minimal” visuo-haptic training of attention in severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although common during the early stages of recovery from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), attention deficits have been scarcely investigated. Encouraging evidence suggests beneficial effects of attention training in more chronic and higher functioning patients. Interactive technology may provide new opportunities for rehabilitation in inpatients who are earlier in their recovery. Methods We designed a “virtually minimal” approach using robot-rendered haptics in a virtual environment to train severely injured inpatients in the early stages of recovery to sustain attention to a visuo-motor task. 21 inpatients with severe TBI completed repetitive reaching toward targets that were both seen and felt. Patients were tested over two consecutive days, experiencing 3 conditions (no haptic feedback, a break-through force, and haptic nudge) in 12 successive, 4-minute blocks. Results The interactive visuo-haptic environments were well-tolerated and engaging. Patients typically remained attentive to the task. However, patients exhibited attention loss both before (prolonged initiation) and during (pauses during motion) a movement. Compared to no haptic feedback, patients benefited from haptic nudge cues but not break-through forces. As training progressed, patients increased the number of targets acquired and spontaneously improved from one day to the next. Conclusions Interactive visuo-haptic environments could be beneficial for attention training for severe TBI patients in the early stages of recovery and warrants further and more prolonged clinical testing. PMID:23938101

  19. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  20. Visuospatial Anatomy Comprehension: The Role of Spatial Visualization Ability and Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan; Mulla, Ali; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the problem-solving strategies of high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners on a novel spatial anatomy task to determine whether differences in strategies contribute to differences in task performance. The results of this study provide further insights into the processing commonalities and differences among…

  1. Cultural and Gender Differences in Spatial Ability of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo

    This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…

  2. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  3. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  4. The Influence of Spatial Ability and Experience on Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eDu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  5. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  6. A Rehabilitation Protocol for Empowering Spatial Orientation in MCI. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadler, Erminia; Grassi, Alessandra; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Spatial navigation is among the first cognitive functions to be impaired in Alzheimer's disease [1] and deficit in this domain is detectable earlier in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment [2]. Since efficacy of cognitive training in persons with MCI was successfully assessed [3], we developed a multitasking training protocol using virtual environments for stimulating attention, perception and visuo-spatial cognition in order to empower spatial orientation in MCI. Two healthy elders were exposed to the training over a period of four weeks and both showed improved performances in attention and orientation after the end of the intervention.

  7. Seeing and Feeling for Self and Other: Proprioceptive Spatial Location Determines Multisensory Enhancement of Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the relation between visuo-tactile interactions and the self-other distinction. In the Visual Enhancement of Touch (VET) effect, non-informative vision of one's own hand improves tactile spatial perception. Previous studies suggested that looking at "another"person's hand could also enhance tactile perception, but did not…

  8. Retention of katakana as foreign scripts: The effects of mnemonics and spatial ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Matsunaga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an experiment, which showed that: (a regardless of their Ll script type (Roman or nonRoman, learners of Japanese as a foreign language did not benefit from the conventional mnemonics for the short-term or long-term retention of katakana (introduced after hiragana; (b only the spatial ability of the Roman group (whose L1 employed Roman scripts had significant correlations with their immediate recall performances. By comparing these results with those of Matsunaga's (2003, 2005 studies on hiragana, this paper discusses: (a changes in learning strategies, (b the role of the spatial ability, (c the possibility of L1 script recognition strategy transfer, (d the role of practice, and (e pedagogical implications and suggestions for future studies.

  9. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  10. Spatial transformation abilities and their relation to later mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea

    2018-04-10

    Using a longitudinal approach, this study investigated the relational structure of different spatial transformation skills at kindergarten age, and how these spatial skills relate to children's later mathematics performance. Children were tested at three time points, in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 119). Exploratory factor analyses revealed two subcomponents of spatial transformation skills: one representing egocentric transformations (mental rotation and spatial scaling), and one representing allocentric transformations (e.g., cross-sectioning, perspective taking). Structural equation modeling suggested that egocentric transformation skills showed their strongest relation to the part of the mathematics test tapping arithmetic operations, whereas allocentric transformations were strongly related to Numeric-Logical and Spatial Functions as well as geometry. The present findings point to a tight connection between early mental transformation skills, particularly the ones requiring a high level of spatial flexibility and a strong sense for spatial magnitudes, and children's mathematics performance at the beginning of their school career.

  11. Sleep benefits consolidation of visuo-motor adaptation learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-02-01

    Sleep is beneficial for performance across a range of memory tasks in young adults, but whether memories are similarly consolidated in older adults is less clear. Performance benefits have been observed following sleep in older adults for declarative learning tasks, but this benefit may be reduced for non-declarative, motor skill learning tasks. To date, studies of sleep-dependent consolidation of motor learning in older adults are limited to motor sequence tasks. To examine whether reduced sleep-dependent consolidation in older adults is generalizable to other forms of motor skill learning, we examined performance changes over intervals of sleep and wake in young (n = 62) and older adults (n = 61) using a mirror-tracing task, which assesses visuo-motor adaptation learning. Participants learned the task either in the morning or in evening, and performance was assessed following a 12-h interval containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. Contrary to our prediction, both young adults and older adults exhibited sleep-dependent gains in visuo-motor adaptation. There was a correlation between performance improvement over sleep and percent of the night in non-REM stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that motor skill consolidation remains intact with increasing age although this relationship may be limited to specific forms of motor skill learning.

  12. Interactive exploration of 3D objects and individual differences in visuo-spatial abilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.; Beintema, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Drullman, R.; Verwey, Willem B.; van Erp, J.

    2008-01-01

    When we study complex material, learning from theory is often not enough: We need to experience it in practice. However, sometimes it is impossible to present practice in real, when it is expensive (e.g. aerospace), unethical (e.g. medical training) or indefinite (e.g. engineering and design).

  13. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  14. The work ability continuum : Epidemiological studies of factors promoting sustainable work ability

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    For the individual, the workplace and society, there would be considerable gains if the number of people suffering from physical and mental disorders could be reduced. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify determinants for future work ability among gainfully employed women and men, with special reference to promotive factors at work. Work ability is in this thesis defined as the ability to work with respect to demands at work on health and physical and mental reso...

  15. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  16. Face processing in chronic alcoholism: a specific deficit for emotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, P; Campanella, S; Philippot, P; Martin, S; de Timary, P

    2008-04-01

    It is well established that chronic alcoholism is associated with a deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this deficit is specifically for emotions or due to a more general impairment in visual or facial processing. This study was designed to clarify this issue using multiple control tasks and the subtraction method. Eighteen patients suffering from chronic alcoholism and 18 matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform several tasks evaluating (1) Basic visuo-spatial and facial identity processing; (2) Simple reaction times; (3) Complex facial features identification (namely age, emotion, gender, and race). Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Alcoholic patients had a preserved performance for visuo-spatial and facial identity processing, but their performance was impaired for visuo-motor abilities and for the detection of complex facial aspects. More importantly, the subtraction method showed that alcoholism is associated with a specific EFE decoding deficit, still present when visuo-motor slowing down is controlled for. These results offer a post hoc confirmation of earlier data showing an EFE decoding deficit in alcoholism by strongly suggesting a specificity of this deficit for emotions. This may have implications for clinical situations, where emotional impairments are frequently observed among alcoholic subjects.

  17. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  18. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following visuo-motor skill learning in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2006-01-01

    learning. Here we investigated the effect of visuo-motor skill training involving the ankle muscles on the coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded from the motor cortex (Cz) and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 11 volunteers...... between cortex and muscle as part of the motor learning process....

  19. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  20. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  1. Visuospatial ability factors and performance variables in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus

  2. Brain-computer interface analysis of a dynamic visuo-motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Vito; Belič, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    The area of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) represents one of the more interesting fields in neurophysiological research, since it investigates the development of the machines that perform different transformations of the brain's "thoughts" to certain pre-defined actions. Experimental studies have reported some successful implementations of BCIs; however, much of the field still remains unexplored. According to some recent reports the phase coding of informational content is an important mechanism in the brain's function and cognition, and has the potential to explain various mechanisms of the brain's data transfer, but it has yet to be scrutinized in the context of brain-computer interface. Therefore, if the mechanism of phase coding is plausible, one should be able to extract the phase-coded content, carried by brain signals, using appropriate signal-processing methods. In our previous studies we have shown that by using a phase-demodulation-based signal-processing approach it is possible to decode some relevant information on the current motor action in the brain from electroencephalographic (EEG) data. In this paper the authors would like to present a continuation of their previous work on the brain-information-decoding analysis of visuo-motor (VM) tasks. The present study shows that EEG data measured during more complex, dynamic visuo-motor (dVM) tasks carries enough information about the currently performed motor action to be successfully extracted by using the appropriate signal-processing and identification methods. The aim of this paper is therefore to present a mathematical model, which by means of the EEG measurements as its inputs predicts the course of the wrist movements as applied by each subject during the task in simulated or real time (BCI analysis). However, several modifications to the existing methodology are needed to achieve optimal decoding results and a real-time, data-processing ability. The information extracted from the EEG could

  3. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  4. Relationships among childhood sex-atypical behavior, spatial ability, handedness, and sexual orientation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kenneth M

    2002-02-01

    Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and gender nonconformity. Handedness, also thought to reflect in utero hormone exposure, was evaluated. Gay and bisexual males reported greater femininity and lesser masculinity than heterosexuals, with bisexuals intermediate in masculinity, suggesting a common biological mediator for homoeroticism and sex atypicality. Among bisexual males, increased masculinity was related to enhanced performance on all spatial tasks. Group mean differences in spatial ability and handedness were not found; however, among bisexuals, poorer visual-spatial performance predicted increased homoeroticism and right-handedness positively correlated with all spatial tasks. If perinatal hormones contribute to a generalized feminization of the brain, the current data indicate that it is most apparent among bisexual males. Sexing of their brains may involve several sexually dimorphic regions that are related in a continuous manner. Inferred cerebral feminization was more circumscribed among gay and heterosexual males, for whom childhood sex atypicality was most highly-distinguishing. Unspecified mechanisms responsible for homoeroticism in them may differ from those that produce same-sex attractions in bisexuals and thus have relatively little impact on other components of cerebral feminization.

  5. Role of Working Memory in Explaining the Performance of Individuals with Specific Reading Comprehension Difficulties: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that working memory is related to reading comprehension ability. However, its role in explaining specific reading comprehension difficulties is still under debate: the issue mainly concerns whether the contribution of working memory is dependent on task modality (verbal tasks being more predictive than visuo-spatial tasks)…

  6. A Plea for Right Brain Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    The visuo-spatial centers of the right brain are crucial to being able to problem solve or conceptualize (two abilities necessary for success in understanding science). Yet, current educational format is almost exclusively a left-brain undertaking. Reasons why educators should emphasize right-brain understanding in educational curricula at all…

  7. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.

  8. Cognitive predictors of copying and drawing from memory of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure in 7- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Lucia, Natascia; Conson, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of drawing are mainly based on assessment of copying performance of adults, whereas only a few studies have verified these models in young children. Moreover, developmental investigations have only rarely performed a systematic examination of the contribution of perceptual and representational visuo-spatial processes to copying and drawing from memory. In this study we investigated the role of visual perception and mental representation in both copying and drawing from memory skills in a sample of 227 typically developing children (53% females) aged 7-10 years. Participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The fit and invariance of the predictive model considering visuo-spatial abilities, working memory, and executive functions were tested by means of hierarchical regressions and path analysis. Results showed that, in a gender invariant way, visual perception abilities and spatial mental representation had a direct effect on copying performance, whereas copying performance was the only specific predictor for drawing from memory. These effects were independent from age and socioeconomic status, and showed that cognitive models of drawing built up for adults could be considered for predicting copying and drawing from memory in children.

  9. A psychometric measure of working memory capacity for configured body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Choon Wu

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM models have traditionally assumed at least two domain-specific storage systems for verbal and visuo-spatial information. We review data that suggest the existence of an additional slave system devoted to the temporary storage of body movements, and present a novel instrument for its assessment: the movement span task. The movement span task assesses individuals' ability to remember and reproduce meaningless configurations of the body. During the encoding phase of a trial, participants watch short videos of meaningless movements presented in sets varying in size from one to five items. Immediately after encoding, they are prompted to reenact as many items as possible. The movement span task was administered to 90 participants along with standard tests of verbal WM, visuo-spatial WM, and a gesture classification test in which participants judged whether a speaker's gestures were congruent or incongruent with his accompanying speech. Performance on the gesture classification task was not related to standard measures of verbal or visuo-spatial working memory capacity, but was predicted by scores on the movement span task. Results suggest the movement span task can serve as an assessment of individual differences in WM capacity for body-centric information.

  10. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Mayasandra S; Nagendra, Hongasandra; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga, compared to physical activity on the cognitive performance in 7-9 year-old schoolchildren from a socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Two hundred (200) schoolchildren from Bangalore, India, after baseline assessment of cognitive functioning were randomly allocated to either a yoga or a physical-activity group. Cognitive functions (attention and concentration, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal ability, and abstract thinking) were assessed using an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at baseline, after 3 months of intervention, and later at a 3-month follow-up. Of the 200 subjects, 193 were assessed at 3 months after the study, and then 180 were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between the two study groups (yoga versus physical activity) at postintervention, after controlling for grade levels. Improvement in the mean scores of cognitive tests following intervention varied from 0.5 (Arithmetic) to 1.4 (Coding) for the yoga group and 0.7 (Arithmetic) to 1.6 (Vocabulary) in the physical-activity group. Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance.

  11. Risk factors for spatial memory impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlerova, Jana; Laczo, Jan; Vlcek, Kamil; Javurkova, Alena; Andel, Ross; Marusic, Petr

    2013-01-01

    At present, the risk factors for world-centered (allocentric) navigation impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are not known. There is some evidence on the importance of the right hippocampus but other clinical features have not been investigated yet. In this study, we used an experimental human equivalent to the Morris water maze to examine spatial navigation performance in patients with drug-refractory unilateral TLE. We included 47 left-hemisphere speech dominant patients (25 right sided; 22 left sided). The aim of our study was to identify clinical and demographic characteristics of TLE patients who performed poorly in allocentric spatial memory tests. Our results demonstrate that poor spatial navigation is significantly associated with younger age at epilepsy onset, longer disease duration, and lower intelligence level. Allocentric navigation in TLE patients was impaired irrespective of epilepsy lateralization. Good and poor navigators did not differ in their age, gender, or preoperative/postoperative status. This study provides evidence on risk factors that increase the likelihood of allocentric navigation impairment in TLE patients. The results indicate that not only temporal lobe dysfunction itself but also low general cognitive abilities may contribute to the navigation impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  13. Spatial hearing ability of the pigmented Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): Minimum audible angle and spatial release from masking in azimuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Anbuhl, Kelsey L; Ferber, Alexander T; DeGuzman, Marisa; Allen, Paul D; Tollin, Daniel J

    2018-08-01

    Despite the common use of guinea pigs in investigations of the neural mechanisms of binaural and spatial hearing, their behavioral capabilities in spatial hearing tasks have surprisingly not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to fill this void, we tested the spatial hearing of adult male guinea pigs in several experiments using a paradigm based on the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. In the first experiment, we presented continuous broadband noise from one speaker location and switched to a second speaker location (the "prepulse") along the azimuth prior to presenting a brief, ∼110 dB SPL startle-eliciting stimulus. We found that the startle response amplitude was systematically reduced for larger changes in speaker swap angle (i.e., greater PPI), indicating that using the speaker "swap" paradigm is sufficient to assess stimulus detection of spatially separated sounds. In a second set of experiments, we swapped low- and high-pass noise across the midline to estimate their ability to utilize interaural time- and level-difference cues, respectively. The results reveal that guinea pigs can utilize both binaural cues to discriminate azimuthal sound sources. A third set of experiments examined spatial release from masking using a continuous broadband noise masker and a broadband chirp signal, both presented concurrently at various speaker locations. In general, animals displayed an increase in startle amplitude (i.e., lower PPI) when the masker was presented at speaker locations near that of the chirp signal, and reduced startle amplitudes (increased PPI) indicating lower detection thresholds when the noise was presented from more distant speaker locations. In summary, these results indicate that guinea pigs can: 1) discriminate changes in source location within a hemifield as well as across the midline, 2) discriminate sources of low- and high-pass sounds, demonstrating that they can effectively utilize both low-frequency interaural

  14. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Baddeley and Hitch’s multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7–9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. PMID:24212504

  15. Design and Development Computer-Based E-Learning Teaching Material for Improving Mathematical Understanding Ability and Spatial Sense of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.; Wibisono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to make a design and development computer-based e-learning teaching material for improving mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students. Furthermore, the particular aims are (1) getting teaching material design, evaluation model, and intrument to measure mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (2) conducting trials computer-based e-learning teaching material model, asessment, and instrument to develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (3) completing teaching material models of computer-based e-learning, assessment, and develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (4) resulting research product is teaching materials of computer-based e-learning. Furthermore, the product is an interactive learning disc. The research method is used of this study is developmental research which is conducted by thought experiment and instruction experiment. The result showed that teaching materials could be used very well. This is based on the validation of computer-based e-learning teaching materials, which is validated by 5 multimedia experts. The judgement result of face and content validity of 5 validator shows that the same judgement result to the face and content validity of each item test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense. The reliability test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense are 0,929 and 0,939. This reliability test is very high. While the validity of both tests have a high and very high criteria.

  16. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  17. Factors Associated With Work Ability in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eunice; Johnston, Venerina; Wibault, Johanna; Löfgren, Håkan; Dedering, Åsa; Öberg, Birgitta; Zsigmond, Peter; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-08-15

    Cross-sectional study. To investigate the factors associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. Surgery is a common treatment of cervical radiculopathy in people of working age. However, few studies have investigated the impact on the work ability of these patients. Patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy (n = 201) were recruited from spine centers in Sweden to complete a battery of questionnaires and physical measures the day before surgery. The associations between various individual, psychological, and work-related factors and self-reported work ability were investigated by Spearman rank correlation coefficient, multivariate linear regression, and forward stepwise regression analyses. Factors that were significant (P work ability. Work ability was assessed using the Work Ability Index. The mean Work Ability Index score was 28 (SD, 9.0). The forward stepwise regression analysis revealed 6 factors significantly associated with work ability, which explained 62% of the variance in the Work Ability Index. Factors highly correlated with greater work ability included greater self-efficacy in performing self-cares, lower physical load on the neck at work, greater self-reported chance of being able to work in 6 months' time, greater use of active coping strategies, lower frequency of hand weakness, and higher health-related quality of life. Psychological, work-related and individual factors were significantly associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. High self-efficacy was most associated with greater work ability. Consideration of these factors by surgeons preoperatively may provide optimal return to work outcomes after surgery. 3.

  18. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  19. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  20. Oculomotor preparation as a rehearsal mechanism in spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G; Ball, Keira; Smith, Daniel T

    2014-09-01

    There is little consensus regarding the specific processes responsible for encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). One influential theory is that VSWM may involve activation of the eye-movement (oculomotor) system. In this study we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or executing saccadic eye-movements during the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval stages of visual and spatial working memory tasks. Participants experienced a significant reduction in spatial memory span only when oculomotor preparation was prevented during encoding or maintenance. In contrast there was no reduction when oculomotor preparation was prevented only during retrieval. These results show that (a) involvement of the oculomotor system is necessary for optimal maintenance of directly-indicated locations in spatial working memory and (b) oculomotor preparation is not necessary during retrieval from spatial working memory. We propose that this study is the first to unambiguously demonstrate that the oculomotor system contributes to the maintenance of spatial locations in working memory independently from the involvement of covert attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial and verbal working memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available According to numerous studies, working memory is not a unitary system. Baddeley's model of working memory includes besides central executive also two separate systems for verbal and visuo-spatial information processing. A modality- and process-specific specialization presumably exists in working memory system of the frontal lobes. In our preliminary study, we have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the pattern of cortical activation during spatial and verbal n-back task in six healthy subjects. A bilateral fronto-parietal cortical network was activated in both tasks. There was larger activation of right parietal and bilateral occipital areas in spatial than in vebal task. Activation of left sensorimotor area was larger in verbal compared to spatial task. No task-specific differences were found in the prefrontal cortex. Our results support the assumption that modality-specific processes exist within the working-memory system.

  2. Neural network configuration and efficiency underlies individual differences in spatial orientation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Protzner, Andrea B; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Spatial orientation is a complex cognitive process requiring the integration of information processed in a distributed system of brain regions. Current models on the neural basis of spatial orientation are based primarily on the functional role of single brain regions, with limited understanding of how interaction among these brain regions relates to behavior. In this study, we investigated two sources of variability in the neural networks that support spatial orientation--network configuration and efficiency--and assessed whether variability in these topological properties relates to individual differences in orientation accuracy. Participants with higher accuracy were shown to express greater activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right precentral cortex, and the left hippocampus, over and above a core network engaged by the whole group. Additionally, high-performing individuals had increased levels of global efficiency within a resting-state network composed of brain regions engaged during orientation and increased levels of node centrality in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right primary motor cortex, and the left hippocampus. These results indicate that individual differences in the configuration of task-related networks and their efficiency measured at rest relate to the ability to spatially orient. Our findings advance systems neuroscience models of orientation and navigation by providing insight into the role of functional integration in shaping orientation behavior.

  3. Short-term plasticity of visuo-haptic object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    , the same stimulation gave rise to relative increases in activation during S2 processing in the right LO, left FG, bilateral IPS, and other regions previously associated with object recognition. Critically, the modality of S2 determined which regions were recruited after rTMS. Relative to sham rTMS, real r......TMS induced increased activations during crossmodal congruent matching in the left FG for haptic S2 and the temporal pole for visual S2. In addition, we found stronger activations for incongruent than congruent matching in the right anterior parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus for crossmodal matching......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided ample evidence for the involvement of the lateral occipital cortex (LO), fusiform gyrus (FG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visuo-haptic object integration. Here we applied 30 min of sham (non-effective) or real offline 1 Hz...

  4. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  5. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  6. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relation between early constructive play and mathematical word problem solving is mediated by spatial ability. A path analysis in sixth grade students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, M.; Boonen, A.J.H.; Jolles, J.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children's spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children's constructive play and their

  8. Multisensory Rehabilitation Training Improves Spatial Perception in Totally but Not Partially Visually Deprived Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cappagli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association. In this study, we assessed the effects of an extensive but entertaining sensorimotor training with ABBI on the development of spatial hearing in a group of seven 3–5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1.1–1.7 LogMAR. The training required the participants to play several spatial games individually and/or together with the psychomotor therapist 1 h per week for 3 months: the spatial games consisted of exercises meant to train their ability to associate visual and motor-related signals from their body, in order to foster the development of multisensory processes. We measured spatial performance by asking participants to indicate the position of one single fixed (static condition or moving (dynamic condition sound source on a vertical sensorized surface. We found that spatial performance of congenitally blind but not low vision children is improved after the training, indicating that early interventions with the use of science-driven devices based on multisensory capabilities can provide consistent advancements in therapeutic interventions, improving the quality of life of children with visual disability.

  9. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schoene

    Full Text Available Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults.A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7 without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF, visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention.Eighty-one participants (90% attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF.This study shows that unsupervised stepping

  10. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Spatial Outlier Detection of CO2 Monitoring Data Based on Spatial Local Outlier Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xin; Zhang Shaoliang; Zheng Pulin

    2015-01-01

    Spatial local outlier factor (SLOF) algorithm was adopted in this study for spatial outlier detection because of the limitations of the traditional static threshold detection. Based on the spatial characteristics of CO2 monitoring data obtained in the carbon capture and storage (CCS) project, the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) graph was constructed using the latitude and longitude information of the monitoring points to identify the spatial neighbourhood of the monitoring points. Then ...

  12. Detection of Nuclear Sources by UAV Teleoperation Using a Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Jacopo Aleotti; Giorgio Micconi; Stefano Caselli; Giacomo Benassi; Nicola Zambelli; Manuele Bettelli; Andrea Zappettini

    2017-01-01

    A visuo-haptic augmented reality (VHAR) interface is presented enabling an operator to teleoperate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a custom CdZnTe-based spectroscopic gamma-ray detector in outdoor environments. The task is to localize nuclear radiation sources, whose location is unknown to the user, without the close exposure of the operator. The developed detector also enables identification of the localized nuclear sources. The aim of the VHAR interface is to increase the sit...

  13. Aspectos neuropsicológicos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Fontenelle

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychology is contributing to elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuropsychological studies of individuals with subclinical and clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms are reviewed here. It was observed that OCD patients may display impaired "reality monitoring", memory for actions, non-verbal memory, visuo-spatial abilities, and executive functions. Some specific neuropsychological findings are associated with different clinical...

  14. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  15. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W S; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7-9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of gender, imagery ability, and sports practice on the performance of a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Molinaro, Corinne; Dosseville, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is one of the main spatial abilities necessary in the spatial transformation of mental images and the manipulation of spatial parameters. Researchers have shown that mental rotation abilities differ between populations depending on several variables. This study uses a mental rotation task to investigate effects of several factors on the spatial abilities of 277 volunteers. The results demonstrate that high and low imagers performed equally well on this tasks. Athletes outperformed nonathletes regardless of their discipline, and athletes with greater expertise outperformed those with less experience. The results replicate the previously reported finding that men exhibit better spatial abilities than women. However, with high amounts of practice, the women in the current study were able to perform as well as men.

  17. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  18. THE EFFECTS OF GAMING ON WORKING MEMORY, INATTENTION, READING AND MATH – A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöwall, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...

  19. Chronic stress impairs spatial memory and motivation for reward without disrupting motor ability and motivation to explore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Jonathan K; Sitomer, Matthew T; Killeen, Peter R; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2006-08-01

    This study uses an operant, behavioral model to assess the daily changes in the decay rate of short-term memory, motivation, and motor ability in rats exposed to chronic restraint. Restraint decreased reward-related motivation by 50% without altering memory decay rate or motor ability. Moreover, chronic restraint impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial memory on the Y maze (4-hr delay) and produced CA3 dendritic retraction without altering hippocampal-independent maze navigation (1-min delay) or locomotion. Thus, mechanisms underlying motivation for food reward differ from those underlying Y maze exploration, and neurobiological substrates of spatial memory, such as the hippocampus, differ from those that underlie short-term memory. Chronic restraint produces functional, neuromorphological, and physiological alterations that parallel symptoms of depression in humans. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Q. Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each. The model group received 60% (v/v ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N and microglia (by Ib1 were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05 by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01, and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01 in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05, and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01 with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  1. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengier, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.rengier@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Häfner, Matthias F. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Unterhinninghofen, Roland [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Anthropomatics, Department of Informatics, Adenauerring 2, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Giesel, Frederik L. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  2. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F.; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  3. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L

    2013-08-01

    Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students' deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9±4.8 to 49.5±5.4 (pability by 11.3% (psoftware into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby even diagnostic skills for imaging modalities not included in the course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SPATIAL VARIETY AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN SURAKARTA AS POTENTIAL FACTORS IN IMPROVING SPATIAL-BASED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istijabatul Aliyah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional markets function as trading place, socio-culture interaction, and recreation facility either in regional or urban scope. Distribution and variety of spatial condition influence traditional markets’ planning both physically and non-physically. Therefore, this research aimed to conduct a mapping of traditional markets’ spatial distribution and variety as potential factors to improve spatial-based management. Analysis methods including: (1 Mapping by employing Geographic Information System, (2 Category Based Analysis (CBA, and (3 Interactive Analysis were applied in Surakarta City as the research location. The result of this research signifies that spatial variety and distribution of traditional markets in Surakarta had similar pattern between one market to others; overlapping service function; specific commodity types in accordance with the market’s characteristics; diverse operating hours. Spatial variety and distribution could be potential factors to improve traditional market management as shopping service. This result was contrasted with Central Place Theory by Christaller and NÆss & Jensen’s research finding stating that distance became a key factor influencing accessibility to a number of activity facilities. Therefore, distance toward the service center is not considered as the main factor in traditional market management. The main factor in managing and controlling traditional markets’ development includes service function, commodity specification, and operating hour’s flexibility.

  5. Chronic Stress Impairs Spatial Memory and Motivation for Reward Without Disrupting Motor Ability and Motivation to Explore

    OpenAIRE

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Sitomer, Matthew T.; Killeen, Peter R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an operant, behavioral model to assess the daily changes in the decay rate of short-term memory, motivation, and motor ability in rats exposed to chronic restraint. Restraint decreased reward-related motivation by 50% without altering memory decay rate or motor ability. Moreover, chronic restraint impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial memory on the Y maze (4-hr delay) and produced CA3 dendritic retraction without altering hippocampal-independent maze navigation (1-min delay) ...

  6. The Effects of Dynamic Geometry Software and Physical Manipulatives on Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Van Hiele Levels and Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karakuş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of dynamic geometry software activities and influence of the physical manipulatives and drawing activities on the spatial ability and van Hiele levels of pre-service primary school teachers in a geometry course. A quasi-experimental statistical design was used in the study. The participants were 61 pre-service primary teachers in the second year of their undergraduate program in the Department of Elementary Education at Afyon Kocatepe University. A total of 32 pre-service teachers (computer group were trained in the dynamic geometry based activities and 29 pre-service teachers (physical-drawing group were trained in the physical manipulative and drawing based activities. In order to determine the two groups of the pre-service teachers’ geometric thinking levels, the van Hiele Geometry Test and in order to determine the two groups of the pre-service teachers’ spatial ability, The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was used as the pre-test and post-test. The results of the study showed that there was no difference on the post-test of the two groups related to the van Hiele levels and spatial abilities. Moreover, both groups have significantly higher achievement on the post-test compared to the pre-test.

  7. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  8. To lead and to lag - forward and backward recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eRohde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on human recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity so far have been limited to the study of recalibration to movement-lead temporal discrepancies (visual lags. We studied adaptation to both vision-lead and movement-lead discrepancies, to test for differences between these conditions, as a leading visual stimulus violates the underlying cause-effect structure. To this end, we manipulated the temporal relationship between a motor action (button press and a visual event (flashed disk in a training phase. Participants were tested in a temporal order judgment task and perceived simultaneity (PSS was compared before and after recalibration. A PHANToM© force-feedback device that tracks the finger position in real time was used to display a virtual button. We predicted the timing of full compression of the button from early movement onset in order to time visual stimuli even before the movement event of the full button press. The results show that recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity is evident in both directions and does not differ in magnitude between the conditions. The strength of recalibration decreases with perceptual accuracy, suggesting the possibility that some participants recalibrate less because they detect the discrepancy. We conclude that the mechanisms of temporal recalibration work in both direction and there is no evidence that they are asymmetrical around the point of actual simultaneity, despite the underlying asymmetry in the cause-effect relation.

  9. Socio-Spatial Factors Affecting Household Recycling in Townhouses in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques du Toit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although social factors affecting recycling have been widely researched, the effect of spatial and physical factors posed by medium-density housing, such as townhouses, is less understood. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the relative effect of three sets of factors on household recycling in townhouses are examined, including ‘attitude’ (about recycling, ‘subjective norm’ (social pressure, and ‘perceived behaviour control’ (ability to recycle. A questionnaire survey of 300 households was conducted in Equestria, an enclosed middle-income residential estate consisting of several townhouse complexes. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the three factor measurement model for recycling participation. Both recyclers and non-recyclers showed positive attitudes toward recycling and felt social pressure to recycle. Non-recyclers, however, felt significantly less able to recycle. Most recyclers as well as non-recyclers indicated that certain proposals for increasing recycling may cause them to recycle more, in particular a system through which the management agency arranges access for a recycling company to collect recyclables from strategically located collection points inside the complex. Urban planning and design recommendations for facilitating recycling in townhouses are discussed.

  10. Visuo–spatial working memory is an important source of domain-general vulnerability in the development of arithmetic cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W.S.; Swigart, Anna G.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental disorders can provide a unique window into the role of domain-general cognitive abilities and neural systems in typical and atypical development. Mathematical disabilities (MD) are characterized by marked difficulty in mathematical cognition in the presence of preserved intelligence and verbal ability. Although studies of MD have most often focused on the role of core deficits in numerical processing, domain-general cognitive abilities, in particular working memory (WM), have also been implicated. Here we identify specific WM components that are impaired in children with MD and then examine their role in arithmetic problem solving. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, the MD group demonstrated lower arithmetic performance and lower visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) scores with preserved abilities on the phonological and central executive components of WM. Whole brain analysis revealed that, during arithmetic problem solving, left posterior parietal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and fusiform gyrus responses were positively correlated with VSWM ability in TD children, but not in the MD group. Additional analyses using a priori posterior parietal cortex regions previously implicated in WM tasks, demonstrated a convergent pattern of results during arithmetic problem solving. These results suggest that MD is characterized by a common locus of arithmetic and VSWM deficits at both the cognitive and functional neuroanatomical levels. Unlike TD children, children with MD do not use VSWM resources appropriately during arithmetic problem solving. This work advances our understanding of VSWM as an important domain-general cognitive process in both typical and atypical mathematical skill development. PMID:23896444

  11. I Can Read It in Your Eyes: What Eye Movements Tell Us about Visuo-Attentional Processes in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Stephanie; Muneaux, Mathilde; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Ducrot, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Most studies today agree about the link between visual-attention and oculomotor control during reading: attention seems to affect saccadic programming, that is, the position where the eyes land in a word. Moreover, recent studies show that visuo-attentional processes are strictly linked to normal and impaired reading. In particular, a large body…

  12. High and low schizotypal female subjects do not differ in spatial memory abilities in a virtual reality task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, José Manuel; Noguera, Carmen; Alvarez, Dolores; Ruiz, Marina; Cimadevilla Redondo, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy is a psychological construct related to schizophrenia. The exact relationship between both entities is not clear. In recent years, schizophrenia has been associated with hippocampal abnormalities and spatial memory problems. The aim of this study was to determine possible links between high schizotypy (HS) and low schizotypy (LS) and spatial abilities, using virtual reality tasks. We hypothesised that the HS group would exhibit a lower performance in spatial memory tasks than the LS group. Two groups of female students were formed according to their score on the ESQUIZO-Q-A questionnaire. HS and LS subjects were tested on two different tasks: the Boxes Room task, a spatial memory task sensitive to hippocampal alterations and a spatial recognition task. Data showed that both groups mastered both tasks. Groups differed in personality features but not in spatial performance. These results provide valuable information about the schizotypy-schizophrenia connections. Schizotypal subjects are not impaired on spatial cognition and, accordingly, the schizotypy-schizophrenia relationship is not straightforward.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Origami Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Spatial Ability and Geometric Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akayuure, Peter; Asiedu-Addo, S. K.; Alebna, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Whereas origami is said to have pedagogical benefits in geometry education, research is inclusive about its effect on spatial ability and geometric knowledge among preservice teachers. The study investigated the effect of origami instruction on these aspects using pretest posttest quasi-experiment design. The experimental group consisted of 52…

  14. Mental rotation task in a pilot during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Verde, Paola; Bianchini, Filippo; Morgagni, Fabio; Guariglia, Cecilia; Strollo, Felice

    2013-10-01

    Discordant findings have been reported about the change in pregnant women's cognitive test performance. Visuo-spatial abilities, which are crucial in terrestrial/flight navigation, could be influenced by hormonal variations. A 32-yr-old Italian Air Force pilot underwent a 2-D Mental Rotation Task (MRT) and hormonal assessment in the second trimester of pregnancy and 1 yr after delivery. Her performance was compared with that of two nonpregnant groups of women: one with flying experience and the other without. Estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in pregnancy compared with postpartum, while testosterone was almost unchanged. During pregnancy, we observed a significant difference in the subject's response time compared with pilots (she was slower) and nonpilots (she was faster). One year after delivery, her performance was still better than the nonpilot group and was almost the same as the pilot group. Our data are consistent with an effect of pregnancy on visuo-spatial ability that can last for some time after delivery, even with the early recovery of the hormonal levels. MRT smoothly changed in our subject, supporting previous findings that women who are experts in flight navigation are less sensitive to hormonal fluctuations. In this case, visuospatial ability requiring effortful processing underwent variations during pregnancy and postpartum. Further studies are needed in order to confirm our observations in a wider population.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Spatial Visualization Ability and Drafting Models for Industrial and Technology Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine significant positive effects among the use of three different types of drafting models, and to identify whether any differences exist towards promotion of spatial visualization ability for students in Industrial Technology and Technology Education courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  16. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J. W.; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention—a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function. PMID:27768747

  17. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte J W Connell

    Full Text Available Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.

  18. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.

  19. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  20. Factors associated with inadequate work ability among women in the clothing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini

    2015-01-01

    Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.

  1. Visuo-locomotor control in persons with spinal cord injury in a manual or power wheelchair for direction change and obstacle circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Caroline; Routhier, François; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2017-09-01

    Many individuals, such as persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), rely on wheeled locomotion involving manual (MWC) or power (PWC) wheelchairs to navigate their environments. Yet, visuo-locomotor control underlying WC navigation in experienced users is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the visuo-locomotor control between MWC and PWC in individuals with SCI while changing direction and circumventing an obstacle. Participants with SCI using a MWC (n = 12, 38.5 ± 10.7 years) or a PWC (n = 10, 47.8 ± 8.6 years) were asked to maneuver their chair straight ahead, while changing direction 45° to the right, and while circumventing an obstacle to the right, all at self-selected speeds. Speed, minimal clearance, point of deviation, temporal body and WC coordination, relative timing of segment rotations and visual behavior were analyzed. There was no main effect of group for speed, clearance and point of deviation. During direction change, the head always led body and wheelchair reorientation while an "en bloc" strategy was used for circumventing obstacle for both groups. In straight-ahead locomotion, participants predominantly fixed their gaze on the end target. During direction change and obstacle circumvention, participants fixated more on the future path and the obstacle for both WC modes. Overall, specific gaze behavior depended on environmental demands. While MWC and PWC users adopt similar navigational strategies and visuo-locomotor coordination while changing direction and circumventing obstacle, there were some differences in the amount of head rotation that could be related to a counter-movement used more by PWC users.

  2. Obama cares about visuo-spatial attention: perception of political figures moves attention and determines gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Processing an abstract concept such as political ideology by itself is difficult but becomes easier when a background situation contextualizes it. Political ideology within American politics, for example, is commonly processed using space metaphorically, i.e., the political "left" and "right" (referring to Democrat and Republican views, respectively), presumably to provide a common metric to which abstract features of ideology can be grounded and understood. Commonplace use of space as metaphor raises the question of whether an inherently non-spatial stimulus (e.g., picture of the political "left" leader, Barack Obama) can trigger a spatially-specific response (e.g., attentional bias toward "left" regions of the visual field). Accordingly, pictures of well-known Democrats and Republicans were presented as central cues in peripheral target detection (Experiment 1) and saccadic free-choice (Experiment 2) tasks to determine whether perception of stimuli lacking a direct association with physical space nonetheless induce attentional and oculomotor biases in the direction compatible with the ideological category of the cue (i.e., Democrat/left and Republican/right). In Experiment 1, target detection following presentation of a Democrat (Republican) was facilitated for targets appearing to the left (right). In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to look left (right) following presentation of a Democrat (Republican). Thus, activating an internal representation of political ideology induced a shift of attention and biased choice of gaze direction in a spatially-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that the link between conceptual processing and spatial attention can be totally arbitrary, with no reference to physical or symbolic spatial information. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunen, Ville J.; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spapé, Michiel M.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver’s body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands, and one VR-free control with hands in view. Participants were required to silently count one type of stimulus and ignore all other stimuli presented in irrelevant modality or location. The presence of hands was found to modulate early and late components of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials. For sensory-perceptual stages, the presence of virtual or real hands was found to amplify attention-related negativity on the somatosensory N140 and cross-modal interaction in somatosensory and visual P200. For postperceptual stages, an amplified N200 component was obtained in somatosensory and visual evoked potentials, indicating increased response inhibition in response to non-target stimuli. The effect of somatosensory, but not visual, N200 enhanced when the virtual hands were present. The findings suggest that bodily presence affects sustained cross-modal spatial attention between vision and touch and that this effect is specifically present in ERPs related to early- and late-sensory processing, as well as response inhibition, but do not affect later attention and memory-related P3 activity. Finally, the experiments provide commeasurable scenarios for the estimation of the signal and noise ratio to quantify effects related to the use of a head mounted display (HMD). However, despite valid a-priori reasons for fearing signal interference due to a HMD, we observed no significant drop in the robustness of our ERP measurements. PMID:28275346

  4. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunen, Ville J; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spapé, Michiel M

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver's body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands, and one VR-free control with hands in view. Participants were required to silently count one type of stimulus and ignore all other stimuli presented in irrelevant modality or location. The presence of hands was found to modulate early and late components of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials. For sensory-perceptual stages, the presence of virtual or real hands was found to amplify attention-related negativity on the somatosensory N140 and cross-modal interaction in somatosensory and visual P200. For postperceptual stages, an amplified N200 component was obtained in somatosensory and visual evoked potentials, indicating increased response inhibition in response to non-target stimuli. The effect of somatosensory, but not visual, N200 enhanced when the virtual hands were present. The findings suggest that bodily presence affects sustained cross-modal spatial attention between vision and touch and that this effect is specifically present in ERPs related to early- and late-sensory processing, as well as response inhibition, but do not affect later attention and memory-related P3 activity. Finally, the experiments provide commeasurable scenarios for the estimation of the signal and noise ratio to quantify effects related to the use of a head mounted display (HMD). However, despite valid a-priori reasons for fearing signal interference due to a HMD, we observed no significant drop in the robustness of our ERP measurements.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Holographic, 3D-Printed, and Computer-Generated Models: Implications for Engineering Technology Students' Spatial Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that the use of holographic displays can influence spatial visualization ability; however, research provides inconsistent results. Considering this, a quasi-experimental study was conducted to identify the existence of statistically significant effects on sectional view drawing ability due to the impacts of holographic…

  6. Factor Copula Models for Replicated Spatial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel

    2016-12-19

    We propose a new copula model that can be used with replicated spatial data. Unlike the multivariate normal copula, the proposed copula is based on the assumption that a common factor exists and affects the joint dependence of all measurements of the process. Moreover, the proposed copula can model tail dependence and tail asymmetry. The model is parameterized in terms of a covariance function that may be chosen from the many models proposed in the literature, such as the Matérn model. For some choice of common factors, the joint copula density is given in closed form and therefore likelihood estimation is very fast. In the general case, one-dimensional numerical integration is needed to calculate the likelihood, but estimation is still reasonably fast even with large data sets. We use simulation studies to show the wide range of dependence structures that can be generated by the proposed model with different choices of common factors. We apply the proposed model to spatial temperature data and compare its performance with some popular geostatistics models.

  7. Factor Copula Models for Replicated Spatial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new copula model that can be used with replicated spatial data. Unlike the multivariate normal copula, the proposed copula is based on the assumption that a common factor exists and affects the joint dependence of all measurements of the process. Moreover, the proposed copula can model tail dependence and tail asymmetry. The model is parameterized in terms of a covariance function that may be chosen from the many models proposed in the literature, such as the Matérn model. For some choice of common factors, the joint copula density is given in closed form and therefore likelihood estimation is very fast. In the general case, one-dimensional numerical integration is needed to calculate the likelihood, but estimation is still reasonably fast even with large data sets. We use simulation studies to show the wide range of dependence structures that can be generated by the proposed model with different choices of common factors. We apply the proposed model to spatial temperature data and compare its performance with some popular geostatistics models.

  8. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  9. Long-Term Visuo-Gustatory Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning Potentiate Human Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert R. J. Christoffersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human recognition of foods and beverages are often based on visual cues associated with flavors. The dynamics of neurophysiological plasticity related to acquisition of such long-term associations has only recently become the target of investigation. In the present work, the effects of appetitive and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs, specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared before and 1 day after the pairings. In electrodes located over posterior visual cortex areas, the following changes were observed after conditioning: the amplitude from the N2-peak to the P3-peak increased and the N2 peak delay was reduced. The percentage increase of N2-to-P3 amplitudes was asymmetrically distributed over the posterior hemispheres despite the fact that the images were bilaterally symmetrical across the two visual hemifields. The percentage increases of N2-to-P3 amplitudes in each experimental subject correlated with the subject’s evaluation of positive or negative hedonic valences of the two juices. The results from 118 scalp electrodes gave surface maps of theta power distributions showing increased power over posterior visual areas after the pairings. Source current distributions calculated from swLORETA revealed that visual evoked currents rose as a result of conditioning in five cortical regions—from primary visual areas and into the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG. These learning-induced changes were seen after both appetitive and aversive training while a sham trained control group showed no changes. It is concluded that long-term visuo-gustatory conditioning potentiated the N2-P3 complex, and it is suggested that the changes are regulated by the perceived hedonic valence of the US.

  10. Factors that determine development of the ability to draw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the necessary factors are determined to structure a drawing representing an object, a brief description of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, the theory of multiple bits of intelligence Gardner, capacities of representation and perception involved in the skill is reviewed and ability to draw. This work aims to be the beginning of a larger study, where they plan to measure the ability to draw in students, in order to experiment with alternative methodologies for teaching drawing.

  11. « Cognitus & Moi » : a computer-based cognitive remediation program for children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDemily

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional, visuospatial and social cognition deficits have a negative impact on children’s adaptative and social competences and, as a result, on their ability to achieve a normal functioning and behavior. Until now and despite the frequency of those deficits, there is a lack of children’s specific cognitive remediation tools specifically dedicated to attentional and visuospatial areas.The « Cognitus & Moi » program involves a variety of exercises in a paper and/or pencil (n=30 or a computerized format (n=29 and a strategy coaching approach. Each module of « Cognitus & Moi » targets a single impaired cognitive area, within the limits of cognitive domains' overlapping. The little cartoon character named Cognitus, who illustrates the program, is supposed to be very friendly and kind towards children. Cognitus will accompany them throughout the program for an effective and positive reinforcement. The main goal of « Cognitus & Moi » is to adjust to children’s difficulties in daily life. Moreover, since the cognitive remediation benefit is complex to apply in daily life, the program is based on a metacognitive strategy. After a complete neuropsychological assessment and a psychoeducational session (with the child and the parents, 16 one hour-sessions of cognitive remediation with the therapist are proposed. Each session is composed of three parts: (1 computerized tasks focusing on specific attentional or visuo-spatial components (20 minutes. The attentional module targets hearing, visual and divided attention. A double attention task is also proposed. The visuo-spatial module targets eye tracking and gaze direction, spatial orientation, visuo-spatial memory and construction, and mental imagery.(2 pen and paper tasks focusing on the same processes (20 minutes and a facial emotion recognition task.(3 a proposal of a home-based task (during 20 minutes. Weekly, specific attentional and visuo-spatial home tasks are proposed to the child and

  12. Motor transfer from map ocular exploration to locomotion during spatial navigation from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Alixia; Olivier, Gérard; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Spatial navigation from memory can rely on two different strategies: a mental simulation of a kinesthetic spatial navigation (egocentric route strategy) or visual-spatial memory using a mental map (allocentric survey strategy). We hypothesized that a previously performed "oculomotor navigation" on a map could be used by the brain to perform a locomotor memory task. Participants were instructed to (1) learn a path on a map through a sequence of vertical and horizontal eyes movements and (2) walk on the slabs of a "magic carpet" to recall this path. The main results showed that the anisotropy of ocular movements (horizontal ones being more efficient than vertical ones) influenced performances of participants when they change direction on the central slab of the magic carpet. These data suggest that, to find their way through locomotor space, subjects mentally repeated their past ocular exploration of the map, and this visuo-motor memory was used as a template for the locomotor performance.

  13. The Structure of Cognitive Abilities in Youths with Manic Symptoms: A Factorial Invariance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Freeman, Megan Joseph; Youngstrom, Eric; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the structure of cognitive ability (specifically, verbal/crystallized ["Gc"] and visual-spatial ability ["Gv"]), as measured in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, in youth with manic symptoms with a nationally representative group of similarly aged youth. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis…

  14. The computer game training effect for women may depend on initial spatial ability scores

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In this project we tried to explore what it is in games that may enhance spatial abilities. Previous research has shown that action games may enhance gamers’ scores on the Mental Rotation test (MRT), while evidence is found both for and against that puzzle games could do the same. We used three different games, and one control group, with a total of 32 participants matched over these four groups. The games were Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault, which has been used as an action game in previous...

  15. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  16. Spatial Outlier Detection of CO2 Monitoring Data Based on Spatial Local Outlier Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial local outlier factor (SLOF algorithm was adopted in this study for spatial outlier detection because of the limitations of the traditional static threshold detection. Based on the spatial characteristics of CO2 monitoring data obtained in the carbon capture and storage (CCS project, the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN graph was constructed using the latitude and longitude information of the monitoring points to identify the spatial neighbourhood of the monitoring points. Then SLOF was adopted to calculate the outlier degrees of the monitoring points and the 3σ rule was employed to identify the spatial outlier. Finally, the selection of K value was analysed and the optimal one was selected. The results show that, compared with the static threshold method, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection precision. It can overcome the shortcomings of the static threshold method and improve the accuracy and diversity of local outlier detection, which provides a reliable reference for the safety assessment and warning of CCS monitoring.

  17. Manipulation of pre-target activity on the right frontal eye field enhances conscious visual perception in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Chanes

    Full Text Available The right Frontal Eye Field (FEF is a region of the human brain, which has been consistently involved in visuo-spatial attention and access to consciousness. Nonetheless, the extent of this cortical site's ability to influence specific aspects of visual performance remains debated. We hereby manipulated pre-target activity on the right FEF and explored its influence on the detection and categorization of low-contrast near-threshold visual stimuli. Our data show that pre-target frontal neurostimulation has the potential when used alone to induce enhancements of conscious visual detection. More interestingly, when FEF stimulation was combined with visuo-spatial cues, improvements remained present only for trials in which the cue correctly predicted the location of the subsequent target. Our data provide evidence for the causal role of the right FEF pre-target activity in the modulation of human conscious vision and reveal the dependence of such neurostimulatory effects on the state of activity set up by cue validity in the dorsal attentional orienting network.

  18. Crossmodal representation of a functional robotic hand arises after extensive training in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Tagliabue, Chiara F; Sposito, Ambra V; Hernandez-Arieta, Alejandro; Brugger, Peter; Estévez, Natalia; Maravita, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The way in which humans represent their own bodies is critical in guiding their interactions with the environment. To achieve successful body-space interactions, the body representation is strictly connected with that of the space immediately surrounding it through efficient visuo-tactile crossmodal integration. Such a body-space integrated representation is not fixed, but can be dynamically modulated by the use of external tools. Our study aims to explore the effect of using a complex tool, namely a functional prosthesis, on crossmodal visuo-tactile spatial interactions in healthy participants. By using the crossmodal visuo-tactile congruency paradigm, we found that prolonged training with a mechanical hand capable of distal hand movements and providing sensory feedback induces a pattern of interference, which is not observed after a brief training, between visual stimuli close to the prosthesis and touches on the body. These results suggest that after extensive, but not short, training the functional prosthesis acquires a visuo-tactile crossmodal representation akin to real limbs. This finding adds to previous evidence for the embodiment of functional prostheses in amputees, and shows that their use may also improve the crossmodal combination of somatosensory feedback delivered by the prosthesis with visual stimuli in the space around it, thus effectively augmenting the patients' visuomotor abilities. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Deficits in visuo-spatial but not in topographical memory during pregnancy and the postpartum state in an expert military pilot: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Verde, Paola; Bianchini, Filippo; Morgagni, Fabio; Guariglia, Cecilia; Strollo, Felice; Tomao, Enrico

    2014-08-13

    It is well known that cognitive and emotional changes occur during pregnancy, but little is known about their magnitude or their time of occurrence and recovery. During pregnancy memory is one of the most impaired cognitive functions. Although long-term aspects of memory have been investigated, other aspects of memory have not yet been explored (i.e., navigational memory and reaching memory). Here we describe the changes in reaching and walking memory that occurred during pregnancy and one year after delivery in an Italian female military pilot (Case 1) with high spatial ability. In memory tests she showed a classical dissociation between performance in reaching and walking distance, which indicated a failure of working memory, learning, and storage in reaching space. This suggests that her expertise served as a protective factor mitigating her low walking memory performance, and saving the topographical component.We compared her performance with that of two non-pregnant control groups (i.e., women pilots and non-pilots) and found that Case 1's reaching memory performance was significantly worse than that of the control groups. Even one year postpartum, Case 1's performance was not yet the same as that of the other pilots. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the specific, as yet unexplored, aspects of memory deficits in women pilots during pregnancy and postpartum and suggest the need for better neuropsychological assessment before these women return to work in operational environments.

  20. Factors affecting spatial variation of annual apparent Q₁₀ of soil respiration in two warm temperate forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Luan

    Full Text Available A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀ values of the soil-to-atmosphere CO₂ flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q₁₀ values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q₁₀ values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF and a pine plantation (PP. Q₁₀ values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (R(S measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q₁₀ values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR (R = 0.50, P = 0.002, non-capillary porosity (NCP (R = 0.37, P = 0.03, and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T₅ (R = -0.43, P = 0.01 well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ (R = -0.35, P = 0.04. Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q₁₀ values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q₁₀ values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q₁₀ values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q₁₀ value variation.

  1. Work ability and associated factors of Brazilian technical-administrative workers in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-02

    Studies about work ability have grown in importance owing to the worldwide aging of active populations. Research has shown that measuring work ability has a predictive value in cases of long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Our goal was to analyze the work ability and associated factors of civil servants from a higher education institution in Brazil. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 600 technical-administrative workers at a public university. Work ability was measured using the work ability index. The participants were as follows: 51.8% male; mean age of 45 years (SD = ±11); married or in a stable union (61.5%); holding a graduate degree (56.7%); having only one job (83.3%), working 40 h a week or less (78.6%); not working evenings (79.8%); and having direct contact with the public (58.3%). The prevalence of reduced work ability was 13.9%. The following factors were found to be associated with reduced work ability: age 50 years old or above (PR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.25-5.09); female (PR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.25-3.60); education up to secondary school (PR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.13-3.59); overall poor self-assessed health (PR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.32-3.93); signs and symptoms of depression (PR = 4.86; 95% CI 2.23-6.55); sedentariness (PR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.38-4.68) and poor social support at work (PR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.66-4.37). Most of the participants showed good work ability, but some subjects had reduced work ability. This study makes a contribution to expanding the discussion about the factors associated with work ability toward proposing actions for maintaining that ability or helping recovery in the case of diminished ability. Such actions can help reduce work absenteeism and early retirement, both of which have a social and economic impact in Brazil. Studying the determinants of work ability and recommendations to address those determinants will help efforts to improve the quality of life of individuals, both at work and personally, and promote healthy

  2. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  3. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  4. Environment learning using descriptions or navigation: The involvement of working memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Martinelli, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana

    2016-05-01

    This study examined age-related differences between young and older adults in the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM) when paths are learned from verbal and visuo-spatial inputs. A sample of 60 young adults (20-30 years old) and 58 older adults (60-75 years old) learned two paths from the person's point of view, one displayed in the form of a video showing the path, the other presenting the path in a verbal description. During the learning phase, participants concurrently performed a verbal task (articulatory suppression, AS group), or a visuo-spatial task (spatial tapping, ST group), or no secondary task (control, C group). After learning each path, participants completed tasks that involved the following: (1) recalling the sequential order and the location of landmarks; and (2) judging spatial sentences as true or false (verification test). The results showed that young adults outperformed older adults in all recall tasks. In both age groups performance in all types of task was worse in the AS and ST groups than in the C group, irrespective of the type of input. Overall, these findings suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial components of WM underpin the processing of environmental information in both young and older adults. The results are discussed in terms of age-related differences and according to the spatial cognition framework. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Influences of reduced masticatory sensory input from soft-diet feeding upon spatial memory/learning ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2007-02-01

    It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.

  6. The Effect of Teaching Geometry Which is Differentiated Based on the Parallel Curriculum for Gifted/Talented Students on Spatial Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak KOK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of teaching geometry which is differentiated based on the parallel curriculum for gifted/talented students on spatial ability. For this purpose; two units as “Polygons” and “Geometric Objects” of 5th grade mathematics book has been taken and formed a new differentiated geometry unit. In this study, pretest and posttest designs of experimental model were used. The study was conducted in Istanbul Science and Art Center, which offers differentiated program to those who are gifted and talented students after school, in the city of İstanbul and participants were 30 students being 15 of them are experimental group and the other 15 are control group. Experimental group students were underwent a differentiated program on “Polygons” and “Geometric Objects” whereas the other group continued their normal program without any differentiation. Spatial Ability Test developed by Talented Youth Center of John Hopkins University was used to collect data. Above mentioned test was presented to both groups of the study. Collected data was analyzed by Mann Whitney-U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test which is in the statistics program. It is presented as a result of the study that the program prepared for the gifted and talented students raised their spatial thinking ability.

  7. The nature-nurture controversy in its most recent avatar: A response ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of accounting for, several factors that were shown to gov- ern the acquisition of ... the base for the internal computational capacity (principle) ... tion and other biological systems, such as – the reflection ... visuo-spatial information that accompanies speech in day-to-day communication and the effects of the very process of ...

  8. Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58 and assistant nurses (n = 79 replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1 and work ability (model 2 for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p 2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001. Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides, and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in

  9. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  10. Pantomime-grasping: Advance knowledge of haptic feedback availability supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eDavarpanah Jazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping. In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials and without (i.e., PH- trials terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration – a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model. The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule. In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and stimulated (i.e., pantomime-grasping grasping.

  11. Dispersal Ability Determines the Role of Environmental, Spatial and Temporal Drivers of Metacommunity Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padial, André A.; Ceschin, Fernanda; Declerck, Steven A. J.; De Meester, Luc; Bonecker, Cláudia C.; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio A.; Rodrigues, Liliana; Rodrigues, Luzia C.; Train, Sueli; Velho, Luiz F. M.; Bini, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, community ecologists are focusing on the relative importance of local environmental factors and proxies to dispersal limitation to explain spatial variation in community structure. Albeit less explored, temporal processes may also be important in explaining species composition variation in

  12. Deciphering factors controlling groundwater arsenic spatial variability in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Yang, Q.; Zheng, C.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of geogenic arsenic in groundwater have been found in many countries to exceed 10 μg/L, the WHO's guideline value for drinking water. A common yet unexplained characteristic of groundwater arsenic spatial distribution is the extensive variability at various spatial scales. This study investigates factors influencing the spatial variability of groundwater arsenic in Bangladesh to improve the accuracy of models predicting arsenic exceedance rate spatially. A novel boosted regression tree method is used to establish a weak-learning ensemble model, which is compared to a linear model using a conventional stepwise logistic regression method. The boosted regression tree models offer the advantage of parametric interaction when big datasets are analyzed in comparison to the logistic regression. The point data set (n=3,538) of groundwater hydrochemistry with 19 parameters was obtained by the British Geological Survey in 2001. The spatial data sets of geological parameters (n=13) were from the Consortium for Spatial Information, Technical University of Denmark, University of East Anglia and the FAO, while the soil parameters (n=42) were from the Harmonized World Soil Database. The aforementioned parameters were regressed to categorical groundwater arsenic concentrations below or above three thresholds: 5 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 50 μg/L to identify respective controlling factors. Boosted regression tree method outperformed logistic regression methods in all three threshold levels in terms of accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, resulting in an improvement of spatial distribution map of probability of groundwater arsenic exceeding all three thresholds when compared to disjunctive-kriging interpolated spatial arsenic map using the same groundwater arsenic dataset. Boosted regression tree models also show that the most important controlling factors of groundwater arsenic distribution include groundwater iron content and well depth for all three

  13. Spatial and null infinity via advanced and retarded conformal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to space-time asymptotics is presented, refining Penrose's idea of conformal transformations with infinity represented by the conformal boundary of space-time. It is proposed that the Penrose conformal factor be a product of advanced and retarded conformal factors, which asymptotically relate physical and conformal null coordinates and vanish at future and past null infinity respectively. A refined definition of asymptotic flatness at both spatial and null infinity is given, including that the conformal boundary is locally a light cone, with spatial infinity as the vertex. It is shown how to choose the conformal factors so that this asymptotic light cone is locally a metric light cone. The theory is implemented in the spin-coefficient (or null-tetrad) formalism by a joint transformation of the spin-metric and spin-basis (or metric and tetrad). Asymptotic regularity conditions are proposed, based on the conformal boundary locally being a smoothly embedded metric light cone. These conditions ensure that the Bondi-Sachs energy-flux integrals of ingoing and outgoing gravitational radiation decay at spatial infinity such that the total radiated energy is finite, and that the Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum has a unique limit at spatial infinity, coinciding with the uniquely rendered ADM energy-momentum

  14. Spatial econometric analysis of factors influencing regional energy efficiency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Malin; Chen, Yu; An, Qingxian

    2018-05-01

    Increased environmental pollution and energy consumption caused by the country's rapid development has raised considerable public concern, and has become the focus of the government and public. This study employs the super-efficiency slack-based model-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) to measure the total factor energy efficiency of 30 provinces in China. The estimation model for the spatial interaction intensity of regional total factor energy efficiency is based on Wilson's maximum entropy model. The model is used to analyze the factors that affect the potential value of total factor energy efficiency using spatial dynamic panel data for 30 provinces during 2000-2014. The study found that there are differences and spatial correlations of energy efficiency among provinces and regions in China. The energy efficiency in the eastern, central, and western regions fluctuated significantly, and was mainly because of significant energy efficiency impacts on influences of industrial structure, energy intensity, and technological progress. This research is of great significance to China's energy efficiency and regional coordinated development.

  15. From Resource-Adaptive Navigation Assistance to Augmented Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Hubert D.; Münzer, Stefan; Baus, Jörg

    In an assistance scenario, a computer provides purposive information supporting a human user in an everyday situation. Wayfinding with navigation assistance is a prototypical assistance scenario. The present chapter analyzes the interplay of the resources of the assistance system and the resources of the user. The navigation assistance system provides geographic knowledge, positioning information, route planning, spatial overview information, and route commands at decision points. The user's resources encompass spatial knowledge, spatial abilities and visuo-spatial working memory, orientation strategies, and cultural habit. Flexible adaptations of the assistance system to available resources of the user are described, taking different wayfinding goals, situational constraints, and individual differences into account. Throughout the chapter, the idea is pursued that the available resources of the user should be kept active.

  16. Spatial variability of excess mortality during prolonged dust events in a high-density city: a time-stratified spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Ho, Hung Chak; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2017-07-24

    Dust events have long been recognized to be associated with a higher mortality risk. However, no study has investigated how prolonged dust events affect the spatial variability of mortality across districts in a downwind city. In this study, we applied a spatial regression approach to estimate the district-level mortality during two extreme dust events in Hong Kong. We compared spatial and non-spatial models to evaluate the ability of each regression to estimate mortality. We also compared prolonged dust events with non-dust events to determine the influences of community factors on mortality across the city. The density of a built environment (estimated by the sky view factor) had positive association with excess mortality in each district, while socioeconomic deprivation contributed by lower income and lower education induced higher mortality impact in each territory planning unit during a prolonged dust event. Based on the model comparison, spatial error modelling with the 1st order of queen contiguity consistently outperformed other models. The high-risk areas with higher increase in mortality were located in an urban high-density environment with higher socioeconomic deprivation. Our model design shows the ability to predict spatial variability of mortality risk during an extreme weather event that is not able to be estimated based on traditional time-series analysis or ecological studies. Our spatial protocol can be used for public health surveillance, sustainable planning and disaster preparation when relevant data are available.

  17. Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R

    1976-11-01

    The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.

  18. Is work engagement related to work ability beyond working conditions and lifestyle factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa; Luukkonen, Ritva

    2012-11-01

    To examine the associations of age, lifestyle and work-related factors, and particularly work engagement with the work ability index (WAI) and its sub-dimensions. Step-wise regression analysis with a sample of Finnish firefighters (n = 403) was used. The outcome variables were the WAI and its six sub-dimensions. The independent variables consisted of age, lifestyle variables (alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, and sleep problems), working conditions (job demands, physical workload, supervisory relations, and task resources), and work engagement. The outcome variables and all the variables related to lifestyle, working conditions, and work engagement were measured in 2009. Work ability at baseline 10 years earlier was adjusted for in the models. Work engagement, age, physical exercise, sleep problems, and physical workload were associated with the WAI. All independent variables, except BMI and alcohol consumption, were associated with at least one sub-dimension of the WAI after controlling the baseline WAI. Lifestyle variables, working conditions, and work engagement were more strongly related to the subjective WAI sub-dimensions than to the two more objective WAI sub-dimensions. Work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various factors, indicating its importance in promoting work ability. Other key factors for good work ability were frequent exercise, good sleep, non-smoking, low job demands, low physical workload, and high task resources. More specifically, this study suggests that in maintaining work ability, it is valuable not only to promote lifestyle factors or working conditions, but also to enhance employees' positive state of work engagement.

  19. An analytical evaluation for spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Songhyun; Kim, Hong-Chul; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young; Noh, Jae Man

    2009-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities is pursued by the model developed in this study. Intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities are calculated as a function of fuel kernel radius, number of fuel kernels, and fuel region radius. The method in this study can be easily utilized to analyze the tendency of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and spatial-dependent fuel region escape probability for the various geometries because it is faster than the MCNP method as well as good accuracy. (author)

  20. Mobile video-to-audio transducer and motion detection for sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eAmbard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-auditory sensory substitution systems are augmented reality devices that translate a video stream into an audio stream in order to help the blind in daily tasks requiring visuo-spatial information. In this work, we present both a new mobile device and a transcoding method specifically designed to sonify moving objects. Frame differencing is used to extract spatial features from the video stream and two-dimensional spatial information is converted into audio cues using pitch, interaural time difference and interaural level difference. Using numerical methods, we attempt to reconstruct visuo-spatial information based on audio signals generated from various video stimuli. We show that despite a contrasted visual background and a highly lossy encoding method, the information in the audio signal is sufficient to allow object localization, object trajectory evaluation, object approach detection, and spatial separation of multiple objects. We also show that this type of audio signal can be interpreted by human users by asking ten subjects to discriminate trajectories based on generated audio signals.

  1. Spatial scale effects in environmental risk-factor modelling for diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Raghavan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies attempting to identify environmental risk factors for diseases can be seen to extract candidate variables from remotely sensed datasets, using a single buffer-zone surrounding locations from where disease status are recorded. A retrospective case-control study using canine leptospirosis data was conducted to verify the effects of changing buffer-zones (spatial extents on the risk factors derived. The case-control study included 94 case dogs predominantly selected based on positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for leptospires in urine, and 185 control dogs based on negative PCR. Land cover features from National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD and Kansas Gap Analysis Program (KS GAP around geocoded addresses of cases/controls were extracted using multiple buffers at every 500 m up to 5,000 m, and multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of different land cover variables to dogs. The types and statistical significance of risk factors identified changed with an increase in spatial extent in both datasets. Leptospirosis status in dogs was significantly associated with developed high-intensity areas in models that used variables extracted from spatial extents of 500-2000 m, developed medium-intensity areas beyond 2,000 m and up to 3,000 m, and evergreen forests beyond 3,500 m and up to 5,000 m in individual models in the NLCD. Significant associations were seen in urban areas in models that used variables extracted from spatial extents of 500-2,500 m and forest/woodland areas beyond 2,500 m and up to 5,000 m in individual models in Kansas gap analysis programme datasets. The use of ad hoc spatial extents can be misleading or wrong, and the determination of an appropriate spatial extent is critical when extracting environmental variables for studies. Potential work-arounds for this problem are discussed.

  2. The space-math link in preschool boys and girls: Importance of mental transformation, targeting accuracy, and spatial anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I

    2017-06-01

    Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls. Targeting accuracy also mediated the male advantage in counting. Interestingly, spatial anxiety moderated the space-math links, but differently for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities were irrelevant to counting at high anxiety levels; for girls, the role of anxiety on the space-math link is less clear. Results extend the evidence base of the space-math link to include an extrinsic spatial ability (targeting accuracy) and have implications for intervention programmes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Much evidence of a space-math link in adolescent and adult samples and for intrinsic spatial abilities. What does this study add? Extended the space-math link to include both intrinsic and extrinsic spatial abilities in a preschool sample. Showed how spatial anxiety moderated the space-math link differently for boys and girls. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The Importance of Spatial Reasoning Skills in Undergraduate Geology Students and the Effect of Weekly Spatial Skill Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Anne; Pendergast, Philip; Stempien, Jennifer; Ormand, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Spatial reasoning is a key skill for student success in STEM disciplines in general and for students in geosciences in particular. However, spatial reasoning is neither explicitly trained, nor evenly distributed, among students and by gender. This uneven playing field allows some students to perform geoscience tasks easily while others struggle. A lack of spatial reasoning skills has been shown to be a barrier to success in the geosciences, and for STEM disciplines in general. Addressing spatial abilities early in the college experience might therefore be effective in retaining students, especially females, in STEM disciplines. We have developed and implemented a toolkit for testing and training undergraduate student spatial reasoning skills in the classroom. In the academic year 2014/15, we studied the distribution of spatial abilities in more than 700 undergraduate Geology students from 4 introductory and 2 upper level courses. Following random assignment, four treatment groups received weekly online training and intermittent hands-on trainings in spatial thinking while four control groups only participated in a pre- and a posttest of spatial thinking skills. In this presentation we summarize our results and describe the distribution of spatial skills in undergraduate students enrolled in geology courses. We first discuss the factors that best account for differences in baseline spatial ability levels, including general intelligence (using standardized test scores as a proxy), major, video gaming, and other childhood play experiences, which help to explain the gender gap observed in most research. We found a statistically significant improvement of spatial thinking still with large effect sizes for the students who received the weekly trainings. Self-report data further shows that students improve their spatial thinking skills and report that their improved spatial thinking skills increase their performance in geoscience courses. We conclude by discussing the

  4. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tactile exploration of virtual objects for blind and sighted people: the role of beta 1 EEG band in sensory substitution and supramodal mental mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Campus, C.; Brayda, L.; De Carli, F.; Chellali, R.; Famà, F.; Bruzzo, C.; Lucagrossi, L.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of exploration and cognitive mapping in blindness remain elusive. The role of visuo-spatial pathways in blind vs. sighted subjects is still under debate. In this preliminary study, we investigate, as a possible estimation of the activity in the visuo-spatial pathways, the EEG patterns of blind and blindfolded-sighted subjects during the active tactile construction of cognitive maps from virtual objects compared with rest and passive tactile stimulation. Ten blind and ten...

  6. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  7. Spatial Factor Analysis for Aerosol Optical Depth in Metropolises in China with Regard to Spatial Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have analyzed how driving factors impact aerosols, but they have been little concerned with the spatial heterogeneity of aerosols and the factors that impact aerosols. The spatial distributions of the aerosol optical depth (AOD retrieved by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS data at 550-nm and 3-km resolution for three highly developed metropolises, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, and the Pearl River Delta (PRD, in China during 2015 were analyzed. Different degrees of spatial heterogeneity of the AOD were found, which were indexed by Moran’s I index giving values of 0.940, 0.715, and 0.680 in BTH, YRD, and PRD, respectively. For the spatial heterogeneity, geographically weighted regression (GWR was employed to carry out a spatial factor analysis, where terrain, climate condition, urban development, and vegetation coverage were taken as the potential driving factors. The results of the GWR imply varying relationships between the AOD and the factors. The results were generally consistent with existing studies, but the results suggest the following: (1 Elevation increase would more likely lead to a strong negative impact on aerosols (with most of the coefficients ranging from −1.5~0 in the BTH, −1.5~0 in the YRD, and −1~0 in the PRD in the places with greater elevations where the R-squared values are always larger than 0.5. However, the variation of elevations cannot explain the variation of aerosols in the places with relatively low elevations (with R-squared values approximately 0.1, ranging from 0 to 0.3, and approximately 0.1 in the BTH, YRD, and PRD, such as urban areas in the BTH and YRD. (2 The density of the built-up areas made a strong and positive impact on aerosols in the urban areas of the BTH (R-squared larger than 0.5, while the R-squared dropped to 0.1 in the places far away from the urban areas. (3 The vegetation coverage led to a stronger

  8. Effect of catalpol on senile plaques and spatial learning and memory ability in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether catalpol affects senile plaque formation and spatial learning and memory ability in the amyloid-βprotein precursor/presenilin 1(APP/PS1)double transgenic mice.Methods

  9. Temporal-spatial variation and the influence factors of precipitation in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Precipitation is a key factor in the water cycle.At the same time,precipitation is the focus of study in meteorology and climatology,ecological environmental assessment,non-point source pollution and so on.Understanding the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding factors of precipitation has become the object of hydrology and environmentology.Based on the annual precipitation data,we analyzed the spatial distribution of precipitation in Sichuan Province in China as well as the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding influence factors involved.The results show that the amount of precipitation was abundant,but the spatial distribution was not consistent with it and the amount of precipitation gradually declined from the south-east to the north-west in Sichuan Province,China.Moreover,the spatial distribution was different throughout the years.The result of correlation analysis indicated that elevation,temperature and air pressure were three key factors affecting the amount and distribution of precipitation,and the correlation coefficients were -0.56,0.38 and 0.45 respectively.Notably,the relationship between the slope of topography and precipitation were significantly negative and the average correlation coefficient was -0.28.

  10. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih

    2012-06-01

    In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

  11. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qifang; Azman, Andrew S; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Khan, Azharul Islam; Ahmed, Dilruba; Riaj, Altaf Ahmed; Gurley, Emily S; Lessler, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets) near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98), type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00), and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00) exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a cholera endemic

  12. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Bi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98, type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00, and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00 exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a

  13. Determinants of palm species distributions across Africa: the relative roles of climate, non-climatic environmental factors, and spatial constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Blach; Svenning, J.-C.; Dransfield, John

    2010-01-01

    -climatic environmental predictors, the latter having no discernible effect beyond the climatic control. Hence, at the continental scale, climate constitutes the only strong environmental control of palm species distributions in Africa. With regard to the most important climatic predictors of African palm distributions......, water-related factors were most important for 25 of the 29 species analysed. The strong response of palm distributions to climate in combination with the importance of non-environmental spatial constraints suggests that African palms will be sensitive to future climate changes, but that their ability...

  14. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  15. Factors affecting work ability in day and shift-working nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Sartori, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Satisfactory work ability is sustained and promoted by good physical and mental health and by favorable working conditions. This study examined whether favorable and rewarding work-related factors increased the work ability among European nurses. The study sample was drawn from the Nurses' Early...... Exit Study and consisted of 7,516 nursing staff from seven European countries working in state-owned and private hospitals. In all, 10.8% were day, 4.2% were permanent night, 20.9% were shift without night shift, and 64.1% were shift workers with night shifts. Participants were administered a composite...

  16. Factors Influencing the Spatial Difference in Household Energy Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxia Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What factors determine the spatial heterogeneity of household energy consumption (HEC in China? Can the impacts of these factors be quantified? What are the trends and characteristics of the spatial differences? To date, these issues are still unclear. Based on the STIRPAT model and panel dataset for 30 provinces in China over the period 1997–2013, this paper investigated influences of the income per capita, urbanization level and annual average temperature on HEC, and revealed the spatial effects of these influencing factors. The results show that the income level is the main influencing factor, followed by the annual average temperature. There exists a diminishing marginal contribution with increasing income. The influence of urbanization level varies according to income level. In addition, from the eastern region to western region of China, variances largely depend upon economic level at the provincial level. From the northern region to southern region, change is mainly caused by temperature. The urbanization level has more significant impact on the structure and efficiency of household energy consumption than on its quantity. These results could provide reference for policy making and energy planning.

  17. Neuropsychology of selective attention and magnetic cortical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, M; Di Nuovo, S; Sardo, P; Abbate, C S; La Grutta, V

    1996-01-01

    Informed volunteers were asked to perform different neuropsychological tests involving selective attention under control conditions and during transcranial magnetic cortical stimulation. The tests chosen involved the recognition of a specific letter among different letters (verbal test) and the search for three different spatial orientations of an appendage to a square (visuo-spatial test). For each test the total time taken and the error rate were calculated. Results showed that cortical stimulation did not cause a worsening in performance. Moreover, magnetic stimulation of the temporal lobe neither modified completion time in both verbal and visuo-spatial tests nor changed error rate. In contrast, magnetic stimulation of the pre-frontal area induced a significant reduction in the performance time of both the verbal and visuo-spatial tests always without an increase in the number of errors. The experimental findings underline the importance of the pre-frontal area in performing tasks requiring a high level of controlled attention and suggest the need to adopt an interdisciplinary approach towards the study of neurone/mind interface mechanisms.

  18. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  19. Work Ability and Its Related Factors Among Workers in Small and Medium Enterprises: Comparison Among Four ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Isahak, Marzuki; Susilowati, Indri; Phuong, Toai Nguyen; Morioka, Ikuharu; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Low, Wah Yun; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Work ability is related to many factors that might influence one's capacity to work. This study aimed to examine the work ability and its related factors among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The participants in this study included 2098 workers from food and textile industries in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of anonymous self-administrated questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, musculoskeletal disorders, and work ability. Bivariate correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses were used to predict the work ability. Results of this study confirm that work ability in 4 ASEAN countries was similar to that in European countries, and that the sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) were associated with work ability. These factors are important for considering occupational health and safety policy to promote work ability in food, textile, and other SME workers. © 2016 APJPH.

  20. Discourse Factors Influencing Spatial Descriptions in English and German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerg, Constanze; Tenbrink, Thora

    The ways in which objects are referred to by using spatial language depend on many factors, including the spatial configuration and the discourse context. We present the results of a web experiment in which speakers were asked to either describe where a specified item was located in a picture containing several items, or which item was specified. Furthermore, conditions differed as to whether the first six configurations were specifically simple or specifically complex. Results show that speakers' spatial descriptions are more detailed if the question is where rather than which, mirroring the fact that contrasting the target item from the others in which tasks may not always require an equally detailed spatial description as in where tasks. Furthermore, speakers are influenced by the complexity of initial configurations in intricate ways: on the one hand, individual speakers tend to self-align with respect to their earlier linguistic strategies; however, also a contrast effect could be identified with respect to the usage of combined projective terms.

  1. Correlation analysis of lung cancer and urban spatial factor: based on survey in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Wangyue; Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiji

    2016-09-01

    The density of particulate matter (PM) in mega-cities in China such as Beijing and Shanghai has exceeded basic standards for health in recent years. Human exposure to PMs has been identified as traceable and controllable factor among all complicated risk factors for lung cancer. While the improvement of air quality needs tremendous efforts and time, certain revision of PM's density might happen associated with the adjustment of built environment. It is also proved that urban built environment is directly relevant to respiratory disease. Studies have respectively explored the indoor and outdoor factors on respiratory diseases. More comprehensive spatial factors need to be analyzed to understand the cumulative effect of built environment upon respiratory system. This interdisciplinary study examines the impact of both indoor (including age of housing, interval after decoration, indoor humidity etc.) and outdoor spatial factors (including density, parking, green spaces etc.) on lung cancer. A survey of lung cancer patients and a control group has been conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 472 interviewees are randomly selected within a pool of local residents who have resided in Shanghai for more than 5 years. Data are collected including their socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, and external and internal residential area factors. Regression models are established based on collected data to analyze the associations between lung cancer and urban spatial factors. Regression models illustrate that lung cancer presents significantly associated with a number of spatial factors. Significant outdoor spatial factors include external traffic volume (P=0.003), main plant type (P=0.035 for trees) of internal green space, internal water body (P=0.027) and land use of surrounding blocks (P=0.005 for residential areas of 7-9 floors, P=0.000 for residential areas of 4-6 floors, P=0.006 for business/commercial areas over 10 floors, P=0.005 for business/commercial areas of

  2. Children's Spatial Thinking: Does Talk about the Spatial World Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruden, Shannon M.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relations between parent spatial language input, children's own production of spatial language, and children's later spatial abilities. Using a longitudinal study design, we coded the use of spatial language (i.e. words describing the spatial features and properties of objects; e.g. big, tall, circle, curvy, edge) from…

  3. Driving automation forward : human factors for limited-ability autonomous driving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a : steady progression of innovations that : enhance the driving experience, in particular : the continuing trend toward automating more : driving tasks. Human Factors for Limited-Ability : Autonomous Drivin...

  4. Photography activities for developing students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendroanto, Aan; van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, D.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Istiandaru, A.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial orientation and spatial visualization are the foundation of students’ spatial ability. They assist students’ performance in learning mathematics, especially geometry. Considering its importance, the present study aims to design activities to help young learners developing their spatial orientation and spatial visualization ability. Photography activity was chosen as the context of the activity to guide and support the students. This is a design research study consisting of three phases: 1) preparation and designing 2) teaching experiment, and 3) retrospective analysis. The data is collected by tests and interview and qualitatively analyzed. We developed two photography activities to be tested. In the teaching experiments, 30 students of SD Laboratorium UNESA, Surabaya were involved. The results showed that the activities supported the development of students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization indicated by students’ learning progresses, answers, and strategies when they solved the problems in the activities.

  5. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T I J; Alavinia, S M; Bredt, F J; Lindeboom, D; Elders, L A M; Burdorf, A

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors.

  6. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  7. Climatic factors associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a spatial analysis from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Piao; Tzu-Chi Lee, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the spatial association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the association of climatic factors and ALS incidence in Taiwan. A total of 1,434 subjects with the primary diagnosis of ALS between years 1997 and 2008 were identified in the national health insurance research database. The diagnosis was also verified by the national health insurance programme, which had issued and providing them with "serious disabling disease (SDD) certificates". Local indicators of spatial association were employed to investigate spatial clustering of age-standardised incidence ratios in the townships of the study area. Spatial regression was utilised to reveal any association of annual average climatic factors and ALS incidence for the 12-year study period. The climatic factors included the annual average time of sunlight exposure, average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed with spatial autocorrelation controlled. Significant correlations were only found for exposure to sunlight and rainfall and it was similar in both genders. The annual average of the former was found to be negatively correlated with ALS, while the latter was positively correlated with ALS incidence. While accepting that ALS is most probably multifactorial, it was concluded that sunlight deprivation and/or rainfall are associated to some degree with ALS incidence in Taiwan.

  8. Long-term visuo-gustatory appetitive and aversive conditioning potentiate human visual evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Gert R.J.; Laugesen, Jakob L.; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    Human recognition of foods and beverages are often based on visual cues associated with flavors. The dynamics of neurophysiological plasticity related to acquisition of such long-term associations has only recently become the target of investigation. In the present work, the effects of appetitive...... and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared...... before and 1 day after the pairings. In electrodes located over posterior visual cortex areas, the following changes were observed after conditioning: the amplitude from the N2-peak to the P3-peak increased and the N2 peak delay was reduced. The percentage increase of N2-to-P3 amplitudes...

  9. Systems Analysis of Human Visuo-Myoelectric Control Facilitated by Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Kha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue. We applied a black box approach using a linear ARX (Auto-regressive with eXogenous input model for a visuomotor myoelectric reaching task. We found that a 20th order finite impulse response (FIR model captured the TARGET (single input—CURSOR (single output dynamics during a VMT. The 20th order FIR model was investigated based on gain/phase margin analysis, which showed a significant (p < 0.01 effect of anodal tDCS on the gain margin of the VMT system. Also, response latency and the corticomuscular coherence (CMC time delay were affected (p < 0.05 by anodal tDCS when compared to sham tDCS. Furthermore, gray box simulation results from a Simplified Spinal-Like Controller (SSLC model demonstrated that the input-output function for motor evoked potentials (MEP played an essential role in increasing muscle activation levels and response time improvement post-tDCS when compared to pre-tDCS baseline performance. This computational approach can be used to simulate the behavior of the neuromuscular controller during VMT to elucidate the effects of adjuvant treatment with tDCS.

  10. The functional role of dorso-lateral premotor cortex during mental rotation: an event-related fMRI study separating cognitive processing steps using a novel task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Claus; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Bauer, Herbert

    2007-07-15

    Subjects deciding whether two objects presented at angular disparity are identical or mirror versions of each other usually show response times that linearly increase with the angle between objects. This phenomenon has been termed mental rotation. While there is widespread agreement that parietal cortex plays a dominant role in mental rotation, reports concerning the involvement of motor areas are less consistent. From a theoretical point of view, activation in motor areas suggests that mental rotation relies upon visuo-motor rather than visuo-spatial processing alone. However, the type of information that is processed by motor areas during mental rotation remains unclear. In this study we used event-related fMRI to assess whether activation in parietal and dorsolateral premotor areas (dPM) during mental rotation is distinctively related to processing spatial orientation information. Using a newly developed task paradigm we explicitly separated the processing steps (encoding, mental rotation proper and object matching) required by mental rotation tasks and additionally modulated the amount of spatial orientation information that had to be processed. Our results show that activation in dPM during mental rotation is not strongly modulated by the processing of spatial orientation information, and that activation in dPM areas is strongest during mental rotation proper. The latter finding suggests that dPM is involved in more generalized processes such as visuo-spatial attention and movement anticipation. We propose that solving mental rotation tasks is heavily dependent upon visuo-motor processes and evokes neural processing that may be considered as an implicit simulation of actual object rotation.

  11. An Analysis of Content Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities as Factors That Are Associated with Algebra Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Tamika Ann

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated college students' content knowledge and cognitive abilities as factors associated with their algebra performance, and examined how combinations of content knowledge and cognitive abilities related to their algebra performance. Specifically, the investigation examined the content knowledge factors of computational…

  12. Analyzing Spatial Factors in Crime-inducing Culture in Chaloos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Omidi Noghlehbari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Feelings of security in urban areas are one of the qualitative criteria of living space. With the rise in urbanization and increasing abnormal urban behavior, especially offenses, this issue has become of great importance. This study aims to identify and analyze the effects of spatial factors on crime-inducing culture in affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods of Chaloos. The method used in this study is analytical-descriptive and it is practical in terms of objective. In order to study and understand the status of physical-spatial structures of affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods in Chaloos, we used field study method. Data were collected through interview, notes taking and questionnaire. The results indicate that in affluent neighborhoods, all criteria components of spatial differences are above the mean (Mean=3, but in non-affluent neighborhoods, all components are lower than the mean. In addition, there is a significant relationship between criteria components of spatial differences and the formation of crime-inducing culture (except the diagnosis component in the affluent and non-affluent neighborhoods.

  13. Tactile exploration of virtual objects for blind and sighted people: the role of beta 1 EEG band in sensory substitution and supramodal mental mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, C; Brayda, L; De Carli, F; Chellali, R; Famà, F; Bruzzo, C; Lucagrossi, L; Rodriguez, G

    2012-05-01

    The neural correlates of exploration and cognitive mapping in blindness remain elusive. The role of visuo-spatial pathways in blind vs. sighted subjects is still under debate. In this preliminary study, we investigate, as a possible estimation of the activity in the visuo-spatial pathways, the EEG patterns of blind and blindfolded-sighted subjects during the active tactile construction of cognitive maps from virtual objects compared with rest and passive tactile stimulation. Ten blind and ten matched, blindfolded-sighted subjects participated in the study. Events were defined as moments when the finger was only stimulated (passive stimulation) or the contour of a virtual object was touched (during active exploration). Event-related spectral power and coherence perturbations were evaluated within the beta 1 band (14-18 Hz). They were then related to a subjective cognitive-load estimation required by the explorations [namely, perceived levels of difficulty (PLD)]. We found complementary cues for sensory substitution and spatial processing in both groups: both blind and sighted subjects showed, while exploring, late power decreases and early power increases, potentially associated with motor programming and touch, respectively. The latter involved occipital areas only for blind subjects (long-term plasticity) and only during active exploration, thus supporting tactile-to-visual sensory substitution. In both groups, coherences emerged among the fronto-central, centro-parietal, and occipito-temporal derivations associated with visuo-spatial processing. This seems in accordance with mental map construction involving spatial processing, sensory-motor processing, and working memory. The observed involvement of the occipital regions suggests that a substitution process also occurs in sighted subjects. Only during explorations did coherence correlate positively with PLD for both groups and in derivations, which can be related to visuo-spatial processing, supporting the

  14. Tactile exploration of virtual objects for blind and sighted people: the role of beta 1 EEG band in sensory substitution and supramodal mental mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayda, L.; De Carli, F.; Chellali, R.; Famà, F.; Bruzzo, C.; Lucagrossi, L.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of exploration and cognitive mapping in blindness remain elusive. The role of visuo-spatial pathways in blind vs. sighted subjects is still under debate. In this preliminary study, we investigate, as a possible estimation of the activity in the visuo-spatial pathways, the EEG patterns of blind and blindfolded-sighted subjects during the active tactile construction of cognitive maps from virtual objects compared with rest and passive tactile stimulation. Ten blind and ten matched, blindfolded-sighted subjects participated in the study. Events were defined as moments when the finger was only stimulated (passive stimulation) or the contour of a virtual object was touched (during active exploration). Event-related spectral power and coherence perturbations were evaluated within the beta 1 band (14–18 Hz). They were then related to a subjective cognitive-load estimation required by the explorations [namely, perceived levels of difficulty (PLD)]. We found complementary cues for sensory substitution and spatial processing in both groups: both blind and sighted subjects showed, while exploring, late power decreases and early power increases, potentially associated with motor programming and touch, respectively. The latter involved occipital areas only for blind subjects (long-term plasticity) and only during active exploration, thus supporting tactile-to-visual sensory substitution. In both groups, coherences emerged among the fronto-central, centro-parietal, and occipito-temporal derivations associated with visuo-spatial processing. This seems in accordance with mental map construction involving spatial processing, sensory-motor processing, and working memory. The observed involvement of the occipital regions suggests that a substitution process also occurs in sighted subjects. Only during explorations did coherence correlate positively with PLD for both groups and in derivations, which can be related to visuo-spatial processing, supporting the

  15. Motor Habits in Visuo-manual Tracking: Manifestation of an Unconscious Short-Term Motor Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hufschmidt

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal subjects were tested in short, repetitive trials of a tracking task, with an identical shape of target movement being used throughout one session. Analysis of the net error curves (pursuit minus target movement revealed that subjects regularly exhibit a remoteness effect: neighbouring trials were more similar than distant ones. The effect is demonstrated to be stronger in the absence of visual cues, and was found to be absent in a patient with complete loss of proprioception when he was performing without visual feedback as well. The results are discussed in terms of a short term memory store contributing to unconscious movement habits in tracking. This may represent part of the motor learning process working together with conscious visuo-motor control mechanisms. Its function is probably related to the acquisition of automatic movements.

  16. A new neural net approach to robot 3D perception and visuo-motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1992-01-01

    A novel neural network approach to robot hand-eye coordination is presented. The approach provides a true sense of visual error servoing, redundant arm configuration control for collision avoidance, and invariant visuo-motor learning under gazing control. A 3-D perception network is introduced to represent the robot internal 3-D metric space in which visual error servoing and arm configuration control are performed. The arm kinematic network performs the bidirectional association between 3-D space arm configurations and joint angles, and enforces the legitimate arm configurations. The arm kinematic net is structured by a radial-based competitive and cooperative network with hierarchical self-organizing learning. The main goal of the present work is to demonstrate that the neural net representation of the robot 3-D perception net serves as an important intermediate functional block connecting robot eyes and arms.

  17. Implementation of self-organizing neural networks for visuo-motor control of an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J A; Schulten, K I

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of two neural network algorithms for visuo-motor control of an industrial robot (Puma 562) is reported. The first algorithm uses a vector quantization technique, the ;neural-gas' network, together with an error correction scheme based on a Widrow-Hoff-type learning rule. The second algorithm employs an extended self-organizing feature map algorithm. Based on visual information provided by two cameras, the robot learns to position its end effector without an external teacher. Within only 3000 training steps, the robot-camera system is capable of reducing the positioning error of the robot's end effector to approximately 0.1% of the linear dimension of the work space. By employing adaptive feedback the robot succeeds in compensating not only slow calibration drifts, but also sudden changes in its geometry. Hardware aspects of the robot-camera system are discussed.

  18. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  19. Precise Haptic Device Co-Location for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Ulrich; Pankratz, Frieder; Sandor, Christian; Klinker, Gudrun; Laga, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Visuo-haptic augmented reality systems enable users to see and touch digital information that is embedded in the real world. PHANToM haptic devices are often employed to provide haptic feedback. Precise co-location of computer-generated graphics and the haptic stylus is necessary to provide a realistic user experience. Previous work has focused on calibration procedures that compensate the non-linear position error caused by inaccuracies in the joint angle sensors. In this article we present a more complete procedure that additionally compensates for errors in the gimbal sensors and improves position calibration. The proposed procedure further includes software-based temporal alignment of sensor data and a method for the estimation of a reference for position calibration, resulting in increased robustness against haptic device initialization and external tracker noise. We designed our procedure to require minimal user input to maximize usability. We conducted an extensive evaluation with two different PHANToMs, two different optical trackers, and a mechanical tracker. Compared to state-of-the-art calibration procedures, our approach significantly improves the co-location of the haptic stylus. This results in higher fidelity visual and haptic augmentations, which are crucial for fine-motor tasks in areas such as medical training simulators, assembly planning tools, or rapid prototyping applications.

  20. Neuromapping: Inflight Evaluation of Cognition and Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E.; Lawrence, K.; Schade, A.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidle, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers during flight and postflight, we are conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. Previous studies investigating sensorimotor adaptation to the microgravity environment longitudinally inflight have shown reduction in the ability to perform complex dual tasks. In this study we perform a series of tests investigating the longitudinal effects of adaptation to the microgravity environment and how it affects spatial cognition, manual visuo-motor adaption and dual tasking.

  1. Factors associated with poor balance ability in older adults of nine high-altitude communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Moncada-Mapelli, Enrique; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Bailon-Valdez, Zaira; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Parodi, Jose F

    2018-05-01

    Poor balance ability in older adults result in multiple complications. Poor balance ability has not been studied among older adults living at high altitudes. In this study, we analysed factors associated with poor balance ability by using the Functional Reach (FR) among older adults living in nine high-altitude communities. Analytical cross-sectional study, carried out in inhabitants aged 60 or over from nine high-altitude Andean communities of Peru during 2013-2016. FR was divided according to the cut-off point of 8 inches (20.32 cm) and two groups were generated: poor balance ability (FR less or equal than 20.32 cm) and good balance ability (greater than 20.32 cm). Additionally, we collected socio-demographic, medical, functional and cognitive assessment information. Poisson regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with poor balance ability. Prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95CI%) are presented. A total of 365 older adults were studied. The average age was 73.0 ± 6.9 years (range: 60-91 years), and 180 (49.3%) participants had poor balance ability. In the adjusted Poisson regression analysis, the factors associated with poor balance ability were: alcohol consumption (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.05-1.73), exhaustion (PR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.49-3.31), gait speed (PR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.50-0.90), having had at least one fall in the last year (PR = 2.03; 95%CI: 1.19-3.46), having at least one comorbidity (PR = 1.60; 95%CI: 1.10-2.35) and having two or more comorbidities (PR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.07-2.42) compared to none. Approximately a half of the older adults from these high-altitude communities had poor balance ability. Interventions need to be designed to target these balance issues and prevent adverse events from concurring to these individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  3. Students’ Spatial Performance: Cognitive Style and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.

  4. Shaping pseudoneglect with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ePicazio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates cortical excitability depending on the initial activation state of the structure being stimulated. Combination of cognitive with neurophysiological stimulations has been successfully employed to modulate responses of specific brain regions. The present research combined a neurophysiological pre-conditioning with a cognitive conditioning stimulation to modulate behavior. We applied this new state-dependency approach to investigate the cerebellar role in musical and spatial information processing, given that a link between musical perception and visuo-spatial abilities and a clear cerebellar involvement in music perception and visuo-spatial tasks have been reported. Cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial cerebellar Direct Current Stimulation (tcDCS pre-conditioning was applied on the left cerebellar hemisphere followed by conditioning stimulation through music or white noise listening in a sample of healthy subjects performing a Line Bisection Task (LBT. The combination of the cathodal stimulation with music listening resulted in a marked attentional shift toward the right hemispace, compensating thus the natural leftward bias of the baseline condition (pseudoneglect. Conversely, the anodal or sham pre-conditioning stimulations combined with either music and white noise conditioning listening did not modulate spatial attention. The efficacy of the combined stimulation (cathodal pre-conditioning and music conditioning and the absence of any effect of the single stimulations provide a strong support to the state-dependency theory. They propose that tcDCS in combination with music listening could act as a rehabilitative tool to improve cognitive functions in the presence of neglect or other spatial disorders.

  5. Factors associated with work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade II-III: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Louise; Johnston, Venerina; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peterson, Gunnel; Overmeer, Thomas; Johansson, Gun; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Cross-sectional analysis. A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R2 = 0.65, p whiplash-associated disorder.

  6. Spatial cognition and science achievement: The contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic spatial skills from 7 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkiss, Alex; Gilligan, Katie A; Tolmie, Andrew K; Thomas, Michael S C; Farran, Emily K

    2018-01-22

    Prior longitudinal and correlational research with adults and adolescents indicates that spatial ability is a predictor of science learning and achievement. However, there is little research to date with primary-school aged children that addresses this relationship. Understanding this association has the potential to inform curriculum design and support the development of early interventions. This study examined the relationship between primary-school children's spatial skills and their science achievement. Children aged 7-11 years (N = 123) completed a battery of five spatial tasks, based on a model of spatial ability in which skills fall along two dimensions: intrinsic-extrinsic; static-dynamic. Participants also completed a curriculum-based science assessment. Controlling for verbal ability and age, mental folding (intrinsic-dynamic spatial ability), and spatial scaling (extrinsic-static spatial ability) each emerged as unique predictors of overall science scores, with mental folding a stronger predictor than spatial scaling. These spatial skills combined accounted for 8% of the variance in science scores. When considered by scientific discipline, mental folding uniquely predicted both physics and biology scores, and spatial scaling accounted for additional variance in biology and variance in chemistry scores. The children's embedded figures task (intrinsic-static spatial ability) only accounted for variance in chemistry scores. The patterns of association were consistent across the age range. Spatial skills, particularly mental folding, spatial scaling, and disembedding, are predictive of 7- to 11-year-olds' science achievement. These skills make a similar contribution to performance for each age group. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  7. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Novielli, Grazia; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-01-21

    In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence.

  8. The BEVPS: A new test battery to assess visual perceptual and spatial processing abilities in 5-14 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetz, Emilie; Rousselle, Laurence; Ballaz, Cécile; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2017-06-20

    This study aims to examine the different levels of visual perceptual object recognition (early, intermediate, and late) defined in Humphreys and Riddoch's model as well as basic visual spatial processing in children using a new test battery (BEVPS). It focuses on the age sensitivity, internal coherence, theoretical validity, and convergent validity of this battery. French-speaking, typically developing children (n = 179; 5 to 14 years) were assessed using 15 new computerized subtests. After selecting the most age-sensitive tasks though ceiling effect and correlation analyses, an exploratory factorial analysis was run with the 12 remaining subtests to examine the BEVPS' theoretical validity. Three separate factors were identified for the assessment of the stimuli's basic features (F1, four subtests), view-dependent and -independent object representations (F2, six subtests), and basic visual spatial processing (F3, two subtests). Convergent validity analyses revealed positive correlations between F1 and F2 and the Beery-VMI visual perception subtest, while no such correlations were found for F3. Children's performances progressed until the age of 9-10 years in F1 and in view-independent representations (F2), and until 11-12 years in view-dependent representations (F2). However, no progression with age was observed in F3. Moreover, the selected subtests, present good-to-excellent internal consistency, which indicates that they provide reliable measures for the assessment of visual perceptual processing abilities in children.

  9. Determining the spatial variability of wetland soil bulk density, organic matter, and the conversion factor between organic matter and organic carbon across coastal Louisiana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Stagg, Camille L.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; McGinnis, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil bulk density (BD), soil organic matter (SOM) content, and a conversion factor between SOM and soil organic carbon (SOC) are often used in estimating SOC sequestration and storage. Spatial variability in BD, SOM, and the SOM–SOC conversion factor affects the ability to accurately estimate SOC sequestration, storage, and the benefits (e.g., land building area and vertical accretion) associated with wetland restoration efforts, such as marsh creation and sediment diversions. There are, however, only a few studies that have examined large-scale spatial variability in BD, SOM, and SOM–SOC conversion factors in coastal wetlands. In this study, soil cores, distributed across the entire coastal Louisiana (approximately 14,667 km2) were used to examine the regional-scale spatial variability in BD, SOM, and the SOM–SOC conversion factor. Soil cores for BD and SOM analyses were collected during 2006–09 from 331 spatially well-distributed sites in the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System network. Soil cores for the SOM–SOC conversion factor analysis were collected from 15 sites across coastal Louisiana during 2006–07. Results of a split-plot analysis of variance with incomplete block design indicated that BD and SOM varied significantly at a landscape level, defined by both hydrologic basins and vegetation types. Vertically, BD and SOM varied significantly among different vegetation types. The SOM–SOC conversion factor also varied significantly at the landscape level. This study provides critical information for the assessment of the role of coastal wetlands in large regional carbon budgets and the estimation of carbon credits from coastal restoration.

  10. Neuroticism modulates brain visuo-vestibular and anxiety systems during a virtual rollercoaster task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Roberta; Indovina, Iole; Staab, Jeffrey P; Nigro, Salvatore; Augimeri, Antonio; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Passamonti, Luca

    2017-02-01

    Different lines of research suggest that anxiety-related personality traits may influence the visual and vestibular control of balance, although the brain mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that investigates how individual differences in neuroticism and introversion, two key personality traits linked to anxiety, modulate brain regional responses and functional connectivity patterns during a fMRI task simulating self-motion. Twenty-four healthy individuals with variable levels of neuroticism and introversion underwent fMRI while performing a virtual reality rollercoaster task that included two main types of trials: (1) trials simulating downward or upward self-motion (vertical motion), and (2) trials simulating self-motion in horizontal planes (horizontal motion). Regional brain activity and functional connectivity patterns when comparing vertical versus horizontal motion trials were correlated with personality traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion-introversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). When comparing vertical to horizontal motion trials, we found a positive correlation between neuroticism scores and regional activity in the left parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC). For the same contrast, increased functional connectivity between the left PIVC and right amygdala was also detected as a function of higher neuroticism scores. Together, these findings provide new evidence that individual differences in personality traits linked to anxiety are significantly associated with changes in the activity and functional connectivity patterns within visuo-vestibular and anxiety-related systems during simulated vertical self-motion. Hum Brain Mapp 38:715-726, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Supplementary Material for: Factor Copula Models for Replicated Spatial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new copula model that can be used with replicated spatial data. Unlike the multivariate normal copula, the proposed copula is based on the assumption that a common factor exists and affects the joint dependence of all measurements of the process. Moreover, the proposed copula can model tail dependence and tail asymmetry. The model is parameterized in terms of a covariance function that may be chosen from the many models proposed in the literature, such as the Matérn model. For some choice of common factors, the joint copula density is given in closed form and therefore likelihood estimation is very fast. In the general case, one-dimensional numerical integration is needed to calculate the likelihood, but estimation is still reasonably fast even with large data sets. We use simulation studies to show the wide range of dependence structures that can be generated by the proposed model with different choices of common factors. We apply the proposed model to spatial temperature data and compare its performance with some popular geostatistics models.

  12. THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN-OPERATOR CYBERNETIC ABILITIES DURING THE IMPACT OF DESTABILIZING FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii T. Polishchuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of estimation of human-operator cybernetics abilities during of the impacting of destabilizing factors of external environment is suggested. It was proved that up-to-date biomedical approach for periodical health examination of pilots in civil aviation isn’t guarantees theirs cybernetics abilities in cases of influence of destabilizing factors.

  13. Factors influencing advanced practice nurses' ability to promote evidence-based practice among frontline nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Kate; Nolan, Mike; McDonnell, Ann; Tod, Angela; Kirshbaum, Marilyn; Guillaume, Louise

    2012-02-01

    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) have an important role in promoting evidence-based practice (EBP) among frontline nurses (FLNs). Factors influencing FLNs' engagement with EBP are well documented but little is known about factors that affect APNs' ability to facilitate evidence in practice. To identify factors that influence APNs' ability to promote EBP among FLNs. A multiple case study of 23 APNs from hospital and primary care settings across seven English health authorities was undertaken. Data collection comprised interviews and observation of APNs and interviews with FLNs and other healthcare professionals. Data were analysed using the Framework approach. Four groups of influencing factors were identified: (1) Personal attributes of APNs included knowledge and skills in EBP, clinical credibility with frontline staff and leadership style. (2) Relationships with stakeholders included APNs' interactions with FLNs and the level of support from managers and medical colleagues. (3) Aspects of the APN role included their sphere of responsibility and workload. (4) Organisational context included the organisational culture, FLNs' workload, professional networks and available resources. Educational preparation for APNs should enable them to develop expertise in EBP plus interpersonal and leadership skills to manage relational dynamics in clinical settings. APN role specifications should provide the opportunity to promote EBP. The organisational culture should be conducive to enabling EBP with managers supportive of this aspect of the APNs' role. APNs need to be supported to address the individual, interpersonal and organisational factors, which influence their ability to promote EBP. Organisational commitment at the highest level is key to APNs' ability to fulfil this aspect of their role. ©2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Creativity as Predictor of Mathematical Abilities in Fourth Graders in Addition to Number Sense and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn H. Kroesbergen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated how domain-specific (number sense and domain-general (working memory, creativity factors explain the variance in mathematical abilities in primary school children. A total of 166 children aged 8 to 10 years old participated. Several tests to measure math ability, mathematical creativity, number sense, verbal and visual spatial working memory and creativity were administered. Data were analyzed with a series of correlation and regression analyses. Number sense, working memory and creativity were all found to be important predictors of academic and creative mathematical ability. Furthermore, groups with math learning disabilities (MLD and mathematical giftedness (MG were compared to a typically developing (TD group. The results show that the MLD group scored lower on number line estimation and visual spatial working memory than the TD group, while the MG group differed from the TD group on visual spatial working memory and creativity. It is concluded that creativity plays a significant role in mathematics, above working memory and number sense.

  15. Memória de trabalho viso-espacial em crianças de 7 a 12 anos Visuo-spatial working memory in 7-12 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Lopes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os mecanismos de processamento da informação viso-espacial em crianças. Setenta e oito crianças participaram do experimento em que foram manipulados os fatores idade, posição espacial, similaridade visual e cor dos estímulos memorizados. Os resultados mostraram que todos os fatores principais alcançaram significância estatística. As crianças mais velhas tiveram uma freqüência de acertos maior que as crianças mais novas. Os estímulos dos conjuntos com similaridade baixa foram mais bem recordados que os estímulos com similaridade alta. A taxa de recordação foi melhor nas provas em que as letras de um conjunto foram todas apresentadas com a mesma cor, assim como a porcentagem de respostas corretas variou de forma significativa em função da posição espacial dos estímulos. Os resultados foram interpretados de acordo com modelos que enfatizam aspectos do desenvolvimento de estratégias cognitivas ao longo do desenvolvimento humano, especialmente o modelo de memória de trabalho.This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of visual-spatial memory in children. Seventy eight children took part in an experiment with four factors: children's age, stimuli spatial position, stimuli visual similarity, stimuli set color. The results have shown that all main factors are statistically meaningful. The oldest children presented a better performance than the youngest ones. Stimuli set formed by low similarity letters were better recollected than the stimuli set formed by high similarity letters. The recall of the spatial position of letters was better in trials where the letters of a set were presented in the same color. The percentage of correct recall changed meaningfully as a function of the spatial position in which the target had been presented. The results were interpreted according to models that emphasize aspects of development of cognitive strategies along with the human development, especially

  16. Visuo-Vestibular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.

  17. Working memory: its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Sharman; Everatt, John

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a study contrasting dyslexic children against a control group of children without special educational needs (SEN) and a group with varied SENs. Children's abilities were compared on tasks assessing phonological processing, visuo-spatial/motor coordination and executive/inhibitory functioning; being targeted for assessment based on theoretical proposals related to the working memory model. Primary and secondary school level children were tested: 21 assessed as dyslexic with no comorbid difficulties, 26 children assessed with difficulties including dyspraxia, emotional/behavioural problems and attention deficits, 40 children with no known education-related deficits were controls. Results indicated both SEN groups performed worse than controls on working memory phonological loop measures. However, SEN groups could only be differentiated on phonological awareness measures: the dyslexics showing lower scores. Dyslexics performed as well as controls on working memory visuo-spatial scratch pad measures and one of two additional visual-motor coordination tasks, whereas the performance of the other SEN children was lowest on the majority of these measures. Central executive and interference measures engendered mixed performances, both SEN groups showing evidence of deficits in one or more of these areas of functioning, although, of the two SEN groups, the dyslexics seem to have performed the worse when digit name processing was required.

  18. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  19. Spatial Data Mining for Estimating Cover Management Factor of Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Lin, T. C.; Chiang, S. H.; Chen, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used mathematical model that describes long-term soil erosion processes. Among the six different soil erosion risk factors of USLE, the cover-management factor (C-factor) is related to land-cover/land-use. The value of C-factor ranges from 0.001 to 1, so it alone might cause a thousandfold difference in a soil erosion analysis using USLE. The traditional methods for the estimation of USLE C-factor include in situ experiments, soil physical parameter models, USLE look-up tables with land use maps, and regression models between vegetation indices and C-factors. However, these methods are either difficult or too expensive to implement in large areas. In addition, the values of C-factor obtained using these methods can not be updated frequently, either. To address this issue, this research developed a spatial data mining approach to estimate the values of C-factor with assorted spatial datasets for a multi-temporal (2004 to 2008) annual soil loss analysis of a reservoir watershed in northern Taiwan. The idea is to establish the relationship between the USLE C-factor and spatial data consisting of vegetation indices and texture features extracted from satellite images, soil and geology attributes, digital elevation model, road and river distribution etc. A decision tree classifier was used to rank influential conditional attributes in the preliminary data mining. Then, factor simplification and separation were considered to optimize the model and the random forest classifier was used to analyze 9 simplified factor groups. Experimental results indicate that the overall accuracy of the data mining model is about 79% with a kappa value of 0.76. The estimated soil erosion amounts in 2004-2008 according to the data mining results are about 50.39 - 74.57 ton/ha-year after applying the sediment delivery ratio and correction coefficient. Comparing with estimations calculated with C-factors from look-up tables, the soil erosion

  20. The Effects of Adding Coordinate Axes To a Mental Rotations Task in Measuring Spatial Visualization Ability in Introductory Undergraduate Technical Graphics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branoff, Ted

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study to determine whether the presence of coordinate axes in a test of spatial-visualization ability affects scores and response times on a mental-rotations task for students enrolled in undergraduate introductory graphic communications classes. Based on Pavios's dual-coding theory. Contains 36 references. (DDR)

  1. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Analytical evaluation of work ability index and its determining factors among workers of a car manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eyvazlou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aims : The ability of work is the basis of well-being for all of us. Many factors affect the work ability such as work and work condition, work organization and human resource. The aim of this study was to assess the work ability among car manufacturing workers and determine the relationship between the work ability index with individual characteristics and life style factors.   Methods : The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation. The subjects comprised of 271 workers­ with mean age of 35 years who occupied by a car manufacturing Company. They completed the Work Ability Index Questionnaire during semi interview sessions. The job groups of Painting Shop, assembling line, office department, and technical section were studied. Statistical tests including one-way­ ANOVA, t-test, Kruskal wallis were used for analyzing the relationship between work ability index and individual characteristic as well as life style factors. To test the distribution of work ability index score categories, a chi-square test was used and finally, Spearman correlation coefficient was used in order to determine correlation between the final of work ability index score with any of questionnaire items.   Results : The mean value of work ability index in this study was (37.67 with SD=5.87. The WAI categories were 17.71% in "excellent", 38.75% in "good", 36.16% in "moderate", and 7.4% in "poor" levels. Association between life style factors (obesity, smoking, exercise and WAI was statistically significant (P< .0.001 . Lower WAI was associated with increasing the age, high work experience and lower education (P<.0.001. Meanwhile, physical demand of the jobs was strongly associated with the WAI score (P<.0.001. Conclusion : On the basis of Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, the value of work ability in current study was in good category(37-43; but, concerning the mean age (35 years of the studied population the mean value of work

  3. Spatial epidemiology of cancer: a review of data sources, methods and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Roquette

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major concern among chronic diseases today. Spatial epidemiology plays a relevant role in this matter and we present here a review of this subject, including a discussion of the literature in terms of the level of geographic data aggregation, risk factors and methods used to analyse the spatial distribution of patterns and spatial clusters. For this purpose, we performed a websearch in the Pubmed and Web of Science databases including studies published between 1979 and 2015. We found 180 papers from 63 journals and noted that spatial epidemiology of cancer has been addressed with more emphasis during the last decade with research based on data mostly extracted from cancer registries and official mortality statistics. In general, the research questions present in the reviewed papers can be classified into three different sets: i analysis of spatial distribution of cancer and/or its temporal evolution; ii risk factors; iii development of data analysis methods and/or evaluation of results obtained from application of existing methods. This review is expected to help promote research in this area through the identification of relevant knowledge gaps. Cancer’s spatial epidemiology represents an important concern, mainly for public health policies design aimed to minimise the impact of chronic disease in specific populations.

  4. Gender differences in spatial cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on

  5. Soil fauna through the landscape window: factors shaping surface-and soil-dwelling communities across spatial scales in cork-oak mosaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Silva, P.; Berg, M.P.; Alves da Silva, A.; Dias, S.; Leitão, P.J.; Chamberlain, D.; Niemelä, J.; Serrano, A.R.M.; Sousa, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of ecological processes governing community structure are dependent on the spatial distances among local communities and the degree of habitat heterogeneity at a given spatial scale. Also, they depend on the dispersal ability of the targeted organisms collected throughout a

  6. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  7. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visuo-spatial knowledge acquisition in individuals with Down syndrome: The role of descriptions and sketch maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Carretti, Barbara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    Few studies on individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have explored how they learn space. The present study examines space learning from verbal descriptions in individuals with DS, and explores the role of external cues (such as a sketch map). Twenty-eight individuals with DS and 28 matched typically-developing (TD) children listened to route or survey descriptions with or without seeing a corresponding sketch map (Description+Sketch Map [D+SM] and Description alone [D], respectively). After hearing each description, they performed tasks that involved recognizing, arranging sequentially, and locating landmarks. The results showed that individuals with DS performed less well in recognizing landmarks and arranging them sequentially. The D+SM condition produced general benefits in both groups' accuracy, though the improvement in locating landmarks was greater in the TD than in the DS group. In both groups, the D+SM condition prompted a better performance than the D condition when participants arranged landmarks sequentially after hearing a description from a route perspective, but not from a survey perspective. Overall, our results show that individuals with DS benefited when a spatial description was associated with a corresponding sketch map, albeit to a lesser degree than TD children. The findings are discussed in the light of the literature on DS and on spatial cognition in the TD domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.

  10. Association between MRI structural features and cognitive measures in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, N.; Bellotti, R.; Fanizzi, A.; Lombardi, A.; Monaco, A.; Liguori, M.; Margari, L.; Simone, M.; Viterbo, R. G.; Tangaro, S.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease associated with neurodegenerative processes that lead to brain structural changes. The disease affects mostly young adults, but 3-5% of cases has a pediatric onset (POMS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is generally used for diagnosis and follow-up in MS patients, however the most common MRI measures (e.g. new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions, T1-weighted gadolinium- enhancing lesions) have often failed as surrogate markers of MS disability and progression. MS is clinically heterogenous with symptoms that can include both physical changes (such as visual loss or walking difficulties) and cognitive impairment. 30-50% of POMS experience prominent cognitive dysfunction. In order to investigate the association between cognitive measures and brain morphometry, in this work we present a fully automated pipeline for processing and analyzing MRI brain scans. Relevant anatomical structures are segmented with FreeSurfer; besides, statistical features are computed. Thus, we describe the data referred to 12 patients with early POMS (mean age at MRI: 15.5 +/- 2.7 years) with a set of 181 structural features. The major cognitive abilities measured are verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Data was collected at the Department of Basic Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, and exploring different abilities like the verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Different regression models and parameter configurations are explored to assess the robustness of the results, in particular Generalized Linear Models, Bayes Regression, Random Forests, Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Networks are discussed.

  11. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  12. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    spatial and short-term working memory in mice ... insulin administration did not affect long-term visuo-spatial memory and short-term ..... involving rehearsal and meaningful association. A ... insulin plays a definite role in cognitive function.

  13. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T I J; Elders, L A M; de Zwart, B C H; Burdorf, A

    2009-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were included if the WAI was used as measure of work ability and if quantitative information was presented on determinants of work ability. In total, 20 studies were included with 14 cross-sectional studies and six longitudinal studies. Factors associated with poor work ability, as defined by WAI, were lack of leisure-time vigorous physical activity, poor musculoskeletal capacity, older age, obesity, high mental work demands, lack of autonomy, poor physical work environment, and high physical work load. The WAI is associated with individual characteristics, lifestyle, demands at work, and physical condition. This multifactorial nature of work ability should be taken into account in health promotion programmes aimed at maintaining and promoting the participation of the labour force and improvement of the performance at work.

  14. Calibration of neutron moisture gauges and their ability to spatially determine soil water content in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Martinez, J.L.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1994-10-01

    Several neutron moisture gauges were calibrated, and their ability to spatially determine soil water content was evaluated. In 1982, the midpoint of sensitivity of each neutron probe to the detection of hydrogen was determined, as well as the radius of investigation of each probe in crushed Bandelier Tuff with varying water contents. After determining the response of one of the moisture gauges to changes in soil water at the soil-air interface, a neutron transport model was successfully calibrated to predict spatial variations in soil water content. The model was then used to predict various shapes and volumes of crushed Bandelier Tuff interrogated by the neutron moisture gauge. From 1991 through 1994, six neutron moisture gauges were calibrated for soil water determinations in a local topsoil and crushed Bandelier Tuff, as well as for a sample of fine sand and soils from a field experiment at Hill Air Force Base. Statistical analysis of the calibration results is presented and summarized, and a final summary of practical implications for future neutron moisture gauge studies at Los Alamos is included

  15. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jacky Y K; Chan, Alan H S

    2018-05-14

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force.

  16. Malaria prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in a hilly forest area of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health concern in Bangladesh and it is highly endemic in the Chittagong Hill Tracts where prevalence was 11.7% in 2007. One sub-district, Rajasthali, had a prevalence of 36%. Several interventions were introduced in early 2007 to control malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of these intensive early stage interventions on malaria in Bangladesh. This prevalence study assesses whether or not high malaria prevalence remains, and if so, which areas and individuals remain at high risk of infection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 2-stage cluster sampling technique was used to sample 1,400 of 5,322 (26.3% households in Rajasthali, and screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. Overall malaria prevalence was 11.5%. The proportions of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and infection with both species were 93.2%, 1.9% and 5.0%, respectively. Univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and spatial cluster analyses were performed separately. Sex, age, number of bed nets, forest cover, altitude and household density were potential risk factors. A statistically significant malaria cluster was identified. Significant differences among risk factors were observed between cluster and non-cluster areas. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria has significantly decreased within 2 years after onset of intervention program. Both aspects of the physical and social environment, as well as demographic characteristics are associated with spatial heterogeneity of risk. The ability to identify and locate these areas provides a strategy for targeting interventions during initial stages of intervention programs. However, in high risk clusters of transmission, even extensive coverage by current programs leaves transmission ongoing at reduced levels. This indicates the need for continued development of new strategies for identification and treatment as well as improved understanding of the patterns and

  17. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. ► Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. ► Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. ► Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. ► GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global

  18. Spatial Inequalities in the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer and Associated Factors in the Neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran: Bayesian Spatial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Mansori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the spatial distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the neighborhoods of Tehran, Iran using Bayesian spatial models. Methods This ecological study was implemented in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Socioeconomic variables, risk factors, and health costs were extracted from the Equity Assessment Study conducted in Tehran. The data on CRC incidence were extracted from the Iranian population-based cancer registry. The Besag-York-Mollié (BYM model was used to identify factors associated with the spatial distribution of CRC incidence. The software programs OpenBUGS version 3.2.3, ArcGIS 10.3, and GeoDa were used for the analysis. Results The Moran index was statistically significant for all the variables studied (p<0.05. The BYM model showed that having a women head of household (median standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.53, living in a rental house (median SIR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96, not consuming milk daily (median SIR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94 and having greater household health expenditures (median SIR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.68 were associated with a statistically significant elevation in the SIR of CRC. The median (interquartile range and mean (standard deviation values of the SIR of CRC, with the inclusion of all the variables studied in the model, were 0.57 (1.01 and 1.05 (1.31, respectively. Conclusions Inequality was found in the spatial distribution of CRC incidence in Tehran on the neighborhood level. Paying attention to this inequality and the factors associated with it may be useful for resource allocation and developing preventive strategies in atrisk areas.

  19. From nano- to macro-scale: nanotechnology approaches for spatially controlled delivery of bioactive factors for bone and cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2012-07-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bioactive systems for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Spatial cues are displayed in the 3D extracellular matrix and can include signaling gradients, such as those observed during chemotaxis. Architectures range from the nanometer to the centimeter length scales as exemplified by extracellular matrix fibers, cells and macroscopic shapes. The main focus of this review is the application of a biomimetic approach by the combination of architectural cues, obtained through the application of micro- and nanofabrication techniques, with the ability to sequester and release growth factors and other bioactive agents in a spatiotemporal controlled manner for bone and cartilage engineering.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Ability of Mimicking Portfolios in Representing the Background Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian, Hossein

    2004-01-01

    Our aim is to give a comparative analysis of ability of different factor mimicking portfolios in representing the background factors. Our analysis contains a cross-sectional regression approach, a time-series regression approach and a portfolio approach for constructing factor mimicking portfolios. The focus of the analysis is the power of mimicking portfolios in the asset pricing models. We conclude that the time series regression approach, with the book-to-market sorted portfolios as the ba...

  1. Walking and non-walking space in an equivalent virtual reality task: Sexual dimorphism and aging decline of spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; Castillo, Joaquín; León, Irene; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2018-07-16

    Spatial memory enables us to locate places and objects in space, to determine our position and manage spatial relationships in our environment. Our operations are displayed in a space that sometimes is inaccessible. In this case, the impossibility of movement within the context forces individuals to rely on the information gathered from limited viewpoints. This study investigates the use of walking and non-walking spaces using two equivalent virtual reality tasks in which displacement is only permitted in one of them. One hundred and fifty participants were divided into three age groups: 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 year-old subjects. The starting position changed pseudo-randomly and two difficulty levels were set, with one and three positions to be found. Results provided evidence for 70-79 year-old people impairment of their spatial abilities compared with 50-59 and 60-69 year-old groups. In both difficulty conditions, participants made more errors in the non-walking space than in the walking space. All participants showed an improvement in the last trials of the task. Moreover, sexual dimorphism was registered in the high level of difficulty, in which men outperformed women. This study supports the idea that aging impairs the organization of spatial representations of the environment, and that this aspect is more noticeable in conditions where displacement is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory ERPs predict differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2004-02-09

    The way our brain reacts to sensory stimulation may provide important clues about higher-level cognitive function and its operation. Here we show that short-latency (memory span, as well as between subjects scoring high and low on a fluid intelligence test. Our findings also suggest that this link between sensory responses and complex cognitive tasks is modality specific (visual sensory measures correlate with visuo-spatial tasks whereas auditory sensory measures correlate with verbal tasks). We interpret these findings as indicating that people's effectiveness in controlling attention and gating sensory information is a critical determinant of individual differences in complex cognitive abilities.

  3. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  4. Influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Won, Ran; Shin, Hye-Sook; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-03-01

    During the prenatal period, the development of individual is influenced by the environmental factors. In the present study, the influence of prenatal noise and music on the spatial memory and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of developing rats was investigated. The exposure to the noise during pregnancy caused growth retardation, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and impaired spatial learning ability in pups. The exposure to music during pregnancy, on the other hand, caused increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning ability in pups. The present study has shown the importance of the prenatal environmental conditions for the cognition and brain development.

  5. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  6. Estimation of spatial distribution of recharge factors at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothoff, S.A.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Castellaw, H.

    1995-01-01

    Determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the Geologic Setting (GS) requires prediction of groundwater flow. Since infiltration is the primary source of water in the subsurface, the amounts and locations of infiltration are controlling factors in the movement of groundwater throughout the GS. In fractured, unsaturated rock, such as that found at the Yucca Mountain (YM) site, occurrence of infrequent, high-intensity rainfall events will modify, perhaps drastically, the subsurface flow regime from the one predicted by assuming that all rainfall events have averaged intensities. Indeed, the DOW has concluded that the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltration may be the most important factors influencing groundwater flow path development. Deep percolation fluxes are affected by processes active in the near-surface zone, including evaporation, transpiration, liquid water flow, and vapor flow. Each of these processes is governed by several factors. For example, precipitation has been found to vary substantially over the YM region, both spatially and temporally, and winter storms are, in general, more uniform and of longer duration than summer storms (Hevesi et al., 1992a,b; 1994). These observations indicate that, especially for summer storms, a spatially uniform precipitation pattern is clearly not applicable, even at the subregional scale. Similarly, evaporation from the ground surface is affected by air temperature, atmospheric vapor pressure, wind speed profile, incident solar radiation, surface soil and rock texture, plant activity, surficial temperature, and surficial moisture content. Many of these factors, such as surficial slope and orientation (related to incident solar radiation), surficial composition, and plant distributions, are or can be mapped at the YM site

  7. Spatial smoothing coherence factor for ultrasound computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cuijuan; Xu, Mengling; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, many research studies have been carried out on ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) for its application prospect in early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper applies four kinds of coherence-factor-like beamforming methods to improve the image quality of synthetic aperture focusing method for USCT, including the coherence-factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), the sign coherence factor (SCF) and the spatial smoothing coherence factor (SSCF) (proposed in our previous work). The performance of these methods was tested with simulated raw data which were generated by the ultrasound simulation software PZFlex 2014. The simulated phantom was set to be water of 4cm diameter with three nylon objects of different diameters inside. The ring-type transducer had 72 elements with a center frequency of 1MHz. The results show that all the methods can reveal the biggest nylon circle with the radius of 2.5mm. SSCF gets the highest SNR among the proposed methods and provides a more homogenous background. None of these methods can reveal the two smaller nylon circles with the radius of 0.75mm and 0.25mm. This may be due to the small number of elements.

  8. The Spatial Econometric Analysis of China’s Banking Competition and Its Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines alternative indexes to measure banking competition from the perspective of industrial economics. Spatial correlation of competition in China’s banking environment is studied from the perspective of spatial economics. A spatial panel data model is built to make an empirical study of factors influencing banking competition. The results show that the global autocorrelation test index Moran’s I indicates that China’s banking competition has obvious spatial correlation characteristics and significant spatial clustering. The space LISA map indicates that banking competition in most provinces has the characteristics of spatial dependence, and only a few provinces have the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Human capital, economic growth, financial scale of development, and foreign direct investment all have a significant positive effect on improving the degree of banking competition. Government intervention has a significant negative impact on the degree of banking competition, while fixed asset investment has no significant impact on it.

  9. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jacky Y. K.

    2018-01-01

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force. PMID:29758018

  10. Spatial econometric analysis of China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Ruyin; Shao, Tianxiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate the industrial carbon productivity of China’s provinces. • The regional disparity and clustering features exist simultaneously. • There is evident spatial dependence in regional industrial carbon productivity. • We employ spatial panel data models to examine the impact factors. • Spatial effects are found to be important in understanding industrial CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: This study measured the industrial carbon productivity of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2012 and examined the space–time characteristics and the main factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity using Moran’s I index and spatial panel data models. The empirical results indicate that there is significant positive spatial dependence and clustering characteristics in China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity. The spatial dependence may create biased estimated parameters in an ordinary least squares framework; according to the analysis of our spatial panel models, industrial energy efficiency, the opening degree, technological progress, and the industrial scale structure have significantly positive effects on industrial carbon productivity whereas per-capita GDP, the industrial energy consumption structure, and the industrial ownership structure exert a negative effect on industrial carbon productivity.

  11. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Executive and memory correlates of age-related differences in wayfinding performances using a virtual reality application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Dejos, Marie; Pala, Prashant Arvind; Larrue, Florian; Wallet, Grégory; Gross, Christian; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in large-scale spaces wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties for older adults in relation to the executive and memory decline associated with aging. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory performances between young and older adults. Wayfinding and spatial memory performances were correlated with classical measures of executive and visuo-spatial memory functions, but also with self-reported estimates of wayfinding difficulties. We obtained a significant effect of age on wayfinding performances but not on spatial memory performances. The overall correlations showed significant correlations between the wayfinding performances and the classical measures of both executive and visuo-spatial memory, but only when the age factor was not partialled out. Also, older adults underestimated their wayfinding difficulties. A significant relationship between the wayfinding performances and self-reported wayfinding difficulty estimates is found, but only when the age effect was partialled out. These results show that, even when older adults have an equivalent spatial knowledge to young adults, they had greater difficulties with the wayfinding task, supporting an executive decline view in age-related wayfinding difficulties. However, the correlation results are in favor of both the memory and executive decline views as mediators of age-related differences in wayfinding performances. This is discussed in terms of the relationships between memory and executive functioning in wayfinding task orchestration. Our results also favor the use of objective assessments of everyday navigation difficulties in virtual applications, instead of self-reported questionnaires, since older adults showed difficulties in estimating their everyday wayfinding problems.

  13. Exploring the Link Between Cognitive Abilities and Speech Recognition in the Elderly Under Different Listening Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Nuesse

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Elderly listeners are known to differ considerably in their ability to understand speech in noise. Several studies have addressed the underlying factors that contribute to these differences. These factors include audibility, and age-related changes in supra-threshold auditory processing abilities, and it has been suggested that differences in cognitive abilities may also be important. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between performance in cognitive tasks and speech recognition under different listening conditions in older adults with either age appropriate hearing or hearing-impairment. To that end, speech recognition threshold (SRT measurements were performed under several masking conditions that varied along the perceptual dimensions of dip listening, spatial separation, and informational masking. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was administered, which included measures of verbal working and short-term memory, executive functioning, selective and divided attention, and lexical and semantic abilities. Age-matched groups of older adults with either age-appropriate hearing (ENH, n = 20 or aided hearing impairment (EHI, n = 21 participated. In repeated linear regression analyses, composite scores of cognitive test outcomes (evaluated using PCA were included to predict SRTs. These associations were different for the two groups. When hearing thresholds were controlled for, composed cognitive factors were significantly associated with the SRTs for the ENH listeners. Whereas better lexical and semantic abilities were associated with lower (better SRTs in this group, there was a negative association between attentional abilities and speech recognition in the presence of spatially separated speech-like maskers. For the EHI group, the pure-tone thresholds (averaged across 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were significantly associated with the SRTs, despite the fact that all signals were amplified and therefore in principle

  14. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 breaks the association between declarative long-term memory and memory-based orienting of spatial attention in middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; McCloud, Tayla; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 genotype has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The memory system is mostly involved in AD, and memory deficits represent its key feature. A growing body of studies has focused on the earlier identification of cognitive dysfunctions in younger and older APOE ɛ4 carriers, but investigation on middle-aged individuals remains rare. Here we sought to investigate if the APOE ɛ4 genotype modulates declarative memory and its influences on perception in the middle of the life span. We tested 60 middle-aged individuals recruited according to their APOE allele variants (ɛ3/ɛ3, ɛ3/ɛ4, ɛ4/ɛ4) on a long-term memory-based orienting of attention task. Results showed that the APOE ɛ4 genotype impaired neither explicit memory nor memory-based orienting of spatial attention. Interestingly, however, we found that the possession of the ɛ4 allele broke the relationship between declarative long-term memory and memory-guided orienting of visuo-spatial attention, suggesting an earlier modulation exerted by pure genetic characteristics on cognition. These findings are discussed in light of possible accelerated brain ageing in middle-aged ɛ4-carriers, and earlier structural changes in the brain occurring at this stage of the lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Lingual and fusiform gyri in visual processing: a clinico-pathologic study of superior altitudinal hemianopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    A macular-sparing superior altitudinal hemianopia with no visuo-psychic disturbance, except impaired visual learning, was associated with bilateral ischaemic necrosis of the lingual gyrus and only partial involvement of the fusiform gyrus on the left side. It is suggested that bilateral destruction of the lingual gyrus alone is not sufficient to affect complex visual processing. The fusiform gyrus probably has a critical role in colour integration, visuo-spatial processing, facial recognition...

  16. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and tritrophic interactions across spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsma, Yavanna; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes. The volatile mosaic may be exploited differentially by different parasitoid species, in relation to species traits such as sensory ability to perceive volatiles and the physical ability to move towards the source. Understanding how HIPVs influence parasitoids at larger spatial scales is crucial for our understanding of tritrophic interactions and sustainable pest management in agriculture. However, there is a large gap in our knowledge on how volatiles influence the process of host location by parasitoids at the landscape scale. Future studies should bridge the gap between the chemical and behavioural ecology of tritrophic interactions and landscape ecology. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); L.A.M. Elders (Leo); B.C.H. Zwart, de; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were

  18. Emotion and affect in mental imagery: Do fear and anxiety manipulate mental rotation performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eKaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of fear as a basic emotion on mental rotation performance. We expected that the emotional arousal evoked by fearful stimuli presented prior to each mental rotation trial would enhance mental rotation performance. Regarding the influence of anxiety, high anxious participants are supposed to show slower responses and higher error rates in this specific visuo-spatial ability. Furthermore, with respect to the embodied cognition viewpoint we wanted to investigate if the influence of fear on mental rotation performance is the same for egocentric and object-based transformations. Results show that fear enhances mental rotation performance, expressed by a higher mental rotation speed. Interestingly, this influence is stimulus-specific: it is restricted to egocentric transformations. Both observation of emotional stimuli and egocentric strategies are associated with left hemisphere activation which could explain a stronger influence on this type of transformation during observation. Another possible notion is the conceptual link between visuo-spatial perspective taking and empathy based on the co-activation of parietal areas. Stronger responses in egocentric transformations could result from this specific link. Regarding the influence of anxiety, participants with high scores on the trait-anxiety scale showed poor results in both reaction time and mental rotation speed. Findings of impoverished recruitment of prefrontal attentional control in patients with high scores in trait anxiety could be the explanation for this reduced performance.

  19. Detection of Nuclear Sources by UAV Teleoperation Using a Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleotti, Jacopo; Micconi, Giorgio; Caselli, Stefano; Benassi, Giacomo; Zambelli, Nicola; Bettelli, Manuele; Zappettini, Andrea

    2017-09-29

    A visuo-haptic augmented reality (VHAR) interface is presented enabling an operator to teleoperate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a custom CdZnTe-based spectroscopic gamma-ray detector in outdoor environments. The task is to localize nuclear radiation sources, whose location is unknown to the user, without the close exposure of the operator. The developed detector also enables identification of the localized nuclear sources. The aim of the VHAR interface is to increase the situation awareness of the operator. The user teleoperates the UAV using a 3DOF haptic device that provides an attractive force feedback around the location of the most intense detected radiation source. Moreover, a fixed camera on the ground observes the environment where the UAV is flying. A 3D augmented reality scene is displayed on a computer screen accessible to the operator. Multiple types of graphical overlays are shown, including sensor data acquired by the nuclear radiation detector, a virtual cursor that tracks the UAV and geographical information, such as buildings. Experiments performed in a real environment are reported using an intense nuclear source.

  20. Work ability index (WAI) and its association with psychosocial factors in one of the petrochemical industries in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloumi, Adel; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Nasl Saraji, Gabraeil; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, work ability index (WAI) has been a common practical tool to measure individuals' work ability in many European, Asian and South American countries. However, there is no study concerning work ability in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the work ability index in an Iranian petrochemical job setting and to examine its relationship with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 420 male workers in various occupations. Work ability was evaluated using the WAI questionnaire developed by FIOH; the Job content questionnaire (JCQ) was used to assess psychosocial factors. The mean WAI score was 39.1 (SD=5.7) among workers in the studied petrochemical industry. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between mean WAI score and age, job tenure, educational level, rest and sleep status and vocational education. Moreover, the results showed that skill discretion, coworker support and supervisor support were positively associated with the mean WAI score. On the other hand, it was inversely associated with job demands, job strain and job insecurity. This study was the first research to determine WAI in an important industry in Iran. Overall, work ability was in the "Good" category among the workers in the studied field. On the basis of the WAI guidelines, this level should be maintained and promoted to excellent level by providing supportive countermeasures. The WAI score was significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The results showed that even in heavy physical work, factors such as job insecurity, skill discretion, job strain and social support play an important role in maintaining work ability. A positive combination of "psychosocial characteristics" of the job with "individual resources" can promote work ability in such occupations.

  1. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    fitted the observed spatial pattern. Results: During the investigated period (2011-2013), an increase in annual herd prevalence was noted (2011-25.6%; 2012-28.4%; 2013-29.3%). The spatial analysis suggested significant clustering of positive and negative herds. Presence of streams, wetlands and pastures...... on farms showed a significant association with the presence of infection in cattle herds. Buying animals from positive herds was a risk factor on conventional farms. Additionally, risk of being infected with Fasciola hepatica was higher in non-dairy herds of medium size (>= 30 and ... to dairy and large (>= 100) cattle herds. The observed spatial pattern could be reproduced by predictions of the risk factor model. Conclusions: This study showed an increase in annual herd level prevalence (2011 to 2013) indicating that an increasing proportion of herds are infected with Fasciola hepatica...

  3. Spatial Characteristics and Driving Factors of Provincial Wastewater Discharge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunlun; Liu, Xiaoqiong; Ding, Lei; Huang, Gengzhi; Li, Zhigang

    2016-12-09

    Based on the increasing pressure on the water environment, this study aims to clarify the overall status of wastewater discharge in China, including the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of wastewater discharge and its driving factors, so as to provide reference for developing "emission reduction" strategies in China and discuss regional sustainable development and resources environment policies. We utilized the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) method to analyze the characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of the total wastewater discharge among 31 provinces in China from 2002 to 2013. Then, we discussed about the driving factors, affected the wastewater discharge through the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method and classified those driving factors. Results indicate that: (1) the total wastewater discharge steadily increased, based on the social economic development, with an average growth rate of 5.3% per year; the domestic wastewater discharge is the main source of total wastewater discharge, and the amount of domestic wastewater discharge is larger than the industrial wastewater discharge. There are many spatial differences of wastewater discharge among provinces via the ESDA method. For example, provinces with high wastewater discharge are mainly the developed coastal provinces such as Jiangsu Province and Guangdong Province. Provinces and their surrounding areas with low wastewater discharge are mainly the undeveloped ones in Northwest China; (2) The dominant factors affecting wastewater discharge are the economy and technological advance; The secondary one is the efficiency of resource utilization, which brings about the unstable effect; population plays a less important role in wastewater discharge. The dominant driving factors affecting wastewater discharge among 31 provinces are divided into three types, including two-factor dominant type, three-factor leading type and four-factor antagonistic type. In addition, the

  4. The Structure of Spatial Ability Items: A Faceted Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Ruth; Shoham, Ilana

    1982-01-01

    Eight spatial tests assembled with a mapping sentence of four content facets (rule type, dimensionality, presence or absence of rotation, and test format) were administered to 800 individuals. Smallest Space Analysis of an intercorrelation matrix yielded three facets which formed distinct regions in a two-dimensional projection of a…

  5. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  6. Environmental and spatial factors influencing the distribution of cladocerans in lakes across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of local environmental and spatial factors in explaining variation in the composition of cladoceran assemblages from surface sediments within a set of 50 lakes spanning a broad southwest to northeast transect across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region from Yellowknife (Northwest Territories to the northern boundary of the Thelon Game Sanctuary (Nunavut Territory. Within each lake, the cladoceran fauna was identified based on the subfossil exoskeletal remains preserved in recently deposited lake sediments. Physical and chemical limnological data were measured in August of 1996 and 1998. Spatial data were generated based on latitude and longitude using Principal Coordinates of Neighbors Matrices analysis (PCNM. The relationships between cladocerans and the measured environmental and spatial variables were examined using both unconstrained (Principal Components Analysis, PCA and constrained (Redundancy Analysis, RDA ordination techniques. Variance partitioning, based on partial RDAs, was used to identify the relative importance of significant environmental and spatial explanatory variables. Three environmental variables were identified as significantly influencing cladoceran community structure: surface water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and total phosphorus (TP. Five PCNM-generated spatial variables were also significant in explaining cladoceran distributions. Variance partitioning attributed 14% of the variance in the distribution of Cladocera to spatial factors, an additional 10% to spatially-structured environmental variables, and 8% to environmental factors that were not spatially-structured. Within the central Canadian Arctic treeline region, spatial and other environmental processes had an important influence on the distribution of cladoceran communities. The strong influence of spatial factors was related to the large ecoclimatic gradient across treeline. The distribution patterns of cladocerans

  7. Geography literation to improve spatial intelligence of high school student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, WS; Zain, IM

    2018-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is deeply related to success in the STEM disciplines (science,technology, engineering, and math). spatial intelligence as a transversal capacity which is useful for everyday life but which cannot be characterized in any specific and distinctive way, as are, for example, linguistic or mathematical ability. The ability of geographical literacy relates to spatial intelligence. test results prove that the ability of high-liter geography of high school students found in students who have a good spatial intelligence score

  8. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  9. The riddle of style changes in the visual arts after interference with the right brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eBlanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What is visual art? What are paintings? What are films? Although innumerous answers have been proposed to these questions, we here analyze the paintings and films of several visual artists, who suffered from a well-defined neuropsychological deficit, visuo-spatial hemineglect, following vascular stroke to the right brain. We focus our analysis in particular on the oeuvre of Lovis Corinth and Luchino Visconti and point out aspects of their post-stroke paintings and films (that differ from their pre-stroke work and argue that these changes may be associated with visuo-spatial hemineglect. We discuss how the neuropsychological investigation of visual artists may allow us to investigate the relationship between brain and art.

  10. Multiscale Spatial Assessment of Determinant Factors of Land Use Change: Study at Urban Area of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2017-12-01

    Studies of land use change have been undertaken by different researchers using various methods. Among those methods, modelling is widely utilized. Modelling land use change required several components remarked as model variables. Those represent any conditions or factors which considered relevant or have some degree of correlation to the changes of land use. Variables which have significant correlation to land use change are referred as determinant factors or driving forces. Those factors as well as changes of land use are distributed across space and therefore referred as spatial determinant factors. The main objective of the research was to examine land use change and its determinant factors. Area and location of land use change were analysed based on three different years of land use maps, which are 1993, 2000 and 2007. Spatial and temporal analysis were performed which emphasize to the influence of scale to both of analysis’s. Urban area of Yogyakarta was selected as study area. Study area covered three different districts (kabupaten), involving 20 sub districts and totally consists of 74 villages. Result of this study shows that during 14 years periods (1993 to 2007), there were about 1,460 hectares of land use change had been taken place. Dominant type of land use change is agricultural to residential. The uses of different spatial and temporal scale in analysis were able to reveal different factors related to land use change. In general, factors influencing the quantities of land use change in the study area were population growth and the availability of land. The use of data with different spatial resolution can reveal the presence of various factors associated with the location of the change. Locations of land use change were influenced or determined by accessibility factors.

  11. Symmetry and binding in visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, C; Pieroni, L; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    Three experiments study the impact of symmetry on a sequential block tapping immediate memory task in human subjects. Experiment 1 shows an advantage from vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, while finding no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. Experiment 2 tests the possible role of verbal labeling by means of a secondary task that prevents this by articulatory suppression. No evidence of verbalization was observed. A third study examines the effects of a concurrent executive load, finding an overall impairment, that did not differ between symmetrical and asymmetric patterns, suggesting that the effect of symmetry reflects automatic rather than executive processes. Implications for the episodic buffer component of working memory are discussed.

  12. Interactions between the spatial and temporal stimulus factors that influence multisensory integration in human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Fister, Juliane Krueger; Barnett, Zachary P; Nidiffer, Aaron R; Wallace, Mark T

    2012-05-01

    In natural environments, human sensory systems work in a coordinated and integrated manner to perceive and respond to external events. Previous research has shown that the spatial and temporal relationships of sensory signals are paramount in determining how information is integrated across sensory modalities, but in ecologically plausible settings, these factors are not independent. In the current study, we provide a novel exploration of the impact on behavioral performance for systematic manipulations of the spatial location and temporal synchrony of a visual-auditory stimulus pair. Simple auditory and visual stimuli were presented across a range of spatial locations and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), and participants performed both a spatial localization and simultaneity judgment task. Response times in localizing paired visual-auditory stimuli were slower in the periphery and at larger SOAs, but most importantly, an interaction was found between the two factors, in which the effect of SOA was greater in peripheral as opposed to central locations. Simultaneity judgments also revealed a novel interaction between space and time: individuals were more likely to judge stimuli as synchronous when occurring in the periphery at large SOAs. The results of this study provide novel insights into (a) how the speed of spatial localization of an audiovisual stimulus is affected by location and temporal coincidence and the interaction between these two factors and (b) how the location of a multisensory stimulus impacts judgments concerning the temporal relationship of the paired stimuli. These findings provide strong evidence for a complex interdependency between spatial location and temporal structure in determining the ultimate behavioral and perceptual outcome associated with a paired multisensory (i.e., visual-auditory) stimulus.

  13. Spatial complexity of character based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study

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    Maja eRodic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesised that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. 721 6-9 -year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into 4 different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e. English, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese. The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1 to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year old children across the samples; (2 to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age.

  14. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y; Gynku, Elena I; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6-9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age.

  15. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y.; Gynku, Elena I.; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6–9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7–9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age. PMID:25859235

  16. An investigation of the validity of the virtual spatial navigation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eVentura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study investigated a new measure of environmental spatial ability (i.e., large scale spatial ability called the Virtual Spatial Navigation Assessment (VSNA. In the VSNA, participants must find a set of gems in a virtual 3D environment using a first person avatar on a computer. The VSNA runs in a web browser and automatically collects the time taken to find each gem. The time taken to collect gems in the VSNA was significantly correlated to three oth-er spatial ability measures, math standardized test scores, and choice to be in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math career. These findings support the validity of the VSNA as a measure of environmental spatial ability. Finally, self-report video game experience was also significantly correlated to the VSNA suggesting that video game may improve environmental spatial ability. Recommendations are made for how the VSNA can be used to help guide individuals toward STEM career paths and identify weaknesses that might be addressed with large scale spatial navigation training.

  17. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

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    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  18. Procedural Factors That Affect Psychophysical Measures of Spatial Selectivity in Cochlear Implant Users

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    Stefano Cosentino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral measures of spatial selectivity in cochlear implants are important both for guiding the programing of individual users’ implants and for the evaluation of different stimulation methods. However, the methods used are subject to a number of confounding factors that can contaminate estimates of spatial selectivity. These factors include off-site listening, charge interactions between masker and probe pulses in interleaved masking paradigms, and confusion effects in forward masking. We review the effects of these confounds and discuss methods for minimizing them. We describe one such method in which the level of a 125-pps masker is adjusted so as to mask a 125-pps probe, and where the masker and probe pulses are temporally interleaved. Five experiments describe the method and evaluate the potential roles of the different potential confounding factors. No evidence was obtained for off-site listening of the type observed in acoustic hearing. The choice of the masking paradigm was shown to alter the measured spatial selectivity. For short gaps between masker and probe pulses, both facilitation and refractory mechanisms had an effect on masking; this finding should inform the choice of stimulation rate in interleaved masking experiments. No evidence for confusion effects in forward masking was revealed. It is concluded that the proposed method avoids many potential confounds but that the choice of method should depend on the research question under investigation.

  19. Processing of spatial and non-spatial information in rats with lesions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex: Environmental complexity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodo, Christophe; Sargolini, Francesca; Save, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry has been suggested to play an important role in episodic memory but the contribution of the entorhinal cortex remains elusive. Predominant theories propose that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) processes spatial information whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) processes non spatial information. A recent study using an object exploration task has suggested that the involvement of the MEC and LEC spatial and non-spatial information processing could be modulated by the amount of information to be processed, i.e. environmental complexity. To address this hypothesis we used an object exploration task in which rats with excitotoxic lesions of the MEC and LEC had to detect spatial and non-spatial novelty among a set of objects and we varied environmental complexity by decreasing the number of objects or amount of object diversity. Reducing diversity resulted in restored ability to process spatial and non-spatial information in MEC and LEC groups, respectively. Reducing the number of objects yielded restored ability to process non-spatial information in the LEC group but not the ability to process spatial information in the MEC group. The findings indicate that the MEC and LEC are not strictly necessary for spatial and non-spatial processing but that their involvement depends on the complexity of the information to be processed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Nuclear Sources by UAV Teleoperation Using a Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Interface

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    Jacopo Aleotti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A visuo-haptic augmented reality (VHAR interface is presented enabling an operator to teleoperate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a custom CdZnTe-based spectroscopic gamma-ray detector in outdoor environments. The task is to localize nuclear radiation sources, whose location is unknown to the user, without the close exposure of the operator. The developed detector also enables identification of the localized nuclear sources. The aim of the VHAR interface is to increase the situation awareness of the operator. The user teleoperates the UAV using a 3DOF haptic device that provides an attractive force feedback around the location of the most intense detected radiation source. Moreover, a fixed camera on the ground observes the environment where the UAV is flying. A 3D augmented reality scene is displayed on a computer screen accessible to the operator. Multiple types of graphical overlays are shown, including sensor data acquired by the nuclear radiation detector, a virtual cursor that tracks the UAV and geographical information, such as buildings. Experiments performed in a real environment are reported using an intense nuclear source.

  1. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  2. Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran's I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  3. See me, touch me, heal me : the role of visuo-spatial ability in virtual anatomical learning and surgical simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Medical learning and training are fields in transition. Catalyst in this change is the introduction of digital technology, for example in the form of simulator technology in surgical training, and virtual learning environments in anatomical learning. The primary aim of this thesis is to help

  4. Spatial distribution of, and risk factors for, Opisthorchis viverrini infection in southern Lao PDR.

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    Armelle Forrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne trematode species that might give rise to biliary diseases and the fatal cholangiocarcinoma. In Lao PDR, an estimated 2.5 million individuals are infected with O. viverrini, but epidemiological studies are scarce and the spatial distribution of infection remains to be determined. Our aim was to map the distribution of O. viverrini in southern Lao PDR, identify underlying risk factors, and predict the prevalence of O. viverrini at non-surveyed locations. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was carried out in 51 villages in Champasack province in the first half of 2007. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water supply, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data and fed into a geographical information system. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to identify risk factors and to investigate the spatial pattern of O. viverrini infection. Bayesian kriging was utilized to predict infection risk at non-surveyed locations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of O. viverrini among 3,371 study participants with complete data records was 61.1%. Geostatistical models identified age, Lao Loum ethnic group, educational attainment, occupation (i.e., rice farmer, fisherman, and animal breeder, and unsafe drinking water source as risk factors for infection. History of praziquantel treatment, access to sanitation, and distance to freshwater bodies were found to be protective factors. Spatial patterns of O. viverrini were mainly governed by environmental factors with predictive modeling identifying two different risk profiles: low risk of O. viverrini in the mountains and high risk in the Mekong corridor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first risk map of O. viverrini infection in Champasack province, which is important for spatial targeting of control efforts. Infection with O. viverrini appears to be strongly associated

  5. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition separately. The data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from 5,247 workers aged 45 years and older in five different work sectors. Work ability was assessed with the first item of the Work Ability Index. The presence of a chronic health condition was assessed by self-report. Independent variables in the multivariable linear regression analysis were work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health status. The presence of a chronic health condition was negatively associated with work ability (B = -0.848). The strength of this association slightly attenuated after subsequently adding individual characteristics (B = -0.824), work conditions (B = -0.805) and more so after adding psychosocial factors (B = -0.704) and especially perceived health variables (B = -0.049) to the model. Variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were similar. Perceived health and psychosocial factors, rather than work conditions, explained the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and work ability. Substantial differences in variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were not found. Based on the lower mean scores for workers with a chronic health condition and work ability as well for predictors, these workers might have the most benefit by a policy focussing on enhancing these associated variables.

  6. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

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    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  7. Tracing a Route and Finding a Shortcut: The Working Memory, Motivational, and Personality Factors Involved

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    Francesca Pazzaglia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wayfinding (WF is the ability to move around efficiently and find the way from a starting point to a destination. It is a component of spatial navigation, a coordinate and goal-directed movement of one’s self through the environment. In the present study, the relationship between WF tasks (route tracing and shortcut finding and individual factors were explored with the hypothesis that WF tasks would be predicted by different types of cognitive, affective, motivational variables, and personality factors. A group of 116 university students (88 F. were conducted along a route in a virtual environment and then asked first to trace the same route again, and then to find a shortcut between the start and end points. Several instruments assessing visuospatial working memory, mental rotation ability, self-efficacy, spatial anxiety, positive attitude to exploring, and personality traits were administered. The results showed that a latent spatial ability factor (measured with the visuospatial working memory and mental rotations tests – controlled for gender – predicted route-tracing performance, while self-report measures of anxiety, efficacy, and pleasure in exploring, and some personality traits were more likely to predict shortcut-finding performance. We concluded that both personality and cognitive abilities affect WF performance, but differently, depending on the requirements of the task.

  8. Cerebellar atrophy related to chronic exposure to toluene: case report

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    Benito Pereira Damasceno

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman presented slowly progressing ataxia and neurasthenic symptoms after 14-year occupational exposure to low concentration toluene vapour. Examination disclosed only cerebellar signs. Cognitive functions were normal except moderate visuo-spatial and constructive deficit CT imaging showed severe pancerebellar atrophy without pathological signs in other brain structures. Two years after she was removed from workplace, CT imaging and ataxia showed no worsening, while visuo-constructive function improved. The authors warn against possible neurotoxic risk associated with this kind of exposure.

  9. Spatial Reasoning and Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter: A Middle School Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Merryn L.

    This dissertation employed a mixed-methods approach to examine the relationship between spatial reasoning ability and understanding of chemistry content for both middle school students and their science teachers. Spatial reasoning has been linked to success in learning STEM subjects (Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2009). Previous studies have shown a correlation between understanding of chemistry content and spatial reasoning ability (e.g., Pribyl & Bodner, 1987; Wu & Shah, 2003: Stieff, 2013), raising the importance of developing the spatial reasoning ability of both teachers and students. Few studies examine middle school students' or in-service middle school teachers' understanding of chemistry concepts or its relation to spatial reasoning ability. The first paper in this dissertation addresses the quantitative relationship between mental rotation, a type of spatial reasoning ability, and understanding a fundamental concept in chemistry, the particulate nature of matter. The data showed a significant, positive correlation between scores on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test of Rotations (PSVT; Bodner & Guay, 1997) and the Particulate Nature of Matter Assessment (ParNoMA; Yezierski, 2003) for middle school students prior to and after chemistry instruction. A significant difference in spatial ability among students choosing different answer choices on ParNoMA questions was also found. The second paper examined the ways in which students of different spatial abilities talked about matter and chemicals differently. Students with higher spatial ability tended to provide more of an explanation, though not necessarily in an articulate matter. In contrast, lower spatial ability students tended to use any keywords that seemed relevant, but provided little or no explanation. The third paper examined the relationship between mental reasoning and understanding chemistry for middle school science teachers. Similar to their students, a significant, positive correlation between

  10. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

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    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  12. TEMA and Dot Enumeration Profiles Predict Mental Addition Problem Solving Speed Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Clare S; Paul, Jacob M; Reeve, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Different math indices can be used to assess math potential at school entry. We evaluated whether standardized math achievement (TEMA-2 performance), core number abilities (dot enumeration, symbolic magnitude comparison), non-verbal intelligence (NVIQ) and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM), in combination or separately, predicted mental addition problem solving speed over time. We assessed 267 children's TEMA-2, magnitude comparison, dot enumeration, and VSWM abilities at school entry (5 years) and NVIQ at 8 years. Mental addition problem solving speed was assessed at 6, 8, and 10 years. Longitudinal path analysis supported a model in which dot enumeration performance ability profiles and previous mental addition speed predicted future mental addition speed on all occasions, supporting a componential account of math ability. Standardized math achievement and NVIQ predicted mental addition speed at specific time points, while VSWM and symbolic magnitude comparison did not contribute unique variance to the model. The implications of using standardized math achievement and dot enumeration ability to index math learning potential at school entry are discussed.

  13. Factors that influence functional ability in individuals with spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn M. Hastings

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injuries result in devastating impairments that can produce severe functional limitations. However, few documented studies have investigated the levels of function and factors that influence functional ability at discharge from in-patient rehabilitation facilities in Gauteng following such injuries. This necessitated further investigation. Method: Fifty participants were recruited for this cross-sectional, observational study. Participants were recruited from one private and one government spinal rehabilitation unit in Gauteng. A custom-developed questionnaire was used to establish the physical and demographic characteristics of the sample, whilst existing classification scales and measures were used to establish the degree of a lesion and a patient’s associated functional ability. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors that influenced the level of functional ability. Results: Patients achieved an average functional independence score of 64.6 (± 27.6 at discharge according to the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III. Longer stays at rehabilitation facilities were associated with higher scores, whereas scores decreased with increasing patient age. Pressure sores and spasticity affected scores negatively. The type of funding also influenced patients’ scores, with government funding being associated with the best outcome. Both the degree and the level at which the injury occurred could be considered predictive measures that influenced functional independence scores. Conclusion: Most participants were not functionally independent at discharge. Factors such as patient age, length of rehabilitation, presence of pressure sores or spasticity, degree of motor ability and location of the injury should be considered in tailoring rehabilitation therapy.

  14. Adsorption factor effect on dispersive ability of polymethylmethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhovskij, G.A.; Samsonov, G.V.; Gorshunov, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    A relationhsip between the rate of polymer macromolecules absorption on some refractory compounds and the dispersion ability of polymer-abrasive compositions was investigated at various contents of the polymethacrylate polymer in an abrasive composition. The solid phase used was powders of Al 2 O 3 , WC, W 2 B 5 , TiB 2 . It was established that the dispersion ability of the polymer-abrasive compositions was a function not only of the cutting properties of the abrasives and the dispersion ability of the polymers, but also of the adsorption properties of the solid phase and of its capacity to transport macromolecules to the surface being worked

  15. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model ( p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  16. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  17. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  18. Retrosplenial Cortex Is Required for the Retrieval of Remote Memory for Auditory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P.; Mehlman, Max L.; Keene, Christopher S.; DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Bucci, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has a well-established role in contextual and spatial learning and memory, consistent with its known connectivity with visuo-spatial association areas. In contrast, RSC appears to have little involvement with delay fear conditioning to an auditory cue. However, all previous studies have examined the contribution of…

  19. The Relationship between Pitch and Space in Congenital Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Cocchini, Gianna; Stewart, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia manifests as a lifelong difficulty in making sense of musical sound. The extent to which this disorder is accompanied by deficits in visuo-spatial processing is an important question, bearing on the issue of whether pitch processing draws on supramodal spatial representations. The present study assessed different aspects of…

  20. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  1. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zhang; J. Chen; S. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran’s I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze R...

  2. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  3. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E; Anguera, Joaquin A; Skinner, Sasha N; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age.

  4. Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Camarin E.; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Skinner, Sasha N.; Voytek, Bradley; Gazzaley, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application. We compared training-related gains on a spatial attention assessment and spatial working memory task to age-matched controls who engaged in expectancy-matched, active placebo computerized training. Age-related declines in spatial attention abilities were observed regardless of task difficulty. Spatial attention training led to improved focused and distributed attention abilities as well as improved spatial working memory in both younger and older participants. No such improvements were observed in either of the age-matched control groups. Note that these findings were not a function of improvements in simple response time, as basic motoric function did not change after training. Furthermore, when using change in simple response time as a covariate, all findings remained significant. These results suggest that spatial attention training can lead to enhancements in spatial working memory regardless of age. PMID:28654361

  5. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran’s I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  6. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  7. The 3-D global spatial data model foundation of the spatial data infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholder, Earl F

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for handling spatial data are encumbered by the assumption of separate origins for horizontal and vertical measurements. Modern measurement systems operate in a 3-D spatial environment. The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model: Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure offers a new model for handling digital spatial data, the global spatial data model or GSDM. The GSDM preserves the integrity of three-dimensional spatial data while also providing additional benefits such as simpler equations, worldwide standardization, and the ability to track spatial data accuracy with greater specificity and convenience. This groundbreaking spatial model incorporates both a functional model and a stochastic model to connect the physical world to the ECEF rectangular system. Combining horizontal and vertical data into a single, three-dimensional database, this authoritative monograph provides a logical development of theoretical concepts and practical tools that can be used to handle spatial data mo...

  8. Spatial Processing in Infancy Predicts Both Spatial and Mathematical Aptitude in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E; Lourenco, Stella F

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable interest in the role of spatial intelligence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) achievement, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of individual differences in spatial aptitude or their relation to later accomplishments in STEM disciplines. The current study provides evidence that spatial processes present in infancy predict interindividual variation in both spatial and mathematical competence later in development. Using a longitudinal design, we found that children's performance on a brief visuospatial change-detection task administered between 6 and 13 months of age was related to their spatial aptitude (i.e., mental-transformation skill) and mastery of symbolic-math concepts at 4 years of age, even when we controlled for general cognitive abilities and spatial memory. These results suggest that nascent spatial processes present in the first year of life not only act as precursors to later spatial intelligence but also predict math achievement during childhood.

  9. Assessing visuospatial abilities in healthy aging: A novel visuomotor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eDe Bruin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18-25 years and older adults (60-82 years to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualisation abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating (1 developmental, (2 sex-based and (3 pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain.

  10. Socio-economic and Climate Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Spatial Heterogeneity: A Worked Example in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teurlai, Magali; Menkès, Christophe Eugène; Cavarero, Virgil; Degallier, Nicolas; Descloux, Elodie; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Guillaumot, Laurent; Libourel, Thérèse; Lucio, Paulo Sergio; Mathieu-Daudé, Françoise; Mangeas, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Understanding the factors underlying the spatio-temporal distribution of infectious diseases provides useful information regarding their prevention and control. Dengue fever spatio-temporal patterns result from complex interactions between the virus, the host, and the vector. These interactions can be influenced by environmental conditions. Our objectives were to analyse dengue fever spatial distribution over New Caledonia during epidemic years, to identify some of the main underlying factors, and to predict the spatial evolution of dengue fever under changing climatic conditions, at the 2100 horizon. Methods We used principal component analysis and support vector machines to analyse and model the influence of climate and socio-economic variables on the mean spatial distribution of 24,272 dengue cases reported from 1995 to 2012 in thirty-three communes of New Caledonia. We then modelled and estimated the future evolution of dengue incidence rates using a regional downscaling of future climate projections. Results The spatial distribution of dengue fever cases is highly heterogeneous. The variables most associated with this observed heterogeneity are the mean temperature, the mean number of people per premise, and the mean percentage of unemployed people, a variable highly correlated with people's way of life. Rainfall does not seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of dengue cases during epidemics. By the end of the 21st century, if temperature increases by approximately 3°C, mean incidence rates during epidemics could double. Conclusion In New Caledonia, a subtropical insular environment, both temperature and socio-economic conditions are influencing the spatial spread of dengue fever. Extension of this study to other countries worldwide should improve the knowledge about climate influence on dengue burden and about the complex interplay between different factors. This study presents a methodology that can be used as a

  11. N2O emission hotspots at different spatial scales and governing factors for small scale hotspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R.N. van den; Hefting, M.M.; Tan, N.C.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronically nitrate-loaded riparian buffer zones show high N 2 O emissions. Often, a large part of the N 2 O is emitted from small surface areas, resulting in high spatial variability in these buffer zones. These small surface areas with high N 2 O emissions (hotspots) need to be investigated to generate knowledge on the factors governing N 2 O emissions. In this study the N 2 O emission variability was investigated at different spatial scales. Therefore N 2 O emissions from three 32 m 2 grids were determined in summer and winter. Spatial variation and total emission were determined on three different scales (0.3 m 2 , 0.018 m 2 and 0.0013 m 2 ) at plots with different levels of N 2 O emissions. Spatial variation was high at all scales determined and highest at the smallest scale. To test possible factors inducing small scale hotspots, soil samples were collected for slurry incubation to determine responses to increased electron donor/acceptor availability. Acetate addition did increase N 2 O production, but nitrate addition failed to increase total denitrification or net N 2 O production. N 2 O production was similar in all soil slurries, independent of their origin from high or low emission soils, indicating that environmental conditions (including physical factors like gas diffusion) rather than microbial community composition governed N 2 O emission rates

  12. Postural control and risk of falling in bipodalic and monopodalic stabilometric tests of healthy subjects before, after visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation and at 3 months thereafter: role of the proprioceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, P; Patrizi, M; Pepe, L; Cavaniglia, G; Riva, D; D'Ottavi, L R

    2010-08-01

    Nine healthy volunteers (6 males, 3 females), mean age 34.5 years (SD = 11.52), underwent a vestibulo-postural rehabilitation cycle with a visuo-proprioceptive-type stimulus. All subjects in the study group were evaluated by means of stabilometric bipodalic and monopodalic tests both before and immediately after treatment, and again 3 month thereafter. The Delos Postural Proprioceptive System®, DPPS (Delos, srl, Turin, Italy), was used in performing these stabilometric tests and in the rehabilitation exercises. The first aim of the study was to evaluate to what extent the functional level of the proprioceptive system was reliable, in healthy subjects, in the control of postural stability; the second was to demonstrate the possibility to increase this level by means of a novel visuo-proprioceptive feedback training; the last was to establish whether or not the increase achieved was permanent. The bipodalic test did not reveal any deficit in posture either before or after rehabilitation. The monopodalic test prior to treatment, with eyes closed, revealed, in 2/3 of the study group, evidence of the risk of falling, expressed as the precautional strategy (8.57 ± 6.18% SD). An increase in the proprioceptive activity, obtained in the subjects examined immediately after the visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation, led, in the monopodalic test, with eyes closed, to a significant reduction in the risk of falling (with the precautional strategy equal to 1.09 ± 2.63% SD, p = 0.004). The monopodalic test, with eyes closed, 3 months after rehabilitation, demonstrated results not unlike those pre-treament with values, therefore, not more significant than those emerging from the pre-treatment test. Thus, from the above-mentioned data, it can be observed that, also in healthy subjects, there may be different levels of postural proprioceptive control related to a high risk of falling. These levels can be maintained constant for a certain period of time, until a

  13. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differential neural activation for camouflage detection task in Field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... and neurological/psychotic disorder/cognitive impairment. They also showed ..... sibly be attributed to visual attention and visuo-spatial processing .... deficit in alcohol dependants through fMRI and Voxel Based. Morphometry ...

  15. Sleep dissolves illusion: sleep withstands learning of visuo-tactile-proprioceptive integration induced by repeated days of rubber hand illusion training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Honma

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration is a key factor in establishing bodily self-consciousness and in adapting humans to novel environments. The rubber hand illusion paradigm, in which humans can immediately perceive illusory ownership to an artificial hand, is a traditional technique for investigating multisensory integration and the feeling of illusory ownership. However, the long-term learning properties of the rubber hand illusion have not been previously investigated. Moreover, although sleep contributes to various aspects of cognition, including learning and memory, its influence on illusory learning of the artificial hand has not yet been assessed. We determined the effects of daily repetitive training and sleep on learning visuo-tactile-proprioceptive sensory integration and illusory ownership in healthy adult participants by using the traditional rubber hand illusion paradigm. Subjective ownership of the rubber hand, proprioceptive drift, and galvanic skin response were measured to assess learning indexes. Subjective ownership was maintained and proprioceptive drift increased with daily training. Proprioceptive drift, but not subjective ownership, was significantly attenuated after sleep. A significantly greater reduction in galvanic skin response was observed after wakefulness compared to after sleep. Our results suggest that although repetitive rubber hand illusion training facilitates multisensory integration and physiological habituation of a multisensory incongruent environment, sleep corrects illusional integration and habituation based on experiences in a multisensory incongruent environment. These findings may increase our understanding of adaptive neural processes to novel environments, specifically, bodily self-consciousness and sleep-dependent neuroplasticity.

  16. Sleep dissolves illusion: sleep withstands learning of visuo-tactile-proprioceptive integration induced by repeated days of rubber hand illusion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a key factor in establishing bodily self-consciousness and in adapting humans to novel environments. The rubber hand illusion paradigm, in which humans can immediately perceive illusory ownership to an artificial hand, is a traditional technique for investigating multisensory integration and the feeling of illusory ownership. However, the long-term learning properties of the rubber hand illusion have not been previously investigated. Moreover, although sleep contributes to various aspects of cognition, including learning and memory, its influence on illusory learning of the artificial hand has not yet been assessed. We determined the effects of daily repetitive training and sleep on learning visuo-tactile-proprioceptive sensory integration and illusory ownership in healthy adult participants by using the traditional rubber hand illusion paradigm. Subjective ownership of the rubber hand, proprioceptive drift, and galvanic skin response were measured to assess learning indexes. Subjective ownership was maintained and proprioceptive drift increased with daily training. Proprioceptive drift, but not subjective ownership, was significantly attenuated after sleep. A significantly greater reduction in galvanic skin response was observed after wakefulness compared to after sleep. Our results suggest that although repetitive rubber hand illusion training facilitates multisensory integration and physiological habituation of a multisensory incongruent environment, sleep corrects illusional integration and habituation based on experiences in a multisensory incongruent environment. These findings may increase our understanding of adaptive neural processes to novel environments, specifically, bodily self-consciousness and sleep-dependent neuroplasticity.

  17. Spatial Thinking in Atmospheric Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, P. M.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ellis, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric science is a STEM discipline that involves the visualization of three-dimensional processes from two-dimensional maps, interpretation of computer-generated graphics and hand plotting of isopleths. Thus, atmospheric science draws heavily upon spatial thinking. Research has shown that spatial thinking ability can be a predictor of early success in STEM disciplines and substantial evidence demonstrates that spatial thinking ability is improved through various interventions. Therefore, identification of the spatial thinking skills and cognitive processes used in atmospheric science is the first step toward development of instructional strategies that target these skills and scaffold the learning of students in atmospheric science courses. A pilot study of expert and novice meteorologists identified mental animation and disembedding as key spatial skills used in the interpretation of multiple weather charts and images. Using this as a starting point, we investigated how these spatial skills, together with expertise, domain specific knowledge, and working memory capacity affect the ability to produce an accurate forecast. Participants completed a meteorology concept inventory, experience questionnaire and psychometric tests of spatial thinking ability and working memory capacity prior to completing a forecasting task. A quantitative analysis of the collected data investigated the effect of the predictor variables on the outcome task. A think-aloud protocol with individual participants provided a qualitative look at processes such as task decomposition, rule-based reasoning and the formation of mental models in an attempt to understand how individuals process this complex data and describe outcomes of particular meteorological scenarios. With our preliminary results we aim to inform atmospheric science education from a cognitive science perspective. The results point to a need to collaborate with the atmospheric science community broadly, such that multiple

  18. Individual and Social Competence, Personality Factors and Cognitive Abilities of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors studied the connections between individual and social competence, personality factors and cognitive abilities of preschool children with typical development, attending kindergarten (N = 54; age 73, 4  6 months, 31 boys and 23 girls. The following method have been used: "Preschool children's educational competence scale», M5-PS, computer cognitive tests. K-means clustering of cases and Mann-Whitney U Test were used. Revealed that children with a high level of individual social competence development were more open to experience minded (p <0,0001, agreeable (p <0,05, conscientious (p <0,01, with higher level of Extraversion (0,001 and also more successful with the cognitive tests for stimulus sequences understanding (p <0,05, logical multiplication usage (p <0,05, emotional expression and situations of social interaction recognition (p <0,05 and p < 0,01. The obtained results may indicate the possible involvement of both personality and cognitive factors in the formation of individual and social competences.

  19. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eDechesne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays nonrandom spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage, while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modelling and experimental systems that do not include soil’s full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil.

  20. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  1. Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Fragnière, Emilie; Costanzo, Floriana; Di Vara, Silvia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps. The spatial response learning system depends on the striatum and creates fixed stimulus-response representations, also known as habits. Indeed, no study assessing WS spatial competence has used tasks which selectively target these two spatial memory systems. Here, we report that individuals with WS exhibit a dissociation in their spatial abilities subserved by these two memory systems. As compared to typically developing (TD) children in the same mental age range, place learning performance was impaired in individuals with WS. In contrast, their spatial response learning performance was facilitated. Our findings in individuals with WS and TD children suggest that place learning and response learning interact competitively to control the behavioral strategies normally used to support human spatial navigation. Our findings further suggest that the neural pathways supporting place learning may be affected by the genetic deletion that characterizes WS, whereas those supporting response learning may be relatively preserved. The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cerebral asymmetry for mental rotation: effects of response hand, handedness and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake W; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Hamm, Jeff P

    2002-10-28

    We assessed lateralization of brain function during mental rotation, measuring the scalp distribution of a 400-600 ms latency event-related potential (ERP) with 128 recording electrodes. Twenty-four subjects, consisting of equal numbers of dextral and sinistral males and females, performed a mental rotation task under two response conditions (dominant non-dominant hand). For males, ERPs showed a right parietal bias regardless of response hand. For females, the parietal ERPs were slightly left-lateralized when making dominant hand responses, but strongly right-lateralized when making non-dominant hand responses. These results support the notion that visuo-spatial processing is more bilaterally organized in females. However, left hemisphere resources may be allocated to response preparation when using the non-dominant hand, forcing visuo-spatial processing to the right hemisphere.

  3. Mental additions and verbal-domain interference in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Caviola, Sara; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial domains in solving addition problems with carrying in a sample of children diagnosed with developmental dyscalculia (DD) divided into two groups: (i) those with DD alone and (ii) those with DD and dyslexia. Age and stage matched typically developing (TD) children were also studied. The addition problems were presented horizontally or vertically and associated with verbal or visuo-spatial information. Study results showed that DD children's performance on mental calculation tasks was more impaired when they tackled horizontally presented addition problems compared to vertically presented ones that are associated to verbal domain involvement. The performance pattern in the two DD groups was found to be similar. The theoretical, clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  5. Characterization factors for terrestrial acidification at the global scale: a systematic analysis of spatial variability and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Azevedo, Ligia B; Margni, Manuele; van Zelm, Rosalie; Deschênes, Louise; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-12-01

    Characterization factors (CFs) are used in life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the potential impact per unit of emission. CFs are obtained from a characterization model which assess the environmental mechanisms along the cause-effect chain linking an emission to its potential damage on a given area of protection, such as loss in ecosystem quality. Up to now, CFs for acidifying emissions did not cover the global scale and were only representative of their characterization model geographical scope. Consequently, current LCA practices implicitly assume that all emissions from a global supply chain occur within the continent referring to the characterization method geographical scope. This paper provides worldwide 2°×2.5° spatially-explicit CFs, representing the change in relative loss of terrestrial vascular plant species due to an emission change of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). We found that spatial variability in the CFs is much larger compared to statistical uncertainty (six orders of magnitude vs. two orders of magnitude). Spatial variability is mainly caused by the atmospheric fate factor and soil sensitivity factor, while the ecological effect factor is the dominant contributor to the statistical uncertainty. The CFs provided in our study allow the worldwide spatially explicit evaluation of life cycle impacts related to acidifying emissions. This opens the door to evaluate regional life cycle emissions of different products in a global economy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Ramona; Mammarella, Irene C; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-05-01

    Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure. The figures used in the tasks were devised by manipulating two variables: the perceptual cohesiveness and the task uncertainty, stimulating global or local processes. Our results confirmed that children with NLD had more problems with the visuo-constructive version of the task, whereas those with dyslexia showed only a slight difficulty with the visuo-constructive version, but were in greater difficulty with the perceptual version, especially in terms of response times. These findings are interpreted in relation to the slower visual processing speed of children with dyslexia, and to the visuo-constructive problems and difficulty in using flexibly-experienced global vs local processes of children with NLD. The clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of air quality index in Xuchang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of air pollution becomes more and more serious. Based on the geographic and seasonal climatic characteristics of Xuchang City, this paper studies the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of air quality index. The results show that: from the time point of view, air quality index shows seasonal difference. Air quality index is highest in winter and is lowest in summer. From the space point of view, there are differences between the north and the south to a certain extent. Changge City, Yuzhou city and central Xuchang county is higher than the southeast of Xiangcheng county and Yanling county. The spatial and temporal variation characteristics of air quality index in Xuchang are influenced by natural factors and human activities, and the economic development and population are the important factors affecting the urban air quality.

  8. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  9. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. A Comparison of Spatial-Analytical Ability Levels of Gifted and Average Students (Üstün Zekâlı Olan ve Olmayan Öğrencilerin Görsel-Uzamsal Yeteneklerinin Düzeylerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Özyaprak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference, if any, between the spatial-analytical ability level of gifted students and that of average students. The sample included 52 gifted students as identified by the Raven’s Advance Progressive Matrices and 110 students with average general intelligence. The sample was divided into 6 groups as 2ndgrade gifted students (n= 23 and non-gifted students (n=21 who were attending gifted classrooms as inclusion students and non-gifted students who were attending regular classrooms (n=24; and 3rd grade gifted students (n=29 and non-gifted students (n=29 who were attending gifted classrooms as inclusion students, and non-gifted students who were attending regular classrooms (n=33. Gifted students and those average students who were attending gifted classrooms were the students of the same inclusion classrooms. Students who scored in the top 5% on the Raven’s SPM were identified as gifted. Percentileof the A-2 and 3-5 forms of the DISCOVER-spatial analytical assessment were used to determine participants’ spatial analytical ability level. Results: Data analysis showed significant differences between the mean scores of the groups by ability level both for the second grade [F (2-67 =5.20; p<0.05] and the third grade [ F(2-90=9.31, p<0.01]. Findings showed that the mean of spatial analytical ability of the second grade gifted students (M=3.04; SD=0.88 were significantly higher than the mean of spatial analytical ability of the second grade average students (M=2.29; SD=0.55 who were attending regular classrooms. Similarly, the mean of spatial analytical ability of the third grade gifted students (M=2.86; SD=1.16 were significantly higher than the mean of spatial analytical ability of the third grade average students (M=1.70; SD=1.02 who were attending regular classrooms. However, no significant differences were found between gifted students and average students who were attending gifted

  11. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound on spatial learning and memory ability and the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwu, Yong-chang; Tian, Jin-zhou; Shi, Jing

    2011-02-01

    To study the effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound (YSW) on spatial learning and memory ability in rats with sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD) and the ultrastructural basis of the hippocampal neurons. A rat model of SAD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into six groups: sham-operation group, model group, donepezil control group, and YSW low, medium and high dose groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the corresponding drugs by gavage for two months. Meanwhile, the model group and the sham-operation group were given the same volume of distilled water by gavage once a day for two months. The Morris water maze was adopted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. The place navigation test and the spatial probe test were conducted. The escape latency, total swimming distance and swimming time in the target quadrant of the rats were recorded. Also, the hippocampus tissues of rats were taken out and the ultrastructure of hippocampus neurons were observed by an electron microscope. In the place navigation test, compared with the model group, the mean escape latency and the total swimming distance of the donepezil group and the YSW low, medium and high dose groups were significantly shortened (Pmicroscope also confirmed the efficacy of the drug treatment. Chinese herbal medicine YSW compound can improve spatial learning and memory impairment of rats with SAD. The ultrastructural basis may be that it can protect the microtubule structures of hippocampal neurons and prevent nerve axons from being damaged.

  12. Prognostic factors for work ability in women with chronic low back pain consulting primary health care: a 2-year prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeman, Lena; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-05-01

    To investigate prognostic factors for future work ability in women with chronic low back pain (CLBP) consulting primary health care. A 2-year prospective longitudinal cohort study of female patients with CLBP within the primary health care was conducted. Patients were assessed at the first assessment and after 2 years. Prognostic factors for work ability (yes/no) were analyzed by multivariate regression. A total of 130 patients were included at first assessment. After 2 years, 123 patients (95%) were followed up. The 6-minute walk test, depression, and earlier work ability predicted work ability at the 2-year follow-up. A nomogram was constructed to assess the probability of future work ability. The 6-minute walk test, work ability, and depression predicted work ability for women with CLBP after 2 years.

  13. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  14. Spatial navigation by congenitally blind individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Schinazi, Victor R.; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel?Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergen...

  15. Risk factors for spatial memory impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amlerová, J.; Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Javůrková, A.; Andel, R.; Marusič, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2013), s. 57-60 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial navigation * temporal lobe epilepsy * Morris water maze Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  16. Spatially variant periodic structures in electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C.; Pazos, Javier J.; Digaum, Jennefir L.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial transforms are a popular technique for designing periodic structures that are macroscopically inhomogeneous. The structures are often required to be anisotropic, provide a magnetic response, and to have extreme values for the constitutive parameters in Maxwell's equations. Metamaterials and photonic crystals are capable of providing these, although sometimes only approximately. The problem still remains about how to generate the geometry of the final lattice when it is functionally graded, or spatially varied. This paper describes a simple numerical technique to spatially vary any periodic structure while minimizing deformations to the unit cells that would weaken or destroy the electromagnetic properties. New developments in this algorithm are disclosed that increase efficiency, improve the quality of the lattices and provide the ability to design aplanatic metasurfaces. The ability to spatially vary a lattice in this manner enables new design paradigms that are not possible using spatial transforms, three of which are discussed here. First, spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystals are shown to flow unguided waves around very tight bends using ordinary materials with low refractive index. Second, multi-mode waveguides in spatially variant band gap materials are shown to guide waves around bends without mixing power between the modes. Third, spatially variant anisotropic materials are shown to sculpt the near-field around electric components. This can be used to improve electromagnetic compatibility between components in close proximity. PMID:26217058

  17. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  18. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  19. Effects of a classroom intervention with spatial play materials on children's object and viewer transformation abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vander Heyden, Karin; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current

  20. Effects of bench step exercise intervention on work ability in terms of cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Work ability is partly determined by physical and mental fitness. Bench step exercise can be practiced anywhere at any time. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a bench step exercise on work ability by examining cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress. Thirteen volunteers working in a warehousing industry comprised the bench step exercise group (n=7) and the control group (n=6). The participants in the step exercise group were encouraged to practice the step exercise at home for 16 weeks. The step exercise improved glucose metabolism and antioxidative capacity and increased work ability by reducing absences from work and improving the prognosis of work ability. The improvement in work ability was related to a reduction in oxidative stress. These results suggest that a bench step exercise may improve work ability by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress.

  1. Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Xing; Wang, Jin; Lin, Hualiang; Chen, Lingling; Wu, Zhifeng; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-07-17

    Background : Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods : Moran's I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results : Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature ( q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation ( q = 0.24), road density ( q = 0.24), and water body area ( q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions : Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou.

  2. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  3. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth

  4. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better