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Sample records for visible light-responsive tio2

  1. Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of visible light responsive TiO2 nanotube arrays/graphene oxide heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Gao, Hongyan; Wei, Danming; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with graphene oxide (GO) have recently garnered much attention as electronic devices, energy conversion devices, photocatalysts and other applications. In this study, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly method was firstly reported to prepare a TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNA)-GO heterostructure. The as-prepared TNA-GO sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The promising characteristics of this TNA-GO material, the inexpensive, nontoxic and highly visible-light responsiveness, may raise the potential uses in many, various photocatalytic applications.

  2. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian; Richards, Jeffrey Todd

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. The development of a visible-light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst would eliminate the concerns over mercury contamination. Further, VLR development would allow for the use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts. Those VLR catalysts that are commercially available do not have adequate catalytic activity, in the visible region, to make them competitive with those operating under UV irradiation. This study was initiated to develop more effective VLR catalysts through a novel method in which quantum dots (QD) consisting of narrow band gap semiconductors (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) are coupled to TiO2 via two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems and served as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of

  3. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  4. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

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    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  5. Controllable fabrication of Bi2O3/TiO2 heterojunction with excellent visible-light responsive photocatalytic performance

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    Huang, Yunfang; Wei, Yuelin; Wang, Jing; Luo, Dan; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional Bi2O3/TiO2 hierarchical composites have been successfully prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination. The samples were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, BET and DRS. The measurement results signified that heterojunctions of various morphologies β-Bi2O3 growing on the three-dimensional hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorods arrays on FTO glass were apparently formed. The morphology of Bi2O3 changed from three-dimension flower-like microstructures to the sphere-like nanoparticles as the Li(OH) dosage increased. The photocatalytic results showed that all samples exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than that of pure Bi2O3 and TiO2 (P25) in photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. Whereas BTL4 sample exhibited the highest photoactivity with increasing the dosage of Li(OH) to 2 mmol. Furthermore, the absorption edge of the Bi2O3/TiO2 series composites displayed a broad-spectrum photoabsorption from UV to visible-light compared with the individual component. The as-synthesized Bi2O3/TiO2 composites possessed excellent photocatalytic activity and outstanding recyclability. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was mainly attributed to the Bi2O3/TiO2p-n heterojunctions and hierarchical nanostructure. The recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs was efficiently suppressed by the Bi2O3/TiO2p-n heterojunctions.

  6. Wavelength-dependent visible light response in vertically aligned nanohelical TiO2-based Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyunah; Sung, Ji Ho; Lee, Yuna; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Enhancements in photocatalytic performance under visible light have been reported by noble metal functionalization on nanostructured TiO2; however, the non-uniform and discrete distribution of metal nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface makes it difficult to directly clarify the optical and electrical mechanisms. Here, we investigate the light absorption and the charge separation at the metal/TiO2 Schottky junctions by using a unique device architecture with an array of TiO2 nanohelixes (NHs) forming Schottky junctions both with Au-top and Pt-bottom electrodes. Wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements through the Pt/TiO2 NHs/Au structures revealed that the origin of the visible light absorption and the separation of photogenerated carriers is the internal photoemission at the metal/nanostructured TiO2 Schottky junctions. In addition, a huge persistent photoconductivity was observed by the time-dependent photocurrent measurement, implying a long lifetime of the photogenerated carriers before recombination. We believe that the results help one to understand the role of metal functionalization on TiO2 and hence to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency by utilizing appropriately designed Schottky junctions.

  7. In situ modification of cell-culture scaffolds by photocatalysis of visible-light-responsive TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Sho; Furusawa, Kohei; Kurotobi, Atsushi; Hattori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel process to modify the cell affinity of scaffolds in a cell-culture environment using the photocatalytic activity of visible-light (VL)-responsive TiO2. The proposed process is the improved version of our previous demonstration in which ultraviolet (UV)-responsive TiO2 was utilized. In that demonstration, we showed that cell-repellent molecules on TiO2 were decomposed and replaced with cell-permissive molecules upon UV exposure in the medium where cells are being cultured. However, UV irradiation involves taking the risk of inducing damage to the cells. In this work, a TiO2 film was sputter-deposited on a quartz coverslip at 640 °C without O2 gas injection to create a rutile structure containing oxygen defects, which is known to exhibit photocatalytic activity upon VL exposure. We show that the cell adhesion site and migration area can be controlled with the photocatalytic activity of the VL-responsive TiO2 film, while the cellular oxidative stress is reduced markedly by the substitution of VL for UV.

  8. Highly Visible Light Responsive, Narrow Band gap TiO2 Nanoparticles Modified by Elemental Red Phosphorus for Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemical Applications

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    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports that the introduction of elemental red phosphorus (RP) into TiO2 can shift the light absorption ability from the UV to the visible region, and confirmed that the optimal RP loading and milling time can effectively improve the visible light driven-photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The resulting RP-TiO2 nanohybrids were characterized systematically by a range of techniques and the photocatalytic ability of the RP-TiO2 photocatalysts was assessed further by the photodegradation of a model Rhodamine B pollutant under visible light irradiation. The results suggest that the RP-TiO2 has superior photodegradation ability for model contaminant decomposition compared to other well-known photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and other reference materials. Furthermore, as a photoelectrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry, and linear scan voltammetry were also performed in the dark and under visible light irradiation. These photoelectrochemical performances of RP-TiO2 under visible light irradiation revealed more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation and rapid charge transfer than under the dark condition, and thus improved photocatalytic activity. These findings show that the use of earth abundant and inexpensive red phosphorus instead of expensive plasmonic metals for inducing visible light responsive characteristics in TiO2 is an effective strategy for the efficient energy conversion of visible light. PMID:27146098

  9. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Kinetics of Visible-Light Response N-Doped TiO2 Nanocatalyst for Indoor Acetaldehyde Removal under Dark and Light Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hao Lin; Chih-Huang Weng; Jing-Hua Tzeng; Yao-Tung Lin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the removal nature of the indoor volatile organic compounds under realistic environment conditions would give clear guidance for the development of air purification devices. The study investigated the removal of indoor acetaldehyde using visible-light-responsive N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation (light) and in the absence of light (dark). The adsorption kinetics of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 followed a pseudo-second-order model. The magnitude of a...

  10. Role of self-assembly coated Er(3+): YAlO3/TiO2 in intimate coupling of visible-light-responsive photocatalysis and biodegradation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shanshan; Dong, Shuangshi; Tian, Xiadi; Xu, Zhengxue; Ma, Dongmei; Cui, Bin; Ren, Nanqi; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-01-25

    Conventionally used ultraviolet light can result in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increasing and biofilm damage in intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB). Visible-light-responsive photocatalysis offers an alternative for achieving ICPB. In this study, composite-cubes were developed using self-assembly to coat a thin and even layer of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (Er(3+): YAlO3/TiO2) on sponge-type carriers, followed by biofilm cultivation. The degradations of phenol (50 mg L(-1)) were compared for four protocols in circulating beds: adsorption (AD), visible-light-responsive photocatalysis (VPC), biodegradation (B), and intimately coupled visible-light-responsive photocatalysis and biodegradation (VPCB). The phenol and DOC removal efficiencies using VPCB in 16 h were 99.8% and 65.2%, respectively, i.e., higher than those achieved using VPC (71.6% and 50.0%) or B (99.4% and 58.2%). The phenol removal of 96.3% could be obtained even after 3 additional cycles. The 6.17-min intermediate detected by HPLC, continuously accumulated for VPC, appeared at 1-6 h and then was completely removed for VPCB in 10 h. ICPB was further illustrated in that most of the biofilm was protected in the carrier interiors, with less protection on the carrier exterior in VPCB. A self-regulation mechanism that helped photocatalyst exposure to visible-light irradiation was identified, promoting the combined photocatalysis and biodegradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Visible-Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure.

  12. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Kinetics of Visible-Light Response N-Doped TiO2 Nanocatalyst for Indoor Acetaldehyde Removal under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the removal nature of the indoor volatile organic compounds under realistic environment conditions would give clear guidance for the development of air purification devices. The study investigated the removal of indoor acetaldehyde using visible-light-responsive N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation (light and in the absence of light (dark. The adsorption kinetics of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 followed a pseudo-second-order model. The magnitude of acetaldehyde adsorption is proportional to temperature, and the results were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the effect of initial acetaldehyde concentration and visible-light intensity on the photooxidation of acetaldehyde was well described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Results show that the mesoporous N-TiO2 catalyst had a high ability to absorb acetaldehyde in the dark condition, and then acetaldehyde was subsequently photooxidized under visible-light irradiation. The adsorption capacity was found to increase with decreasing temperature. The negative value of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔS° indicate that the adsorption of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 was a spontaneous process. Finally, a reaction scheme for removal process of indoor acetaldehyde by N-TiO2 was proposed.

  13. Effect of Electronegativity and Charge Balance on the Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Nonmetal Doped Anatase TiO2

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    Jibao Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of nonmetal doped anatase TiO2 were investigated in details in this work based on density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate that the electronegativity is of great significance in the band structures, which determines the relative positions of impurity states induced by the doping species, and further influences the optical absorption and photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2. The effect of charge balance on the electronic structure was also discussed, and it was found that the charge-balance structures may be more efficient for visible light photocatalytic activities. In addition, the edge positions of conduction band and valence band, which determine the ability of a semiconductor to transfer photoexcited electrons to species adsorbed on its surface, were predicted as well. The results may provide a reference to further experimental studies.

  14. Visible-light-responsive TiO2-coated ZnO:I nanorod array films with enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Lu, Siqi; Tao, Xia; Che, Yanke; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2015-03-25

    Control of structural and compositional characteristics during fabrication of a versatile visible-light active ZnO-based photocatalyst is a crucial step toward improving photocatalytic pollutant degradation processes. In this work, we report a multifunctional photocatalytic electrode, i.e., TiO2 coated ZnO:I nanorods (ZnO:I/TiO2 NRs) array films, fabricated via a hydrothermal method and a subsequent wet-chemical process. This type of hybrid photocatalytic film not only enhances light absorption with the incorporation of iodine but also possesses increased electron transport capability and excellent chemical stability arising from the unique TiO2-coated 1D structure. Owing to these synergic advantages, the degradation efficiency of the ZnO:I samples reached ∼97% after irradiation for 6 h, an efficiency 62% higher than that of pure ZnO. For RhB photocatalytic degradation experiments in both acidic (pH = 3) and alkaline (pH = 11) solutions, as well as in repeat photodegradation experiments, the ZnO:I/TiO2 NRs films demonstrated high stability and durability under visible-light irradiation. Thus, ZnO:I/TiO2 NRs are considered a promising photocatalytic material to degrade organic pollutants in aqueous eco-environments.

  15. Preparation of visible-light-responsive TiO2-xNx photocatalyst by a sol-gel method: analysis of the active center on TiO2 that reacts with NH3.

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    Kuroda, Yasushige; Mori, Toshinori; Yagi, Kazunori; Makihata, Naoko; Kawahara, Yoichiro; Nagao, Mahiko; Kittaka, Shigeharu

    2005-08-16

    Active reaction centers for ammonia on titanium oxyhydroxide were explored to direct the search for an efficient sol-gel method for the synthesis of a titanium oxynitride (TiO2-xNx) sample with an efficient responsiveness to the visible light constituting a main part of the solar spectrum. The results lead to the conclusion that the site giving IR bands at around 2195 cm(-1) for the adsorbed CO molecules at 300 K is a reactive site and behaves as Lewis acid site in the coordination environment of distorted five-coordinate Ti4+ ions. Ammonia molecules are adsorbed on such a site to form -NH2 and -OH species during the heat treatments at a temperature above 373 K, and they are ultimately incorporated into the TiO2 lattice as nitride through the dehydration at higher temperatures of up to 723 K, resulting in the formation of an anatase type of TiO2-xNx.

  16. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

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    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  17. Recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar energy conversion--from semiconducting TiO2 to MOF/PCP photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Toyao, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu

    2013-08-28

    The present perspective describes recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts intended to develop novel and efficient solar energy conversion technologies, including water splitting and photofuel cells. Water splitting is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to convert solar energy as a clean and abundant energy resource into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. In recent years, increasing concern is directed to not only the development of new photocatalytic materials but also the importance of technologies to produce hydrogen and oxygen separately. Photofuel cells can convert solar energy into electrical energy by decomposing bio-related compounds and livestock waste as fuels. The advances of photocatalysts enabling these solar energy conversion technologies have been going on since the discovery of semiconducting titanium dioxide materials and have extended to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous coordination polymers (MOF/PCP).

  18. Visible light responsive sulfated rare earth doped TiO(2)@fumed SiO(2) composites with mesoporosity: enhanced photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation.

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    Zhan, Changchao; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jintao; Dai, Daoxing; Cao, Xiaohua; Zhong, Mingqiang

    2014-02-28

    Visible light (VL) responsive mesoporous sulfated rare earth ions (Nd(3+), La(3+), Y(3+)) incorporated TiO2@fumed SiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel method with P123 (EO20PO70EO20) as a template. The resultant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (BET), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analyses (TG-DTA). In comparison with nondoped sample, RE-doped samples showed not only an increase in the surface areas and pore volumes, but also an inhibition of titania phase transition from anatase to rutile. Photo-degradation results revealed that RE-doped samples could greatly improve the photocatalytic activity, and the experimental degradation rates of methyl orange (MO) were higher than that catalyzed by undoped samples and Degussa P-25, obeyed the order of Nd(3+)>La(3+)>Y(3+). Nd-doped sample expressed the highest photoactivity and the optimal dosage was 0.25mol%, which resulted in MO degradation rates of 99.8% and 90.05% irradiation under UV for 60min and VL (λ>400nm) for 40h, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the higher specific area, good crystallinity, strong VL absorption and effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EDTA-Reduction of Water to Molecular Hydrogen Catalyzed by Visible-Light-Response TiO2-Based Materials Sensitized by Dawson- and Keggin-Type Rhenium(V-Containing Polyoxotungstates

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    Yusuke Kataoka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a Keggin-type mono-rhenium(V-substituted polyoxotungstate are described. The dimethylammonium salt [Me2NH2]4[PW11ReVO40] was obtained as analytically pure homogeneous black-purple crystals by reacting mono-lacunary Keggin polyoxotungstate with [ReIVCl6]2- in water, followed by crystallization from acetone at ca. 5 °C. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of [PW11ReVO40]4- revealed a monomeric structure with overall Td symmetry. Characterization of [Me2NH2]4[PW11ReVO40] was also accomplished by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, TG/DTA, FTIR, UV-vis, diffuse reflectance (DR UV-vis, and solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, [PW11ReVO40]4- and the Dawson-type dirhenium(V-oxido-bridged polyoxotungstate [O{ReV(OH(α2-P2W17O61}2]14- were supported onto anatase TiO2 surface by the precipitation methods using CsCl and Pt(NH34Cl2. With these materials, hydrogen evolution from water in the presence of EDTA⋅2Na (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt under visible light irradiation (≥400 nm was achieved.

  20. Bactericidal performance of visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst with silver nanostructures.

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    Ming-Show Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Titania dioxide (TiO(2 photocatalyst is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible-light responsive anion-doped TiO(2 photocatalysts contain higher quantum efficiency under sunlight and can be used safely in indoor settings without exposing to biohazardous ultraviolet light. The antibacterial efficiency, however, remains to be further improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using thermal reduction method, here we synthesized silver-nanostructures coated TiO(2 thin films that contain a high visible-light responsive antibacterial property. Among our tested titania substrates including TiO(2, carbon-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (C] and nitrogen-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (N], TiO(2 (N showed the best performance after silver coating. The synergistic antibacterial effect results approximately 5 log reductions of surviving bacteria of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that crystalline silver formed unique wire-like nanostructures on TiO(2 (N substrates, while formed relatively straight and thicker rod-shaped precipitates on the other two titania materials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggested that proper forms of silver on various titania materials could further influence the bactericidal property.

  1. Photocathodic Protection of 304 Stainless Steel by Bi2S3/TiO2 Nanotube Films Under Visible Light.

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    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Wei, Qinyi; Hou, Baorong

    2017-12-01

    We report the preparation of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with a narrow bandgap semiconductor, i.e., Bi2S3, to improve the photocathodic protection property of TiO2 for metals under visible light. Bi2S3/TiO2 nanotube films were successfully synthesized using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology and structure of the composite films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded to analyze the optical absorption property of the composite films. In addition, the influence of Bi2S3 deposition cycles on the photoelectrochemical and photocathodic protection properties of the composite films was also studied. Results revealed that the heterostructure comprised crystalline anatase TiO2 and orthorhombic Bi2S3 and exhibited a high visible light response. The photocurrent density of Bi2S3/TiO2 was significantly higher than that of pure TiO2 under visible light. The sensitization of Bi2S3 enhanced the separation efficiency of the photogenerated charges and photocathodic protection properties of TiO2. The Bi2S3/TiO2 nanotubes prepared by SILAR deposition with 20 cycles exhibited the optimal photogenerated cathodic protection performance on the 304 stainless steel under visible light.

  2. Antibacterial Properties of Visible-Light-Responsive Carbon-Containing Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Nanoparticles against Anthrax

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    Der-Shan Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO2 photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO2 for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2(C NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP, which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO2(C NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive. Here, we evaluated these VLRP NPs in the reduction of anthrax-induced pathogenesis. Bacteria-killing experiments indicated that a significantly higher proportion (40%–60% of all tested Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were considerably eliminated by TiO2(C NPs. Toxin inactivation analysis further suggested that the TiO2(C NPs efficiently detoxify approximately 90% of tested anthrax lethal toxin, a major virulence factor of anthrax. Notably, macrophage clearance experiments further suggested that, even under suboptimal conditions without considerable bacterial killing, the TiO2(C NP-mediated photocatalysis still exhibited antibacterial properties through the reduction of bacterial resistance against macrophage killing. Our results collectively suggested that TiO2(C NP is a conceptually feasible anti-anthrax material, and the relevant technologies described herein may be useful in the development of new strategies against anthrax.

  3. Visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 heterostructured nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengbo Jiao; Tao Chen; Jinyan Xiong; Teng Wang; Gongxuan Lu; Jinhua Ye; Yingpu Bi

    2013-01-01

    Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have become of increasing significance because of their unique highly ordered array structure, high specific surface area, unidirectional charge transfer and transportation features. However, their poor visible light utilization as well as the high recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of visible-light-responsive heterostructured Cr-doped SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotube...

  4. Graphitic C3N4 Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Layers: A Visible Light Activated Efficient Antimicrobial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Gao, Zhi-Da; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a facile procedure to graft a thin graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) layer on aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNT) by one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. This provides a platform to enhance the visible-light response of TiO2 nanotubes for antimicrobial applications. The formed g- C3N4/TiNT binary nanocomposite exhibits excellent bactericidal efficiency against E. coli as a visiblelight activated antibacterial coating.

  5. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

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    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  7. [TiO2-Induced Photodegradation of Levofloxacin by Visible Light and Its Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-sheng; Liu, Ya-nan; Qiao, Qi; Wei, Hong; Dong, Cheng-xing; Xue, Jie; Li, Ke-bin

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin is an emerging pollutant. Single levofloxacin and TiO2 have no visible-light activity. However, photodegradation of levofloxacin dramatically enhanced in the presence of TiO2 under visible light irradiation. Considering this finding, he photodegradation of levofloxacin over TiO2 was investigated under visible light irradiation. Effects of TiO2 dosage, levofloxacin concentration, and solution pH on levofloxacin photodegradation were examined by monitoring its concentration decay with time. The results showed that levofloxacin photodegradation fitted the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. Solution pH, TiO2 dose, and levofloxacin concentration had significant effects on the photodegradation rates. In addition, batch adsorption experiments revealed that adsorption of levofloxacin on TiO2 conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm. DRS spectrum of levofloxacin-adsorbed TiO2 suggested that a surface complex was formed between levofloxacin and TiO2. Addition of radical scavengers and N2-degassing affecting levofloxacin photodegradation indicated that the superoxide ion radical was mainly active species. UV-Vis spectra of a deaerated TiO2 and levofloxacin suspensions further confirmed that the electron injection into TiO2 conduction band took place under visible light irradiation. Based on these results, a charge-transfer mechanism initiated by photoexcitation of TiO2/ levofloxacin surface complex was proposed for levofloxacin photocatalytic degradation over TiO2 under visible light. This study indicates that the charge-transfer-complex-mediated photocatalytic technique has promising applications in the removal of colorless organic pollutants.

  8. Anatase TiO2 sheet-assisted synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 sheet with superior visible-light photocatalytic performance: Roles of anatase TiO2 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zuo, Guoqing; Lu, Xin; Tang, Changqing; Cao, Shuo; Yu, Miao

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of measurements, such as field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence spectra, and photocurrent measurements, the roles of anatase TiO2 sheet on synthesizing Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets (doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A))) and on improving the performance for photocatalytic CO2 reduction were explored systematically. High surface area anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2 (A)) as a substrate, structure directing agent, and inhibitor, mediated the synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets. Addition of TiO2 (A) significantly improved not only visible light absorption of doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)), but also the efficiency of photo-excited charges separations due to the existence of interfacial regions of anatase-rutile TiO2 junctions. Finally, a possible mechanism for interfacial charge transfer at the anatase-rutile TiO2 interface and for photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Pt loaded doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)) were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spiky TiO2/Au nanorod plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hang; Zeng, Shan; He, Qinrong; She, Ping; Xu, Kongliang; Liu, Zhenning

    2017-03-21

    A facile approach for the preparation of spiky TiO2/Au nanorod (NR) plasmonic photocatalysts has been demonstrated, which is through in situ nucleation and growth of spiky TiO2 onto AuNRs. Different aspect ratios of AuNRs in 2.5, 2.7, 4.1 and 4.5 have been applied to prepare spiky TiO2/AuNR nanohybrids to achieve tunable and broad localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands. All spiky TiO2/AuNR nanohybrids exhibit enhanced light harvesting by extending visible light absorption range by both transverse and longitudinal LSPR bands and decreasing light reflectance by their unique spiky structures. Compared to the bare AuNRs, commercial TiO2 (P25) and spiky TiO2/Au nanosphere photocatalysts, the spiky TiO2/AuNR photocatalysts exhibit significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation due to their simultaneous enhancement in the light harvesting, charge utilization efficiency, and substrate accessibility. In particular, the spiky TiO2/AuNR-685 photocatalysts show the best photocatalytic activity with ∼98.9% of the RhB degraded within 90 min under the irradiation of 420-780 nm, which could be ascribed to the most extended visible light absorption range and sufficient photon energy of TiO2/AuNR-685 photocatalysts within this irradiation region. The bio-inspired nanostructure, as well as the facile and scalable fabrication approach, will open a new avenue for the rational design and preparation of high-performance photocatalysts for pollutant removal and water splitting.

  10. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  11. Novel polypyrrole-sensitized hollow TiO2/fly ash cenospheres: Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic ability under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Li, Chuang; Pang, Jianfeng; Qing, Xutang; Zhai, Jianping; Li, Qin

    2012-10-01

    The polypyrrole-sensitized TiO2 layer on fly ash cenosphere (PPy-TiO2/FAC) was successfully prepared as a promising photocatalyst with visible light response. Photocatalytic activity and kinetics of PPy-TiO2/FAC under visible light were detected in details from aspects of different dopant concentration of HCl and different pyrrole (Py)/Ti molar ratio by detecting photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and phenol, respectively. It was found that the decomposition rate increased with the increasing Py/Ti molar ratio up to an optimal value, beyond which the photocatalytic activity showed a decreasing tendency. The concentration of HCl in the preparation of PPy-TiO2/FAC also largely influenced the photodecomposition rate of target contamination. The results demonstrate that when the molar ratio of Py/Ti is 1% and the concentration of HCl is 1 mol L-1, the synthesized photocatalyst showed the best photocatalytic activity under visible light.

  12. Visible-light-Mediated TiO2 photocatalysis of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tias; Miller, Penney L; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2007-07-01

    This study reports on the photocatalytic transformation of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and flumequine) in aqueous titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions irradiated with ultraviolet (UV; lambda > 324 nm) or visible light (lambda > 400, > 420, or > 450 nm). Visible-light-mediated fluoroquinolone degradation is unexpected from direct photolysis or established TiO2 band gap photoexcitation mechanisms, which both require UV light. Visible-light-mediated photocatalysis requires an appropriate conduction band electron acceptor (e.g., O2, BrO3-), but is not dependent upon hydroxyl radical, superoxide, or other reactive oxygen species generated upon TiO2 band gap excitation. The process slows considerably when fluoroquinolone adsorption is inhibited. Whereas fluoroquinolone decomposition in UV-irradiated TiO2 suspensions is accompanied by mineralization, no changes in dissolved organic carbon occur during visible-light-photocatalyzed degradation. Results are consistent with a proposed charge-transfer mechanism initiated by photoexcitation of surface-complexed fluoroquinolone molecules. Complexation to the TiO2 surface causes a red shift in the fluoroquinolone absorption spectrum (via ligand-to-metal charge transfer), enabling photoexcitation by visible light. Fluoroquinolone oxidation then occurs by electron transfer into the TiO2 conduction band, which delivers the electron to an adsorbed electron acceptor. The lack of organic carbon mineralization indicates formation of stable organic byproducts that are resistant to further degradation by visible light. In UV-irradiated TiO2 suspensions, the charge-transfer mechanism acts in parallel with the semiconductor band gap photoexcitation mechanism.

  13. Sulfur/Gadolinium-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Agorku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Laboratory experiments with Indigo Carmine chosen as a model for organic pollutants were used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 under visible-light with varying concentrations of Gd3+ ions in the host material. XRD and Raman results confirmed the existence of anatase phase TiO2 with particle size ranging from 5 to 12 nm. Codoping has exerted a great influence on the optical responses along with red shift in the absorption edge. S/Gd3+-codoped TiO2 showed significant visible-light induced photocatalytic activity towards Indigo Carmine dye compared with S-TiO2 or commercial TiO2. TiO2-S/Gd3+ (0.6% Gd3+ degraded the dye (ka = 5.6 × 10−2 min−1 completely in 50 min.

  14. Visible light Cr(VI) reduction and organic chemical oxidation by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Reddy, Ettireddy P; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G

    2005-08-15

    Here we report the simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) oxidation in water under visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) using commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. This remarkable observation was attributed to a synergistic effect among TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP. It is well known that TiO2 alone cannot remove either 4-CP or Cr(VI) efficiently under visible light. Moreover, the interaction between Cr(VI) and 4-CP is minimal if not negligible. However, we found that the combination of TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP together can enable efficient Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation under visible light. The specific roles of the three ingredients in the synergistic system were studied parametrically. It was found that optimal concentrations of Cr(VI) and TiO2 exist for the Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation. Cr(VI) was compared experimentally with other metals such as Cu(ll), Fe(lll), Mn(IV), Ce(IV), and V(V). Among all these metal ions, only Cr(VI) promotes the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-CP. The amount of 4-CP removed was directly related to the initial concentration of Cr(VI). The system was also tested with four other chemicals (aniline, salicylic acid, formic acid, and diethyl phosphoramidate). We found that the same phenomenon occurred for organics containing acid and/or phenolic groups. Cr(VI) was reduced at the same time as the organic chemicals being oxidized during photoreaction under visible light. The synergistic effect was also found with pure anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. This study demonstrates a possible economical way for environmental cleanup under visible light.

  15. Visible Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified Ti02 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, paul; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The method of photocatalysis utilizing titanium dioxide, TiO2, as the catalyst has been widely studied for trace contaminant control for both air and water applications because of its low energy consumption and use of a regenerable catalyst. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors and are a setback for the technology for space application due to the possibility of Hg contamination. The development of a visible light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst could lead to the use of solar energy in the visible region (approx.45% of the solar spectrum lies in the visible region; > 400 nm) or highly efficient LEDs (with wavelengths > 400 nm) to make PCO approaches more efficient, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts; those that are available still have poor activity in the visible region compared to that in the UV region. Thus, this study was aimed at the further development of VLR catalysts by a new method - coupling of quantum dots (QD) of a narrow band gap semiconductor (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) to the TiO2 by two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications, using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems serve as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of preparation method, type of quantum dots, and dosage of quantum dots.

  16. Plasmonic gold nanocrystals coupled with photonic crystal seamlessly on TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes for efficient visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-09

    A visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material is designed by rationally selecting Au nanocrystals and assembling them with the TiO2-based photonic crystal substrate. The selection of the Au nanocrystals is so that their surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) wavelength matches the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal and thus that the SPR of the Au receives remarkable assistance from the photonic crystal substrate. The design of the composite material is expected to significantly increase the Au SPR intensity and consequently boost the hot electron injection from the Au nanocrystals into the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a considerably enhanced water splitting performance of the material under visible light. A proof-of-concept example is provided by assembling 20 nm Au nanocrystals, with a SPR peak at 556 nm, onto the photonic crystal which is seamlessly connected on TiO2 nanotube array. Under visible light illumination (>420 nm), the designed material produced a photocurrent density of ∼150 μA cm-2, which is the highest value ever reported in any plasmonic Au/TiO2 system under visible light irradiation due to the photonic crystal-assisted SPR. This work contributes to the rational design of the visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material based on wide band gap metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 via band gap manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Ashley Marie

    Hydrogen gas is a clean burning fuel that has potential applications in stationary and mobile power generation and energy storage, but is commercially produced from non-renewable fossil natural gas. Using renewable biomass as the hydrocarbon feed instead could provide sustainable and carbon-neutral hydrogen. We focus on photocatalytic oxidation and reforming of methanol over modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to produce hydrogen gas. Methanol is used as a model for biomass sugars. By using a photocatalyst, we aim to circumvent the high energy cost of carrying out endothermic reactions at commercial scale. TiO2 is a semiconductor metal oxide of particular interest in photocatalysis due to its photoactivity under ultraviolet illumination and its stability under catalytic reaction conditions. However, TiO2 primarily absorbs ultraviolet light, with little absorption of visible light. While an effective band gap for absorbance of photons from visible light is 1.7 eV, TiO2 polymorphs rutile and anatase, have band gaps of 3.03 eV and 3.20 eV respectively, which indicate ultraviolet light. As most of incident solar radiation is visible light, we hypothesize that decreasing the band gap of TiO2 will increase the efficiency of TiO2 as a visible-light active photocatalyst. We propose to modify the band gap of TiO2 by manipulating the catalyst structure and composition via metal nanoparticle deposition and heteroatom doping in order to more efficiently utilize solar radiation. Of the metal-modified Degussa P25 TiO2 samples (P25), the copper and nickel modified samples, 1%Cu/P25 and 1%Ni/P25 yielded the lowest band gap of 3.05 eV each. A difference of 0.22 eV from the unmodified P25. Under visible light illumination 1%Ni/P25 and 1%Pt/P25 had the highest conversion of methanol of 9.9% and 9.6%, respectively.

  18. Hydrothermal Preparation of Visible-Light-Driven N-Br-Codoped TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile hydrothermal method, N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst that had intense absorption in visible region was prepared at low temperature (100°C, through a direct reaction between nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 solution and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the existence of N-Ti-N, O-Ti-N-R, Ti3+ (attribute to the doped Br atoms by charge compensation, and TiOxNy species, indicating the successful codoping of N and Br atoms, which were substituted for lattice oxygen without any influence on the crystalline phase of TiO2. In contrast to the N-doped sample, the N-Br-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst could more readily photodegrade methylene blue (MB under visible-light irradiation. The visible-light catalytic activity of thus-prepared photocatalyst resulted from the synergetic effect of the doped nitrogen and bromine, which not only gave high absorbance in the visible-light range, but also reduced electron-hole recombination rate.

  19. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  20. Mechanistic Study of Visible-Light-Induced Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol by TiO2−xNx with Low Nitrogen Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfeng Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2−x Nx powders with low N-doping concentrations (0.021<<0.049 were prepared by annealing commercial TiO2 (P-25 under an NH3 flow at 550°C. Regardless of UV or visible case, the photoactivities of the samples decreased as x increased, and TiO1.979N0.021 showed the highest activity for the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP decomposition under the visible-light irradiation. The visible-light response for N-doped TiO2 could arise from an N-induced midgap level, formed above the valence band (O 2p. Electron spin resonance (ESR measurements and the radical scavenger technologies gave the combined evidence that the active species (•OH and O2•− are responsible for the photodecomposition of 4-CP over TiO2−xNx under the visible irradiation. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail.

  1. A versatile new method for synthesis and deposition of doped, visible light-activated TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Kean, A.H.; Orlov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates.......A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates....

  2. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-05-01

    Water splitting through photoelectrochemical reaction is widely regarded as a major method to generate H2 , a promising source of renewable energy to deal with the energy crisis faced up to human being. Efficient exploitation of visible light in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination with the short distance for charge carrier diffusion and light-scattering properties. This work is based on TiO2 NTPC electrode by the optimized two-step anodization method from our group. A highly crystalized p-type Cu2O layer was deposited by optimized pulse potentiostatic electrochemical deposition onto TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the visible light absorption of a pure p-type TiO2 substrate and to build a p-n junction at the interface to improve the PEC performance. However, because of the real photocurrent of Cu2O is far away from its theoretical limit and also poor stability in the aqueous environment, a design of rGO medium layer was added between TiO2 nanotube and Cu2O layer to enhance the photogenerated electrons and holes separation, extend charge carrier diffusion length (in comparison with those of conventional pure TiO2 or Cu2O materials) which could significantly increase photocurrent to 0.65 mA/cm2 under visible light illumination (>420 nm) and also largely improve the stability of Cu2O layer, finally lead to an enhancement of water splitting performance.

  3. Visible Light-Responsive Platinum-Containing Titania Nanoparticle-Mediated Photocatalysis Induces Nucleotide Insertion, Deletion and Substitution Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Shan Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional photocatalysts are primarily stimulated using ultraviolet (UV light to elicit reactive oxygen species and have wide applications in environmental and energy fields, including self-cleaning surfaces and sterilization. Because UV illumination is hazardous to humans, visible light-responsive photocatalysts (VLRPs were discovered and are now applied to increase photocatalysis. However, fundamental questions regarding the ability of VLRPs to trigger DNA mutations and the mutation types it elicits remain elusive. Here, through plasmid transformation and β-galactosidase α-complementation analyses, we observed that visible light-responsive platinum-containing titania (TiO2 nanoparticle (NP-mediated photocatalysis considerably reduces the number of Escherichia coli transformants. This suggests that such photocatalytic reactions cause DNA damage. DNA sequencing results demonstrated that the DNA damage comprises three mutation types, namely nucleotide insertion, deletion and substitution; this is the first study to report the types of mutations occurring after photocatalysis by TiO2-VLRPs. Our results may facilitate the development and appropriate use of new-generation TiO2 NPs for biomedical applications.

  4. In situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film: a new way to utilize TiO2 under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Ma, Li-Li; Li, Jia-Lin; Yu, Ying

    2007-09-01

    TiO2/Cu2O composite is prepared by a simple electrochemical method and coated on glass matrix through a spraying method. The obtained composite is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of TiO2/Cu2O composite films with different ratio of TiO2 and Cu2O on photodegradation of the dye methylene blue under visible light is investigated in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film with the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA is much higher than that for the similar system with only TiO2 and Cu2O film respectively. Without the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA, there is no degradation for methylene blue. The exploration of the optimized parameters for the degradation of methylene blue by using TiO2/Cu2O composite film as catalyst under visible light was also carried out. The most significant factor is the amount of Ti02 in the composite, and the second significant factor is the concentration of FeSO4. During the degradation of methylene blue under visible light, TiO2/Cu2O composite film generates H202, and Fenton regent is formed with Fe2+ and EDTA, which is detected in this study. The mechanism for the great improvement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film under visible light is proposed by the valence band theory. Electrons excitated from TiO2/Cu2O composite under visible light are transferred from the conduction band of Cu2O to that of Ti02. The formed intermediate state of Ti 3+ ion is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on the TiO/Cu2O composite film. Additionally, the accumulated electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 are transferred to oxygen on the TiO2 surface for the formation of O2- or O2(2-), which combines with H+ to form H2O2. The evolved H202 with FeSO4 and EDTA forms Fenton reagentto degrade methylene blue. Compared to the traditional Fenton reagent, this new kind of in situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film does not need to

  5. Core-shell structured α-Fe2O3@TiO2 nanocomposites with improved photocatalytic activity in the visible light region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yubing; Yin, Longwei

    2013-11-14

    The core-shell structured Fe2O3@TiO2 nanocomposites prepared via a heteroepitaxial growth route using the Fe2O3 spindle as a hard template display improved photocatalytic degradation activity for Rhodamine B dye under visible light irradiation. The ratio of α-Fe2O3 : TiO2 in the α-Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites can be tuned by etching the α-Fe2O3 core via controlling the concentration of HCl and etching time. An appropriate concentration of the Fe2O3 core could effectively induce a transition of the optical response from the UV to the visible region and decrease the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and the holes of the core-shell structured catalyst, greatly contributing to the enhancement of visible light response and visible light photocatalytic activity of the Fe2O3@TiO2 catalysts. It is revealed that the optical response and photocatalytic performance of the core-shell α-Fe2O3@TiO2 nanocomposites can be tuned by adjusting the molar ratio of Fe2O3 : TiO2 of the α-Fe2O3@TiO2 nanocomposites. The α-Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposite with an optimal molar ratio of 7% for Fe2O3 : TiO2 exhibits the best photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. It is shown that the Fe2O3/TiO2 heterojunction structure is responsible for the efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity. As the concentration of Fe2O3 is high, Fe(3+) ions will act as recombination centres of the photogenerated electrons and holes. The present core-shell Fe2O3@TiO2 nanoparticles displaying enhanced photodegradation activity could find potential applications as photocatalysts for the abatement of various organic pollutants.

  6. Development of Visible Light-Responsive Sensitized Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of studies about the visible-light-promoted photodegradation of the contaminants and energy conversion with sensitized photocatalysts. Herein we studied mechanism, physical properties, and synergism effect of the sensitized photocatalysts as well as the method for enhancing the photosensitized effect. According to the reported studies in the literature, inorganic sensitizers, organic dyes, and coordination metal complexes were very effective sensitizers that were studied mostly, of which organic dyes photosensitization is the most widely studied modified method. Photosensitization is an important way to extend the excitation wavelength to the visible range, and therefore sensitized photocatalysts play an important role in the development of visible light-responsive photocatalysts for future industrialized applications. This paper mainly describes the types, modification, photocatalytic performance, application, and the developments of photosensitization for environmental application.

  7. Photodegradation of toluene over TiO(2-x)N(x) under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokawa, Yoshihiro; Morikawa, Takeshi; Aoki, Koyu; Kosaka, Satoru; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2006-03-07

    We report the photooxidation of toluene over nitrogen doped TiO(2) (TiO(2-x)N(x)) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in air over TiO(2-x)N(x) powders was studied using diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), gas chromatography (GC), ion chromatography (IC), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), focusing on the photocatalytic decomposition processes of toluene. Results obtained indicate that toluene, weakly adsorbed on the catalyst surface, is initially photooxidized to benzaldehyde which adsorbs onto the TiO(2-x)N(x) surface more strongly, leading to the formation of ring-opening products such as carboxylic acids and aldehydes. No gaseous intermediates were detected during the photooxidation. Major intermediates adsorbed at the catalyst surface were oxalic acid, (COOH)(2), acetic acid, CH(3)COOH, formic acid, HCOOH, and pyruvic acid, CH(3)COCOOH, whereas more complicated carboxylic species, including propionic acid, CH(3)CH(2)COOH, isovaleric acid, (CH(3))(2)CHCH(2)COOH, and succinic acid, (CH(2)COOH)(2), were also found in the early stage of the photooxidation. These intermediate products were gradually photodegraded to CO(2) and H(2)O under visible light irradiation.

  8. Coupling of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 to Porous Nanosized LaFeO3 for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Muhammad; Li, Zhijun; Sun, Liqun; Zhang, Xuliang; Raziq, Fazal; Zada, Amir; Qu, Yang; Jing, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have successfully fabricated nanocrystalline anatase TiO2/perovskite-type porous nanosized LaFeO3 (T/P-LFO) nanocomposites using a simple wet chemical method. It is clearly demonstrated by means of atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) responses, photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence spectra related to the formed OH− radical amount that the photogenerated charge carriers in the resultant T/P-LFO nanocomposites with a proper mole ratio percentage of TiO2 display much higher separation in comparison to the P-LFO alone. This is highly responsible for the improved visible-light activities of T/P-LFO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde and liquid-phase phenol. This work will provide a feasible route to synthesize visible-light responsive nano-photocatalysts for efficient solar energy utilization. PMID:28344279

  9. Coupling of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 to Porous Nanosized LaFeO3 for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have successfully fabricated nanocrystalline anatase TiO2/perovskite-type porous nanosized LaFeO3 (T/P-LFO nanocomposites using a simple wet chemical method. It is clearly demonstrated by means of atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS responses, photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence spectra related to the formed OH− radical amount that the photogenerated charge carriers in the resultant T/P-LFO nanocomposites with a proper mole ratio percentage of TiO2 display much higher separation in comparison to the P-LFO alone. This is highly responsible for the improved visible-light activities of T/P-LFO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde and liquid-phase phenol. This work will provide a feasible route to synthesize visible-light responsive nano-photocatalysts for efficient solar energy utilization.

  10. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO(2-x)N(x) derived from the ethylenediamine-based complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Kong, Liang; Alenazey, Feraih Sh; Qian, Yangdong; France, Liam; Xiao, Tiancun; Edwards, Peter P

    2013-06-21

    A facile solvent evaporation induced self-assembly (SEISA) strategy was developed to synthesize mesoporous N-doped anatase TiO2 (SE-meso-TON) using a single organic complex precursor derived in situ from titanium butoxide and ethylenediamine in ethanol solution. After the evaporation of ethanol in a fume hood and subsequent calcinations at 450 °C, the obtained N-doped TiO2 (meso-TON) anatase was of finite crystallite size, developed porosity, large surface area (101 m(2) g(-1)) and extended light absorption in the visible region. This SE-meso-TON also showed superior photocatalytic activity to the SG-meso-TON anatase prepared via sol-gel synthesis. On the basis of characterization results from XRD, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption and ESR, the enhanced visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activity of SE-meso-TON was assigned to its developed mesoporosity and reduced oxygen vacancies.

  11. Study of Visible Light Reactive Photocatalyst TIO2 Prepared with Thiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Endo, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Taisuke; Yamahata, Akiko; Moriga, Toshihiro

    Visible light reactive N-doped TiO2 samples were prepared with thiourea in the sol-gel method. They had the single anatase-type crystal structure. N-doped TiO2 synthesized with thiourea (T-TiO2) had a higher catalytic activity than that synthesized with urea (U-TiO2). The S2p peak observed on the surface of T-TiO2 was assigned to S6+ by XPS measurement. It was estimated that sulfuric acid species exist on the surface of T-TiO2. However, it was concluded that sulfuric acid species do not have the catalytic activity directly, but depress the crystallinity, the decrease of specific surface area and the decrease of visible light absorption.

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes under Visible Light on N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts

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    Olga Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the application of white and blue light emitting diodes (LEDs as sources for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in liquid phase with visible light. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped titanium dioxide, synthesized by direct hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ammonia, was evaluated by means of a batch photoreactor. The bandgap energy of titanium dioxide was moved in the visible range from 3.3 eV to 2.5 eV. The visible light responsive photocatalysts showed remarkably effective activity in decolorization process and in the removal of total organic carbon. Methylene blue was also used as a model dye to study the influence of several parameters such as catalyst weight and initial concentration. The effect of dye on the photocatalytic performance was verified with methyl orange (MO. The results demonstrated that the right selection of operating conditions allows to effectively degrade different dyes with the N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts irradiated with visible light emitted by LEDs.

  13. Photocatalytic Improvement under Visible Light in TiO2 Nanoparticles by Carbon Nanotube Incorporation

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    Mathana Wongaree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles was successfully enhanced by addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT to make CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites by sol-gel method at ambient temperature. CNT treated by HNO3 : H2SO4 treatment (1 : 3 v/v was mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles at various molar ratios and calcination temperatures. The optimal molar ratio of CNT : TiO2 was found at 0.05 : 1 by weight. The optimal calcination condition was 400°C for 3 h. From the results, the photocatalytic activities of CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites were determined by the decolorization of 1 × 10−5 M methylene blue (MB under visible light. CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites could enhance the photocatalytic activity and showed faster for the degradation of MB with only 90 min. The degradation efficiency of the MB solution with CNT/TiO2 nanocomposite achieved 70% which was higher than that with pristine TiO2 (22%. This could be explained that CNT prevents TiO2 from its agglomeration which could further enhance electron transfer in the composites. In addition, CNT/TiO2 nanocomposites had high specific surface area (202 m2/g which is very promising for utilization as a photocatalyst for environmental applications.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites for visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinesh Kumar, R.; Thangappan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2017-02-01

    LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TGA, XRD, HRSEM, EDS, TEM, VSM and UV-Vis techniques. Thermal stability of the material was studied by thermal analysis. XRD studies confirm the orthorhombic and rutile phase for pure LaFeO3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The LaFeO3/TiO2 composite shows the coexistence of LaFeO3 and TiO2 phases with no extra peaks. Morphological analysis shows the spherical nanoparticles and the average particle size of LaFeO3, TiO2 and LaFeO3/TiO2 was around 60 nm. The LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites show a significant shift in the UV-vis absorption spectra in comparison with both TiO2 and LaFeO3 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the samples were tested for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiations for 180 min. The LaFeO3/TiO2 composite exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties in comparison with that of LaFeO3 nanoparticles.

  15. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  16. Polymer dots grafted TiO2 nanohybrids as high performance visible light photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Wang, Feng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zheming; Lei, Ping; Xu, Zhongshan; Li, Zengxi; Ding, Yanfen; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Mingshu

    2018-01-18

    As a new member of carbon dots (CDs), Polymer dots (PDs) prepared by hydrothermal treatment of polymers, usually consist of the carbon core and the connected partially degraded polymer chains. This type of CDs might possess aqueous solubility, non-toxicity, excellent stability against photo-bleaching and high visible light activity. In this research, PDs were prepared by a moderate hydrothermal treatment of polyvinyl alcohol, and PDs grafted TiO2 (PDs-TiO2) nanohybrids with TiOC bonds were prepared by a facile in-situ hydrothermal treatment of PDs and Ti (SO4)2. Under visible light irradiation, the PDs-TiO2 demonstrate excellent photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation, and the photocatalytic rate constant of PDs-TiO2 is 3.6 and 9.5 times higher than that of pure TiO2 and commercial P25, respectively. In addition, the PDs-TiO2 exhibit good recycle stability under UV-Vis light irradiation. The interfacial TiOC bonds and the π-conjugated structures in PDs-TiO2 can act as the pathways to quickly transfer the excited electrons between PDs and TiO2, therefore contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces a mixture of H 2 and O2 (chemical energy) in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. Development of highly efficient photocatalysts is desired. This review addresses why visible light responsive photocatalysts are essential to be developed. The state of the art for the photocatalysts for overall water splitting is briefly described. Moreover, various fundamental aspects for developing efficient photocatalysts, such as particle size of photocatalysts, cocatalysts, and reaction kinetics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.

  18. Sol-Gel to Prepare Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals with Exposed {001} Facets and High Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets was prepared successfully by sol-gel method for the first time. The physicochemical properties of these resultant photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and DRS, and their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue solution under visible light (λ>420 nm irradiation. The results showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets showed higher photocatalytic activity than P25. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to synergistic effects of several factors, such as good crystallinity, better light response characteristic, and high reactivity of {001} facets.

  19. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Formaldehyde and Oxytetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO2 films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and photoluminescence spectra (PL analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure. FE-SEM results indicated that the multi-modified TiO2 film without cracks was composed of smaller round-like nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2. BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of pure TiO2 and the multi-modified TiO2 sample was 47.8 and 115.8 m2/g, respectively. By degradation of formaldehyde and oxytetracycline, experimental results showed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had excellent photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation.

  1. Pt-Decorated g-C3N4/TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Da; Qu, Yong-Fang; Zhou, Xuemei; Wang, Lei; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    Aligned TiO2 nanotube layers (TiNTs) grown by self-organizing anodization of a Ti-substrate in a fluoride-based electrolyte were decorated with graphitic-phase C3N4 (g-C3N4) via a facile chemical vapor deposition approach. In comparison with classical TiO2 nanotubes (anatase), the g-C3N4/TiNTs show an onset of the photocurrent at 2.4 eV (vs. 3.2 eV for anatase) with a considerably high photocurrent magnitude in the visible range. After further decoration with Pt nanoparticles, we obtained a visible-light responsive platform that showed, compared with g-C3N4-free TiNTs, a strong enhancement for photoelectrochemical and bias-free H2 evolution (15.62 μLh(-1) cm(-2)), which was almost a 98-fold increase in the H2 production rate of TiNTs (0.16 μLh(-1) cm(-2)). In a wider context, the g-C3N4-combined 3 D nanoporous/nanotubular structure thus provides a platform with significant visible-light response in photocatalytic applications.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of brookite-rich, visible light-active TiO2 films for water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hui [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We report that mild oxidation of Ti foils in air results in brookite-rich titanium oxide (TiO2) films with similar spectral response to that of dye-sensitized TiO2. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the onset of brookite formation occurs at 500 8C, and the material is characterized by a strong absorption band in the visible spectral range. The first-principle calculations show that enhanced visible light absorption correlates with the presence of Ti interstitials. Photocurrent density measurements of water splitting reveal that the brookite-rich TiO2 exhibits the highest photocatalytic performance among the different forms of TiO2 produced by oxidation of Ti foils. With increasing oxidation temperature transformation to the rutile phase accompanied by declining visible range photoactivity is observed.

  3. Visible-light photocatalytic performances of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by trace derivatives of PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le SHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the visible-light photocatalytic activity and catalysis stability of nanocomposites, a TiO2-based visible-light photocatalyst is prepared by surface-modification of TiO2 nanoparticles using trace conjugated derivatives from polyvinyl alcohol (DPVA via a facile method. The obtained DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared Spectra (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. With Rhodamine B (RhB as a model pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability of DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites are investigated by evaluating the RhB decomposition under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the trace conjugated polymers on the TiO2 surface doesn’t change the crystalline and crystal size of TiO2 nanoparticles, but significantly enhances their visible-light absorbance and visible-light photocatalytic activity. The nanocomposite with the PVA and TiO2 mass ratio of 1∶200 exhibits the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity. The investigated nanocomposites exhibit well visible-light photoctatalytic stability. The photogenerated holes are thought as the main active species for the RhB photodegradation in the presence of the DPVA/TiO2 nanocomposites.

  4. Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for TiO2 Nanomaterials by Codoping with Zinc and Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianzhi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available S/Zn codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology, structure, and optical properties of the prepared samples. The introduction of Zn and S resulted in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive brilliant red X-3B solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed S/Zn codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and commercial P25, due to the photosynergistic effect of obvious visible light absorption, efficient separation of photoinduced charge carriers, and large surface area. Moreover, the content of Zn and S in the composites played important roles in photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based nanomaterials.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite coated polyester fabric under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zoufei; Cheng, Cheng; Tan, Lin; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite was reported using one-step hydrothermal method and then coated on the polyester fabric. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The self-cleaning property of the fabrics was assessed through removing red wine stain. The results reveal that the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composites with irregular shape are coated on the polyester fabric successfully. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a broad absorption band in the visible region, which extends the scope of absorption spectrum and helps to improve the photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite polyester fabric are associated with the content of TiO2. Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric exhibits the degradation efficiency for RhB and MB up to 98% and 95.1%, respectively, which is much higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and TiO2 coated polyester fabric. Moreover, Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good cycle stability toward continuous three cycles of photocatalytic experiment for dyes degradation. In addition, the Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good self-cleaning property. This work could be extended to design of other composite photocatalyst coating on the fabric for enhancing activity by coupling suitable wide and narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  6. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Acephate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation method and then annealed in a N2 atmosphere to obtain N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The samples were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS, and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis spectrum. Degradation of the insecticide acephate under the visible light was used as a model to examine the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The results show that N type doping has no notable effects on the morphology and structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays. After N type doping, the N replaces a small amount of O in TiO2, forming an N–Ti–O structure. This shifts the optical absorption edge and enhances absorption of the visible light. N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays subjected to annealing at 500°C in N2 atmosphere show the strongest photocatalytic activity and reach a degradation rate of 84% within 2 h.

  7. Dye surface coating enables visible light activation of TiO2 nanoparticles leading to degradation of neighboring biological structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatnik, Jay; Luebke, Lanette; Simonet, Stephanie; Nelson, Megan; Price, Race; Leek, Rachael; Zeng, Leyong; Wu, Aiguo; Brown, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Biologically and chemically modified nanoparticles are gaining much attention as a new tool in cancer detection and treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that an alizarin red S (ARS) dye coating on TiO2 nanoparticles enables visible light activation of the nanoparticles leading to degradation of neighboring biological structures through localized production of reactive oxygen species. Successful coating of nanoparticles with dye is demonstrated through sedimentation, spectrophotometry, and gel electrophoresis techniques. Using gel electrophoresis, we demonstrate that visible light activation of dye-TiO2 nanoparticles leads to degradation of plasmid DNA in vitro. Alterations in integrity and distribution of nuclear membrane associated proteins were detected via fluorescence confocal microscopy in HeLa cells exposed to perinuclear localized ARS-TiO2 nanoparticles that were photoactivated with visible light. This study expands upon previous studies that indicated dye coatings on TiO2 nanoparticles can serve to enhance imaging, by clearly showing that dye coatings on TiO2 nanoparticles can also enhance the photoreactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles by allowing visible light activation. The findings of our study suggest a therapeutic application of dye-coated TiO2 nanoparticles in cancer research; however, at the same time they may reveal limitations on the use of dye assisted visualization of TiO2 nanoparticles in live-cell imaging.

  8. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO2/Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO2/Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO2/Ag, TiO2/rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO2/Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO2/Ag, 93% for TiO2/rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  9. Visible light-responsive core-shell structured In₂O₃@CaIn₂O₄ photocatalyst with superior bactericidal properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ku; Sun, Der-Shan; Chan, Hao; Huang, Pai-Tsang; Wu, Wen-Shiang; Lin, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-07-01

    Antibacterial activity of photocatalytic substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible light-responsive photocatalysts were recently discovered, offering greater opportunity to use photocatalysts as disinfectants in our living environment. The development of antibacterial photocatalysts, however, has mainly focused on titanium oxide (TiO(2))-related materials with antibacterial properties not comparable with conventional chemical disinfectants. This study demonstrated that a core-shell structured In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) substrate has superior visible light-induced bactericidal properties, as compared with several commercially available and laboratory-prepared visible light-responsive photocatalysts. The high performance is enhanced by more easily photoexcited electron transfer between the interfaces of In(2)O(3) and CaIn(2)O(4) to minimize the electron-hole recombination during photocatalysis. Additionally, when compared with TiO(2)-based photocatalysts, In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) treatments did not induce significant cell death and tissue damage, implying a superior biocompatibility. These findings suggest that In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) may have potential application in the development of a safer and highly bactericidal photocatalyst. A photocatalytic susbstrate is described that functions in visible light, possesses bactericidal properties and better biocompatibility than the standard TiO(2) based methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. L. Chan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation.

  11. Synthesis of Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: characterization and evaluation of their visible photocatalytic performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Turnes-Palomino, Gemma; Maya-Alejandro, Fernando; Caballero-Quintero, Adolfo; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2017-09-28

    Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Ti-Cr) were synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The Ti-Cr catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zetametry. The anatase mesoporous Ti-Cr material exhibited a specific surface area of 54.5 m2/g. XPS analysis confirmed the proper substitution of Ti4+ cations by Cr3+ cations in the TiO2 matrix. The particle size was of average size of 17 nm for the undoped TiO2 but only 9.5 nm for Ti-Cr. The Cr atoms promoted the formation of hydroxyl radicals and modified the surface adsorptive properties of TiO2 due to the increase in surface acidity of the material. The photocatalytic evaluation demonstrated that the Ti-Cr catalyst completely degraded (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid under visible light irradiation, while undoped TiO2 and P25 allowed 45.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The rate of degradation remained 52% after three cycles of catalyst reuse. The higher visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti-Cr was attributed to the beneficial effect of Cr3+ ions on the TiO2 surface creating defects within the TiO2 crystal lattice, which can act as charge-trapping sites, reducing the electron-hole recombination process.

  12. Visible Light Induced Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Industrial Effluents (Rhodamine B in Aqueous Media Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new textile materials have been developed through the use of nanotechnology-based tools. The development of textile surfaces with self-cleaning properties has a large combined potential to reduce the environmental impact related to pollution. In this research work, three types of textiles substrates (cotton, Entretela, and polylactic acid (PLA were functionalized with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 using chemical and mechanical processes (padding. During the functionalization process, two different methods were used, both of which allowed a good fixation of nanoparticles of TiO2 on textile substrates. The samples were examined for morphology and for photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. A study aimed at evaluating the effect of pH of the aqueous solution of TiO2 nanoparticles was performed in order to promote interaction between TiO2 and the dye solution rhodamine B (Rh-B. The TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The measurement of the zeta potential of the TiO2 nanoparticle solution proved to be always positive and have low colloidal stability. Chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirm that oxalic acid is the intermediate compound formed during the photodegradation process.

  13. Light-Driven Preparation, Microstructure, and Visible-Light Photocatalytic Property of Porous Carbon-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon-doped TiO2 (C-TiO2 has been prepared, for the first time, through a light-driven approach using crystalline titanium glycolate (TG as the single-source precursor. Although the nonthermally prepared porous C-TiO2 is amorphous, it shows a remarkable visible-light photocatalytic activity higher than that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 due to its significant surface area (530 m2/g and pore-rich structure. X-ray photoelectron, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that the as-prepared porous C-TiO2 photocatalyst contains Ti–O–C bonds which result in visible-light absorption of the material at wavelengths less than 550 nm. Furthermore, it is discovered that the Ti–O–C bonds in the as-prepared C-TiO2 is easily transformed to coke-type species under mild thermal treatment (200°C. The resulting coke-containing porous TiO2 is an even better visible-light photocatalyst, almost twice as effective as N-TiO2, because of its stronger visible-light absorption. The Ti–O–C and the coke-containing porous TiO2 materials follow two different mechanisms in the visible-light photocatalysis process for degradation of methylene blue.

  14. Visible Light Triggered Drug Release from TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: A Novel Controllable Antibacterial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Gao, Zhida; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use a double-layered stack of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) to construct a visible-light triggered drug delivery system. Key for visible-light drug release is a hydrophobic cap on the nanotubes containing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs allow for a photocatalytic scission of the hydrophobic chain under visible light. To demonstrate the principle, we loaded antibiotic (ampicillin sodium (AMP)) in the lower part of the TiO2 nanotube stack, triggered visible light induced release, and carried out antibacterial studies. The release from the platform becomes most controllable if the drug is silane-grafted in hydrophilic bottom layer for drug storage. Thus visible-light photocatalysis can also determine the release kinetics of the active drug from the nanotube wall.

  15. Preparation of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Activities under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes (Fe-TNTs have been prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and composition of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the degradation of MO under visible light. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the Fe-TNT showed a red shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible region compared to the pure TNT. The Fe-TNTs were provided with good photocatalytic activities and photostability and under visible light irradiation, and the optimum molar ratio of Ti : Fe was found to be 100 : 1 in our experiments.

  16. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  17. Quick and Facile Preparation of Visible light-Driven TiO2 Photocatalyst with High Absorption and Photocatalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yucheng Yang; Ting Zhang; Ling Le; Xuefeng Ruan; Pengfei Fang; Chunxu Pan; Rui Xiong; Jing Shi; Jianhong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Self-doping TiO2 has recently attracted considerable attention for its high photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. However, the literature reported synthetic methods until now were very time-consuming. In this study, we establish a quick and facile method for obtaining self-doping TiO2 with the use of directly treated commercial P25 at a desired temperature for only 5 min through spark plasma sintering technology. With the using of this method, the modified P25 samples exhib...

  18. Visible active N-doped TiO2/reduced graphene oxide for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinde; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Yue

    2018-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets were successfully prepared by a photoreduction method. The synthesized N-TiO2/rGO composite was characterized by XRD, SERS, XPS, TEM, UV-vis DRS and PL, and its visible-light photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The results showed that N-TiO2/rGO composites exhibited a more enhanced photodegradation activity compared to pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2. Trapping tests indicated that not radOH and h+ but radO2- was chiefly responsible for the photodegradation process. The reusable experiments showed that the prepared N-TiO2/rGO catalyst was stable during the photodegradation of TC.

  19. Silver and Molybdenum Codoped TiO2: Visible Light Active Photocatalyst for Photoelectrochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sahar Ramin; Khan, Matiullah; Yi, Zeng; Wu, Bo; Fawad, U.

    2017-11-01

    To improve the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2, an approach of codoping is introduced to simultaneously tailor the band gap and control the life time of photoexcited electron-hole pairs. Molybdenum doping is used to extend the optical absorption of TiO2 while silver inclusion in the molybdenum-doped TiO2 network improves the separation between the photogenerated carriers leading to improved photodegradation response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the existence of dopant atoms in the bulk lattice and the codoped sample exhibits enhanced photodegradation performance compared to monodoped samples. With less structure modifications and stable structure, the silver molybdenum codoped TiO2 highly improve the wide functionalities of TiO2 in photoelectrochemical applications.

  20. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron-hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  1. Chelated Nitrogen-Sulphur-Codoped TiO2: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanistic, and UV/Visible Photocatalytic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in detail the physicochemical, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of carboxylic acid chelated nitrogen-sulphur-codoped TiO2. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study, it was revealed that the formate group formed bidentate bridging linkage while the acetate group coordinated in a bidentate chelating mode with a titanium precursor. In compliance with X-ray diffraction data, the anatase to rutile transformation temperature was extended due to carboxylic acid chelation and NS codoping. Raman analysis indicated four Raman peaks at 146, 392, 512, and 632 cm−1 for the precalcined chelated TiO2; on incorporation with NS dopants, an increase in Raman intensity for these peaks was recorded, indicating the structure stability of the anatase phase. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed the presence of anionic doping of nitrogen and cationic doping of sulphur in the lattice of TiO2. When evaluating the UV-visible photodegradation rate of 4-chlorophenol, the modified TiO2 (NS0.06-TFA showed the highest photocatalytic activity. In connection with the activity tests, several scavenger agents were employed to elucidate the significance of the different reactive oxidizing species during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, the transfer pathways of photogenerated carriers and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism of modified TiO2 were also explained in detail.

  2. Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Properties of N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays from TiN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs were prepared by annealing the TiN nanorod arrays (NRAs which were deposited by using oblique angle deposition (OAD technique. The TiN NRAs were annealed at 330°C for different times (5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The band gaps of annealed TiN NRAs (i.e., N-doped TiO2 NRAs show a significant variance with annealing time, and can be controlled readily by varying annealing time. All of the N-doped TiO2 NRAs exhibit an enhancement in photocurrent intensity in visible light compared with that of pure TiO2 and TiN, and the one annealed for 15 min shows the maximum photocurrent intensity owning to the optimal N dopant concentration. The results show that the N-doped TiO2 NRAs, of which the band gap can be tuned easily, are a very promising material for application in photocatalysis.

  3. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  4. Synthesis of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles via sonochemical approach for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Sambandam; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Through an ultrasound assisted method, TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. The XRD pattern of as-prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles matches well with that of pure monoclinic WO3 and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM images show that the prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles consist of mixed square and hexagonal shape particles about 8-12nm in diameter. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles was tested for the degradation of a wastewater containing methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination. The TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles exhibits a higher degradation rate constant (6.72×10(-4)s(-1)) than bare TiO2 nanoparticles (1.72×10(-4)s(-1)) under similar experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immobilization of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Chlorella pyrenoidosa Cells for Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles are immobilized on chlorella cells using the hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the prepared chlorella/TiO2 composite are investigated by various methods. The chlorella/TiO2 composite is found to exhibit larger average sizes and higher visible-light intensities. The sensitization of the photosynthesis pigment originating from chlorella cells provides the anatase TiO2 with higher photocatalytic activities under the visible-light irradiation. The latter is linked to the highly efficient charge separation of the electron/hole pairs. The results also suggest that the photocatalytic activity of the composite remains substantial after four cycles, suggesting a good stability.

  6. Investigation of curcumin as sensitizer for anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in photodegradation of of phenazopyridine with visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZYOUD Ahed H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a photodegradation catalyst, for water organic contaminants in visible light, based on curcumin (a natural dye sensitized TiO2 (anatase nanoparticles. Phenazopyridine (a pharmaceutically active gradient was used as a contaminant. A 400 nm, and shorter, cut of filter was used to confirm only visible light was used in photodegradation process with no UV radiation. The catalyst system was characterized by electronic absorption spectroscopy and XRD. The particle size forthe catalyst nanaprticles was calculated using Scherrer equation and found to be ~45 nm in average. Different reaction parameters were studied, such as effect of contaminant concentration, amount of loaded catalyst, and pH value on the photodegradation rate. Turn number (T.N. and quantum yield (Q.Y. values were calculated for comparative assessment of the catalyst effeciency. The results show the ability of curcumin dyes to sensitize TiO2 anatase nanoparticles in photodegradation phenazopyridine under visible radiation.

  7. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for TiO2 Nanotube Array Films by Codoping with Tungsten and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of W, N codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays with different dopant contents were fabricated by anodizing in association with hydrothermal treatment. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible light diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of W and N codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. It was found that N in codoped TNAs exists in the forms of Ti-N-O, while W exists as W6+ by substituting Ti in the lattice of TiO2. In the meantime, W and N codoping successfully extends the absorption of TNAs into the whole visible light region and results in remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to (i increasing number of hydroxyl groups on the surface of TNAs after the hydrothermal treatment, (ii a strong W-N synergistic interaction leads to produce new states, narrow the band gap which decrease the recombination effectively, and then greatly increase the visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity; (iii W ions with changing valences in all codoped samples which are considered to act as trapping sites, effectively decrease the recombination rate of electrons and holes, and improve the photocatalytic activity.

  8. Investigating Visible-Photocatalytic Activity of MoS2/TiO2 Heterostructure Thin Films at Various MoS2 Deposition Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Nguyen Thai Phung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MoS2/TiO2 heterostructure thin films were fabricated by sol-gel and chemical bath deposition methods. Crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical states of all elements, and optical property of the obtained thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of all thin films was evaluated by measuring decomposition rate of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that ultrathin MoS2 film on TiO2-glass substrate improves photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in the visible light due to the efficient absorption of visible photon of MoS2 few layers and the transfer of electrons from MoS2 to TiO2. All MoS2/TiO2 heterostructure thin films exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than that of pure MoS2 and TiO2 counterparts. The best MoS2/TiO2 heterostructure thin film at MoS2 layer deposition time of 45 minutes can decompose about 60% MB solution after 150 minutes under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of the enhancement for visible-photocatalytic activity of MoS2/TiO2 heterostructure thin film was also discussed.

  9. Nitrogen and Fluorine Codoped, Colloidal TiO2Nanoparticle: Tunable Doping, Large Red-Shifted Band Edge, Visible Light Induced Photocatalysis, and Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aritra; Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2018-01-17

    Visible light photocatalysis by TiO 2 requires efficient doping of other elements with red-shifted band edge to the visible region. However, preparation of such TiO 2 with tunable doping is challenging. Here we report a method of making nitrogen (N) and fluorine (F) codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle with tunable doping between 1 and 7 at. %. The preparation of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle involves reaction of colloidal TiO 2 nanorods with an ammonium fluoride-urea mixture at 300 °C, and the extent of N/F doping is tuned by varying the amount of ammonium fluoride-urea and the reaction time. Resultant colloidal N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles show doping dependent shifting of the band edge from the UV to near-IR region, visible light induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and visible light photodegradation of bisphenol A. A colloidal form of doped TiO 2 nanoparticle offers labeling of cells, visible light induced ROS generation inside a cell, and successive cell death. This work shows the potential advantage of anisotropic nanoparticle precursor for tunable doping and colloidal form of N, F codoped TiO 2 nanoparticle as a visible light photocatalyst.

  10. Dendritic α-Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Huiming; Chen, Xiang; Niu, Hao; Liu, Jiuyu; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Fengyu

    2016-04-07

    The design and synthesis of unique novel heterostructures for high-performance photocatalytic activity has exerted a tremendous fascination and has recently attracted intensive attention. In this work, a branch-like α-Fe2O3/TiO2 heterostructure has been synthesized controllably through an electrospinning method combined with a hydrothermal approach. The backbone of the heterostructure is composed of a 3D porous TiO2 nanofiber (∼70 nm in diameter) network with plenty of α-Fe2O3 nanorods (100-200 nm in length) deposited on them. The novel branch-like nanocomposites have an abundantly porous structure as well as large surface areas (up to 42.8 m(2) g(-1)). In addition, their visible light photodegradation behaviour towards organic dyes, including Congo red (CR), methylene blue (MB), eosin red (ER) and methyl orange (MO), was investigated. Their excellent photocatalytic performances are attributed to their large surfaces, improved visible light absorption and high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons/holes. Furthermore, the degradation process was further studied by varying the amount of α-Fe2O3 deposited. The sample α-Fe2O3/TiO2-3 possessed the best performance to efficiently decolor CR solution even at a high concentration of 50 mg L(-1) (160 min, 94 mg g(-1)), ascribed to the high adsorption capacity derived from the large surface, strong electrostatic interaction and structural match between α-Fe2O3/TiO2-3 and CR. These α-Fe2O3/TiO2 heterostructures exhibit great potential for decontamination of organic pollutants in waste water under visible light.

  11. Preparation of Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/sepiolite and its photocatalytic mechanism under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaomin; Zhu, Dinglong; Zhu, Jinglin; Yang, Qing; Wu, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    A cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/sepiolite (denoted Ag@AgCl-TiO2/sepiolite) was successfully synthesized via a novel method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were performed to determine the structure and physicochemical properties of Ag@AgCl-TiO2/sepiolite. SEM micrographs revealed that Ag@AgCl nanoparticles and TiO2 film are well deposited on the surface of tube-like sepiolite. As a result, Ag@AgCl-TiO2/sepiolite exhibits a red shift relative to TiO2/sepiolite. Photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the dosage of catalysts plays an important role during photocatalysis. The photoelectrochemical activities of Ag@AgCl-TiO2/sepiolite and TiO2/sepiolite were also investigated. Photocurrent responses confirmed that the ability of Ag@AgCl-TiO2/sepiolite to separate photo-generated electron-hole pairs is stronger than that of TiO2/sepiolite. Methylene Blue degradation is also improved under alkaline conditions and visible light irradiation because more OH is produced by visible light excitation. This excellent catalytic ability is mainly attributed to the formed Ag nanoparticles and the Schottky barrier at the Ag/TiO2 interface. Active species analysis indicated that O2- and h+ are implicated as active species in photocatalysis. Therefore, catalysts are excited to produce abundant electron-hole pairs after they absorb photons in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on carbon nanotubes for enhanced visible-light photo-induced activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ashkarran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CNT–TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared through (i simple mixing of as prepared CNTs and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, (ii simple mixing of as prepared CNTs and TiO2 NPs followed by heat treatment and (iii simple mixing of as prepared CNTs and TiO2 NPs followed by UV illumination. The synthesis of CNTs and TiO2 NPs were performed individually by arc discharge in water and sol–gel methods, respectively and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultra violet and visible spectroscopy (UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The visible-light photocatalytic performance of CNT–TiO2 nanocomposites was successfully demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B as a model dye at room temperature. It is found that CNT–TiO2 nanocomposites extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region and considerably improved the photocatalytic efficiency under visible-light irradiation. The visible-light photocatalytic activities of CNT–TiO2 nanocomposites in which CNTs are produced by arc discharge in deionized (DI water at 40, 60 and 80 A arc currents and combined through three different protocols are also investigated. It was found that samples prepared at 80 A arc current and 5 s arc duration followed by UV illumination revealed best photocatalytic activity compared with the same samples prepared under simple mixing and simple mixing followed by heat treatment. The enhancement in the photocatalytic property of CNT–TiO2 nanocomposites prepared at 80 A arc current followed by UV illumination may be ascribed to the quality of CNTs produced at this current, as was reported before.

  13. A Comparison Study of New TiO2/PEG Immobilized Techniques Under Normal and Visible Light Irradiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharudin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel photocatalysts of TiO2 and TiO2/PEG were immobilized using new technique which is double sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a thin layer binder onto glass plate. The photocatalytic activity study of immobilized/TiO2 and immobilized/TiO2/PEG were carried out by irradiating of 36 mg L-1 MB dye in the presence of normal and visible light with rate of decolourization was estimated from aliquot concentration spectrophotometrically. The high photocatalytic activity from immobilized/TiO2/PEG was observed with the rate constants of ca 0.06 and 0.02 min-1 under normal and visible light irradiation respectively. An active photocatalytic activity was observed for immobilized/TiO2/PEG sample while no photocatalytic activity detected under immobilized/TiO2. The high photoactivity was also detected under normal light for immobilized/TiO2/PEG sample. This might be due to the presence of electron conjugate in PEG that acted as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Moreover, this electron donor is reported to be able to become active under low energy visible light hence the immobilized/TiO2/PEG can perfomed its photoactivity under visible light irradiation.

  14. Visible photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activities of TiO2 nanobelts modified by In2O3 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongru; Tian, Jian; Bo, Yanyan; Zhou, Yanli; Wang, Xinzhen; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-02-01

    Novel In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance were successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. Well-dispersed In2O3 nanoparticles with small sizes are uniformly attached on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts to form In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures. The TiO2 nanobelts as backbones restrict the aggregation of In2O3 nanoparticles, resulting in the formation of smaller In2O3 nanoparticles with more interaction sites for pollutants. The visible photocatalytic activity of as-prepared heterostructures for degradation of methyl blue (MB) is higher than those of TiO2 nanobelts and In2O3 nanoparticles alone. Moreover, the In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure shows an enhanced PEC performance under irradiation of visible light. The enhanced photocatalytic and PEC activities are mainly ascribed to the synergic effect of efficient charge separation of heterostructure, visible-light harvesting ability of In2O3, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites by the small size of In2O3 nanoparticles. Finally, based on the experimental results of Mott-Schottky, UV-vis DRS, photocurrent and open-circuit voltage response, a possible photocatalytic mechanism over the In2O3 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-N-S-tri-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by one step in the presence of ammonium ferrous sulfate. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-Vis DRS. XPS analysis indicated that Fe (III and S6+ were incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting titanium atoms, and N might coexist in the forms of substitutional N (O-Ti-N and interstitial N (Ti-O-N in tridoped TiO2. XRD results showed that tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and growth of crystallite size. DRS results revealed that the light absorbance edge of TiO2 in visible region was greatly improved by tri-doping with Fe, N, and S elements. Further, the photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated by the degradation of phenol under visible light irradiation. It was found that Fe-N-S-tri-doped TiO2 catalyst exhibited higher visible light photocatalytic activity than that of pure TiO2 and P25 TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the small crystallite size, intense light absorbance in visible region, and narrow bandgap energy.

  16. Wavelength-sensitive photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspension over iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Li, J-G; Kamiyama, H; Moriyoshi, Y; Ishigaki, T

    2006-04-06

    Well-crystallized iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders with controlled Fe3+ doping concentration and uniform dopant distribution, have been synthesized with plasma oxidative pyrolysis. The photocatalytic reactivity of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders with a mean particle size of 50-70 nm was quantified in terms of the degradation rates of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous TiO2 suspension under UV (mainly 365 and 316 nm) and visible light irradiation (mainly 405 and 436 nm). The photodecomposition of MO over TiO2 nanopowders followed a distinct two-stage pseudo first order kinetics. Interestingly, the photocatalytic reactivity depends not only on the iron doping concentration but also on the wavelength of the irradiating light. Under UV irradiation, nominally undoped TiO2 had much higher reactivity than Fe3+ -doped TiO2, suggesting that Fe3+ doping (> 0.05 at. %) in TiO2 with a mean particle size of approximately 60 nm was detrimental to the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange. Whereas, under visible light irradiation, the Fe3+ -doped TiO2 with an intermediate iron doping concentration of approximately 1 at. % had the highest photocatalytic reactivity due to the narrowing of band gap so that it could effectively absorb the light with longer wavelength. A strategy for improving the photocatalytic reactivity of Fe3+ -doped TiO2 used in the visible light region is also proposed.

  17. Charge transfer between biogenic jarosite derived Fe3+and TiO2 enhances visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahabubur; Shoko, Sipiwe; Cummings, Fransciuos; Fester, Veruscha; Ojumu, Tunde Victor

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we have shown that mining waste derived Fe3+ can be used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This will allow us to harness a waste product from the mines, and utilize it to enhance TiO2 photocatalytic waste water treatment efficiency. An organic linker mediated route was utilized to create a composite of TiO2 and biogenic jarosite. Evidence of FeOTi bonding in the TiO2/jarosite composite was apparent from the FTIR, EFTEM, EELS and ELNEFS analysis. The as prepared material showed enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2, biogenic jarosite and mechanically mixed sample of jarosite and TiO2 under both simulated and natural solar irradiation. The prepared material can reduce the electrical energy consumption by 4 times compared to pristine P25 for degradation of organic pollutant in water. The material also showed good recyclability. Results obtained from sedimentation experiments showed that the larger sized jarosite material provided the surface to TiO2 nanoparticles, which increases the settling rate of the materials. This allowed simple and efficient recovery of the catalyst from the reaction system after completion of photocatalysis. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite material was due to effective charge transfer between TiO2 and jarosite derived Fe3+ as was shown from the EELS and ELNEFS. Generation of OH was supported by photoluminesence (PL) experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A novel visible light responsive nanosystem for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carmona, M; Lozano, D; Baeza, A; Colilla, M; Vallet-Regí, M

    2017-10-26

    A novel singlet-oxygen sensitive drug delivery nanocarrier able to release its cargo after exposure to visible (Vis) light from a common lamp is presented. This nanodevice is based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) decorated with porphyrin-caps grafted via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-cleavable linkages. In the presence of Vis light porphyrin-nanocaps produce singlet oxygen molecules that break the sensitive-linker, which triggers pore uncapping and therefore allows the release of the entrapped cargo (topotecan, TOP). This new system takes advantage of the non-toxicity and greater penetration capacity of Vis radiation and a double antitumor effect due to the drug release and the ROS production. In vitro tests with HOS osteosarcoma cancer cells reveal that TOP is able to be released in a controlled fashion inside the tumor cells. This research work constitutes a proof of concept that opens up promising expectations in the search for new alternatives for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Photocatalytic removal of gaseous nitrogen oxides using WO3/TiO2 particles under visible light irradiation: Effect of surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joseph Albert; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-09-01

    Photocatalytic nanoparticles have been receiving considerable attention for their potential use in many environmental management applications, including urban air quality control. This paper investigates the performance of surface modified WO3/TiO2 composite particles in removing gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) under visible light irradiation. The WO3/TiO2 composite particles were synthesized using a modified wet chemical method with different concentrations of NaOH solution used as a surface modification agent for the host TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the WO3/TiO2 particles was evaluated using a lab-scale continuous gas flow photo-reactor with a gas contact time of 1 min. Results showed that surface modification using NaOH can enhance the photocatalytic activity of the WO3/TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the surface modified WO3/TiO2 was greater than 90%, while that of WO3/TiO2 particles prepared by the conventional wet chemical method was ∼75%. The enhanced removal efficiency might be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface, providing sites for WO3 particles to effectively bind with TiO2. However, excess amount of NaOH >3 M deteriorated the photocatalytic performance due to the increased agglomeration of the host TiO2 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of Reduced Grapheme Oxide as A Platform for loading β-NaYF4:Ho3+@TiO2Based on An Advanced Visible Light-Driven Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zihong; Wu, Tianhui; Xu, Xuan

    2017-10-23

    In this paper a novel visible light-driven ternary compound photocatalyst (β-NaYF 4 :Ho 3+ @TiO 2 -rGO) was synthesized using a three-step approach. This photocatalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometries, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, electron spin resonance, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical properties. Such proposed photocatalyst can absorb 450 nm visible light while emit 290 nm ultraviolet light, so as to realize the visible light-driven photocatalysis of TiO 2 . In addition, as this tenary compound photocatalyst enjoys effecitve capacity of charge separation, superior durability, and sound adsorb ability of RhB, it can lead to the red shift of wavelength of absorbed light. This novel tenary photocatalyst can reach decomposition rate of RhB as high as 92% after 10 h of irradiation by visible-light Xe lamp. Compared with the blank experiment, the efficiency was significantly improved. Recycle experiments showed that theβ-NaYF 4 :Ho 3+ @TiO 2 -rGOcomposites still presented significant photocatalytic activity after four successive cycles. Finally, we investigated visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of the β-NaYF 4 :Ho 3+ @TiO 2 -rGO composites. It is of great significance to design an effective solar light-driven photocatalysis in promoting environmental protection.

  1. Cationic (V, Y)-codoped TiO2 with enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Matiullah; Cao, Wenbin

    2013-11-01

    To employ TiO2 as an efficient photocatalyst, high reactivity under visible light and improved separation of photoexcited carriers are required. An effective co-doping approach is applied to modify the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 by doping vanadium (transition metal) and yttrium (rare earth element). V and/or Y codoped TiO2 was prepared using hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Based on density functional theory, compensated and noncompensated V, Y codoped TiO2 models were constructed and their structural, electronic, and optical properties were calculated. Through combined experimental characterization and theoretical modeling, V, Y codoped TiO2 exhibited high absorption coefficient with enhanced visible light absorption. All the prepared samples showed pure anatase phase and spherical morphology with uniform particle distribution. Electronic band structure demonstrates that V, Y codoping drastically reduced the band gap of TiO2. It is found that both the doped V and Y exist in the form of substitutional point defects replacing Ti atom in the lattice. The photocatalytic activity, evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange, displays that the codoped TiO2 sample exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The synergistic effects of V and Y drastically improved the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, visible light absorption, and electron-hole pair's separation leading to the enhanced visible light catalytic activity.

  2. Preparation of TiO2/Ag binary nanocomposite as high-activity visible-light-driven photocatalyst via graft polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Park, Jung; Soo Lee, Chang; Hun Park, Cheol; Hak Kim, Jong

    2017-10-01

    We report the synthesis of a TiO2/Ag binary nanocomposite with high activity for visible-light-driven photocatalysts using graft copolymerization: (1) conversion of terminal OH groups on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles to Cl groups, (2) graft polymerization from TiO2-Cl via ATRP with ionically charged poly(styrene sulfonic acid), (3) ion exchange process with an AgNO3 solution following sintering. TiO2/Ag binary nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light illumination. The improved photocatalytic performance of the TiO2/Ag binary nanocomposite was due to the plasmonic effect, recombination rate of electron-hole pairs that was suppressed by Ag nanoparticles.

  3. A bifunctionalized dye-sensitized TiO(2) film for efficient degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quanping; Zhao, Jun; Qin, Guohui; Wang, Xuezheng; Tong, Xinli; Xue, Song

    2012-01-01

    A new bifunctionalized TiO(2) film containing a dye-sensitized region and a degradation region was described. A similar structure of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated in the dye-sensitized region to accomplish separation of electrons from positive charges, and separation of dye from pollutants to avoid dye decomposition. The bifunctionalized TiO(2) film electrode and anode electrode can degrade methyl orange (MO) in reactors A and B, respectively. The degradation efficiency was enhanced remarkably by an external electrical potential. The decolorization of MO reaches as high as 95% after 2 h visible light irradiation at an external potential of 0.5 V along with a loss of 41% total organic carbon (TOC). The possible reason for the improvement of degradation by external DC potential was discussed. Effects of pH and inorganic salts on the decolorization are present.

  4. Visible-light-induced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) with coupled Bi2O3/TiO2 photocatalyst and the synergistic bisphenol A oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2013-04-01

    Coupled Bi2O3/TiO2 photocatalysts were fabricated by sol-gel and hydrothermal methods and characterized using various spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution, together with the synergistic effect of photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), was investigated using these coupled Bi2O3/TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Coupling of Bi2O3 inhibited the phase transformation from anatase to rutile and extended absorption region to visible light. Bi ions did not enter TiO2 lattice and were more likely to bond with oxygen atoms to form Bi2O3 on the surface of TiO2. Photovoltage signals in visible range revealed the effective interfacial charge transfer between Bi2O3 and TiO2. Two percent Bi2O3/TiO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of visible-light-induced reduction of Cr(VI). The addition of BPA effectively increased the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI). Simultaneously, the presence of Cr(VI) promoted the degradation of BPA, which was demonstrated by the investigation of TOC removal yield and generated intermediates. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of BPA in Bi2O3/TiO2 system was proposed. The synergistic effect, observed between reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of BPA, provides beneficial method for environmental remediation and purification of the complex wastewater.

  5. Quick and facile preparation of visible light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst with high absorption and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yucheng; Zhang, Ting; Le, Ling; Ruan, Xuefeng; Fang, Pengfei; Pan, Chunxu; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Wei, Jianhong

    2014-11-13

    Self-doping TiO2 has recently attracted considerable attention for its high photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. However, the literature reported synthetic methods until now were very time-consuming. In this study, we establish a quick and facile method for obtaining self-doping TiO2 with the use of directly treated commercial P25 at a desired temperature for only 5 min through spark plasma sintering technology. With the using of this method, the modified P25 samples exhibit significantly high photoelectric and photocatalytic performance. Furthermore, the sample prepared at 600 °C exhibits the optimum catalytic activity. The photodegradation and H2 evolution rates of this samples are significantly higher than those of unmodified P25 sample under visible-light irradiation. The physical origin of the visible-light absorption for the modified P25 samples is investigated in detail according to their structural, optical, and electronic properties. This work will provide a quick and facile method for the large-scale synthesis of visible-light driven photocatalyst for practical applications.

  6. Facile synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiekun; Fu, Fang; Yu, Dongsheng; Cao, Jianliang; Sun, Guang

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafine anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals modified with carbon (denoted as N-doped TiO2/C) were successfully prepared via a facile and low-cost approach, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia and urea as starting materials. The phase composition, surface chemical composition, morphological structure, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts were well characterized and analyzed. On the basis of Raman spectral characterization combining with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it could be concluded that N dopant ions were successfully introduced into TiO2 crystal lattice and carbon species were modified on the surface or between the nanoparticles to form N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites. Compared with that of bare TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites were found to have an evident red-shift toward visible light region, implying that the bandgap of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites is narrowed and the visible light absorption capacity is significantly enhanced due to N doping and carbon modification. The photoactivity of the as-prepared photocatalytsts was tested by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm), and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites exhibited much higher photodegradation rate than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced light harvesting, augmented catalytic active sites and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  7. TiO2 Films Modified with Au Nanoclusters as Self-Cleaning Surfaces under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we applied cluster beam deposition (CBD as a new approach for fabricating efficient plasmon-based photocatalytic materials. Au nanoclusters (AuNCs produced in the gas phase were deposited on TiO2 P25-coated silicon wafers with coverage ranging from 2 to 8 atomic monolayer (ML equivalents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images of the AuNCs modified TiO2 P25 films show that the surface is uniformly covered by the AuNCs that remain isolated at low coverage (2 ML, 4 ML and aggregate at higher coverage (8 ML. A clear relationship between AuNCs coverage and photocatalytic activity towards stearic acid photo-oxidation was measured, both under ultraviolet and green light illumination. TiO2 P25 covered with 4 ML AuNCs showed the best stearic acid photo-oxidation performance under green light illumination (Formal Quantum Efficiency 1.6 × 10−6 over a period of 93 h. These results demonstrate the large potential of gas-phase AuNCs beam deposition technology for the fabrication of visible light active plasmonic photocatalysts.

  8. Visible light-harvesting of TiO2 nanotubes array by pulsed laser deposited CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelajac, Andjelika; Djokic, Veljko; Petrovic, Rada; Socol, Gabiel; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Florea, Ileana; Ersen, Ovidiu; Janackovic, Djordje

    2014-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes arrays, obtained by anodization technique and annealing, were decorated with CdS using pulsed laser deposition method. Their structural, morphological and chemical characterization was carried out by electron microscopy in scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) modes, combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was demonstrated that the quantity of deposited CdS can be controlled by varying the number of laser pulses. The chemical mapping of the elements of interest was performed using the energy filtered mode of the electron microscope. The results showed that pulse laser deposition is an adequate technique for deposition of CdS inside and between 100 nm wide TiO2 nanotubes. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy investigation of selected samples proved that the absorption edge of the prepared CdS/TiO2 nanocomposites is significantly extended to the visible range. The corresponding band gaps were determinated from the Tauc plot of transformed Kubelka-Munk function. The band gap reduction of TiO2 nanotubes by pulsed laser deposition of CdS was put in evidence.

  9. Fabrication of ZnFe2O4/TiO2 nanotube array composite to harness the augmented photocurrent density under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Shah, Mohammad Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 micro crystals were deposited over electrochemically anodized TiO2 nanotube array using cathodic electrode deposition method. TiO2 nanotubes owing to their morphological advantage significantly harness the UV region of solar spectrum. However, the optical response of TiO2 nanotube array in visible region is quite negligible due to large band gap. Bare TiO2 nanotubes show a photocurrent density of 0.18 mAcm-2 on exposing TiO2 nanotube electrode to visible light source. However, on mounting ZnFe2O4 over TiO2 nanotubes, the photocurrent density reaches to 0.52 mAcm-2, which is 3 times the photocurrent density shown by bare TiO2 nanotubes under similar conditions. The appreciable enhancement in photocurrent density is attributed to effective visible light active band gap in the resulting hybrid electrode. Moreover, the suitable band edge positions in individual semiconductors facilitate the smooth charge transfer in the resulting hybrid structure on account of band bending at their interface thereby reduces the recombination rate and charge transfer resistance considerably.

  10. Improving Visible Light-Absorptivity and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of a TiO2 Nanotube Anode Film by Sensitization with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglei Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel visible light-active TiO2 nanotube anode film by sensitization with Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The uniform incorporation of Bi2O3 contributes to largely enhancing the solar light absorption and photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes. Due to the energy level difference between Bi2O3 and TiO2, the built-in electric field is suggested to be formed in the Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 hybrid, which effectively separates the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and hence improves the photocatalytic activity. It is also found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 nanotubes is not in direct proportion with the content of the sensitizer, Bi2O3, which should be carefully controlled to realize excellent photoelectrical properties. With a narrower energy band gap relative to TiO2, the sensitizer Bi2O3 can efficiently harvest the solar energy to generate electrons and holes, while TiO2 collects and transports the charge carriers. The new-type visible light-sensitive photocatalyst presented in this paper will shed light on sensitizing many other wide-band-gap semiconductors for improving solar photocatalysis, and on understanding the visible light-driven photocatalysis through narrow-band-gap semiconductor coupling.

  11. Improving Visible Light-Absorptivity and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of a TiO2 Nanotube Anode Film by Sensitization with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Menglei; Hu, Huawen; Zhang, Yuyuan; Chen, Dongchu; Wu, Liangpeng; Li, Xinjun

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a novel visible light-active TiO2 nanotube anode film by sensitization with Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The uniform incorporation of Bi2O3 contributes to largely enhancing the solar light absorption and photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes. Due to the energy level difference between Bi2O3 and TiO2, the built-in electric field is suggested to be formed in the Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 hybrid, which effectively separates the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and hence improves the photocatalytic activity. It is also found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 nanotubes is not in direct proportion with the content of the sensitizer, Bi2O3, which should be carefully controlled to realize excellent photoelectrical properties. With a narrower energy band gap relative to TiO2, the sensitizer Bi2O3 can efficiently harvest the solar energy to generate electrons and holes, while TiO2 collects and transports the charge carriers. The new-type visible light-sensitive photocatalyst presented in this paper will shed light on sensitizing many other wide-band-gap semiconductors for improving solar photocatalysis, and on understanding the visible light-driven photocatalysis through narrow-band-gap semiconductor coupling. PMID:28486406

  12. Fabrication of Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites and their applications to the degradation of pollutants in air and water under visible-light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ashok Kumar; Hossain, Md Emran; Rhaman, Md Masudur; Sobahan, K M A

    2014-02-01

    A nanoheterojunction composite photocatalyst Bi2O3/TiO2 working under visible-light (lambda > or = 420 nm) was prepared by combining two semiconductors Bi2O3 and TiO2 varying the Bi2O3/TiO2 molar ratio. Maleic acid was employed as an organic binder to unite Bi2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The SEM, TEM, XRD and diffuse reflectance spectra were utilized to characterize the prepared Bi2O3/TiO2 nanoheterojunction. The nanocomposite exhibited unusual high photocatalytic activity in decomposing 2-propanol in gas phase and phenol in aqueous phase and, evolution of CO2 under visible light irradiation while the end members exhibited low photocatalytic activity. The composite was optimized to 5 mol% Bi2O3/TiO2. The remarkable high photocatalytic efficiency originates from the unique relative energy band position of Bi2O3 and TiO2 as well as the absorption of visible light by Bi2O3.

  13. Feasibility of Silver Doped TiO2/Glass Fiber Photocatalyst under Visible Irradiation as an Indoor Air Germicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Dong Pham

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph, the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU∙s−1∙cm−2 respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5% or higher (80% ± 5% levels.

  14. Visible light assisted photodecolorization of eosin-Y in aqueous solution using hesperidin modified TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, K.; Suganthi, A.; Rajarajan, M.; Sakthivadivel, R.

    2012-03-01

    Hesperidin a flavanoid, modified TiO2 nanoparticles (Hes-TiO2) was synthesized to improve the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of TiO2. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS), FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of Hes-TiO2 was investigated based on the decolorization of eosin-Y under visible light irradiation. Hes-TiO2 showed high efficiency for the decolorization of eosin-Y. The influences of various reaction parameters like effect of pH, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration on the photocatalytic efficiency were investigated. The adsorption of eosin-Y on Hes-TiO2 was found favorable by the Langmuir approach. The removal percentage of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined to evaluate the mineralization of eosin-Y during photodecolorization. Based on the intermediates obtained in the GC-MS spectroscopic technique, a probable degradation mechanism has been proposed.

  15. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation

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    Jagath Retchahan Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst with Ce:Ti molar ratio of 1:9 was synthesized via co-precipitation method in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium octylsulfate, [EMIM][OctSO4] (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The ionic liquid acts as a templating agent for particle growth. The CeO2-TiO2 and TiO2 photocatalysts were also synthesized without any ionic liquid for comparison. Calcination was conducted on the as-synthesized materials at 400˚C for 2 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-Vis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and surface area and pore size analyzer (SAP. The presence of CeO2 has changed the optical property of TiO2. It has extended the absorption edge of TiO2 from UV to visible region. The calculated band gap energy decreased from 2.82 eV (TiO2 to 2.30 eV (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The FESEM morphology showed that samples forms aggregates and the surface smoothens when ionic liquid was added. The average crystallite size of TiO2, CeO2-TiO2, and CeO2-TiO2-IL were 20.8 nm, 5.5 nm, and 4 nm. In terms of performance, photodegradation of 1000 ppm of diisopropanolamine (DIPA was conducted in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and visible light irradiation which was provided by a 500 W halogen lamp. The best performance was displayed by CeO2-TiO2-IL calcined at 400˚C. It was able to remove 82.0% DIPA and 54.8% COD after 6 h reaction.  Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 22nd October 2017; Accepted: 29th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Sivalingam, J.R., Kait, C.F., Wilfred, C.D. (2018. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 170-178 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1396.170-178

  16. The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen Dopant and Calcination Temperature on the Visible-Light-Induced Photoactivity of N-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nitrogen content and calcinations temperature on the N-doped TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The phase and structure, chemical state, optical properties, and surface area/pore distribution of N-doped TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area. Finding showed that the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was greatly enhanced compared to pure TiO2 under visible irradiation. N dopants could retard the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. Namely, N-doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The results showed nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO2 lattice. Ethylene was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible-light illumination. The results suggested good anatase crystallization, smaller particle size, and larger surface are beneficial for photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared with ammonia to titanium isopropoxide molar ratio of 2.0 and calcinated at 400°C showed the best photocatalytic ability.

  17. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-modified TiO2 for degradation of methyl orange under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desong; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Qingzhi; Li, Xueyan; Duan, Yandong; An, Jing

    2009-09-30

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization with anhydrous FeCl(3) as oxidant, 3-hexylthiophene as monomer, chloroform as solvent. TiO(2) nanoparticles modified by a small amount of P3HT (TiO(2)/P3HT) were prepared by blending TiO(2) nanoparticles and P3HT in chloroform solution. The resulting photocatalysts were characterized by the methods of TEM, XRD, FT-IR, XPS and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscope. The photocatalytic activity of TiO(2)/P3HT was investigated by degrading methyl orange under visible light. The degradation rate of methyl orange was 88.5 and 13.5% when it was degradated by TiO(2)/P3HT and neat TiO(2)(P-25) for 10h, respectively. In addition, TiO(2)/P3HT nanocomposites showed excellent photocatalytic stability after 10 cycles under visible light irradiation. A possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative degradation was also discussed.

  18. Design of Composite Photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-Zeolite for Degradation of 2-Propanol in the Gas Phase under UV and Visible Light Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the ...

  19. High photoactive and visible-light responsive graphene/titanate nanotubes photocatalysts: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian, Zhai; Tang, Bo; Guoxin, Hu

    2011-12-30

    A series of graphene/titanate nanotubes (TNTs) photocatalysts using graphene and nanoscale TiO(2) or P25 as original materials were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Both low hydrothermal temperature and proper amount of graphene are propitious to better photoactivity. The photocatalytic activities of these nanocomposites far exceed that of P25, pure TNTs and reported TiO(2)-based nanocomposites for the degradation of Rhodamine-B under visible-light irradiation. These prepared photocatalysts were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET, FTIR and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and the results indicate that the outstanding photoactivities in visible-light region result from sensitization effect of graphene rather than impurity level in the band gap of TNTs. Furthermore, large BET surface areas of these photocatalysts (almost 10 times larger than that of previously reported graphene/TiO(2) nanoparticles) evidently enhance their absorption abilities and photocatalytic performances (the rate constants of degrading Rhodamine-B are at least 5 times higher than that of previously reported photocatalysts). These photocatalysts show good stability, and their photoactivities do not obviously decrease after four times of repeated uses. A detailed photocatalytic mechanism is suggested, as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  1. Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst Prepared by Mechanochemical Method: Doping Mechanisms and Visible Photoactivity of Pollutant Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using a mechanochemical method with raw amorphous TiO2 as precursors and various nitrogenous compounds doses (NH4F, NH4HCO3, NH3·H2O, NH4COOCH3, and CH4N2O. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, and UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectra (UV-Vis-DRS. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated with the degradation of p-nitrophenol and methyl orange under UV or sunlight irradiation. The catalysts had a strong visible light absorption which correspond to doped nitrogen and consequent oxygen deficient. The results of photocatalytic activity showed the visible light adsorption mechanisms, as the doped nitrogen species gave rise to a mid-gap level slightly above the top of the (O-2p valence band, but not from the mixed band gap of the N-2p and O-2p electronic levels.

  2. Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Activity of Polyaniline Modified TiO2 and Clay-TiO2 Composites

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    K.P. Sandhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonochemical synthesis of Titania, Titania-Polyaniline, and Clay-Titania-Polyaniline composites were car-ried out. The composite systems were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. Photocatalytic activity was tested selecting some common dyes as substrates. Composites exhibited higher activity for the degradation of dyes under visible light in most of the cases. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 15th May 2013; Revised: 1st September 2013; Accepted: 3rd October 2013[How to Cite: Sandhya, K.P., Haridas, S., Sugunan, S. (2013. Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Activity of Polyaniline Modified TiO2 and Clay-TiO2 Composites. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 145-153. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4949.145-153][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4949.145-153

  3. Fabrication of bidirectionally doped β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs with enhanced photocatalysis under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyi; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Guo, Sujin

    2013-08-15

    Stable β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs photocatalyst with excellent visible-light-activity is successfully prepared by bidirectional doping. Stake structure of the TiO2-NTs provides a larger specific surface area and makes the contact area between the TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3 much larger; The stake structure of TiO2-NTs not only leads to a firmer combination of TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3, but also makes them dope one another deeply. The modification of Bi species into TiO2-NTs can form Bi-O-Ti chemical absorption bonds, then a localized impurity level is generated within the band gap. Electrons can be excited and transferred from the Bi(3+) impurity level to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, similar to narrowing the band-gap of TiO2-NTs, resulting in a red shift of the absorption edge and an enhancement in visible-light activity. During annealing, Bi atoms are partially replaced by Ti atoms. The lattice of β-Bi2O3 is compressed around the Ti impurity, making the lattice dislocate and distort. This dislocation and distortion leads to an increase in the β-Bi2O3 valance band (VB), from 2.02 to 2.28 eV. Accordingly, the weak oxidability of β-Bi2O3 is improved, and its photocatalytic ability is further enhanced. Moreover, this lattice dislocation and distortion changes the Bi-O distances, thus remarkably improving the stability of the β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Visible-Light-Active Titania Photocatalysts: The Case of N-Doped TiO2s—Properties and Some Fundamental Issues

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    Alexei V. Emeline

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews some factors that have impacted heterogeneous photocatalysis with next generation TiO2 photocatalysts, along with some issues of current debate in the fundamental understanding of the science that underpins the field. Preparative methods and some characteristics features of N-doped TiO2 are presented and described briefly. At variance are experimental results and interpretations of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS with regard to assignments of N 1s binding energies in N-doped TiO2 systems. Relative to pristine nominally clean TiO2 with absorption edges at 3.2 eV (anatase and 3.0 eV (rutile, N-doped TiO2s display red-shifted absorption edges into the visible spectral region. Several workers have surmised that the (intrinsic band gap of TiO2 is narrowed by coupling dopant energy states with valence band (VB states, an inference based on DFT computations. With similar DFT computations, others concluded that red-shifted absorption edges originate from the presence of localized intragap dopant states above the upper level of the VB band. Recent analyses of absorption spectral features in the visible region for a large number of doped TiO2 specimens, however, have suggested a common origin owing to the strong similarities of the absorption features, and this regardless of the preparative methods and the nature of the dopants. The next generation of (doped TiO2 photocatalysts should enhance overall process photoefficiencies (in some cases, since doped TiO2s absorb a greater quantity of solar radiation. The fundamental science that underpins heterogeneous photocatalysis with the next generation of photocatalysts is a rich playing field ripe for further exploration.

  5. Structural and Visible-Near Infrared Optical Properties of Cr-Doped TiO2 for Colored Cool Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-11-01

    Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr3+ accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr3+ ions are oxidized to Cr4+ after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the 3A2 → 3 T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr4+. And the decrease of the band gap causes an obvious redshift of the optical absorption edges as the doping concentration increases. Thus, the VIS and near-infrared average reflectance of the rutile Ti1 - x Cr x O2 sample decrease by 60.2 and 58%, respectively, when the Cr content increases to x = 0.0375. Meanwhile, the color changes to black brown. However, for the anatase Ti1 - x Cr x O2 pigments, only the VIS reflection spectrum is inhibited by forming some characteristic visible light absorption peaks of Cr3+. The morphology, band gap, and NIR reflectance are not significantly affected. Finally, a Cr-doped anatase TiO2 pigment with a brownish-yellow color and 90% near-infrared reflectance can be obtained.

  6. Air-suspended TiO2-based HCG reflectors for visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Rossbach, Georg; Haglund, Åsa

    2015-02-01

    For GaN-based microcavity light emitters, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) in the blue-green wavelength regime, achieving a high reflectivity wide bandwidth feedback mirror is truly challenging. The material properties of the III-nitride alloys are hardly compatible with the conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and the newly proposed high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Alternatively, at least for the top outcoupling mirror, dielectric materials offer more suitable material combinations not only for the DBRs but also for the HCGs. HCGs may offer advantages such as transverse mode and polarization control, a broader reflectivity spectrum than epitaxially grown DBRs, and the possibility to set the resonance wavelength after epitaxial growth by the grating parameters. In this work we have realized an air-suspended TiO2 grating with the help of a SiO2 sacrificial layer. The deposition processes for the dielectric layers were fine-tuned to minimize the residual stress. To achieve an accurate control of the grating duty cycle, a newly developed lift-off process, using hydrogen silesquioxan (HSQ) and sacrificial polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resists, was applied to deposit the hard mask, providing sub-10 nm resolution. The finally obtained TiO2/air HCGs were characterized in a micro-reflectance measurement setup. A peak power reflectivity in excess of 95% was achieved for TM polarization at the center wavelength of 435 nm, with a reflectivity stopband width of about 80 nm (FWHM). The measured HCG reflectance spectra were compared to corresponding simulations obtained from rigorous coupled-wave analysis and very good agreement was found.

  7. Exceptional Visible-Light Activities of TiO2-Coupled N-Doped Porous Perovskite LaFeO3 for 2,4-Dichlorophenol Decomposition and CO2 Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Muhammad; Qu, Yang; Raziq, Fazal; Yan, Rui; Li, Zhijun; Zhang, Xuliang; Jing, Liqiang

    2016-12-20

    In this work, TiO2-coupled N-doped porous perovskite-type LaFeO3 nanocomposites as highly efficient, cheap, stable, and visible-light photocatalysts have successfully been prepared via wet chemical processes. It is shown that the amount-optimized nanocomposite exhibits exceptional visible-light photocatalytic activities for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation by ∼3-time enhancement and for CO2 conversion to fuels by ∼4-time enhancement, compared to the resulting porous LaFeO3 with rather high photoactivity due to its large surface area. It is clearly demonstrated, by means of various experimental data, especially for the ·OH amount evaluation, that the obviously enhanced photoactivities are attributed to the increased specific surface area by introducing pores, to the extended visible-light absorption by doping N to create surface states, and to the promoted charge transfer and separation by coupling TiO2. Moreover, it is confirmed from radical trapping experiments that the photogenerated holes are the predominant oxidants in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP. Furthermore, a possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism for 2,4-DCP is proposed mainly based on the resultant crucial intermediate, 2-chlorosuccinic acid with m/z = 153, that readily transform into CO2 and H2O. This work opens up a new feasible route to synthesize visible-light-responsive high-activity perovskite-type nanophotocatalysts for efficient environmental remediation and energy production.

  8. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiufeng; Lu, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Li, Xiaobin; Lu, Mengna; Yuan, Guotao; Wang, Zuoshan; Zheng, Min; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-16

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol-gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 μm and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle.

  9. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO2, the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO2@CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO2. After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO2-based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Simple Method for the Preparation of TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@Polypyrrole Composite and Its Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fangxiao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to prepare a visible-light driven TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@polypyrrole (PPy) photocatalyst with Ag-AgCl nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanofibers and covered by a thin PPy shell. During the synthesis, the PPy shell and Ag-AgCl nanoparticles were prepared simultaneously onto TiO2 nanofibers, which simplified the preparation procedure. In addition, because Ag-AgCl aggregates were fabricated via partly etching the Ag nanoparticles, their size was well controlled at the nanoscale, which was beneficial for improvement of the contact surface area. Compared with reference photocatalysts, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite exhibited an enhanced photodegradation activity towards rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic property originated from synergistic effects between TiO2 nanofibers, Ag-AgCl nanoparticles and the PPy shell. Furthermore, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite could be easily separated and recycled without obvious reduction in activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Mn/N Co-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber and Its Visible Light Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that the loading rate of TiO2 in Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved by Mn/N co-doping. After calcination at 450 °C, the degree of crystallinity of TiO2 was reduced due to Mn/N co-doption in the resulting Mn/Ti-N-WACF samples, but the TiO2 crystal phase was not changed. XPS spectra revealed that some Ti4+ ions from the TiO2 lattice of Mn/Ti-N-WACF system were substituted by doped Mn. Moreover, new bonds formed within N–Ti–N and Ti–N–O because of the doped N that substituted some oxygen atoms in the TiO2 lattice. Notably, the degradation rate of methylene blue for Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved because of the co-doped Mn/N under visible-light irradiation.

  12. Visible light-degradation of azo dye methyl orange using TiO2/β-FeOOH as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Jingyu; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang; L, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel TiO2/β-FeOOH composite photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the composite photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composite photocatalyst was evaluated in a heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like process using methyl orange (MO) as target pollutant. The TiO2/β-FeOOH composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure β-FeOOH and TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the formation of TiO2/β-FeOOH heterostructure, which plays an important role in expanding the photoactivity to the visible light region and in effectively prolonging the lifetime of photoinduced electrons and holes. Further investigation revealed that the 25TiO2/β-FeOOH composite synthesized with the TiO2/Fe(3+) in a mole ratio of 25:75 showed the highest catalytic activity.

  13. Carbothermal Reduction induced Ti3+ self-doped TiO2/GQDs Nanohybrids for High-performance Visible light Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jialin; Liu, Yousong; Hu, Yingjie; Lv, Guoqing; Yang, Chengtao; Yang, Guangcheng

    2017-12-12

    A facile method of calcination was developed to in situ synthesize nanohybrids of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2/graphene quantum dot nanosheets (Ti3+-TiO2/GQDs NSs). Ti3+ sites were formed on the surface of TiO2 nanosheets through carbothermal reduction reaction by GQDs using citric acid as carbon source. Such heterojunctions exhibited enhanced visible-light absorption properties, large photocurrent current density and low recombination of photo-induced carriers. The methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation result demonstrated higher visible-light photocatalysis performance than that of original TiO2. On one hand, inducing Ti3+ sites is efficient for photogenerated charge carries separation and reducing electron-hole pairs recombination. On the other hand, GQDs is benefit to generate more photocurrent carriers and facilitate the charge transfer across the surface of TiO2. We propose that Ti3+ sites and GQDs induced in TiO2 nanosheets make a synergistic effect for the excellent photocatalysis properties. Finally, we provide a theoretical calculation of carbothermal reduction for the formation mechanism of Ti3+ defect sites. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Visible Light Excited Catalysis and Reusability Performances of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 Upconversion Materials

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    Yan Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To get high efficiency photodegradation on pollutants under visible light, Pr(III doped Y2SiO5 upconversion materials and anatase TiO2 nanofilm coated Pr:Y2SiO5 composite have been prepared by using a sol-gel method. XRD and SEM test results indicated that TiO2 nanofilm was well coated on Pr:Y2SiO5 to form TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 composite particles with the sizes of 0.5–1.0 μm. To avoid secondary pollution resulting from incomplete recovery of catalyst particles, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 was loaded on the glass fiber filters by using a dip-coating method. It is found that the catalyst particles were embedded into the carrier firmly, even after having been reused for 6 times. The luminescence intensities of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 were getting down sharply with the coating contents of TiO2 increased, which was attributed to the adsorption of the luminescence by the TiO2 film in situ. As a result, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 with 4% TiO2, which presented lowest luminescence intensity, showed the highest efficiency on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene wastewater. The catalysts loaded on glass fiber filters showed excellent reusability on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene and presented a photodegradation rate of 95% at the first time and up to 75.9% even after 6 times of reusing by the treatment time of 12 h.

  15. Gd, I-doped TiO2 thin films coated on solid waste material: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity under UV or visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Siwei; Yu, Jiang; Yang, Chun; Chang, Jiahua; Wang, Yizheng; Wang, Ping; Xie, Shiqian

    2017-10-01

    In this work, titanium dioxide thin films doped with different concentrations of gadolinium (Gd) and iodine (I) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and successfully coated on solid waste material (made in our lab) by dipping, resulting in the titanium dioxide thin-film-coated material (TiO2M). Then, the doped titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy; the optimum coating cycle was evaluated by removal rates of COD and ammonia nitrogen in raw wastewater and secondary effluent. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation efficiency of methyl orange. The results showed that TiO2M had desirable reusability and the photocatalytic activity was attractive under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, it is found that the amount of dopant in TiO2 was a key parameter in increasing the photoactivity. 1% Gd-doped TiO2M exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange with the removal rate reaching 85.55%. The result was in good agreement with the observed smaller crystallite size and profitable crystal structure (anatase phase). Besides, the TiO2M (0.8% Gd-doped TiO2M, 1% Gd-doped TiO2M, 10% I-doped TiO2M, and 5% I-1% Gd-doped TiO2M) with desirable photocatalytic activity at ultraviolet light irradiation was selected for the visible light photocatalytic experiments with taking methyl orange as the target pollutants. The results showed that all of them exhibited the similar photocatalytic activity after 7 h of sunlight irradiation (around 90% removal effect). In general, this research developed a very effective and environmentally friendly photocatalyst for pollutant degradation.

  16. Fabrication of Mo+N-Codoped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays by Anodization and Sputtering for Visible Light-Induced Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mo,N-codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs were fabricated by a two-step method consisting of electrochemical anodization and subsequent magnetron sputtering of Mo. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS. The results showed that the Mo,N-codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibited higher visible light absorbance and remarkably enhanced photocurrent density and photocatalytic activity compared with single N-doped TiO2. The highly efficient photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity is associated with the codoping effect between Mo and N, which plays a key role in producing new states, narrowing the bandgap, and reducing the recombination thereby effectively improving the visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of TNAs.

  17. Photocatalytic Bactericidal Efficiency of Ag Doped TiO2/Fe3O4 on Fish Pathogens under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Kanchanatip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates photocatalytic bactericidal efficiencies of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 in visible light using target pollutants that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The investigation started with Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 synthesis and calcination followed by a series of product tests that include the examination of crystallite phase, light absorption, element composition morphology, and magnetic properties. The results of the experiment indicate that Ag and Fe3O4 significantly enhanced the light absorption capacity of TiO2 in the entire visible light range. The Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 prepared in this study displays significantly enhanced visible light absorption and narrowed band gap energy. The magnetic property of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 made it easy for retrieval using a permanent magnet bar. The photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 remains above 85% after three application cycles, which indicates high and favorable efficiency in bactericidal evaluation. The experiments have proved that the Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 magnetic photocatalyst is a promising photocatalyst for antibacterial application under visible light.

  18. One-dimensional mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: Rational design, synthesis and application as high-performance photocatalyst in visible and UV light region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Yaping; Chen, Haoxin; Guo, Jinxue; Meng, Alan; Li, Chunfang

    2014-10-01

    An ideal photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants should combine the features of efficient visible light response, fast electron transport, high electron-hole separation efficiency, and large specific surface area. However, these requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. In this work, we develop a rational synthesis strategy for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell composites. In this strategy, FeOOH nanorods are firstly coated by TiO2 shell, followed by a calcination process. The as-prepared composites are thoroughly investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. Endowed with the advantages of its composition and specific structural features, the presented sample possesses the combined advantages mentioned above, thus delivering evidently enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation and Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. And the possible mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic performance is proposed.

  19. Enhanced UV-Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity by Constructing Appropriate Heterostructures between Mesopore TiO2 Nanospheres and Sn3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel TiO2/Sn3O4 heterostructure photocatalysts were ingeniously synthesized via a scalable two-step method. The impressive photocatalytic abilities of the TiO2/Sn3O4 sphere nanocomposites were validated by the degradation test of methyl orange and •OH trapping photoluminescence experiments under ultraviolet (UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. Especially under the visible light, the TiO2/Sn3O4 nanocomposites demonstrated a superb photocatalytic activity, with 81.2% of methyl orange (MO decomposed at 30 min after irradiation, which greatly exceeded that of the P25 (13.4%, TiO2 (0.5% and pure Sn3O4 (59.1% nanostructures. This enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the mesopore induced by the monodispersed TiO2 cores that supply sufficient surface areas and accessibility to reactant molecules. This exquisite hetero-architecture facilitates extended UV-visible absorption and efficient photoexcited charge carrier separation.

  20. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-01-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  1. Visible light driven mineralization of spiramycin over photostructured N-doped TiO2on up conversion phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Olga; Vaiano, Vincenzo; Sannino, Diana; Ciambelli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    A novel visible light-active photocatalyst formulation (NdT/OP) was obtained by supporting N-doped TiO 2 (NdT) particles on up-conversion luminescent organic phosphors (OP). The photocatalytic activity of such catalysts was evaluated for the mineralization process of spiramycin in aqueous solution. The effect of NdT loading in the range 15-60wt.% on bulk and surface characteristics of NdT/OP catalysts was investigated by several chemico-physical characterization techniques. The photocatalytic performance of NdT/OP catalysts in the removal of spyramicin from aqueous solution was assessed through photocatalytic tests under visible light irradiation. Total organic carbon (TOC) of aqueous solution, and CO and CO 2 gas concentrations evolved during the photodegradation were analyzed. A dramatic enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the photostructured visible active NdT/OP catalysts, compared to NdT catalyst, was observed. Only CO 2 was detected in gas-phase during visible light irradiation, proving that the photocatalytic process is effective in the mineralization of spiramycin, reaching very high values of TOC removal. The photocatalyst NdT/OP at 30wt.% of NdT loading showed the highest photocatalytic activity (58% of TOC removed after 180min irradiation against only 31% removal after 300min of irradiation of NdT). We attribute this enhanced activity to the high effectiveness in the utilization of visible light through improved light harvesting and exploiting. OP particles act as "photoactive support", able to be excited by the external visible light irradiation, and reissue luminescence of wavelength suitable to promote NdT photomineralization activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High visible light photocatalytic property of Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with mixed phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cong; Shu, Xin; Zhu, Da-chuan; Wei, Shang-hai; Wang, Yu-xin; Tu, Ming-jing; Gao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Mixed phases Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by a novel method combined with sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The section of sol-gel method, sol, provides an unstable colloidal reaction system for the next reaction process. The hydrothermal method is to treat the above reaction system to prepare undoped and doped samples. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared samples contain three titania polymorphs: brookite, rutile and anatase phases. These titania polymorphs probably form polymorph-junctions that can extend the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in air under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples is higher than that of Degussa P25, especially the doped sample. This is ascribed to the fact that the phases with smaller band gap can enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity, the polymorph-junctions effectively extend the photoelectron lifetime and the nano size effect and Co-doping induce the shift of the absorption edge into the visible-light region. Furthermore, the XRD, SEM, and TEM data indicate that Co2+-doping results in the decrease of particle size.

  3. Synthesis and photocatalytic oxidation of different organic dyes by using Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 solid solution and visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Pramanik, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2009-08-01

    Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 solid solution was prepared from two different oxides, manganese oxide (from KMnO 4 and ethanol) and TiO 2, these samples were characterized by BET, XRD, EDAX, SEM, FT-IR, ESR, XPS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 powder was investigated by photooxidation of different dyes like Rhodamine B, thymol blue, methyl orange and Bromocresol green under visible light (300-W Xe lamp; λ > 420 nm). The results show that the alloy of TiO 2 with 1 mol% of Mn 2O 3 (MNT1) exhibit photocatalytic activity 3-5 times higher than that of P25 TiO 2 for oxidation of various dyes (RB, TB, MO and BG). The average particle size and crystallite size of MNT1 were found to be 100 nm and 12 nm measured from SEM and XRD, respectively. The EPR spectra of the Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 samples is a sharp five-line Mn(III) component centered on geff = 1 .99.

  4. Enhanced visible-photocatalytic activity of anodic TiO2 nanotubes film via decoration with CuInSe2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulong; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong; Jia, Lijun; Bai, Feiming; Li, Jie; Zhong, Peng; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Jin

    2013-11-13

    The fabrication and photocatalytic properties of visible-light driven CuInSe2/TiO2 heterojunction films are reported. CuInSe2 nanoparticles (NCs) were synthesized using a solvothermal method and then decorated onto self-organized anodic TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays through an electrophoretic deposition process, forming a CuInSe2 NC/TiO2 NT hetero-structure film. An increase in deposition time produced an increased amount of CuInSe2 NCs loaded onto the TiO2 NT arrays, expanding the light-absorption range of the CuInSe2 NCs/TiO2 NTs film from 400 nm to 700 nm. Photocatalytic degradation results show that activities of the CuInSe2 NCs/TiO2 NTs films were significantly enhanced compared to that of pure TiO2 NTs (degradation rate constant k increased from 3 × 10(-3) min(-1) to >1 × 10(-2) min(-1)). Particularly, the CuInSe2 NCs/TiO2 NTs with 50 min electrophoretic deposition show the highest degradation rate, k = 1.6 × 10(-2) min(-1) (more than 5 times greater than that of the pure TiO2 NTs film), due to optimization of CuInSe2 NCs loading and a well-maintained open TiO2 tube-mouth configuration.

  5. Preparation of TiO2-Fullerene Composites and Their Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Katsumata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of visible light-sensitive photocatalytic materials is being investigated. In this study, the anatase and rutile-C60 composites were prepared by solution process. The characterization of the samples was conducted by using XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decolorization of the methylene blue. From the results of the Raman, FT-IR, and XRD, the existence of the C60 was confirmed in the samples. The C60 was modified on the anatase or rutile particle as a cluster. The C60 didn't have the photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. The anatase and rutile-C60 composites exhibited lower photocatalytic activity than the anatase and rutile under UV light. The anatase-C60 exhibited also lower activity than the anatase under visible light. On the other hand, the rutile-C60 exhibited higher activity than the rutile under visible light. It is considered that the photogenerated electrons can transfer from the C60 to the rutile under visible light irradiation.

  6. Synthesis of core-shell TiO2@g-C3N4 hollow microspheres for efficient photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Wang, Guohong; Jiang, Chuanjia; Bao, Helin; Xu, Qingchuan

    2018-02-01

    Core-shell composites with titanium dioxide (TiO2) hollow microsphere as the core and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as the shell were fabricated via a two-step self-assembly procedure with the assistance of ultrasonic dispersion. The as-prepared composite samples with different g-C3N4 contents (0-20%) were thoroughly characterized and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under visible light. A g-C3N4 layer of approximately 80 nm was successfully coated on the surface of TiO2 hollow microspheres with a diameter of 1-3 μm, forming a heterostructure with close interfacial contact. The TiO2@g-C3N4 composite exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared with pure TiO2 hollow microspheres. At an optimum weight ratio of g-C3N4 to TiO2 (15 wt.%), the photocatalytic activity of the composite sample was almost 3 times higher than that of reference TiO2 hollow microspheres. Moreover, the results of recycling test indicated that the TiO2@g-C3N4 composite had excellent stability. A possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism of TiO2@g-C3N4 composite was proposed, in which superoxide radical anions played the major role in the oxidation of RhB, and the separation of photogenerated charge carriers across the heterostructure interface inhibited electron-hole recombination, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Development of visible-light responsive and mechanically enhanced "smart" UCST interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ghag, Onkar; Reimann, Morgan; Sitterle, Philip; Chatterjee, Prithwish; Nofen, Elizabeth; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Dai, Lenore L

    2017-12-20

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer. The formation of the interpenetrating network was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the analysis of glass transition temperature, and a unique UCST responsive swelling behavior, which is in contrast to the more prevalent lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour of environmentally responsive hydrogels. The visible-light responsiveness of the synthesized hydrogel also demonstrated a positive swelling behavior, and the effect of incorporating chlorophyllin as the chromophore unit was observed to reduce the average pore size and further enhance the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. This interpenetrating network system shows potential to serve as a new route in developing "smart" hydrogels using visible-light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.

  8. Origin of the Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption in N-Doped Bulk Anatase TiO 2 from First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2011-10-06

    Extension of the absorption properties of TiO2 photocatalytic materials to the visible part of the solar spectrum is of major importance for energy and cleaning up applications. We carry out a systematic study of the N-doped anatase TiO2 material using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) and the range-separated hybrid HSE06 functional. The thermodynamic stability of competitive N-doped TiO2 structural configurations is studied as a function of the oxygen chemical potential and of various chemical doping agents: N2, (N2 + H2), NH3, N2H4. We show that the diamagnetic TiO (2-3x)N2x system corresponding to a separated substitutional N species (with 2-4% N impurities) and formation of one-half concentration of O vacancies (1-2 atom %) is an optimal configuration thermodynamically favored by NH3, N2H4, and (N2 + H2) chemical doping agents presenting a dual nitrating-reducing character. The simulated UV-vis absorption spectra using the perturbation theory (DFPT) approach demonstrates unambiguously that the diamagnetic TiO(2-3x)N2x system exhibits the enhanced optical absorption in N-doped TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Electronic analysis further reveals a band gap narrowing of 0.6 eV induced by delocalized impurity states located at the top of the valence band of TiO 2. A fruitful comparison with experimental data is furnished. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Spectrophotometric studies of visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgari, Zohreh; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Khosravi, Alireza; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO(2) nanocrystals (Pc/Fe-TiO(2)) with different Fe doping content (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 3.0 mol% Fe) as photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange have been reported. The study carried out using XRD, FT-IR, EDX, BET, DRS, UV-Vis, SEM and TEM techniques. Results revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals possessed only the anatase phase with crystal sizes of about 10-23 nm and high surface areas of 2.8-37.3 m(2)/g. It can be seen phthalocyanine and Fe(3+) ion exist in photocatalysts based on analysis of FT-IR and EDX. The doping amount of Fe remarkably affects the activity of modified TiO(2) nanocrystals as catalysts. The 0.5 mol% Fe doping exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. It was found that phthalocyanine and Fe induced a shift in the energy band gap to lower energies, which changes from 3.26 to 2.26 eV for pure TiO(2) and Pc/3% Fe-TiO(2) nanocrystals, respectively. Results of the degradation of methyl orange revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals showed much more photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2) under visible light which makes the applicability of TiO(2) photocatalysts even more versatile. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. One-step solvothermal synthesis of TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced visible light photoreduction of Cr(VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasiya; Mishra, Shailendra Prasad; Mohapatra, Priyabrata; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2017-06-01

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heavy metal environmental pollutant. Photoreduction is one of the remediation methods of the hexavalent chromium Cr(VI), which necessitates design of an efficient catalyst for visible light performance. Here, we report a one-step solvothermal synthesis of TiO2-reduced graphene oxide (TiO2- xRGO) composite catalysts using a mild reducing agent, dimethylformamide (DMF). Nanoscale TiO2 particles in the size range of 4-9 nm were formed on the reduced graphene sheets. The formation of the composite catalysts was accompanied by the appearance of a large fluorescence quenching, which indicates an efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The composites displayed excellent photoreduction of Cr(VI) in the visible light, which was found to be a function of the weight percentage of RGO in the composite. At the optimum composition of TiO2- xRGO, a maximum removal rate of 96% was recorded, which was higher than that of the pristine TiO2, which showed no appreciable catalytic activity under the same condition. The performance degraded with increasing RGO content in the composite, which can be attributed to the higher electron-hole recombination on the RGO surface. The Cr(VI) photoreduction also exhibited a pH dependence. The highest removal rate was observed in the acidic medium.

  11. Effective Electron Transfer Pathway of the Ternary TiO2/RGO/Ag Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag ternary nanocomposite with an effective electron transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG, the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min−1, which was 3.4-times higher than that of MTG. What is more, the degradation rate of MTGA nanocomposite after three cycle times is 91.2%, and the composition is unchanged. In addition, we found that the OH•, h+ and especially O2•− contribute to the high photocatalytic activity of MTGA for MB degradation. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite makes the three components act synergistically to enhance the photocatalytic performance.

  12. Solvothermal fabrication of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite photocatalysts and application for NO removal under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Chunhu; Wang, Liang; Sun, ShengNan; Yan, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalysts of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite (TiO2-rGO/ASC) with different contents of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method for NO removal under visible light irradiation. It was confirmed that 8% content of reduced graphene oxide presented the best NO photooxidation performance under visible light irradiation at 70 °C with 350-400 mg/m3 NO,5% O2 and 5% relative humidity. The reasons for improved activity were discussed, alloyed with the mechanism of producing CO. Detailed structural information of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL), which indicated that the introduction of rGO was responsible for well dispersion, smaller crystalline size, red shift of absorption band and suppressing quick photo-induced charges recombination of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts. Optimization of operational parameters with 70 °C, 8% O2 and 8% relative humidity were also obtained. Deactivation of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts for NO removal was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Regeneration experiments showed that thermal vapor regeneration would be optimal method owing to excellent regenerative capacity and inexpensive procedure.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigation of Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of C Doped TiO2/CdS Core-Shell Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul B. Lavand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C doped TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite (C/TiO2/CdS was synthesized using microemulsion method. Synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-visible spectrophotometery. TEM images reveal that C/TiO2/CdS core-shell heterostructure is successfully prepared with CdS as a core and C doped TiO2 as a shell. UV-visible absorption spectra show that CdS nanoparticles act as a sensitizer and effectively enhance the photoabsorption capacity of C/TiO2/CdS nanocomposite in visible region. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue. C/TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite exhibits better photocatalytic activity as compared to bare TiO2, CdS, CdS/TiO2, and C doped TiO2.

  14. Quantum-confined bandgap narrowing of TiO2 nanoparticles by graphene quantum dots for visible-light-driven applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Li, Qin

    2016-07-28

    We for the first time report a quantum-confined bandgap narrowing mechanism through which the absorption of two UV absorbers, namely the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and TiO2 nanoparticles, can be easily extended into the visible light range in a controllable manner. Such a mechanism may be of great importance for light harvesting, photocatalysis and optoelectronics.

  15. Significant improvement in visible light photocatalytic activity of Fe doped TiO2 using an acid treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.; Blackburn, Arthur; Herring, Rodney A.

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal dopants have been used to decrease the band gap energy of TiO2 for visible light photocatalytic purposes. Fe3+ is a good dopant candidate owing to its capability to decrease the band gap energy and enhance the electron/hole trapping. However, in previous studies the photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO2 was around 40-50% for a reaction time of ∼300 min. Herein, using HRTEM it was found out that the photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO2 is limited by an amorphous contamination layer on the surface of the Fe-TiO2 nanoparticles. The contamination layer was determined to be composed of iron oxide by XPS surface analysis. The contamination layer was successfully removed using an acid treatment process comprising of HCl solution. Using the cleaned Fe-TiO2 nanoparticles, the photocatalytic activity measured utilizing a solution of 20 mg L-1 methyl orange (MO) was significantly increased from 24% to 98% within 60 min of reaction time under visible light illumination.

  16. Photodeposition-assisted synthesis of novel nanoparticulate In, S-codoped TiO2 powders with high visible light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadanian, M.; Reisi-Vanani, A.; Razi, P.; Hoseinifard, S.; Jabbari, V.

    2013-11-01

    In order to search for an efficient photocatalysts working under visible light illumination, we have investigated the effect of metal and nonmetal ions (In, S) codoping on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) prepared by combining of sol-gel (SG) and photodeposition (PD) methods using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP), indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and thiourea as precursors. In this regard, at first three different percentage of S (0.05, 0.2 and 0.5) doped into the TiO2 by SG method, and then different amount of In(III) loaded on the surface of the prepared samples by PD technique. The results showed that the In, S-codoped TiO2 (In, S-TiO2) with a spheroidal shape demonstrates a smaller grain size than the pure TiO2. Meanwhile, the UV-vis DRS of In, S-TiO2 showed a considerable red shift to the visible region. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of In, S-TiO2 photocatalysts were evaluated by photooxidative degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution under UV and visible light illumination. As a result, it was found that 0.05%S-0.5%In/TiO2, 0.2%S-1.5%In/TiO2 and 0.5%S-0.5%In/TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity under visible light in each group and among these samples 0.2%S-1.5%In/TiO2 showed the best photocatalytic performance under visible light and decomposes more than 95% MO in only 90 min.

  17. AgBr-Coupled TiO2: A Visible Heterostructured Photocatalyst for Degrading Dye Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of AgBr/TiO2 visible photocatalysts with heterojunction structure was synthesized using Ti(OC4H94, KBr, and AgNO3 as precursors. The phase composition, particle morphology and size, microstructures, and absorbance of these photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM, high-resolution TEM, and UV-vis spectra. It was found that the coupled AgBr/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst to degrade the methylene blue under visible light irradiation, compared with the other noncoupled photocatalysts of AgBr, AgBr/P25, and P25. The photocatalytic activities of AgBr/TiO2 increase first and then decrease with increasing the mass ratio of mAgNO3/mTiO2 and the photocatalyst with the mass ratio of 3.35 has the highest photocatalytic activity. The results showed that the coupled photocatalyst has the particle size of about 15 nm with homogeneous dispersion and has the strongest absorption in whole UV-vis light region (250∼800 nm originated from the synergetic effect of heterostructured AgBr/TiO2. The coupled AgBr/TiO2 photocatalyst can keep stable photocatalytic activity after five-circle runs.

  18. Synergistic Effects of Sm and C Co-Doped Mixed Phase Crystalline TiO2 for Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles with element doping by Sm and C were prepared via a facile sol-gel procedure. The UV-Vis light-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption region of co-doped TiO2 was shifted to the visible-light region, which was attributed to incorporation of samarium and carbon into the TiO2 lattice during high-temperature reaction. Samarium effectively decreased the anatase-rutile phase transformation. The grain size can be controlled by Sm doping to achieve a large specific surface area useful for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The degradation rate of MB over the Sm-C co-doped TiO2 sample was the best. Additionally, first-order apparent rate constants increased by about 4.3 times compared to that of commercial Degusssa P25 under the same experimental conditions. Using different types of scavengers, the results indicated that the electrons, holes, and •OH radicals are the main active species for the MB degradation. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to low recombination of the photo-generated electrons and holes which originated from the synergistic effect of the co-doped ions and the heterostructure.

  19. Highly Enhanced Photoreductive Degradation of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers with g-C3N4/TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Ye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of high activity photocatalysts g-C3N4-TiO2 were synthesized by simple one-pot thermal transformation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS. The g-C3N4-TiO2 samples show highly improved photoreductive capability for the degradation of polybromodiphenyl ethers compared with g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation. Among all the hybrids, 0.02-C3N4-TiO2 with 2 wt % g-C3N4 loaded shows the highest reaction rate, which is 15 times as high as that in bare g-C3N4. The well-matched band gaps in heterojunction g-C3N4-TiO2 not only strengthen the absorption intensity, but also show more effective charge carrier separation, which results in the highly enhanced photoreductive performance under visible light irradiation. The trapping experiments show that holetrapping agents largely affect the reaction rate. The rate of electron accumulation in the conductive band is the rate-determining step in the degradation reaction. A possible photoreductive mechanism has been proposed.

  20. Facile synthesis of flake-like TiO2/C nano-composites for photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baolin; Zhou, Juan; Liang, Xiaoyu; Song, Kainan; Su, Xintai

    2017-01-01

    The production of H2 by photocatalytic water splitting has become a promising approach for clean, economical, and renewable evolution of H2 by using solar energy. In spite of tremendous efforts, the present challenge for materials scientists is to build a highly active photocatalytic system with high efficiency and low cost. Here we report a facile method for the preparation of TiO2/C nano-flakes, which was used as an efficient visible-light photocatalyst for H2 evolution. This composite material was prepared by using a phase-transfer strategy combined with salt-template calcination treatment. The results showed that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with the diameter of ∼10 nm were uniformly dispersed on the carbon nano-flakes. In addition, the samples prepared at 600 °C (denoted as T600) endowed a larger surface area of 196 m2 g-1 and higher light absorption, resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity. Further, the T600 product reached a high H2 production rate of 57.2 μmol h-1 under visible-light irradiation. This unusual photocatalytic activity arose from the positive synergetic effect between the TiO2 and carbon in this hybrid catalyst. This work highlights the potential of TiO2/C nano-flakes in the field of photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation.

  1. Two-dimensional assembly structure of graphene and TiO2 nanosheets from titanic acid with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rong; Guo, Shien; Wang, Xiuwen; Feng, Tong; Feng, Qingmao; Li, Mingxia; Jiang, Baojiang

    2016-06-01

    The titanic acid sheets were prepared by one-step hydrazine hydrate-assisted hydrothermal process. Then the reduced graphite oxide (rGO)@TiO2 nanosheet composites were finally obtained through ultrasonic exfoliation and following calcination treatment process. rGO@TiO2 nanosheet composites show excellent hydrogen production performance under AM1.5 light source. The highest hydrogen evolution yield (923.23 μmol) is nearly two times higher than that of pure TiO2, mainly due to the special electron structure and more active sites for TiO2 nanosheet. The introduction of graphene could improve the TiO2 nanosheet stability and extend visible-light absorption range.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using F doped TiO2photoelectrode under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Tian, Renwen; Wang, Jianqiao; Nie, Er; Piao, Xianqing; Li, Xin; Sun, Zhuo

    2017-10-01

    Photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) has attracted great interest due to cost effectiveness and high efficiency in water treatment. In this study, F doped TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) photoelectrodes with honeycomb like morphology were prepared, and the PEC performance was investigated. F-TiO 2 particles that showed enhanced absorption of visible light were synthesized via a sol-gel method. F-TiO 2 particles were anchored onto the surface of F-doped SnO 2 glass by a screen-printing method to prepare the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes. The PEC performance of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes was investigated via the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes exhibited an excellent PEC performance that was affected by the F doping content, applied bias and solution pH. A maximum decolorization percentage of 97.8% was achieved by the FT-15 photoelectrode, with a 1.4 V bias at pH 9.94 after 4.0 h of visible light irradiation. The high PEC performance of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes is mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of electron-hole (e - -h + ) pairs and the creation of active radicals such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The PEC decolorization kinetic data were analyzed using the first-order kinetic model and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The data indicates that the PEC degradation of MB molecules mainly occurred on the surface of the F-TiO 2 photoelectrodes, and the MB molecules were discolored mainly by h + (41.5%) and OH (46.5%). In addition, 8.2% of the MB molecules were discolored by other oxidative species, and 3.8% of the MB molecules were discolored by self-sensitized oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results indicated that an obvious inhibition of tumor growth would be observed in groups treated with CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites, and the PDT efficiency in the presence of CdS-doped TiO2 was significantly higher than that of TiO2, revealing that the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 could be effectively enhanced by the modification of CdS QDs. Additionally, CdS- TiO2 can exhibit a very high photodynamic efficiency of 80.5% at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL under visible-light irradiation. CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites in this case were regarded as a promising application for cancer-cell treatment.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dye under visible light on mesoporous microspheres by defects in manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Jiang, Heng; Zou, Mingming; Xiong, Fengqiang; Ganeshraja, Ayyakannu Sundaram; Pervaiz, Erum; Liu, Yinan; Zou, Shunying; Yang, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microsphere photocatalysts are prepared by a simple sol-gel method with controllable sizes in the range of 400-500 nm and high surface area of 112 m2 g-1. Manganous acetate is the Mn source, and ammonia gas is the nitrogen source used. The dopants are found to be uniformly distributed in the TiO2 matrix. Interestingly, in (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2, we observe an effective indirect band gap of 2.58 eV. (Mn,N)-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than Mn-TiO2 microspheres under visible light irradiation. Among the samples reported in this work, 0.2 at.% Mn doping and 500 °C 2-h nitriding condition give the highest photocatalytic activity. The observed photocatalytic activity in the (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2 is attributed to the contribution from improved absorption due to trap levels of Mn, oxygen vacancies and N doping.

  5. N-Doped TiO2 Nanobelts with Coexposed (001) and (101) Facets and Their Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuchao; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yurong; Yang, Piaoping; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-07-20

    To narrow the band gap (3.2 eV) of TiO2 and extend its practical applicability under sunlight, the doping with nonmetal elements has been used to tune TiO2 electronic structure. However, the doping also brings new recombination centers among the photoinduced charge carriers, which results in a quantum efficiency loss accordingly. It has been proved that the {101} facets of anatase TiO2 are beneficial to generating and transmitting more reductive electrons to promote the H2-evolution in the photoreduction reaction, and the {001} facets exhibit a higher photoreactivity to accelerate the reaction involved of photogenerated hole. Thus, it was considered by us that using the surface heterojunction composed of both {001} and {101} facets may depress the disadvantage of N doping. Fortunately, we successfully synthesized anatase N-doped TiO2 nanobelts with a surface heterojunction of coexposed (101) and (001) facets. As expected, it realized the charge pairs' spatial separation and showed higher photocatalytic activity under a visible-light ray: a hydrogen generation rate of 670 μmol h(-1) g(-1) (much higher than others reported previously in literature of N-doped TiO2 nanobelts).

  6. N-doped P25 TiO2-amorphous Al2O3 composites: one-step solution combustion preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-tang; Zhao, Ye; Hao, Ying-juan; Wang, Xiao-jing; Liu, Rui-hong; Zhao, Di-shun; Chen, Dai-mei

    2012-11-15

    Nitrogen-doped Degussa P25 TiO2-amorphous Al2O3 composites were prepared via facile solution combustion. The composites were characterised using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis light-diffusion reflectance spectrometry (DRS), zeta-potential measurements, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The DRS results showed that TiO2 and amorphous Al2O3 exhibited absorption in the UV region. However, the Al2O3/TiO2 composite exhibited visible-light absorption, which was attributed to N-doping during high-temperature combustion and to alterations in the electronic structure of Ti species induced by the addition of Al. The optimal molar ratio of TiO2 to Al2O3 was 1.5:1, and this composite exhibited a large specific surface area of 152 m2/g, surface positive charges, and enhanced photocatalytic activity. These characteristics enhanced the degradation rate of anionic methylene orange, which was 43.6 times greater than that of pure P25 TiO2. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to synthetic effects between amorphous Al2O3 and TiO2, low recombination efficiency of photo-excited electrons and holes, N-doping, and a large specific surface area. Experiments that involved radical scavengers indicated that OH and O2- were the main reactive species. A potential photocatalytic mechanism was also proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of V2O5 Cluster Modified N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Toluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V2O5 cluster-modified N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2/V2O5 nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by a facile impregnation-calcination method. The effects of V2O5 cluster loading content on visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were investigated for degradation of toluene in air. The results showed that the visible light activity of N-doped TiO2 was significantly enhanced by loading V2O5 clusters. The optimal V2O5 loading content was found to be 0.5 wt.%, reaching a removal ratio of 52.4% and a rate constant of 0.027 min−1, far exceeding that of unmodified N-doped TiO2. The enhanced activity is due to the deposition of V2O5 clusters on the surface of N-doped TiO2. The conduction band (CB potential of V2O5 (0.48 eV is lower than the CB level of N-doped TiO2 (−0.19 V, which favors the photogenerated electron transfer from CB of N-doped TiO2 to V2O5 clusters. This function of V2O5 clusters helps promote the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The present work not only displays a feasible route for the utilization of low cost V2O5 clusters as a substitute for noble metals in enhancing the photocatalysis but also demonstrates a facile method for preparation of highly active composite photocatalyst for large-scale applications.

  8. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h−1 g−1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy. PMID:28165021

  9. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h-1 g-1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy.

  10. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm2) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm2) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  11. Photoinactivation and Toxicity of Nano-sized TiO2 on Paint Microflora Using Visible Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, Olayide; Halverson, Larry

    2016-04-01

    Traditional TiO2 has been used as an antimicrobial additive to paints, but more recently the use of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been proposed as an alternative because of its ability to induce oxidative damage to the cell membrane of bacteria. This study focused on how photoinactivation of TiO2 NPs by fluorescent and halogen lights (400-700 nm) influenced survival of Bacillus sphaericus (Gram-positive bacterium) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram-negative bacterium) isolated from spoiled paints. The loss of viability of the test organisms in the presence of TiO2 NPs determined by culturable (plate) count technique indicated a decrease in viable bacteria that was predominant after 24-h exposure. The TiO2 NPs showed higher antibacterial performance under fluorescent light than halogen light with increasing irradiation time and confirms the photokilling effect of TiO2 NPs. TiO2 NPs were also bactericidal under dark conditions, suggesting potential antibacterial applications in the paint industry.

  12. Ag-doped TiO2 Nanocomposite Prepared by Sol Gel Method: Photocatalytic Bactericidal Under Visible Light and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In  this  reaserch,  photocatalyst  titanium  dioxide  was  doped  with silver  and modified  by  polyethylene  glycol  by  sol  gel method  and the  samples  were  characterized  by  X-ray  diffraction  (XRD  and scanning  electron  microscopy  (SEM.  The  purpose  of  the  present study  was  to  evaluate  the  photocatalytic  bactericidal  effects  of prepared nanocomposite on human pathogenic bacteria under visible light  irradiation whereas; many  studies have been published on  the use  of  titanium  dioxide  as  a  photocatalyst,  which  decomposes various  organic  compounds.  We  observed  that  TiO2  reveals  the bactericidal  property  against  the  Staphylococcus  aureus,  Shigella dysanteriae,  Salmonella  enterica  subsp.  enterica  serovar  Paratyphi bacteria and pathogenic  fungi Candidia albicans which  is  increased by the essence of silver and visible light.

  13. Comparing Cr, and N only doping with (Cr,N)-codoping for enhancing visible light reactivity of TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The photoreactivity of titania (TiO2) nanoclusters with varying levels of N or Cr-doping, or (Cr,N)-codoping, was systematically investigated using photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspensions. The shifting of the TiO2 absorption edge into the visible spectral region that is primarily attributable to band gap narrowing was found to be a reliable metric for estimating the photoreactivity of the doped nanoclusters. Compared to the weak response with undoped and N-doped TiO2, Cr-doping and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to significantly enhance photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light. The initial reaction rates increase from about 0 to above 1.6 10-2 min-1 when the doping concentration of Cr in TiO2 increases from 0 to 5%. In stark contrast, under UV irradiation, doping is not only ineffective but detrimental to the photoreactivity, and all doping including N or Cr only and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to reduce photoreactivity.

  14. Photochemical quenching of aqueous methylene blue by N, Nb co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials under visible light: a confirmatory UV/LC-MS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kamini; Pandey, Ashutosh; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Nanodimensional un-doped, Nb doped, N doped and N,Nb co-doped TiO2 particles have been prepared by the sol-gel procedure. Phase identification of the anatase particles was done by X-ray powder diffraction and Deby–Scherrer calculations revealed their particle sizes to range from 20 to 30 nm. The band gap energies of the samples were measured by UV–Vis-diffuse reflectance (UV-DRS) spectra. While un-doped TiO2 showed wide optical absorption in the UV region. The co-doped TiO2 particles exhibited narrow band gaps of ~2.7 eV, which showed absorption in the visible region. A decline in charge carrier recombination rates in the prepared samples was confirmed through photoluminescence (PL). The morphological appearances of the particles have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the samples confirmed the incorporations of N and Nb into the TiO2 matrices. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the prepared particles have been determined by the degradation of the non-biodegradable dye methylene blue (MB) under electromagnetic radiation. The co-doped sample showed superior photocatalytic activity under the visible light (λ  >  400) over the other samples. Photochemical quenching of aqueous MB was further analysed by UV/LC-MS which confirmed the attenuation of methylene blue.

  15. Design of Composite Photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-Zeolite for Degradation of 2-Propanol in the Gas Phase under UV and Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamegawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810 and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (λ > 420 nm irradiation.

  16. Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-10-13

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation.

  17. Microbial fuel cell assisted band gap narrowed TiO2 for visible light-induced photocatalytic activities and power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ehtisham; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Min, Bong-Ki; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2018-01-29

    This paper reports a simple, biogenic and green approach to obtain narrow band gap and visible light-active TiO2 nanoparticles. Commercial white TiO2 (w-TiO2) was treated in the cathode chamber of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), which produced modified light gray TiO2 (g-TiO2) nanoparticles. The DRS, PL, XRD, EPR, HR-TEM, and XPS were performed to understand the band gap decline of g-TiO2. The optical study revealed a significant decrease in the band gap of the g-TiO2 (E g  = 2.80 eV) compared to the w-TiO2 (E g  = 3.10 eV). The XPS revealed variations in the surface states, composition, Ti4+ to Ti3+ ratio, and oxygen vacancies in the g-TiO2. The Ti3+ and oxygen vacancy-induced enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-TiO2 was confirmed by degrading different model dyes. The enhanced photoelectrochemical response under visible light irradiation further supported the improved performance of the g-TiO2 owing to a decrease in the electron transfer resistance and an increase in charge transfer rate. During the TiO2 treatment process, electricity generation in MFC was also observed, which was ~0.3979 V corresponding to a power density of 70.39 mW/m2. This study confirms narrow band gap TiO2 can be easily obtained and used effectively as photocatalysts and photoelectrode material.

  18. Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Properties of N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays from TiN

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Xie; Yongbin Zhang; Xiangxuan Liu; Weipeng Wang; Peng Zhan; Zhengcao Li; Zhengjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared by annealing the TiN nanorod arrays (NRAs) which were deposited by using oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique. The TiN NRAs were annealed at 330°C for different times (5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min). The band gaps of annealed TiN NRAs (i.e., N-doped TiO2 NRAs) show a significant variance with annealing time, and can be controlled readily by varying annealing time. All of the N-doped TiO2 NRAs exhibit an enhancement in photocurrent intensity in...

  19. Visible-light-responsive ZnCuO nanoparticles: benign photodynamic killers of infectious protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Ayub, Attiya; Muhammad, Bakhtiar; Khan, Momin; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2015-01-01

    Human beings suffer from several infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. Recently, there has been a great interest in developing biocompatible nanostructures to deal with infectious agents. This study investigated benign ZnCuO nanostructures that were visible-light-responsive due to the resident copper in the lattice. The nanostructures were synthesized through a size-controlled hot-injection process, which was adaptable to the surface ligation processes. The nanostructures were then characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and photoluminescence analysis to measure crystallite nature, size, luminescence, composition, and band-gap analyses. Antiprotozoal efficiency of the current nanoparticles revealed the photodynamic killing of Leishmania protozoan, thus acting as efficient metal-based photosensitizers. The crystalline nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility when tested for macrophage toxicity and in hemolysis assays. The study opens a wide avenue for using toxic material in resident nontoxic forms as an effective antiprotozoal treatment.

  20. New insights into the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity in Se-modified anatase TiO2 from screened coulomb hybrid DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-12-05

    We report a systematic study on the optoelectronic properties of Se-modified anatase TiO2 investigated by DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 formalism to guarantee accurate band gap and electronic excitation predictions. Various selenium species at substitutional sites for O or Ti, at interstitial sites, as well as at mixed substitutional/interstitial sites are studied. Among the explored structures, Ti(1-2x)O2Se2x (containing Se4+ species), TiO(2-x)Sex (containing Se2- species), and TiO(2-x)Se2x (containing Se2 2- species) reveal significant enhanced visible-light optical absorption spectra with new absorption features appearing at 500, 600, and 690 nm, respectively. Our calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in available experimental works. The band gap narrowing in these materials originates from incorporation of newly occupied electronic levels within 0.5-1.5 eV above the original valence band of TiO 2, leading to new narrowed band gaps of 2.5, 2.0, and 1.8 eV respectively. Our calculations also reveal suitable band positions of Ti (1-2x)O2Se2x and TiO(2-x)Se x for overall water splitting, whereas TiO(2-x)Se 2x shows an unsuitable valence band position for the oxygen evolution reaction. In contrast, the localized electronic character of the new occupied states on the Se 4p orbitals and only on the O 2p orbitals linked to the Se species makes the holes mobility limited in this material and the recombination rate of charge carriers greatly increased in the bulk. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Preparation of the MoS2/TiO2/HMFs ternary composite hollow microfibres with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanjia; Wan, Junmin; Yang, Ziang; Hu, Zhiwen

    2017-09-15

    A novel route for synthesis of MoS2/TiO2/hollow microfibers (HMFs) ternary composite photocatalyst using sol-gel method combined with high temperature calcination under a nitrogen circumstances was reported for the first time. The morphology, structure and optical properties of the novel MoS2/TiO2/HMFs photocatalysts were fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), specific surface area (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradating Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation. The results showed the MoS2/TiO2/HMFs ternary composite hollow microfibre photocatalysts had a purification of more than 98.7% for MB and RB of simulating wastewater, and acquired the superior synergistic effect of adsorption and catalysis for organic pollutants. That's because the sensitization of MoS2 enlarged the wavelength response range to the visible region of the solar spectrum, the HMFs could beneficially increase adsorption capability for organic pollutants, and the mixed crystalline phase of TiO2 accelerated the decomposition of organic pollutant. A detailed study of involved active species unraveled the mechanism regarding photocatalysis. So, the synergistic photocatalytic effect of HMFs, TiO2 and MoS2 was very important and significant for wastewater treatment or prevention of air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse.

  3. Ti3+ self-doped mesoporous black TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite as remarkable visible light photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqiao; Cao, Yan; Li, Zhenzi; Yang, Shilin; Xing, Zipeng

    2017-12-01

    Ti3+ self-doped mesoporous black TiO2/SiO2 composite is successfully synthesized by a solvothermal reaction, followed by calcination at 450 °C and hydrogenation at 500 °C. The structures and morphologies of the resultant samples are investigated. The consequences suggest that Ti3+ self-doped mesoporous black TiO2/SiO2 composites have a high surface area of ∼300 m2 g-1, a relative large pore size of ∼4 nm and pore volume of ∼0.35 cm3 g-1. The introduction of SiO2 stabilizes the mesoporous networks and prevents the collapse of the channels during the calcination process, which not only improves the crystallinity of TiO2, but also maintains the mesoporous frameworks. The prepared composite with narrow bandgap of ∼2.79 eV exhibits outstanding property for removal of dye and the production of H2 under AM 1.5 irradiation, which is higher compared with the pristine TiO2 composite. This is attributed to the Ti3+ self-doping reducing the bandgap and benefiting the absorption of visible light, the mesoporous frameworks favoring the diffusion of reactants and products, and providing abundant surface active sites.

  4. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Visible-Light Activity for Photo-Oxidation of Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile wet chemical method was adopted for preparing highly photoactive nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 powders with visible responsive capability, which could be achieved by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP in the ammonium hydroxide precursor solution in various concentrations and then calcined at different temperatures. The N-TiO2 powders were characterized, and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene gas under visible light irradiation to optimize the synthesizing conditions of N-TiO2 catalyst. The N-TiO2 photocatalytic powders were calcined in a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C and obviously found to have greater photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 P25. The strong absorption in the visible light region could be ascribed to good crystallization and adapted sinter temperature of as prepared sample. XPS test demonstrated that the N was doped into TiO2 lattice and made an interstitial formation (Ti-O-N, and N doping also retarded the phase transformation from anatase to rutile as well. The N-TiO2 catalyst prepared with 150 mL ammonium hydroxide added and calcined at 500°C showed the best photocatalytic activity. The experimental results also proved the enhanced photoactivity of N-TiO2 material depends on the synthesizing conditions.

  5. Palladium nanoparticles anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hon Leong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Freely assembled palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs on titania (TiO2 nano photocatalysts were successfully synthesized through a photodeposition method using natural sunlight. This synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst (Pd/TiO2 was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, BET surface area, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS, Raman and photoluminescence (PL analyses. The simple and smart synthesis anchored well the deposition with controlled Pd NPs size ranging between 17 and 29 nm onto the surface of TiO2. Thus, it gives the characteristic for Pd NPs to absorb light in the visible region obtained through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPRs. Apparently, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by degrading the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC amoxicillin (AMX excited under an artificial visible light source. In the preliminary run, almost complete degradation (97.5% was achieved in 5 h with 0.5 wt % Pd loading and the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability trend proved the photostability of the prepared photocatalysts. Hence, the study provides a new insight about the modification of TiO2 with noble metals in order to enhance the absorption in the visible-light region for superior photocatalytic performance.

  6. A comparative study of two techniques for determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation: Photocatalytic reduction of dye and photocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-Il; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Abrams, Billie

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doping (N-doping) is a popular strategy for promoting the absorption of visible light in TiO2 and other photocatalysts. We have grown TiO2 nanotubes onto non-conducting Pyrex in a one step process via single layer titanium films. In an attempt to improve the self-cleaning ability of vert...

  7. Copper modified TiO2 catalysts: application to nitrobenzenes degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Shui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper doped TiO2 by the method of sol-gel preparation was conducted to stimulate the TiO2 visible light response and enhance the performance of photocatalytic degradation. By XRD, SEM and EDS analysis, molar ratio of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 1.0% Cu doped TiO2 presented smaller grain sizes (20-50 nm than German P25 TiO2 (50-100 nm. Especially, 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 presented the highest and finest degree of crystallinity from XRD peak. Its reunion phenomenon was the weakest among all Cu doped TiO2. Combined with Cu doping structure, micro stress changes as well as the performance of the degradation of nitrobenzenes (NBs, the optimum mol ratio of Cu doped TiO2 was 1.5%. With 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 for 180 min UV light degradation of NBs, the removal efficiency was 60.02%, two times higher than that of Germany P25 TiO2. The reaction of NBs photocatalytic degradation by CuxTi(1-xO2 followed first order kinetics. Synthetically, SEM, ESD and performances of NBs degradation confirmed that the optimal formula of CuxTi(1-xO2 for degradation of NBs was Cu0.0183Ti0.9817O2.

  8. Enhanced visible light activity on direct contact Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Direct contact Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposites without an electron mediator are prepared via simple annealing the mixture of bulk g-C3N4 and nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in air at 600 °C for 2 h. In the process of annealing, the bulk g-C3N4 transformed to ultra-thin g-C3N4 nanosheets, and NTA converted to a novel anatase TiO2, then the two components formed a close interaction. The XPS result reveals that some amount of nitrogen is doped into this novel-TiO2, and g-C3N4 nanosheets exist in the composites. The results of XRD, TEM and TG indicate that the thickness of g-C3N4 nanosheets is very thin. The ESR spectrum shows the existence of Ti3+ and single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy in the 30%g-C3N4-TiO2 composites. In photocatalytic activity test, the 30%g-C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposites showed an excellent photo-oxidation activity of propylene under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm), and the removal efficiency of propylene reached as high as 56.6%, and the activity kept nearly 82% after four consecutive recycles. Photoluminescence (PL) result using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule indicated that the g-C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposites displayed a Z-sheme photocatalytic reaction system and this should be the main reason for the high photocatalytic activity. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed on the basis of PL result and transient photocurrent-time curves.

  9. TiO2 supported gold nanoparticles: An efficient photocatalyst for oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde and ketone in presence of visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Nibedita; Borah, Geetika; Gogoi, Pradip K.; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    An efficient heterogeneous photocatalyst composed of Au nanoparticle supported on TiO2 (anatase) is prepared by sol-gel method. This prepared nanocomposite showed good catalytic activity in the oxidation of various alcohols to aldehyde and ketone under irradiation of visible light. Various spectroscopic techniques including UV-Visible absorption spectral studies and photoluminescence study are employed to characterize the catalyst. It was also characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, XPS and ICP-AES analysis. In contrast to air and H2O2, use of TBHP as oxidant gave good yield. The reaction conditions with respect to solvent and amount of catalyst are optimized.

  10. Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO2 hybrid for the dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuying; Xie, Xiaofeng; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Tong, Shengrui; Lu, Guanhong; Pui, David Y. H.; Sun, Jing

    2017-06-01

    One-dimensional bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO2-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range in this work. Recently, metal nanowires have attracted many attention in photocatalyst research fields because of their favorable electronic transmission properties and especially in the aspect of surface plasmon resonance effects. Moreover, Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires (Cu-Ni NWs) have shown better chemical stability than ordinary monometallic nanowires in our recent works. Interestingly, it has been found that Ni sleeves of the bimetallic nanowires also can modify the Schottky barrier of interface between TiO2 and metallic conductor, so that be beneficial to the separation of photogenerated carriers in the Cu-Ni/TiO2 network topology. Hence, a novel heterostructured photocatalyst composed of Cu-Ni NWs and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated by one-step hydrolysis approach to explore its photocatalytic performance. TEM and EDX mapping images of this TiO2 NPs @Cu-Ni NWs (TCN) hybrid displayed that Cu-Ni NWs were wrapped by compact TiO2 layer and retained the one-dimensional structure in matrix. In experiments, the photocatalytic performance of the TCN nanocomposite was significantly enhanced comparing to pure TiO2. Acetaldehyde, as a common gas pollutant in the environment, was employed to evaluate the photodegradation efficiency of a series of TCN nanocomposites under continuous feeding. The TCN exhibited excellent potodegradation performance, where the dynamic photocatalytic efficiency of TCN containing 3 wt% Cu-Ni NWs was about 88% and 56% (continuous 500 ppm CH3CHO feeding, 20 SCCM) under UV and visible light, respectively. ESR results proved that the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs was inhibited significantly in TCN nanocomposite. Finally, the mechanism for electron-hole pairs' separation and transmission at Schottky barrier interface between Cu-Ni NWs and TiO2 layers has been

  11. A novel and facile synthesis of black TiO2 with improved visible-light photocatalytic H2 generation: Impact of surface modification with CTAB on morphology, structure and property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Wanwen; Xu, Dandan; Wu, Xuanmin; Cao, Liwei; Meng, Jianxin

    2017-12-01

    A novel and facile approach to prepare black TiO2 nanoparticles has been developed using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure guiding agent. CTAB has played a crucial role in the formation process of TiO2 nanoparticles by altering the morphology and pore structures, promoting the generation of oxygen vacancies and effectively improving the visible light absorption intensity. Synthetic black TiO2-CTAB-300 °C nanoparticles have a high crystallinity with regular mesoporous structure, possessing small particle size, high surface area, and an efficient response to broadband light covering the entire UV-vis-near IR spectrum. Moreover, as-prepared black TiO2-CTAB-300 °C nanoparticles showed higher photocatalytic H2 generation activity under visible light compared with control TiO2.

  12. The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

  13. Anomalous photodegradation response of Ga, N codoped TiO2 under visible light irradiations: An interplay between simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Matiullah; Yi, Zeng; Gul, Sahar Ramin; Fawad, U.; Muhammad, Wazir

    2017-11-01

    Ga and/or N doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by one pot hydrothermal method possess pure anatase phase with spherical morphology. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) explained the band gap narrowing, origin of optical absorption and the possible changes in the photocatalytic activity of synthesized nano-photocatalysts. Analysis of band structure and density of states revealed that N and Ga, N codoping introduced some partially occupied states above the valance band maximum which might influence the electron hole pair recombination. Calculations as well as experiments confirmed the shifting of absorption edge towards visible regime due to doping. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the existence of dopant atoms in the doped samples. Ga doped TiO2 samples provided the best photocatalytic activity compared to the synthesized samples attributed to the suitable band structure, enhanced optical absorption and effective separation between photoexcited carriers.

  14. Facile synthesis of TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposites: photocatalytically active material under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign and renewable precursors such as microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and TiCl4 through hydrolysis in alkaline medium without the addition of organic solvents. The as-prepared nanocompos...

  15. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...

  16. Characterization and application of the hetero-junction ZnFe2O4/TiO2 for Cr(VI) reduction under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhila, G.; Trari, M.; Bessekhouad, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The spinel ZnFe2O4 prepared by nitrate route is used as dispersed photons collector capable to sensitize TiO2 under visible light and to reduce Cr(VI) into trivalent state. The transport properties, optical and photo-electrochemical characterizations are correlated, to build the energetic diagram of the hetero-system ZnFe2O4/TiO2/CrO4 - solution. A gap of 1.97 eV is obtained for the spinel from the diffuse reflectance. The conduction band of ZnFe2O4 (-1.47 V SCE) favors the electrons injection into TiO2, permitting a physical separation of the charge carriers. The oxidation of oxalic acid by photoholes prevents the corrosion of the spinel. The best configuration ZnFe2O4 (75 %)/TiO2 (25 %) is used to catalyze the downhill reaction (2HCrO4 - + 3C2H4O4 + 1.5O2 + 8H+ → 2Cr3+ + 6CO2 + 11 H2O, ∆ G° = -557 kcal mol-1). 60 % of Cr(VI) are reduced after 3 h of visible light illumination and the photoactivity follows a first-order kinetic with a half-life of 70 min. The water reduction competes with the HCrO4 - reduction which is the reason in the regression of the photoactivity; a hydrogen evolution rate of 24 µmol mg-1 h-1 is obtained.

  17. Hierarchical visible-light-response Ag/AgCl@TiO2 plasmonic photocatalysts for organic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Chen, Deliang; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Oh

    2013-10-01

    A plasmonic photocatalyst of Ag/AgCl@TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was directly prepared by a one-step sonochemical method. Both Ag NPs and AgCl were co-deposited on TiO2 NPs to form Ag@TiO2 and Ag/AgCl@TiO2 using the method. Due to the localized surface plasmonic effects of Ag NPs, the visible-light absorbance of the Ag/AgCl@TiO2 photocatalyst was dramatically increased and the photocatalytic activity to decompose Rhodamine B was much improved under visible light. In addition, due to the advantages of the sonochemical approach, only a very small amount of Ag is required to obtain a high photocatalytic activity in the plasmonic catalyst. The mechanism for the enhancement of the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities was also analyzed.

  18. Preparation of Porous F-WO3/TiO2 Films with Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity by Microarc Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wei Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous F-WO3/TiO2 (mTiO2 films are prepared on titanium sheet substrates using microarc oxidation (MAO technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that visible-light (Vis enabling mTiO2 films with a very high content of anatase TiO2 and high loading of WO3 are successfully synthesized at a low applied voltage of 300 V using electrolyte contenting NaF and Na2WO4 without subsequent heat treatment. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrograph reveals that the mTiO2 films feature porous networks connected by many micron pores. The diffused reflection spectrum displays broad absorbance across the UV-Vis regions and a significant red shift in the band gap energy (∼2.23 eV for the mTiO2 film. Owing to the high specific surface area from the porous microstructure, the mTiO2 film shows a 61% and 50% rate increase in the photocatalytic dye degradation, as compared with the N,C-codoped TiO2 films under UV and Vis irradiation, respectively.

  19. Ultrathin TiO2 layer coated-CdS spheres core-shell nanocomposite with enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-12-26

    Development of various strategies for controllable fabrication of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) with highly active photocatalytic performance has been attracting ever-increasing research attention. In particular, control of the ultrathin layer TiO2 shell in constructing CSNs in an aqueous phase is a significant but technologically challenging issue. Here, this paper demonstrates the interface assembly synthesis of CdS nanospheres@TiO2 core-shell photocatalyst via the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged water-stable titania precursor with positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs), followed by the formation of the ultrathin-layer TiO2 shell through a facile refluxing process in aqueous phase. The as-formed CdS NSPs@TiO2 core-shell nanohybrid exhibits a high visible-light-driven photoactivity for selective transformation and reduction of heavy metal ions. The ultrathin TiO2 layer coated on CdS NSPs results in excellent light transmission property, enhanced adsorption capacity, and improved transfer of charge carriers and lifespan of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which would prominently contribute to the significant photoactivity enhancement. It is anticipated that this facile aqueous-phase synthesis strategy could be extended to design a variety of more efficient CSN photocatalysts with controllable morphology toward target applications in diverse photoredox processes.

  20. Synergetic Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 with Visible Light by Sensitization Using a Novel Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna-Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-pot synthesis of a novel A3B-type asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine (AZnPc was developed. The phthalocyanine complex was characterized unambiguously and used to prepare a TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst to enhance its photocatalytic activity in the visible range. Different compositions of the phthalocyanine dye were tested in order to find the optimum amount of sensitizer to get the highest activity during the photocatalytic tests. The hybrid photocatalyst was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and its photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the individual components considering the effects of sensitization on their efficiency to degrade Rhodamine B as a model reaction. A synergic improvement of the photocatalytic activity for the hybrid system was explained in terms of an improved electron injection from the photo-activated phthalocyanine to the TiO2. Considering the structural features of the phthalocyanine sensitizer and their effect on aggregation, some mechanistic aspects of its binding to TiO2 are suggested to account for the photocatalytic activity enhancement. Finally, the inhibitory effect on the sprouting of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica was evaluated in order to test the toxicity of the water effluent obtained after the photodegradation process. According to our growth inhibition assays, it was found that the Rh-B degradation by-products do not lead to an acute toxicity.

  1. Cu2ZnSnS4@TiO2 p-n heterostructured nanosheet arrays: Controllable hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-06-01

    We have designed and fabricated a novel particle/sheet p-n heterostructural nanosheet arrays of Cu2ZnSnS4@TiO2 via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The results from characterizations of SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectra, XPS, and UV-vis spectrophotometer indicate that p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were successfully assembled on the vertically oriented TiO2 nanosheet arrays, forming three-dimensional distributed p-n heterostructural film photocatalyst, which could efficiently expand spectral response, promote photoinduced charges separation, and increase the specific surface areas for photocatalytic reaction, and then strengthen samples' visible light-driven photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, we found that the absorption edges of the samples exhibited the red shift from 390 nm to 700 nm with the CZTS deposition time. The results of photocatalytic degradation methyl orange (MO) showed that the new type CZTS@TiO2 p-n heterostructural nanosheet arrays with 24 h hydrothermal reaction revealed the optimal degradation rate of K = 1.2 h-1, about 6.6 times higher than that of the pure TiO2 nanosheet arrays under the same conditions; and also demonstrated an excellent stability and reusability during the cyclic experiments, which would be primarily attributed to optimal loading capacities of CZTS nanoparticles and an adequate built-in electric field at their interfaces of p-n heterostructures.

  2. Heterojunctions of mixed phase TiO2 nanotubes with Cu, CuPt, and Pt nanoparticles: interfacial band alignment and visible light photoelectrochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Piyush; Zhang, Yun; Mahdi, Najia; Thakur, Ujwal K.; Wiltshire, Benjamin D.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2018-01-01

    Anodically formed, vertically oriented, self-organized cylindrical TiO2 nanotube arrays composed of the anatase phase undergo an interesting morphological and phase transition upon flame annealing to square-shaped nanotubes composed of both anatase and rutile phases. This is the first report on heterojunctions consisting of metal nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on square-shaped TiO2 nanotube arrays (STNAs) with mixed rutile and anatase phase content. A simple photochemical deposition process was used to form Cu, CuPt, and Pt NPs on the STNAs, and an enhancement in the visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting performance for the NP-decorated STNAs was observed over the bare STNAs. Under narrow band illumination by visible photons at 410 nm and 505 nm, Cu NP-decorated STNAs performed the best, producing photocurrents 80% higher and 50 times higher than bare STNAs, respectively. Probing the energy level structure at the NP–STNA interface using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Schottky barrier formation in the NP-decorated STNAs, which assists in separating the photogenerated charge carriers, as also confirmed by longer charge carrier lifetimes in NP-decorated STNAs. While all the NP-decorated STNAs showed enhanced visible light absorption compared to the bare STNAs, only the Cu NPs exhibited a clear plasmonic behavior with an extinction cross section that peaked at 550 nm.

  3. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Jia, Li; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Li-Qiang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted N-TiO2/C) were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment in the presence of l-lysine, which acts as a ligand to control the nanocrystal growth and as a source of nitrogen and carbon. As-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation at λ >= 400 nm. The results show that N-TiO2/C nanocomposites increase absorption in the visible light region and exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, commercial P25 and previously reported N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts. We have demonstrated that the nitrogen was doped into the lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of the photocatalysts. N-doping narrows the band gap and C-modification enhances the visible light harvesting and accelerates the separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activity is significantly improved. The molar ratio of l-lysine/TiCl4 and the pH of the hydrothermal reaction solution are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity of the N-TiO2/C the optimum molar ratio of l-lysine/TiCl4 is 8 and the optimum pH is ca. 4, at which the catalyst exhibits the highest reactivity. Our findings demonstrate that the as-obtained N-TiO2/C photocatalyst is a better and more promising candidate than well studied N-doped TiO2 alternatives as visible light photocatalysts for potential applications in

  4. Highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic hydrogen production from a novel Z-scheme Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guowei; Ma, Xue; Wei, Shengnan; Li, Siyi; Qiao, Jing; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the preparation of a novel Z-scheme photocatalyst, Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite, for visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production is reported for the first time. In this photocatalyst, Au nanoparticles as conduction band co-catalyst provide more active sites to enrich electrons. Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2 as composite redox cycle system thoroughly separates the photo-generated electrons and holes. In addition, Er3+:YAlO3 as up-conversion luminescence agent (from visible-light to ultraviolet-light) provides enough ultraviolet-light for satisfying the energy demand of wide band-gap semiconductors (TiO2 and Ta2O5). The photocatalytic hydrogen production can be achieved from methanol as sacrificial agent (electron donor) under visible-light irradiation. The main influence factors such as initial solution pH and molar ratio of TiO2 and Ta2O5 on visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite are discussed in detail. The results show that the Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite with 1.0:0.5 M ratio of TiO2 and Ta2O5 in methanol aqueous solution at pH = 6.50 displays the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production activity. Furthermore, a high level of photocatalytic activity can be still maintained within three cycles under the same conditions. It implies that the prepared Z-scheme Er3+:YAlO3/Ta2O5-V5+||Fe3+-TiO2/Au coated composite may be a promising photocatalyst utilizing solar energy for hydrogen production.

  5. Visible-light-driven oxidation of primary C-H bonds over CdS with dual co-catalysts graphene and TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-11-22

    Selective activation of primary C-H bonds for fine chemicals synthesis is of crucial importance for the sustainable exploitation of available feedstocks. Here, we report a viable strategy to synthesize ternary GR-CdS-TiO2 composites with an intimate spatial integration and sheet-like structure, which is afforded by assembling two co-catalysts, graphene and TiO2, into the semiconductor CdS matrix with specific morphology as a visible light harvester. The GR-CdS-TiO2 composites are able to serve as a highly selective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for oxidation of saturated primary C-H bonds using benign oxygen as oxidant under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates a wide, promising scope of adopting co-catalyst strategy to design more efficient semiconductor-based photocatalyst toward selective activation of C-H bonds using solar light and molecular oxygen.

  6. Facile One-Step Route for the Development of in Situ Cocatalyst-Modified Ti(3+) Self-Doped TiO2 for Improved Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raju; Govindarajan, Sivakumar; Siri Kiran Janardhana, Reddy Kunda; Rao, Tata Narasinga; Joshi, Shrikant Vishwanath; Anandan, Srinivasan

    2016-10-05

    Development of visible-light-driven photocatalysts by employing a relatively simple, efficient, and cost-effective one-step process is essential for commercial applications. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of in situ Cu-ion modified Ti(3+) self-doped rutile TiO2 by such a facile one-step solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process using a water-soluble titanium precursor. In the SPPS process, Ti(3+) self-doping on Ti(4+) of rutile TiO2 is found to take place because of electron transfer from the created oxygen vacancies to Ti(4+)-ions. In situ Cu modification of the above Ti(3+) self-doped rutile TiO2 by additionally introducing a Cu solution into plasma plume is also demonstrated. While the Ti(3+) self-doping induces broad absorption in the visible-light region, the addition of Cu ion leads to even broader absorption in the visible region owing to resulting synergistic properties. The above materials were evaluated for various self-cleaning photocatalytic applications under visible-light illumination. Cu-ion modified Ti(3+) self-doped rutile TiO2 is noted to exhibit a remarkably enhanced visible-light activity in comparison with Ti(3+) self-doped rutile TiO2, with the latter itself outperforming commercial TiO2 photocatalysts, thereby suggesting the suitability of the material for indoor applications. The broad visible-light absorption by Ti(3+) self-doping, the holes with strong oxidation power generated in the valence band, and electrons in Ti(3+) isolated states that are effectively separated into the high reductive sites of Cu ions upon visible-light irradiation, accounts for improved photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the synthesis process (SPPS) provides a valuable alternative to orthodox multistep processes for the preparation of such visible-light-driven photocatalysts.

  7. Fabrication of PAN@TiO2/Ag nanofibrous membrane with high visible light response and satisfactory recyclability for dye photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Li, Yuan; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Although TiO2-based photocatalysts have exhibited a great potential for degradation of organic pollutants, it is still necessary to simultaneously enhance their visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency and physical recyclability. Herein, highly efficient, visible-light-driven photocatalytically active, and recyclable nanofibrous membranes with thin TiO2/Ag heterojunction layer are prepared using electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane as the substrate. By regulating the concentration and hydrolysis process of Ti precursors, TiO2 nanoparticles steadily grow on the PAN nanofibers with high-specific surface area to form a continuous mesoporous shell with the thickness of 20 nm for efficient degradation of organic pollutants. Furthermore, to form a stable heterojunction structure, Ag nanoparticles are deposited on the TiO2 surface by using dopamine as a binder and reductant. The presence of Ag nanoparticles leads to an obvious red-shift from 380 nm to 490 nm, which improves the utilization efficiency of visible light, and reduces the electron/hole recombination rate simultaneously. The resulting PAN@TiO2/Ag membranes hold enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation within 1 h under visible light irradiation, and satisfactory recyclability, which endow them with a great potential for adsorption and photocatalytic applications.

  8. Highly ordered monolayer/bilayer TiO2 hollow sphere films with widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Qin, Yao; Jin, Chao; Li, Ying; Shi, Donglu; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Gan, Lihua; Yang, Jinhu

    2013-06-07

    Monolayer and bilayer TiO2 hollow hemisphere/sphere (THH/THS) films consisting of highly ordered hexagonal-patterned THHs/THSs with thin shells of ~10 nm and different diameters of ~170 and ~470 nm have been prepared by templating of two-dimensional polystyrene sphere (PS) assembly films coupled with TiO2 sputtering/wet coating approaches. Owing to their precisely adjustable structural parameters, such as THH/THS shape and diameter as well as film layer thickness, the prepared THH/THS films exhibit widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands, i.e. from 380 to 850 nm for reflection and 390 to 520 nm for absorption, respectively. The mechanism of the novel optical behaviors of the THH/THS films has been discussed in depth, combined with some calculations according to Bragg's law. In addition, photocatalytic experiments of RhB degradation employing the THH/THS films as recyclable catalysts have been conducted. The THH/THS films with controlled structures and precisely tunable optical properties are attractive for a wide range of applications, such as recyclable catalysts for photocatalysis, efficient oxide electrodes or scattering layers for solar cells, gas-permeable electrode materials for high-performance sensors and so on.

  9. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2modified with hydrotalcite and iron oxide under UV-visible irradiation for color and toxicity reduction in secondary textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Mounteer, Ann H; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Laís Miguelina Marçal da; Brant Dias, Santos Henrique; Silva, Priscila Romana da

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ADMI color removal from a biologically treated textile mill effluent by heterogeneous photocatalysis with UV-visible irradiation (UV-vis) using a novel catalyst composed of TiO 2 supported on hydrotalcite and doped with iron oxide (HT/Fe/TiO 2 ). Simulated biological treatment of solutions of the dyes (50 mg/L) used in the greatest amounts at the mill where the textile effluent was collected resulted in no color removal in reactive dye solutions and about 50% color removal in vat dye solutions, after 96 h, indicating that the secondary effluent still contained a large proportion of anionic reactive dyes. Photocatalytic treatments were carried out with TiO 2 and HT/Fe/TiO 2 of Fe:Ti molar ratios of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1, with varying catalyst doses (0-3 mg/L), initial pH values (4-10) and UV-vis times (0-6 h). The highest ADMI color removal with unmodified TiO 2 was found at a dose of 2 g/L and pH 4, an impractical pH value for industrial application. The most efficient composite was HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 at pH 10, also at a dose of 2 g/L, which provided more complete ADMI color removal, from 303 to 9 ADMI color units (96%), than unmodified TiO 2 , from 303 to 37 ADMI color units (88%), under the same conditions. Hydroxyl radicals were responsible for the color reduction, since when 2-propanol, an OH scavenger, was added color removal was very low. For this reason, the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite performed better at pH 10, because the higher concentration of hydroxide ions present at higher pH favored hydroxyl radical formation. COD reductions were relatively low and similar, approximately 20% for both catalysts after 6 h under UV-vis, because of the low initial COD (78 mg/L). Secondary effluent toxicity to Daphnia similis (EC 50  = 70.7%) was reduced by photocatalysis with TiO 2 (EC 50  = 95.0%) and the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite (EC 50  = 78.6%). HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 was reused five times and still lowered

  10. Three-dimensional ruthenium-doped TiO 2 sea urchins for enhanced visible-light-responsive H 2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Vovchok, Dimitriy; Llorca, Jordi; Sallis, Shawn; Kattel, Shyam; Xu, Wenqian; Piper, Louis F. J.; Polyansky, Dmitry E.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) monodispersed sea urchin-like Ru-doped rutile TiO2 hierarchical architectures composed of radially aligned, densely-packed TiO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized via an acid-hydrothermal method at low temperature without the assistance of any structure-directing agent and post annealing treatment. The addition of a minuscule concentration of ruthenium dopants remarkably catalyze the formation of the 3D urchin structure and drive the enhanced photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiation, not possible on undoped and bulk rutile TiO2. Increasing ruthenium doping dosage not only increases the surface area up to 166 m2 g-1 but also induces enhanced photo response in the regime of visible and near infrared light. The doping introduces defect impurity levels, i.e. oxygen vacancy and under-coordinated Ti3+, significantly below the conduction band of TiO2, and ruthenium species act as electron donors/acceptors that accelerate the photogenetated hole and electron transfer and efficiently suppress the rapid charge recombination, therefore improving the visible-light-driven activity.

  11. Preparation of Yb, N, and F doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite films for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxiao; Chen, Yang; Tang, Liang; Wei, Shengnan; Song, Yahui; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Several up-conversion luminescent materials (Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Yb doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Yb and N co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Yb and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12, and Yb, N, and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12) were synthesized using sol-gel method. The corresponding TiO2 composite films (Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Yb doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Yb and N co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Yb and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, and Yb, N, and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2) were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The UV-Vis absorption and PL spectra of Er3+:Y3Al5O12 were also determined. The visible-light photocatalytic activity of the synthesized materials was evaluated in the degradation of Azo Fuchsine (AF) dye in aqueous solution. The concentration of the dye was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Some key factors, such as layer number, heat-treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of Yb, N, and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite films were studied. The doping of Yb, N, and F into Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 significantly enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film in the degradation of organic dyes. The experiments also indicated that the Yb, N, and F co-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film has a good visible-light photocatalytic activity to degrade other organic dyes under visible-light irradiation.

  12. Fotocatálisis con TiO2/ultravioleta y TiO2 CuSO4/visible como sistemas de desinfección para inactivar E. coli proveniente de agua residual doméstica

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva Jaramillo, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    El proceso de interés fue la fotocatálisis heterogénea con TiO2. Se elaboraron películas con el TiO2, sinterizadas a diferentes temperaturas, por la técnica sol-gel/sedimentación. Se realizó una caracterización física mediante: XRD, SEM, barrido UV-Vis y EDS. Por XRD se encontró para películas sol-gel la fase cristalina anatasa con planos (101), (004), (200), (105) y (211) el control TiO2 USP presentó las fases anatasa y rutilo. La mayor formación de agregados se observó en películas control ...

  13. Visible Light-Responsive Platinum-Containing Titania Nanoparticle-Mediated Photocatalysis Induces Nucleotide Insertion, Deletion and Substitution Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Der-Shan; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Wu, Wen-Shiang; Wong, Ming-Show; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-12-28

    Conventional photocatalysts are primarily stimulated using ultraviolet (UV) light to elicit reactive oxygen species and have wide applications in environmental and energy fields, including self-cleaning surfaces and sterilization. Because UV illumination is hazardous to humans, visible light-responsive photocatalysts (VLRPs) were discovered and are now applied to increase photocatalysis. However, fundamental questions regarding the ability of VLRPs to trigger DNA mutations and the mutation types it elicits remain elusive. Here, through plasmid transformation and β-galactosidase α-complementation analyses, we observed that visible light-responsive platinum-containing titania (TiO₂) nanoparticle (NP)-mediated photocatalysis considerably reduces the number of Escherichia coli transformants. This suggests that such photocatalytic reactions cause DNA damage. DNA sequencing results demonstrated that the DNA damage comprises three mutation types, namely nucleotide insertion, deletion and substitution; this is the first study to report the types of mutations occurring after photocatalysis by TiO₂-VLRPs. Our results may facilitate the development and appropriate use of new-generation TiO₂ NPs for biomedical applications.

  14. Two-Step, One-Pot Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive 6-Azopurines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarski, Dušan; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-10-06

    The first general two-step, one-pot synthetic route to 6-azopurines is presented. Microwave-assisted nucleophilic aromatic substitution of protected 6-chloropurines with hydrazines or hydrazides, followed by metal-free oxidation with oxygen, gives 6-azopurines in high to excellent yields. Photophysical studies revealed intensive n-π* absorption band that makes trans-to-cis photoswitching possible using visible light (λ = 530 nm).

  15. Preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity of carbon nitride/titania(001 vs 101 facets)/reduced graphene oxide (g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO) hybrids under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meina; Yu, Jianhua; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenli; Fan, Minguang; Li, Bin; Dong, Lihui

    2016-12-01

    Herein, a novel photocatalyst, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with both exposed (101) and (001) facets synchronously incorporated with g-C3N4 and graphene, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step solvothermal route. The morphology and structure of as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Efficiency of the prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO), Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light irradiation. Improved photocatalytic activity in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO is observed owing to higher specific surface area and enhanced visible light absorption capability. Most importantly, the in situ g-C3N4 and rGO doping might enhance the interaction among g-C3N4, TiO2 (001 vs 101) and rGO, which generates more synergistic heteroconjunctions in g-C3N4/TiO2/rGO facilitating a fast electron transfer at the interface among them. This synergistic approach could prove useful for the design and development of other visible light active photocatalysts with high chemical stability.

  16. Photocatalytic Bactericidal Efficiency of Ag Doped TiO2/Fe3O4 on Fish Pathogens under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Ekkachai Kanchanatip; Nurak Grisdanurak; Naichia Yeh; Ta Chih Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluates photocatalytic bactericidal efficiencies of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 in visible light using target pollutants that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The investigation started with Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 synthesis and calcination followed by a series of product tests that include the examination of crystallite phase, light absorption, element composition morphology, and magnetic properties. The results of the experiment indicate...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenospheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaomin; Zhu, Jinglin; Yang, Qing; Xu, Pengpeng; Ge, Jianhua; Guo, Xuetao

    2016-03-01

    A cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenosphere composite (denoted Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres) was successfully synthesized via a two-step approach. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiment showed that the rhodamine B degradation rate with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was 1.56 and 1.33 times higher than that with AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres and Ag@AgCl, respectively. The degradation ratio of rhodamine B with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was nearly 100% within 120 min under visible light. Analysis of active species indicated that radO2- and h+ dominated the reaction, and radOH participated in the photocatalytic reactions as an active species. A mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation by the Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres was also proposed based on the experimental results.

  18. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  19. TiO2 Nanocatalysts Supported on a Hybrid Carbon-Covered Alumina Support: Comparison between Visible Light and UV Light Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphilisi M. Mahlambi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania nanoparticles were successfully supported on carbon-covered alumina (CCA supports via the impregnation method to form carbon-covered alumna titania (CCA/TiO2. The CCA supports were synthesised through an equilibrium adsorption of toluene 2,4-diisocyante where the N=C=O irreversibly adsorbs on the alumina and pyrolysis at 700°C affords CCA supports. These CCA/TiO2 nanocatalysts were tested for their photocatalytic activity both under UV and visible light using Rhodamine B as a model pollutant. The reaction rate constant of the CCA/TiO2 was found to be higher than that of unsupported titania and the reaction kinetics were found to follow an apparent first-order rate law. The CCA/TiO2 nanocatalysts had a much larger surface area than the unsupported titania and they exhibited overall higher photodegradation efficiency under both UV and visible light than unsupported TiO2.

  20. Microemulsion synthesis, characterization of highly visible light responsive rare earth-doped Bi2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuxing; Fang, Jianzhang; Xu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Zhang; Zhu, Ximiao; Xu, Weicheng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Bi(2)O(3) and rare earth (La, Ce)-doped Bi(2)O(3) visible-light-driven photocatalysts were prepared in a Triton X-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water reverse microemulsion. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, photoluminescence spectra (PLS) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the as-prepared catalysts calcined at 500 °C exhibited only the characteristic peaks of monoclinic α-Bi(2)O(3). PLS analysis implied that the separation efficiency for electron-hole has been enhanced when Bi(2)O(3) was doped with rare earth. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements presented an extension of light absorption into the visible region. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The results displayed that the photocatalytic activity of rare earth-doped Bi(2)O(3) was higher than that of dopant-free Bi(2)O(3). The optimal dopant amount of La or Ce was 1.0 mol%. And the mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the catalysts were discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Au-TiO2 Nanocomposites and Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production under UV-Visible and Visible Light Illuminations: A Comparison of Different Crystalline Forms of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Jose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available nanocomposites were prepared by the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD method, and the as-prepared samples were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, powder XRD, BET surface analysis measurements, and transmission electron microscopy bright field imaging. The particle size of the embedded Au nanoparticles ranged from 1 to 10 nm. These Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were used for photocatalytic hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor like ethanol or methanol under UV-visible and visible light illumination. These nanocomposites showed very good photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production under UV-visible conditions, whereas under visible light illumination, there was considerably less hydrogen produced. Au/P25 gave a hydrogen evolution rate of 1600 μmol/h in the presence of ethanol (5 volume % under UV-visible illumination. In the case of Au/TiO2 prepared by the SMAD method, the presence of Au nanoparticles serves two purposes: as an electron sink gathering electrons from the conduction band (CB of TiO2 and as a reactive site for water/ethanol reduction to generate hydrogen gas. We also observed hydrogen production by water splitting in the absence of a sacrificial electron donor using Au/TiO2 nanocomposites under UV-visible illumination.

  2. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-05

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carrier dynamics of a visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 photoanode for water oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Ziani, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of a tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) photoanode were investigated in detail to understand the fundamental aspects associated with the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. The Ta3N5 thin films were synthesized using DC magnetron sputtering followed by annealing in air and nitridation under ammonia (NH3). A polycrystalline structure with a dense morphology of the monoclinic Ta3N5 films was obtained. A relatively low absorption coefficient (104 to 105 cm-1) in the visible light range was measured for Ta3N5, consistent with the nature of the indirect band-gap. Ultra-fast spectroscopic measurements revealed that the Ta3N5 with different thicknesses films possess low transport properties and fast carrier recombination (<10 ps). These critical kinetic properties of Ta3N5 as a photoanode may necessitate high overpotentials to achieve appreciable photocurrents for water oxidation (onset ∼0.6 V vs. RHE). This journal is

  4. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity of Cr 3+ , Ce 3+ and N co-doped TiO 2 for the degradation of humic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Cr3+ and Ce3+ co-doped TiON (N-doped TiO2) for the degradation of humic acid with exposure to visible light is reported. The synthesized bimetal (Cr3+ + Ce3+) modified TiON (Cr-Ce/TiON), with an evaluated bandgap of 2.1 eV, exhibited an enhanced spectral response in the visible region as compared to pure and Ce3+ doped TiON (Ce/TiON). The XRD analysis revealed the insertion of Cr3+ and Ce3+ in the crystal lattice along with Ti4+ and N that resulted in the formation of a strained TiON anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ∼10 nm. Raman analysis also supported the formation of stressed rigid structures after bimetal doping. HRTEM confirmed the homogeneous distribution of both the doped metallic components in the crystal lattice of TiON without the formation of surface oxides of either Cr3+ or Ce3+. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis revealed no change in the oxidation of either Cr or Ce during the synthesis. The synthesized Cr-Ce/TiON catalyst exhibited appreciable photocatalytic activity for the degradation of humic acid on exposure to visible light. Additionally, a noticeable mineralization of carbon rich humic acid was also witnessed. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized catalyst was compared with pristine and Ce3+ doped TiON. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  6. On the origin of the visible light responsible for proton dose measurement using plastic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Taleei, Reza; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally and by means of Monte Carlo simulations investigated the origin of the visible signal responsible for proton therapy dose measurement using bare plastic optical fibers. Experimentally, the fiber optic probe, embedded in tissue-mimicking plastics, was irradiated with a proton beam produced by a proton therapy cyclotron and the luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectrum of the fiber tip. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and optical emission of Čerenkov radiation. The spectroscopic study of proton-irradiated plastic fibers showed a continuous spectrum with shape different from that of Čerenkov radiation. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed that the amount of the generated Čerenkov light does not follow the radiation absorbed dose in a medium. Our results show that the origin of the optical signal responsible for the proton dose measurement using bare optical fibers is not Čerenkov radiation. Our results point toward a connection between the scintillation of the plastic material of the fiber and the origin of the signal responsible for dose measurement.

  7. A novel 3D inorganic heteropoly blue as visible light responsive photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bao-Li; Li, Wen; Wang, Jinag-Hong; Liu, Qing-Bo; Long, Jiang-Ying; Li, Yang-Guang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2014-07-14

    A new 3D extended heteropoly blue Ba4[SiW(V)4W(VI)8O40]·H2O (1) composed of twelve-coordinated α-Keggin anions [SiW(V)4W(VI)8O40](8-) and eight-coordinated Ba sites {BaO8} has been hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, XPS, single crystal X-ray and X-ray powder (XRPD) diffraction. 1 represents the first inorganic 3D framework constructed from four-electron reduced α-Keggin anions linked by alkaline earth metals. The photocatalytic activity of 1 has been evaluated for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation. 1 exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the degradation of RhB in the presence of H2O2and the involvement of visible light makes a more complete degradation. The results of the current study suggest that multi-electron reduced polyoxometalates can catalyze efficient degradation of an organic dye with H2O2.

  8. Photodegradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid under visible LED activated N-doped TiO2 and the mechanism of stepwise rate increment of the reused catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaleem, Amal; Chu, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Photodegradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) was systematically investigated using N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) under commercially available visible light emitting diode (Vis LED) as a novel Vis LED illumination in photocatalysis applications. The synergetic effect of Vis LED/N-TiO2 process was studied in detail by varying reaction conditions including the initial concentration of 4-CPA, catalyst dosage, light intensity, and initial pH. Additionally, the influence of inorganic anions and radical scavengers on the performance of the Vis LED/N-TiO2 process was also evaluated. The Vis LED/N-TiO2 was found to be a promising process in terms of mineralization of 4-CPA. It is interesting to note that the performance of this process was not reduced after successive usage of the recycled catalyst; instead, the reaction rate of 4-CPA decay actually increased by using the spent catalyst. The mechanism behind rate enhancement after/during reuse was explored by XPS and FT-IR analyses and it was proven that hydroxyl groups can be incorporated into the catalyst surface by the repeated wetting of N-TiO2 after each reuse. This facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonds between the 4-CPA molecules and N-TiO2, thereby allowing more collisions between the trapped 4-CPA and radicals at the interface of bulk solution and catalyst, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A facile in situ fabrication and visible-light-response photocatalytic properties of porous carbon sphere/InOOH nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongyang; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Weidong; Guan, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    Visible-light-response porous carbon sphere/InOOH nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal process. The grain size of the crystalline InOOH is estimated around 14 nm, and the nanocomposites show a size range from 100 to 200 nm. The as-prepared nanocomposites possess a porous structure and a specific surface area of 45 m2 g-1. A possible in situ formation process was proposed after conducting a series of contrast experiments. Carbon spheres (CSs) were suggested to act as spherical templates and reducing reagents during the synthesis process of nanocomposites. The whole process involves the hydrolysis of indium ions, the redox reactions on surfaces groups of the CSs, and the dehydration of indium hydroxide. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum revealed a red shift of light absorption of the nanocomposites to about 600 nm compared with pure InOOH. The photocatalytic degradation for methylene blue was performed under visible light irradiation, 90 % of methylene blue was degraded after reacting for 6 h. We propose that the red shift was attributed to the interaction between carbon sphere and InOOH, and the CSs may act as photosensitizers.

  10. Modified g-C3N4/TiO2 nanosheets/ZnO ternary facet coupled heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Yu, Han; Yu, Hongbing

    2017-01-01

    Novel ternary nanocomposites with facet coupled structure were synthesized by using modified g-C3N4, TiO2 nanosheets and nano-ZnO. Nanosheet/nanosheet heterojunction structure was investigated by TEM, XPS and XRD. FT-IR and Nitrogen adsorption were illustrated for chemical/physical structure analyses. Solution of p-Toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) was chosen as target pollutant for visible light photodegradation and the excellent removal efficiency was achieved by this structurally modified g-C3N4/TiO2/ZnO hybrid. The visible light absorption improvement and quantum efficiency enhancement, which were testified by UV-vis DRS, PL and p-TSA photodegradation measurements, due to the facet coupled structure and appropriate quantity of modified g-C3N4 in the nanocomposites.

  11. Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of visible light responsive TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphene oxide heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Gao, Hongyan; Wei, Danming; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan, E-mail: yan.cao@wku.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • First to report a heterostructure of TNA with GO prepared by LB assembly. • Much better photocurrent (32 μAcm{sup −2}) of TNA-GO, contrasting to TNA (12 μAcm{sup −2}). • Schottky junction formed between TNA and GO enhanced the photocurrent. • GO on TNA improved the hydrophilicity of TNA-GO. - Abstract: The hybrid nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with graphene oxide (GO) have recently garnered much attention as electronic devices, energy conversion devices, photocatalysts and other applications. In this study, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly method was firstly reported to prepare a TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNA)-GO heterostructure. The as-prepared TNA-GO sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The promising characteristics of this TNA-GO material, the inexpensive, nontoxic and highly visible-light responsiveness, may raise the potential uses in many, various photocatalytic applications.

  12. Characterization, Degradation, and Reaction Pathways of Indoor Toluene over Visible-light-driven S, Zn Co-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H.; Lin, Y. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur and Zinc co-doped TiO2 prepared by a sol-gel method to degrade toluene under a fluorescent lamp was investigated. The results indicate that S,Zn co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts are mainly nano-size with an anatase phase structure. The degradation reactions of toluene were performed under various operation conditions. The results show that the toluene conversion increases with increasing toluene concentration and decreasing relative humidity. Based on the results of activity test, S0.05Zn0.001/TiO2 was chosen for further studies. The main oxidation products of toluene photodegradation are CO2, H2O, benzyl alcohol, acetone, butadiene and acetic acid. Two possible mechanisms have been developed for photodegradation of toluene in a dry and a humid environment.

  13. Adsorption-photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiang; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Yin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-11-15

    ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO2/BC) was prepared using the sol-gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption (BET), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO2 particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO2/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO2/BC was higher than that of TiO2/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO2/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization and application of the hetero-junction ZnFe2O4/TiO2 for Cr(VI) reduction under visible light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G Rekhila; M Trari; Y Bessekhouad

    2017-01-01

    ...) into trivalent state. The transport properties, optical and photo-electrochemical characterizations are correlated, to build the energetic diagram of the hetero-system ZnFe2O4/TiO2/CrO4 - solution. A gap...

  15. Green synthesis of highly crystalline and visible-light sensitive C-, N- and S- codoped with Ag TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been a focus of attention as chemically stable, relatively nontoxic, inexpensive and highly efficient photocatalyst applicable for a wide array of uses. However, main disadvantage that severely limits its wider use is the large band gap, 3.0 eV and 3.2...

  16. Further Investigation and Analysis on the Origin of the Optical Properties of Visible Hetero-photocatalyst TiO2/CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Nguyen Cao

    2017-10-01

    Hetero-photocatalysts TiO2/CuO were prepared by a wet impregnation process and their optical properties were characterized with a variety of techniques. The x-ray diffraction patterns corresponding to the anatase and the rutile phases of TiO2 were noticed for all the samples, but the peaks belonging to CuO crystals were observed only for samples with high CuO content (≥4 wt.%). The UV-Vis spectra show that absorption edges of the modified TiO2 were shifted toward longer wavelengths, indicating a reduction in the energy bandgap upon CuO. For photocatalytic application, the addition of CuO into TiO2 was found to increase the photodegradation of methylene blue and methylene orange with the highest photodegradation observed at CuO content of 3 wt.%. Moreover, using some extra experimental processes, we reveal how the CuO component affects the optical properties of the resulting materials.

  17. Tetrabromobisphenol A photoelectrocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide and cerium dioxide comodified TiO2 nanotube arrays as electrode under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Xing, An; Zhao, Danchen; Zhao, Kuifu

    2016-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A, one of the most important brominated retardants, is an typical persistent organic pollutant and it is of great value to develop rapid and effective degradation method. Present study established a photoelectrodegradation method with CeO2 and reduced graphene oxide co-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays (RGO-CeO2-TiO2 NAs), which were successfully synthesized and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectrometry (EDX). The SEM Images revealed that the nanotubes had a diameter of about 100 nm and an obvious layer of CeO2 and RGO on the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays. The EDX data exhibited the presence of Ce element. The results demonstrated that TBBPA was degraded at a high degradation rate constant of 0.0191 min-1, and photogenerated holes played a major role in the degradation reaction. Significant decrease of degradation efficiency was achieved with the presence of EDTA-2Na(hole scavenger), yet while the existence of t-BuOH(OH scavenger) resulted in less inhibition on the degradation. Besides, RGO-CeO2-TiO2 NAs exhibited good stability with rarely decline of degradation efficiency for ten reused runs. All these indicated that RGO-CeO2-TiO2 NAs were a good catalyst with extraordinary catalytic activity and stability for PEC degradation, and would have great potential in the control and removal of pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile, quick and selective visible-light sensing of phenol-containing drug molecules acetaminophen and biosol by use of interfacial charge-transfer transitions with TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Eda, Takumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2017-09-01

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions between inorganic semiconductors and organic compounds provide a method for facile and quick visible-light sensing of colorless organic molecules such as biologically important molecules. Here, we demonstrate facile, quick, and selective visible-light sensing of phenol-containing drug molecules 4-acetamidophenol called acetaminophen and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol called biosol by use of ICT transitions. The chemical adsorption of these phenol-containing drug molecules on TiO2 nanoparticles via the hydroxy group induces organic-to-TiO2 ICT transitions in the visible region. The ICT band is shifted depending on the substituents in the phenyl derivatives, allow the selective visible-light sensing of them.

  19. Zirconium and silver co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as visible light catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Stephen, Finian Bernard; Radhakrishnan, Adhithya; Sivakumar, A

    2015-01-25

    Catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange was studied using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The rate of the reduction/degradation was found to increase with increasing amount of the photocatalyst which could be attributed to higher dispersity and small size of the nanoparticles. The catalytic activity of Zr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed no significant difference even after recycling the catalyst four times indicating a promising potential for industrial application of the prepared photocatalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO2 and Au-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Office of Sponsored Programs 1880 Pratt Drive, Suite 2006 Blacksburg, VA 24060 -3580 REPORT DOCUMENTATION...Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO2 and Au−TiO2 Dimitar A. Panayotov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences...Degussa Technical Bulletin Pigments; Degussa AG: Frankfurt, Germany, 1990; Vol. 56, p 13. (51) Addamo, M.; Augugliaro, V.; Di Paola, A.; Garcia-Lopez

  1. Acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Ceriodaphnia dubia under visible light and dark conditions in a freshwater system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayamprava Dalai

    Full Text Available The ever increasing industrial and consumer applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs raise concern over the possible risk associated with their environmental exposure. Still, the knowledge regarding nanoparticle behavior in a freshwater ecosystem is lacking. The current study focuses on the toxicity of TiO2 NPs towards Ceriodaphnia dubia (a dominant daphnid isolated from the freshwater under two different conditions; (1 light and dark photoperiod (16:8 h and (2 continuous dark conditions, for a period of 48 h. An increase in toxicity was observed with an increase in the concentration, until a certain threshold level (under both photoperiod and dark conditions, and beyond which, reduction was noted. The decrease in toxicity would have resulted from the aggregation and settling of NPs, making them less bioavailable. The oxidative stress was one of the major contributors towards cytotoxicity under both photoperiod and dark conditions. The slow depuration of TiO2 NPs under the photoperiod conditions confirmed a higher NP bioaccumulation and thus a higher bioconcentration factor (BCF compared to dark conditions. The transmission electron micrographs confirmed the bioaccumulation of NPs and damage of tissues in the gut lining.

  2. Formation of bioactive N-doped TiO2 on Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity using NaOH, hot water, and subsequent ammonia atmospheric heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Endo, Naoko; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Furuya, Maiko; Yokota, Kotoe; Abiko, Yuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) treated with NaOH and hot water, and heated in an ammmonia (NH3) gas atmosphere for 1 or 3h exhibited in vitro apatite formation within 7days when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the treated Ti decomposed methylene blue and showed excellent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation. The surface treatment resulted in the formation of a fine network of N-doped anatase-type titania (TiO2-xNx) on the Ti surface, which was responsible for both the apatite formation in SBF and the visible light-induced antibacterial activity. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of our simple method for producing novel bioactive Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity, which could be applied to orthopaedic and dental implants without the risk of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Ta3N5 as an Efficient Visible Light-responsive Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-09-01

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This dissertation focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, and catalytic efficiency. A collection of theoretical and experimental studies of properties associated with Ta3N5 have been utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of this material. The fundamental structural and optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 have been addressed. From the electronic properties, the dielectric constant and effective masses have been calculated. Because of its high dielectric constant and relatively low effective masses, Ta3N5 is promising for photocatalytic reaction applications. Studies of lattice dynamics, optical properties, and band positions have been able to clearly show that the synthesized Ta3N5 is essentially non-stoichiometric and that a truly pure phase of Ta3N5 has never been achieved, even though XRD has shown a pure phase sample. The photophysical properties of Ta3N5, such as the absorption coefficient, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime, have been experimentally measured by synthesizing Ta3N5 thin films. Very low kinetic properties with very low transport properties and fast carrier recombination explained why overall water splitting has never been achieved with Ta3N5 as a photocatalyst to date. The extent to which the surface states of Ta3N5 photocatalysts affect

  4. Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli using g-C3N4/TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst synthesized using a hydrothermal-calcination approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Nie, Xin; Chen, Jiangyao; Jiang, Qi; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhang, Haimin; Zhao, Huijun; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    Biohazards are widely present in wastewater, and contaminated water can arouse various waterborne diseases. Therefore, effectively removing biohazards from water is a worldwide need. In this study, a novel visible-light-driven (VLD) graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst with high photocatalytic bacterial inactivation activity was successfully synthesized using a facile hydrothermal-calcination approach. The optimum synthesized hybrid photocatalyst is composed of micron-sized TiO2 spheres (average diameter: ca. 2 μm) and wrapped with lamellar g-C3N4 (thickness: ca. 2 nm), with narrowing bandgap (ca. 2.48 eV), leading to a significant improvement of visible light (VL) absorption and effective separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. This greatly enhances VL photocatalytic inactivation activity towards bacteria in water. Using this hybrid photocatalyst, 10(7) cfu mL(-1) of Escherichia coli K-12 could be completely inactivated within 180 min under VL irradiation. SEM images indicate that bacterial cells were greatly damaged, leading to a severe leakage of intracellular components during photocatalytic inactivation processes. The study concludes that bacterial cell destruction and water disinfection can be achieved using this newly fabricated VLD hybrid photocatalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Au Nanoclusters Sensitized Black TiO2-x Nanotubes for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy Driven by Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Gulzar, Arif; Yang, Guixin; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Dai, Yunlu; Zhong, Chongna; Yang, Piaoping

    2017-12-01

    The low reactive oxygen species production capability and the shallow tissue penetration of excited light (UV) are still two barriers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, Au cluster anchored black anatase TiO2-x nanotubes (abbreviated as Au25 /B-TiO2-x NTs) are synthesized by gaseous reduction of anatase TiO2 NTs and subsequent deposition of noble metal. The Au25 /B-TiO2-x NTs with thickness of about 2 nm exhibit excellent PDT performance. The reduction process increased the density of Ti3+ on the surface of TiO2 , which effectively depresses the recombination of electron and hole. Furthermore, after modification of Au25 nanoclusters, the PDT efficiency is further enhanced owing to the changed electrical distribution in the composite, which forms a shallow potential well on the metal-TiO2 interface to further hamper the recombination of electron and hole. Especially, the reduction of anatase TiO2 can expend the light response range (UV) of TiO2 to the visible and even near infrared (NIR) light region with high tissue penetration depth. When excited by NIR light, the nanoplatform shows markedly improved therapeutic efficacy attributed to the photocatalytic synergistic effect, and promotes separation or restrained recombination of electron and hole, which is verified by experimental results in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. One-Pot Solid-State Reaction Approach to Synthesize Ag-Cu2O/GO Ternary Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile ball milling-assisted solid-state reaction method was developed to synthesize Ag-Cu2O/graphene oxide (GO nanocomposites. In the resultant complex heterostructures, Ag nanocrystals were mainly deposited on the surface of Cu2O, while Ag-Cu2O composites were anchored onto GO sheets. The resultant Ag-Cu2O/GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity with 90% of methyl orange (MO dye degradation efficiency after 60 min of visible-light irradiation, which was much higher than that of either Cu2O or Ag-Cu2O. This study opens a new avenue to fabricate visible-light-responsive photocatalyst with high performance for environmental pollution purification.

  7. Visible-light-driven g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activities for organic pollutant degradation and Cr(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Zhang, Gaoke; Wan, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Novel g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets of TiO2 was synthesized via a hydrothermal-sonication assisted strategy. The photocatalytic activities of the as-obtained photocatalyst were evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and the reduction of Cr(VI) under visible-light irradiation. It was found that the g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites with 6 wt% g-C3N4 exhibited the highest visible-light photocatalytic efficiency, which is also higher than the pure g-C3N4 and Ti3+-TiO2. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed on the basis of the theoretical analyses and scavenger experiments. Results show that holes (h+) and superoxide anions (rad O2-) reactive species participated in the degradation of RhB solution over the g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites can be attributed to the wide optical adsorption of g-C3N4 and Ti3+ as well as the effectively separation and transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes pairs, which was resulted from the surface heterojunction between the g-C3N4 and Ti3+-TiO2 nanosheets co-exposed {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets of anatase TiO2.

  8. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi

    2017-11-01

    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  9. Preparation of visible-light-responsive TiO{sub 2} coatings using molten KNO{sub 3} treatment and their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Liang [Tianjin Key Lab of Integrated Design and On-line Monitoring for Light Industry & Food Machinery and Equipment, Tianjin (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering & Graduate School, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Guan, Sujun; Takaya, Shunsuke [College of Mechanical Engineering & Graduate School, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Chiba Industrial Technology Research Institute, 6-13-1, Tendai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0016 (Japan); Tochihara, Misako [JFE Techno-Research Corporation, No. 1 Kawasaki-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-0835 (Japan); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@faculty.chiba-u.jp [College of Mechanical Engineering & Graduate School, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Molten KNO{sub 3} treatment are used to prepare K-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst coatings. • The coatings show good antibacterial activity even in absence of light. • The photocatalytic activity is increased with the amount increase of K-doping. • The good antibacterial activity should come from the doping and release of K ions. - Abstract: In this work, the process of mechanical coating followed by molten KNO{sub 3} treatment is given to prepare visible-light-responsive K{sup +}-doped TiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted to characterize these TiO{sub 2} coatings. The results showed that K{sup +}-doped anatase TiO{sub 2}/Ti composite coatings formed after molten KNO{sub 3} treatment at elevated temperatures. Meanwhile, their photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also studied. The visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activity of the coatings in MB degradation increased with increase of K{sup +} ions when holding temperature was raised from 673 to 773 K. An excellent antibacterial activity of the K{sup +}-doped TiO{sub 2}/Ti coatings against E. coli was also obtained even in absence of light. The antibacterial activity in dark should attribute to the release of K{sup +} ions from the coatings. The photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation should result from the absorption spectrum extension due to the doping of K{sup +} ions into the lattice of TiO{sub 2}.

  10. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  11. Effects of bismuth addition and photo-deposition of platinum on (surface) composition, morphology and visible light photocatalytic activity of sol-gel derived TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Wentao; Yan, Chunyan; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Mul, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Several remarkable observations regarding structure, (surface) composition and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of Bi-promoted Anatase photocatalysts are reported. First, XPS characterization data show that compositions of mixed Bi-Ti-oxide phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment at

  12. Fullerene C{sub 70} decorated TiO{sub 2} nanowires for visible-light-responsive photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Er-Chieh [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Ciou, Jing-Hao [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Zheng, Jia-Huei; Pan, Job [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: yshsiao@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuen-Chan, E-mail: kclee@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jen-Hsien, E-mail: 295604@cpc.com.tw [Department of Green Material Technology, Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Kaohsiung 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanowire decorated with C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} derivatives has been synthesized. • The fullerenes impede the charge recombination due to its high electron affinity. • The fullerenes expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. • The modified-TiO{sub 2} has great biocompatibility. - Abstract: In this study, we have synthesized C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}-modified TiO{sub 2} nanowire (NW) through interfacial chemical bonding. The results indicate that the fullerenes (C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} derivatives) can act as sinks for photogenerated electrons in TiO{sub 2}, while the fullerene/TiO{sub 2} is illuminated under ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, in comparison to the pure TiO{sub 2} NWs, the modified TiO{sub 2} NWs display a higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. Moreover, the fullerenes also can function as a sensitizer to TiO{sub 2} which expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. The results reveal that the C{sub 70}/TiO{sub 2} NWs show a significant photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) in visible light region. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the effect of fullerenes on the photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}, the electron only devices and photoelectrochemical cells based on fullerenes/TiO{sub 2} are also fabricated and evaluated.

  13. Controlled synthesis of T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} and enhanced visible light responsive photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shuying; Yu, Chongfei; Li, Yukun [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Li, Yihui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Geng, Xiaofei [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A novel T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant SDBS in the present study. Having received well characterization with the aid of various techniques and the results showed that the SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}, which had a unique T shape and belonged to the monoclinic family. The fast exchange dynamics between the surfactants bound to the Bi{sup 3+} seed surface and the free VO{sub 3}{sup −} in the solution significantly increase the rate of heterogeneous nucleation. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was evaluated by the degradation of Methylene Blue solution under visible light irradiation, 17% and 47% higher decolorization rates than the commercial P25 and BiVO{sub 4} synthesized without SDBS, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been found that the degradation kinetics of MB fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} also displayed high photocatalytic performance for metronidazole degradation. -- Graphical abstract: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecules function as electron trapping reagent to react with e{sup −} to enhance the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB in the BiVO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system under visible light irradiation. Highlights: • T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was synthesized using SDBS as a structure-directing surfactant. • SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}. • The T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} had a better visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Degradation kinetics of MB by BiVO{sub 4} fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  14. The Synthesis of a Core-Shell Photocatalyst Material YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 and Investigation of Its Photocatalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Zhou, Shiyu; Long, Jun; Wu, Tianhu; Fan, Zihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterials were prepared by hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT) using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as the coupling agent. Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material. They indicated that the core phase YF3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho3+ single-doped YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. By selecting these three peaks as excitation wavelengths, we could observe 288 nm (5D4→5I8) ultraviolet emission, which confirmed that there was indeed an energy transfer from YF3:Ho3+ to anatase TiO2. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material. Results showed that the YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b (RhB) and 34.6% of phenol after 10 h of photocatalysis reaction. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved. Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material. PMID:28772662

  15. The Synthesis of a Core-Shell Photocatalyst Material YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 and Investigation of Its Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterials were prepared by hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP as the coupling agent. Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material. They indicated that the core phase YF3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho3+ single-doped YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. By selecting these three peaks as excitation wavelengths, we could observe 288 nm (5D4→5I8 ultraviolet emission, which confirmed that there was indeed an energy transfer from YF3:Ho3+ to anatase TiO2. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material. Results showed that the YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b (RhB and 34.6% of phenol after 10 h of photocatalysis reaction. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved. Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material.

  16. Highly visible-light-responsive photocatalytic AgCl/BiOCl hetero-nanostructures synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia; Zhu, Gang-Qiang; Liu, Peng; Xu, Cai

    2014-06-01

    AgCl/BiOCl heteronanostructures were synthesized by a room-temperature chemical coprecipitation method. The as-obtained products were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-Vis diffuse spectra, which show the structures, morphologies, and optical properties. The results revealed that the absorption edge of AgCl/BiOCl shifted towards visible light regions. Meanwhile, the AgCl/BiOCl heteronanostructures showed better photocatalytic properties than the pure BiOCl to degrade rhodamine B and the 5% AgCl/BiOCl showed the best photocatalytic ability, which completely decomposed the target molecules in 17 minites with the visible-light illumination. The formation of heteronanostructures might improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes derived from the coupling effect of BiOCl and AgCl heteroarchitectures, which was regarded as the main reason for the high photocatalytic activity.

  17. Series of transition metal-doped TiO{sub 2} transparent aqueous sols with visible-light response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Bin [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu, Yuan, E-mail: yyu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); He, Xiaoqing [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Liangzhuan [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan, Xiaofeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhi, Jinfang, E-mail: zhi-mail@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Series of metal-doped TiO{sub 2} transparent aqueous sols were synthesized via a simple green chemical route. The as-synthesized samples were analyzed with HRTEM, XRD, EELS, and XPS, verifying that most metal ions have been doped with TiO{sub 2} forming Ti-O-Metal bond. These environmental-friendly doped TiO{sub 2} sols exhibited good photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation, and could be stably kept in sealed case for several months without precipitate, and it therefore may efficiently utilize solar energy or indoor light for industrial and household application without shape limitation. This method may be applied to synthesis of other metal-doped TiO{sub 2} sols. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Series of metal-doped TiO{sub 2} aqueous sols are synthesized via a green chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The doped TiO{sub 2} can be kept in a sealed case for several months without precipitate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sols exhibited good photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation.

  18. One-step fabrication of BiOCl/CuS heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light responsive activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiufang, E-mail: wxfxbs159@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Molecule Design and Interface Process, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Hu, Hanmei; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Kehua; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Wensheng [Key Laboratory of Functional Molecule Design and Interface Process, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Wang, Runxia [Pharmacy Department, Anhui Medical College, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Fore the first time, a novel BiOCl/CuS nanocomposite with a heterojunction structure was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. The BiOCl/CuS heterojunctions were used as photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants, such as rhodamine B (RhB), under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The results reveal that the heterojunction structure composite exhibits markedly improved efficiency and high photostability for the RhB photodegradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and pure CuS. This is ascribed to the heterojunction structure with an efficient charge separation and transfer across the BiOCl/CuS junction. Moreover, the catalytic activity is related to the ratio of CuS to BiOCl in the nanocomposite, and the BiOCl/CuS heterojunction in a 0.5:1 mol ratio exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity. According to experimental results, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiOCl/CuS photocatalyst is proposed to explain the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Novel BiOCl/CuS heterojunctions have been prepared firstly. • The heterojunction structure has with an efficient charge separation and transfer across the BiOCl/CuS junction. • The improved efficiency and high photostability for the dye photodegradation under visible light irradiation.

  19. Significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of visible light responsive AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterostructured composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaohao; Zhuang, Jing; Zhong, Liansheng; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Dianhui; Zhou, Huaiying

    2017-12-01

    Heterostructured AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 photocatalysts were synthesized successfully via the ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation method. XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis-DRS and PL spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase structure, morphology, chemical composition, oxidation state, and optical properties of AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 heterojunction. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. The obtained AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 composite with the 1:1 molar ratio exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. Further first-principles calculations indicated that the hybridization interaction between Ag and O atoms at AgBr/Bi2Sn2O7 interface is expected to be beneficial for enhancing the charge transfer and improving the photocatalytic activity of heterostructured composites.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Efficient and Stable Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas, and photoluminescence (PL technique. The activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO and rhodamine B (RhB. The results showed that the prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 exhibited excellent performance and much higher photocatalytic activity than the single one under visible-light irradiation. The optimum mole ratio of Br/P in AgBr/Ag3PO4 samples is 0.3. The prepared AgBr/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was transformed to Ag/AgBr/Ag3PO4 system with excellent property and good stability in the photocatalytic process. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced photocatalytic activity for the AgBr/Ag3PO4 were also discussed in detail.

  1. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  2. A Review of Solar and Visible Light Active TiO2 Photocatalysis for Treating Bacteria, Cyanotoxins and Contaminants of Emerging Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Rachel; McCormack, Declan; Pillai, Suresh; Dionysiou, Dionysios

    2015-01-01

    Research into the development of solar and visible light active photocatalysts has been significantly increased in recent years due to its wide range of applications in treating contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), bacteria and cyanotoxins. Solar photocatalysis is found to be highly effective in treating a wide range of CECs from sources such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotics, phthalates, disinfectants, pesticides, fragrances (musk), preserva...

  3. Two-dimensional TiO2-based nanosheets co-modified by surface-enriched carbon dots and Gd2O3 nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dingze; Fang, Pengfei; Ding, Junqian; Yang, Minchen; Cao, Yufei; Zhou, Yawei; Peng, Kui; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Liu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional TiO2-based nanosheets (TNSs) co-modified by surface-enriched carbon dots (CDs) and Gd2O3 nanoparticles: (Gd-C-TNSs), capable of exhibiting visible-light-driven photo catalysis were synthesized using a two-pot hydrothermal route. The samples had a sheet-like structure, thickness of approximately 3.6 nm, large specific surface area of 240-350 cm2/g. The CDs (2-3 nm) and Gd2O3 nanoparticles (1-2 nm) were highly dispersed over the surface of the nanosheets. The co-modification by Gd2O3 nanoparticles and CDs influenced the crystallinity, crystal structure, and surface area of the TNSs, and improved the visible-light absorption. Surface photocurrent and fluorescence spectral studies revealed that the photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency could be improved by an appropriate amount of modification. A very high efficiency was obtained using 0.5 at% Gd/Ti and 3.0 g/L of CDs. The visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity is enhanced under the isolated Cr(VI) system, isolated Rhodamin B (RhB) system, and the synergism between RhB degradation and Cr(VI) reduction for the Gd-C-TNSs photocatalysts. Initially, the photocatalytic activity gradually increased with an increase in the amount of CDs, and then decreased after attaining a maximum, in the case where 0.5 at% Gd/Ti and 3.0 g/L of CDs were used. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the synergetic effect of the Gd2O3 nanoparticles, TNSs, and CDs in the Gd-C-TNSs composites. The effect led to a fast separation and slow recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. An alternate mechanism for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity was also considered.

  4. [Spectral Analysis of CdZnSe Ternary Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Tubes and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-zhong; Ren, Li-li; Pan, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-yan; Chen, Jing-hua; Chen, Jian-zhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, cadmium nitrate hexahydrate [Cd(NO₃)₂ · 6H₂O] is as a source of cadmium, zinc nitrate [Zn(NO₃)₂] as a source of zinc source, and NaHSe as a source of selenium which was prepared through reducing the elemental selenium with sodium borohydride (NaBH₄). Then water-soluble Cd₁₋xZnxSe ternary quantum dots with different component were prepared by colloid chemistry. The as-prepared Cd₁₋xZnx Se ternary quantum dots exhibit stable fluorescent property in aqueous solution, and can still maintain good dispersivity at room temperature for four months. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to analyze crystal structure and morphology of the prepared Cd₁₋xZnxSe. It is found that the as-prepared ternary quantum dots are cubic phase, show as sphere, and the average of particle size is approximate 4 nm. The spectral properties and energy band structure of the as-prepared ternary quantum dots were modulated through changing the atom ratio of elements Zn and Cd. Compared with binary quantum dots CdSe and ZnSe, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectrum and fluorescence (FL) emission spectrum of ternary quantum dots are both red-shift. The composites (Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs) of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by directly immerging TNTs into quantum dots dispersive solution for 5 hours. TEM image shows that the Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots were closely combined to nanotube surface. The infrared spectra show that the Ti-Se bond was formed between Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes, which improve the stability of the composite. Compared to pristine TNTs, UV-Visible absorption spectrum of the composites is significantly enhanced in the visible region of light. And the absorption band edge of Cd₀.₅Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs red-shift from 400 to 700 nm. The recombination of the

  5. Significance of a Noble Metal Nanolayer on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Grown from a Scalable PECVD/PVD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Quesada-Gonzalez, Miguel; Bonot, Sébastien; Collard, Delphine; Boscher, Nicolas D; Choquet, Patrick

    2017-11-29

    UV and visible light photocatalytic composite Pt and Au-TiO2 coatings have been deposited on silicon and glass substrates at low temperature using a hybrid ECWR-PECVD/MS-PVD process. Methylene blue, stearic acid, and sulfamethoxazole were used as dye, organic, and antibiotic model pollutants, respectively, to demonstrate the efficiency of these nanocomposite coatings for water decontamination or self-cleaning surfaces applications. Raman investigations revealed the formation of anatase polymorph of TiO2 in all synthesized coatings with a shifting of the main vibrational mode peak to higher wavenumber in the case of Au-TiO2 coating, indicating an increase number of crystalline defects within this coating. Because of the difference of the chemical potentials of each of the investigated noble metals, the sputtered metal layers exhibit different morphology. Pt sputtered atoms, with high surface adhesion, promote formation of a smooth 2D layer. On the other hand, Au sputtered atoms with higher cohesive forces promote the formation of 5-10 nm nanoparticles. As a result, the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon was observed in the Au-TiO2 coatings. UV photoactivity of the nanocomposite coatings was enhanced 1.5-3 times and 1.3 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively, thanks to the enhancement of electron trapping in the noble metal layer. This electron trapping phenomenon is higher in the Pt-TiO2 coating because of its larger work function. On the other hand, the enhancement of the visible photoactivity was more pronounced (3 and 7 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively) in the case of Au-TiO2 thanks to the surface plasmon resonance. Finally, these nanocomposite TiO2 coatings exhibited also a good ability for the degradation of antibiotics usually found in wastewater such as sulfamethoxazole. However, a complementary test have showed an increase of the toxicity of the liquid medium after photocatalysis, which could be due the presence of

  6. Composition of Surface Adsorbed Layer of TiO2 Stored in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko V.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of dark, UV, and visible light promoted desorption of surface species were investigated for three different TiO2 samples: TiO2 prepared by dispersion of the titania single crystal, TiO2 prepared by combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture in air, and commercial TiO2 P25. The composition of the adsorbed layer was identified in the dark and under UV and visible light irradiation. The composition of desorption products showed the dependence of the adsorption layer state on the TiO2 nature. Methane photodesorption was detected only for the commercial TiO2 P25. Possible reasons for methane emission include the capturing of complete molecules during the TiO2 production process and photocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under UV-light.

  7. Review on modified TiO2 photocatalysis under UV/visible light: selected results and related mechanisms on interfacial charge carrier transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Girish; Devi, L Gomathi

    2011-11-24

    Titania is one of the most widely used benchmark standard photocatalysts in the field of environmental applications. However, the large band gap of titania and massive recombination of photogenerated charge carriers limit its overall photocatalytic efficiency. The former can be overcome by modifying the electronic band structure of titania including various strategies like coupling with a narrow band gap semiconductor, metal ion/nonmetal ion doping, codoping with two or more foreign ions, surface sensitization by organic dyes or metal complexes, and noble metal deposition. The latter can be corrected by changing the surface properties of titania by fluorination or sulfation or by the addition of suitable electron acceptors besides molecular oxygen in the reaction medium. This review encompasses several advancements made in these aspects, and also some of the new physical insights related to the charge transfer events like charge carrier generation, trapping, detrapping, and their transfer to surface are discussed for each strategy of the modified titania to support the conclusions derived. The synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of titania and also the theories proposed for their enhanced activity are reported. A recent venture on the synthesis and applications of anatase titania with a large percentage of reactive {001} facets and their band gap extension to the visible region via nonmetal ion doping which is a current hot topic is briefly outlined.

  8. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  9. Enhanced visible-light-responsive photodegradation of bisphenol A by Cu, N-codoped titanate nanotubes prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doong, Ruey-an, E-mail: radoong@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liao, Chun-Yi [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The Cu, N-codoped TNTs were prepared by microwave assisted hydrothermal method. • The Cu(0) in codoped TNTs can serve as electron donors as well as electron meditors. • The surface normalized rate constants for BPA removal by Cu, N-TNT were 1.5–4.3 times higher than that of P25 TiO{sub 2}. • The Cu, N-codoped TNTs prolonged the generation of radicals for at least 5 min. - Abstract: In this study, a rapid and effective microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was developed for the synthesis of Cu, N-codoped titanate nanotubes (Cu, N-TNTs) to enhance the photocatalytic degradation efficiency and rate of bisphenol A (BPA) under UV and visible light irradiations. The TNTs were first synthesized at 150 °C for 3 h under microwave heating conditions followed by the calcination at 450 °C in the presence of 6 wt% Cu ions and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} to fabricate Cu, N-TNTs composites. The Cu, N-TNTs exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity toward BPA degradation under UV and visible light irradiations. The X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated that Cu species in Cu, N-TNTs were mainly in zerovalent form and could serve as the electron donors as well as shuttling species to accelerate the photodegradation of BPA. In addition, the nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the anatase lattices to increase the visible-light-responsive capability. The surface normalized reaction rate constants for BPA degradation were 4.3 and 1.5 times higher than those of Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} under UV and visible light irradiations, respectively. The electron spin resonance spectra showed that Cu, N-codoped TNTs prolonged the generation of oxygen-containing radicals for at least 5 min, resulting in the significant enhancement of photodegradation efficiency and rate of BPA. Results obtained in this study open a new avenue by using simple and effective microwave-assisted hydrothermal method to fabricate low dimensional codoped TNTs which can be potentially applied in a wide

  10. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions.

  11. Tuning the properties of visible-light-responsive tantalum (oxy)nitride photocatalysts by non-stoichiometric compositions: A first-principles viewpoint

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2014-01-01

    Finding an ideal photocatalyst for achieving efficient overall water splitting still remains a great challenge. By applying accurate first-principles quantum calculations based on DFT with the screened non-local hybrid HSE06 functional, we bring rational insights at the atomic level into the influence of non-stoichiometric compositions on essential properties of tantalum (oxy)nitride compounds as visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for water splitting. Indeed, recent experiments show that such non-stoichiometry is inherent to the nitridation methods of tantalum oxide with unavoidable oxygen impurities. We considered here O-enriched Ta3N5 and N-enriched TaON materials. Although their structural parameters are found to be very similar to those of pure compounds and in good agreement with available experimental studies, their photocatalytic features for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions show different behaviors. Further partial nitration of TaON leads to a narrowed band gap, but partially oxidizing Ta3N5 causes only subtle changes in the gap. The main influence, however, is on the band edge positions relative to water redox potentials. The pure Ta3N5 is predicted to be a good candidate only for H+ reduction and H2 evolution, while the pure TaON is predicted to be a good candidate for water oxidation and O2 evolution. Non-stoichiometry has here a positive influence, since partially oxidized tantalum nitride, Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x (for x ≥ 0.16) i.e. with a composition in between TaON and Ta3N5, reveals suitable band edge positions that correctly bracket the water redox potentials for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions. Among the various explored Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x structures, a strong stabilization is obtained for the configuration displaying a strong interaction between the O-impurities and the created Ta-vacancies. In the lowest-energy structure, each created Ta-vacancy is surrounded by five O-impurity species substituting

  12. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO2-Fe and TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei

    2017-07-05

    Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe 3+ ions in TiO 2 photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -Fe and TiO 2 -rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO 2 -rGO and TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO 2 particles (2.40eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO 2 decreased significantly the intensity of TiO 2 photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO 2 -rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO 2 -Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 -rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO 2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO 2 , and the optimal V dopant content of TiO 2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO 2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO 2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO 2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO 2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO 2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO 2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO 2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO 2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO 2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO 2 materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of Single-Crystalline AgIn5S8 Octahedrons with Exposed {111} Facets and Its Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic H2 Production Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuaishuai; Liang, Zechen; Fu, Wenli; Peng, Tianyou

    2017-05-24

    Although AgIn5S8 as one kind of ternary chalcogenides has been extensively investigated due to its band-edge positions meeting the thermodynamic requirement for water photosplitting, very little attention has been focused on the crystallinity and facet effects of AgIn5S8 on its photocatalytic activity. Herein, a facile hydrothermal route was developed to fabricate regular single-crystalline AgIn5S8 octahedrons with only {111} facets exposed. Also, the effects of the hydrothermal reaction conditions on the composition, crystal phase, crystallinity, and morphology of the obtained AgxInyS(x+3y/2) products (hereafter denoted as AIS-x, where x represents the pH value of the reaction solution) were investigated, and it was found that the accurately released S2- ions from the thermal decomposition of thioacetamide (TAA) is the central factor for the nucleation and growth of the AgIn5S8 octahedrons. The experimental results indicate that the resultant regular AgIn5S8 octahedrons (AIS-10.6) exhibit the best photocatalytic activity for H2 production among those AgxInyS(x+3y/2) products, and the higher crystallinity and fewer defects of the AgIn5S8 octahedrons compared to the other AgxInyS(x+3y/2) products can retard the photogenerated charge recombination, while those indium atoms with higher density in the exposed {111} facets might be beneficial for the photocatalytic H2 production reaction by acting as active sites to promote the charge separation and transfer processes. The results presented here provide new insights into the significance of crystallinity and exposed facets in the visible-light-responsive activity of AgIn5S8, thus paving new ways into the design and synthesis of high-performance, cost-effective AgIn5S8 photocatalysts for H2 production.

  15. Fabrication of TiO2@Yeast-Carbon Hybrid Composites with the Raspberry-Like Structure and Their Synergistic Adsorption-Photocatalysis Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report the preparation and photocatalytic properties of TiO2@yeast-carbon with raspberry-like structure using a pyrolysis method. The products are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, respectively. The results show that the hybrid TiO2@yeast-carbon microspheres have ordered elliptic shapes of uniform size (length = 3.5±0.3 μm; width = 2.5±0.5 μm. UV-VIS ascertains that the as-prepared microspheres possess an obvious light response in a wide range of 250–400 nm. In the decomposition of typical model pollutants including methylene blue and congo red, the hybrid composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the methylene blue due to the enhanced adsorption ability. Further investigation reveals that the combined effect of adsorption from the yeast-carbon core and photocatalytic degradation from the attached TiO2 nanoparticles were responsible for the improvement of the photocatalytic activities. Hereby, the raspberry-like TiO2@yeast-carbon has promising applications in water purification.

  16. A first-principles study on polar hexagonal Cs2TeM3O12 (M = W, Mo): New visible-light responsive photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos

    2017-08-01

    The crystal structures, electro-optical properties, and charge carrier effective masses of Cs2TeW3O12 and Cs2TeMo3O12 with hexagonal, polar and non-centrosymmetric crystal structure were investigated based on density functional theory. Cs2TeW3O12 and Cs2TeMo3O12 are found to be indirect K (1/3, 1/3, 0) → G (0, 0, 0) band gap semiconductors (Eg > 3 eV) with small effective masses of photogenerated charge carriers. The mixing of octahedrally coordinated d° transition metal cations (W6+ and Mo6+) with the filled p orbitals of the oxygen ligands leads to the formation of some W5+/Mo5+ sites and splitting of d orbitals into the partially filled t2g (dxy, dyz, and dzx) orbitals and empty eg (dz2 and dx2-y2) orbitals. The top of the valence bond is mainly contributed by O 2p orbital of the oxygen ligands mixed with the partially filled t2g orbitals of W 5d/Mo 4d, while the conduction band mainly consists of empty eg orbitals of W 5d/Mo 4d with a little contribution of O 2p orbitals. The dielectric function exhibits a slight anisotropic behavior and optical absorption peak for Cs2TeW3O12 and Cs2TeMo3O12 belonging to the strong electronic transition O 2p → W 5d/Mo 4d within the octahedral units. According to the estimated valence band and conduction band edges, Cs2TeW3O12 and Cs2TeMo3O12 can be applied as visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for the decomposition of organic pollutants and dye molecules. Also, Cs2TeMo3O12 can be used in water splitting for hydrogen generation but Cs2TeW3O12 requires further experimental studies to confirm its ability for water splitting.

  17. One-step synthesis of M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in TUD-1 (M-TiO2-TUD-1, M = Cr or V) and their photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdy, Mohamed S.

    2014-01-01

    The novel photocatalyst of M-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in TUD-1 siliceous mesoporous material, M-TiO2-TUD-1 (M = Cr or V), was synthesized in one-pot highly-controlled synthesis procedure. Three samples were prepared for this study; the first prepared with Si/Ti ratio of 2.5 without any dopant. In

  18. Optimization of Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroxylenol Using TiO2, Er3+/TiO2, and Ni2+/TiO2 via the Taguchi Orthogonal Array Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed J. Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optical properties of a TiO2 photocatalyst were enhanced with various impregnations of Er3+ and Ni2+ separately, using the impregnation method as photocatalysts for the direct solar photolysis degradation of chloroxylenol. The synthesized Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, metal mapping, and ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 nano-particles have the same structures of TiO2 nano-particles with little difference in particle size. The Er3+ and Ni2+ ions were well-distributed on the TiO2 surface, and it was found that the maximum band gap decreased from 3.13 eV for intrinsic TiO2 to 2.63 eV at 1.8 wt % Er3+/TiO2 and to 2.47 eV at 0.6 wt % for Ni2+/TiO2. The initial concentration of chloroxylenol, catalyst loading, and pH of the solution are the most important factors affecting the solar photocatalytic degradation efficiency that were optimized using Design Expert software (version 6.0.10, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2003. The results showed that the optimal conditions for chloroxylenol degradation include a pH of 4, TiO2 loading at 3 g/L, and a chloroxylenol concentration of 50 mg/L. These conditions resulted in a degradation efficiency of 90.40% after 60 min of direct solar irradiation, wherein the solar energy recorded during a clear sunny day is 1000 W/m2. However, some experiments were conducted on a semi-cloudy day to cover all weather stated and to study the degradation kinetics. During semi-cloudy day experiments, using Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 with a solar irradiation activity of 600 W/m2 for a 60 min exposure at optimal conditions increased the degradation efficiency from 68.28% for intrinsic TiO2 to 82.38% for Er3+/TiO2 and 80.70% for Ni2+/TiO2.

  19. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-02-18

    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In

  20. Mechanochemical Synthesis of TiO2 Nanocomposites as Photocatalysts for Benzyl Alcohol Photo-Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Ouyang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 (anatase phase has excellent photocatalytic performance and different methods have been reported to overcome its main limitation of high band gap energy. In this work, TiO2-magnetically-separable nanocomposites (MAGSNC photocatalysts with different TiO2 loading were synthesized using a simple one-pot mechanochemical method. Photocatalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and their photocatalytic activity was tested in the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Extension of light absorption into the visible region was achieved upon titania incorporation. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity increased with TiO2 loading on the catalysts, with moderate conversion (20% at high benzaldehyde selectivity (84% achieved for 5% TiO2-MAGSNC. These findings pointed out a potential strategy for the valorization of lignocellulosic-based biomass under visible light irradiation using designer photocatalytic nanomaterials.

  1. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV–visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  2. Synthesis and photo-degradation application of WO3/TiO2 hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Kezhen; Li, Jie; Qing, Xiaoxia; Li, Wenzhang; Chen, Qiyuan

    2011-05-15

    A WO(3)/TiO(2) composite, hollow-sphere photocatalyst with average diameter of 320 nm and shell thickness of 50 nm was successfully prepared using a template method. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra illustrated that the main absorption edges of the WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres were red-shifted compared to the TiO(2) hollow spheres, indicating an extension of light absorption into the visible region of the composite photocatalyst. The WO(3) and TiO(2) phases were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. BET isotherms revealed that the specific surface area and average pore diameter of the hollow spheres were 40.95 m(2)/g and 19 nm, respectively. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that 78% MB was degraded by WO(3)/TiO(2) hollow spheres under visible light within 80 min. Under the same conditions, only 24% MB can be photodegraded by TiO(2). The photocatalytic mineralization of MB, catalyzed by TiO(2) and WO(3)/TiO(2), proceeded at a significantly higher rate under UV irradiation than that under visible light, and more significant was the increase in the apparent rate constant with the WO(3)/TiO(2) composite semiconductor material which was 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher than with the TiO(2) material under both UV and visible light irradiation. The increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled nanocomposites was attributed to photoelectron/hole separation efficiency and the extension of the wavelength range of photoexcitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance by Surface Modification of TiO2 Nanorods with Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillah, G.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2017-07-01

    Modification of TiO2 nanorods through the addition of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) for enhancement of efficiency of solar cells has been studied. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods was conducted through two major stages of mechanochemical and hydrothermal refluxing at a temperature of 120 °C for 24 hours on various concentration of NaOH. Material characterizations were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourrier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanochemical treatment by ball milling showed that the TiO2 phase changed from anatase into brookite and it decreased of TiO2 crystals size. Morphology transformation of TiO2 to form TiO2 nanorods was showed by rod-shaped from TEM micrographs which are characteristic of the nanorods. FTIR spectra confirmed that amine group of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) were successfully grafted onto the TiO2 nanorods surface. Sensitization of TiO2 used Ruthenium complexes N3 (N3=cis-bis(isothiocyanato) bis(2,2‧-bipyridyl-4,4‧-dicarboxylato ruthenium (II)) were able to increase the uptake of TiO2 material to the visible region due to the absorption of visible light by N3 complex-APTMS. Sensitized TiO2 nanorods were prepared for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSCs) photoanode. The maximum results of the DSSCs (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell) performance was showed that TiO2 material modified by 10 % (v/v) APTMS capable increase efficiency of DSSCs.

  4. Modification of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by β-Cyclodextrin in decoloration of ethyl violet dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Velusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decoloration of an organic dye, ethyl violet (EV, has been studied in the presence of TiO2 and the addition of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD with TiO2 (TiO2-β-CD under UV-A light irradiation. The different operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, illumination time, pH and amount of catalyst used have also been investigated. The photocatalytic decoloration efficiency is more in the TiO2-β-CD/UV-A light system than TiO2/UV-A light system. The mineralization of EV has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD measurements. The complexation patterns have been confirmed with UV–Visible and FT-IR spectral data and the interaction between TiO2 and β-CD have been characterized by powder XRD analysis and UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  5. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Fang, Shun; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jie; Lv, Kangle

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S) modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R) from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  6. Thiourea-Modified TiO2 Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysis has attracted much attention due to its potential application in solving the problems of environmental pollution. In this paper, thiourea (CH4N2S modified anatase TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by calcination of the mixture of TiO2 nanorods and thiourea at 600 °C for 2 h. It was found that only N element was doped into the lattice of TiO2 nanorods. With increasing the weight ratio of thiourea to TiO2 (R from 0 to 8, the light-harvesting ability of the photocatalyst steady increases. Both the crystallization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods increase first and then decrease with increase in R value, and R2 sample showed the highest crystallization and photocatalytic activity in degradation of Brilliant Red X3B (X3B and Rhodamine B (RhB dyes under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. The increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO2 nanorods is due to the synergistic effects of the enhanced crystallization, improved light-harvesting ability and reduced recombination rate of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Note that the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity of N-doped nanorods is not based on the scarification of their UV photocatalytic activity.

  7. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  8. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Modification With Platinum And Photocatalytical Properties of TiO2 Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinis DRUNKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work formation of active TiO2 nanoparticles in microwave synthesis and their modification with platinum were studied. Anatase nanopowder and 10 M KOH solution were used as raw materials. Microwave assisted synthesis method permited to obtain TiO2 nanofibres and nanowires with a diameter of 10 nm and a specific surface area in the range of 70 – 150 m2/g. In order to modify TiO2 nanofibers with platinum it was stirred in H2PtCl6 solution under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic activity was determined by degradation of the methylene blue (MB solution under UV and visible light irradiation. The obtained samples showed higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2 nanofibers. The doped TiO2 nanofibers were appropriate for degradation of harmful organic compounds as well as for hydrogen production by water splitting.

  9. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen in aqueous solution using novel visible-light responsive graphene quantum dot/AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Zhen-dong [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia-jun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang, Liang, E-mail: wangl@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yang, Xiong-yu; Xu, Gang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tang1liang@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel heterojunction photocatalyst, GQD/AgVO{sub 3} was prepared. • The morphology of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} was well characterized. • Ibuprofen was easily decomposed using GQD/AgVO{sub 3} under visible-light irradiation. • The degradation pathway of ibuprofen was also suggested. - Abstract: Single crystalline, non-toxicity, and long-term stability graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were modified onto the AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons by a facile hydrothermal and sintering technique which constructs a unique heterojunction photocatalyst. Characterization results indicate that GQDs are well dispersed on the surface of AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons and GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions are formed, which can greatly promote the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under visible light irradiation. By taking advantage of this feature, the GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions exhibit considerable improvement on the photocatalytic activities for the degradation of ibuprofen (IBP) under visible light irradiation as compared to pure AgVO{sub 3}. The photocatalytic activity of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions is relevant with GQD ratio and the optimal activity is obtained at 3 wt% with the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Integrating the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties, the factors controlling the photocatalytic activity of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions are discussed in detail. Moreover, potential photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of IBP via GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions under visible light are proposed.

  10. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  11. ZnWO{sub 4} nanorods decorated with Ag/AgBr nanoparticles as highly efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst for dye AR18 photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kebin, E-mail: kebinlee314@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Function Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Xue, Jie; Zhang, Yanhui [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Function Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wei, Hong [Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resources, Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Liu, Yalan; Dong, Chengxing [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Function Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgBr-sensitized ZnWO{sub 4} nanorod heterojunction was fabricated and characterized. • The composite showed the enhanced visible-light activity for AR18 photodegradation. • The enhancement mechanism and the catalytic degradation mechanism were revealed. • The effects of various parameters on AR18 photodegradation kinetics were examined. - Abstract: A novel Ag-AgBr/ZnWO{sub 4} nanorod heterostructure composite was prepared via a facile deposition–precipitation method with ZnWO{sub 4} nanorods as the substrate, and characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, XPS, and DRS to confirm its structure, morphology, composition, and optical property. The composite was used as a photocatalyst to destroy azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18) under visible light irradiation. The effects of catalyst composition, solution pH, catalyst loading, and initial dye concentration on photocatalytic degradation rate and efficiency were examined. It was revealed that the photocatalytic activity of Ag-AgBr/ZnWO{sub 4} nanojunction system was higher than that of the single ZnWO{sub 4} or Ag-AgBr for AR18 degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal content of Ag-AgBr in Ag-AgBr/ZnWO{sub 4} composite was 0.58:1 of Ag/W molar ratio using in the catalyst preparation. Acid pH and decreasing dye initial concentration were favorable to AR18 photodegradation, but the catalyst loading had an optimal value. The catalyst was stable and recyclable, after five successive cycles the photoactivity was fully maintained and the XRD patterns of AgBr displayed no evident change. Photoluminescence spectra revealed the enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability were closely related to the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers in Ag-AgBr/ZnWO{sub 4} nanojunction system. Superoxide radicals and holes were found to be main active species for AR18 photodegradation. Finally, the possible mechanism for AR18 degradation over Ag-AgBr/ZnWO{sub 4} nanorods under

  12. Strongly visible-light responsive plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles for reduction of CO2 to methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Changhua; Wang, Jizhuang; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Meiyu; Ming, Xijuan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Qinhui

    2012-08-01

    Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2 into useful organic compounds.Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2

  13. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  14. Rose-like I-doped Bi2O2CO3 microspheres with enhanced visible light response: DFT calculation, synthesis and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Jiantao; Cao, Fenglei; Liang, Na; Yu, Ke; Tian, Yuan; Sun, Huai; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-01-05

    Based on the crystal structure and the DFT calculation of Bi2O2CO3, I- can partly replace the CO32-in Bi2O2CO3 to narrow its bandgap and to enhance its visible light absorption. With this in mind, rose-like I-doped Bi2O2CO3 microspheres were prepared via a hydrothermal process. This method can also be extended to synthesize rose-like Cl- or Br-doped Bi2O2CO3 microspheres. Photoelectrochemical test supports the DFT calculation result that I- doping narrows the bandgap of Bi2O2CO3 by forming two intermediate levels in its forbidden band. Further study reveals that I-doped Bi2O2CO3 microspheres with optimized composition exhibit the best photocatalytic activity. Rhodamine B can be completely degraded within 6min and about 90% of Cr(VI) can be reduced after 25min under the irradiation of visible light (λ>400nm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation......Since an increasing number of emerging pollutants has been found in wastewater and natural water systems [1], many researchers are developing new synergy-effective methods for their abatement [2]. In this context, we fabricate titanium dioxide-graphene oxide (TiO2-GO) heterostructures...

  16. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuS-GeO2-TiO2 Composite Coating Electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wen

    Full Text Available The ITO (indium tin oxide conductive glass-matrix CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating was generated via EPD (electrophoretic deposition and followed by a sintering treatment at 450°C for 40 minutes. Characterizations of the CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating were taken by SEM (scanning electron microscope, XRD (X-ray diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray, UV-Vis DRS (ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum, and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that CuS and GeO2 had dispersed in this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating (mass percentages for CuS and GeO2 were 1.23% and 2.79%, respectively. The electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Tafel polarization of this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode were performed in pH = 9.51 Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution containing 0.50 mol/L CH3OH under the conditions of visible light, ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm, and dark (without light irradiation as control, respectively. Electrochemical studies indicated that this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode had better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2 electrode in the electrocatalysis of methanol under visible light.

  17. Visible-light responsive photocatalytic fuel cell based on WO(3)/W photoanode and Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanpeng; Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Ke; Zhou, Baoxue; Cai, Weimin; Shangguan, Wenfeng

    2012-10-16

    A visible-light driven photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system comprised of WO(3)/W photoanode and Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode was established for organic compounds degradation with simultaneous electricity generation. The central idea for its operation is the mismatched Fermi levels between the two photoelectrodes. Under light illumination, the Fermi level of WO(3)/W photoanode is higher than that of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode. An interior bias can be produced based on which the electrons of WO(3)/W photoanode can transfer from the external circuit to combine with the holes of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode then generates the electricity. In this manner, the electron/hole pairs separations at two photoelectrodes are facilitated to release the holes of WO(3)/W photoanode and electrons of Cu(2)O/Cu photocathode. Organic compounds can be decomposed by the holes of WO(3)/W photoanode due to its high oxidation power (+3.1-3.2 V(NHE)). The results demonstrated that various model compounds including phenol, Rhodamine B, and Congo red can be successfully decomposed in this PFC system, with the degradation rate after 5 h operation were obtained to be 58%, 63%, and 74%, respectively. The consistent operation for continuous water treatment with the electricity generation at a long time scale was also confirmed from the result. The proposed PFC system provides a self-sustained and energy-saving way for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery.

  18. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using Bi2O3/TiZrO4 as a visible light responsive photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Ciceri, Luca; Bianchi, Claudia L; Grieser, Franz; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) by sonolytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes was studied in aqueous solutions using Bi(2)O(3)/TiZrO(4) as a visible light driven photocatalyst and with 20 kHz ultrasound. The results reveal that Bi(2)O(3)/TiZrO(4) is an efficient photocatalyst capable of degrading 4-CP by both photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes. During the sonolysis of 4-CP solutions, HPLC results showed the formation of a number of intermediate products, whereas, no such intermediates were formed during the sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-CP. TOC results showed rapid mineralization of 4-CP during the sonophotocatalytic degradation process, relative to that observed with sonolysis alone. The results reveal a clear advantage in using a coupled method for the oxidation of 4-CP and a cumulative effect was observed. Further, the solution pH had no specific influence on the sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-CP, unlike the situation for sonolysis alone where the degradation rate decreased as the pH was raised from acidic to basic conditions. The combined sonophotocatalytic degradation process was found to be simple to apply and has the potential to be a powerful method for the remediation of organic contaminants present in water and wastewater. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 by codoping with tungsten and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Matiullah; Jiang, Peng; Li, Jing; Cao, Wenbin

    2014-04-01

    The Tungsten (W) and Silver (Ag) codoped TiO2 samples were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method without any post calcination. To understand the correlation between electronic structure and photocatalytic properties, the synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, transmission electron microscopy, ultra-violet-visible absorption spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the photocatalytic properties were evaluated under visible light irradiations. Codoping could not induce any changes in the phase and all the synthesized samples displayed pure anatase phase with spherical morphology. Visible light absorptions of the codoped samples were dramatically improved compared to the corresponding mono-doped samples. XPS analysis indicated that the dopant atoms successfully entered the TiO2 network. Results from the visible light photodegradation experiments showed that tungsten-silver codoped TiO2 possessed strong ability in photo-degrading methylene blue compared to tungsten doped TiO2 and silver doped TiO2, which was attributed to the smaller particle size, higher specific surface area, enhanced visible light absorption, and improved separation of photogenerated carriers.

  20. Effects of N Doping on Structure and Improvement Photocatalytic Properties of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve UV and visible lights photocatalytic activities of the pure anatase TiO2, a novel and efficient N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method. N-doped titania is prepared using triethylamine (with difference molar ratios as the nitrogen source. The crystalline structure, morphology, particle size, absorbance and band-gap and chemical structure of N-doped TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction , diffuse reflectance spectra , scanning electron microscopy , energy dispersive spectrometry  and Fourier transform infrared  techniques, respectively. Results indicate that the doping of N, cause absorption edge shifts to the visible light region compare to the pure TiO2, reduces average size of the TiO2 crystallites, enhances desired lattice distortion of Ti, promotes separation of photo-induced electron and hole pair, and thus improves pollutant decomposition under UV and visible lights irradiation. The photocatalytic activities of N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated using the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO as probe reaction under the irradiation of UV and visible light and it was observed that the N-TiO2 photocatalyst shows higher visible photocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2. The optimal N/TiO2 concentration to obtain the highest photocatalytic activity was 2:1 of triethylamine

  1. Electrospinning Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanofibers in the anatase structure were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by calcination process. The morphologies, crystal structure, surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of resulting TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen sorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that calcination temperature had greatly influenced the morphologies of TiO2 nanofibers, but no obvious effect was noticed on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers. The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanofibers were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB in water under visible light irradiation. It was observed that TiO2 nanofibers obtained by calcination at 500°C for 3 hours exhibited the most excellent photocatalytic activity. We present a novel and simple method to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers with high-photocatalytic activity.

  2. Enhancement of the photokilling effect of TiO2 in photodynamic therapy by conjugating with reduced graphene oxide and its mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hongyuan; Han, Dong; Ma, Min; Li, Sha; Xue, Wenting; Zhang, Aiping

    2017-12-01

    As a promising next-generation photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has gained great attention due to its higher efficiency. Yet, its application in PDT is strongly limited by its UV light response range. In this work, TiO2 NPs conjugated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-TiO2) composites were successfully prepared by hydrothermal reduction method. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Superior adsorption and killing efficiency under UV-A light or visible light were achieved in the presence of the RGO rather than that of unmodified TiO2. The optimal photocatalytic activity was obtained when modified proportion was 0.2 (RGO:TiO2). Dark cytotoxicity was observed using 0-500μgmL-1 RGO-TiO2 during long incubation time. In parallel, following exposure of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells) to RGO-TiO2 and UV-A or visible light irradiation, a marked decrease in the ratio of the super-coiled DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and the oxidative damage effects, as well as increased the apoptosis rate and intracellular calcium concentration were observed. Moreover, photocatalytic RGO-TiO2 composites killed the HepG2 cells by apoptosis pathway. The results suggested that RGO-TiO2 composites were an excellent candidate as a PDT photosensitizer in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Controlled synthesis and photocatalysis of sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yilin; Tao, Chengran; Xiao, Gang; Wei, Guipeng; Li, Linghui; Liu, Changxia; Su, Haijia

    2016-02-01

    Based on the synergistic photocatalytic activities of nano-sized TiO2 and Ag, as well as the magnetic properties of Fe3O4, a sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposite (Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs) is controllably synthesized with tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layer of TiO2 nanofiber, higher structural stability and larger specific surface area. Here, Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs are obtained with Fe3O4 as the core and nanofiber TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag nanoheterojunctions as the shell; and Ag nanoparticles with diameter of approximately 4 nm are loaded both on TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2 nanocomposites uniformly. Ag nanoparticles lead to the production of more photogenerated charges in the TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag heterojunction via LSPR absorption, and enhance the band-gap absorption of TiO2, while the Fe3O4 cocatalyst provides the active sites for oxygen reduction by the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons to oxygen. So the photocatalytic performance is improved due to the synergistic effect of TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag nanoheterojunctions. As photocatalysts under UV and visible irradiation, the as-synthesized nanocomposites display enhanced photocatalytic and recycling properties for the degradation of ampicillin. Moreover, they present better broad-spectrum antibiosis under visible irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, makes this multifunctional nanostructure a promising candidate for antibiosis and remediation in aquatic environmental contamination in the future.Based on the synergistic photocatalytic activities of nano-sized TiO2 and Ag, as well as the magnetic properties of Fe3O4, a sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposite (Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs) is controllably synthesized with tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layer of TiO2 nanofiber, higher structural stability and larger specific surface area. Here, Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs are obtained with Fe3O4 as the

  4. Rose-like I-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} microspheres with enhanced visible light response: DFT calculation, synthesis and photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zai, Jiantao; Cao, Fenglei; Liang, Na; Yu, Ke; Tian, Yuan; Sun, Huai; Qian, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfqian@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • DFT reveals I{sup −} can partially substitute CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}to narrow the bandgap of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Sodium citrate play a key role on the formation of rose-like I-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Rose-like I-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} show enhanced visible light response. • The catalyst has enhanced photocatalytic activity to organic and Cr(VI) pollutes. - Abstract: Based on the crystal structure and the DFT calculation of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, I{sup −} can partly replace the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to narrow its bandgap and to enhance its visible light absorption. With this in mind, rose-like I-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} microspheres were prepared via a hydrothermal process. This method can also be extended to synthesize rose-like Cl- or Br-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} microspheres. Photoelectrochemical test supports the DFT calculation result that I- doping narrows the bandgap of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} by forming two intermediate levels in its forbidden band. Further study reveals that I-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} microspheres with optimized composition exhibit the best photocatalytic activity. Rhodamine B can be completely degraded within 6 min and about 90% of Cr(VI) can be reduced after 25 min under the irradiation of visible light (λ > 400 nm).

  5. Use of co-spray pyrolysis for synthesizing nitrogen-doped TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spray pyrolysis; nitrogen-doping; photocatalytic activity; visible light responsibility. ... The grown films were subjected to XRD, SEM, photocatalysis, absorption spectra and visible-light photovoltaic investigations. All the deposited films were of ...

  6. Preparation of heterostructured WO3/TiO2 catalysts from wood fibers and its versatile photodegradation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Likun; Gan, Wentao; Qiu, Zhe; Zhan, Xianxu; Qiang, Tiangang; Li, Jian

    2017-04-24

    A facile route was adopted to synthesize heterostructured WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts from wood fibers through a two-steps hydrothermal method and a calcination process. The prepared WO3/TiO2-wood fibers were used as photocatalysts under UV irradiation for photodegradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue and methyl orange. In calcination process, the wood fibers acted as carbon substrates to prepare the WO3/TiO2 photocatalysts with high surface area and unique morphology. Thus, the significant enhanced photodegradation efficiency of the organic pollutants with the WO3/TiO2-wood fibers under UV irradiation was obtained. The photodegradation rates are measured which confirms the highest performance of the WO3/TiO2-wood fibers after calcination in comparison to the TiO2-wood fibers after calcination and the pure WO3/TiO2 after calcination. Moreover, the photodegradation efficiency of the WO3/TiO2-wood fibers after calcination under visible light is high. Our results demonstrated that the WO3/TiO2-wood fibers after calcination are a promising candidate for wastewater treatment in practical application.

  7. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  8. Plasmonic Ag deposited TiO2 nano-sheet film for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production by water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhou; Kang, Limin; Yang, Yuhao; Sun, Tao; Hu, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Changjun; Liu, Hanchen; Wang, Qiuping; Li, Xinghua; Fan, Jun

    2014-04-25

    TiO2 nano-sheet film (TiO2 NSF) was prepared by a hydrothermal method. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were then deposited on the surface of TiO2 NSF (Ag/TiO2 NSF) under microwave-assisted chemical reduction. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The results revealed that the Ag NPs were well dispersed on the anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nano-sheet surface with a metallic state. The visible light absorption and Raman scattering of TiO2 were enhanced by Ag NPs based on its surface plasmon resonance effect. Besides, Ag NPs could also effectively restrain the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photocatalytic water splitting was conducted on the films to obtain hydrogen, and the experimental results indicated that plasmonic Ag NPs could greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 due to the synergistic effect between electron transfer and surface plasmon resonance enhanced absorption. The hydrogen yield obtained from the optimal sample reached 8.1 μmol cm(-2) and the corresponding energy efficiency was about 0.47%, which was 8.5 times higher than that of pure TiO2 film. Additionally, the formation mechanism of TiO2 nano-sheet film is preliminarily discussed.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Photocatalytic TiO2-ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesha S. Srinivasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coprecipitation/hydrolysis synthesis route is used to create a TiO2-ZnFe2O4 nanocomposite that is directed towards extending the photoresponse of TiO2 from UV to visible wavelengths (>400 nm. The effect of TiO2's accelerated anatase-rutile phase transformation due to the presence of the coupled ZnFe2O4 narrow-bandgap semiconductor is evaluated. The transformation's dependence on pH, calcinations temperature, particle size, and ZnFe2O4 concentration has been analyzed using XRD, SEM, and UV-visible spectrometry. The requirements for retaining the highly photoactive anatase phase present in a ZnFe2O4 nanocomposite are outlined. The visible-light-activated photocatalytic activity of the TiO2-ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites has been compared to an Aldrich TiO2 reference catalyst, using a solar-simulated photoreactor for the degradation of phenol.

  10. Plasmonic photocatalysis properties of Au nanoparticles precipitated anatase/rutile mixed TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Liu, Bitao; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-10-21

    Anatase/rutile mixed titania nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) precipitated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), i.e. Au/TiO2, have been synthesized and investigated on visible photocatalysis properties. A deposition-precipitation (DP) method was adopted to reduce the gold precursor to Au NPs within the preformed TiO2 NTs by the emulsion electrospinning technique. The optimal visible photocatalytic activity was found in the sample Au3(DP350)/TiO2 with a loading of 3 wt% Au NPs and calcining at 350 °C. Through transmission electron microscopy, Au NPs of 4.16 nm diameter were observed at the interface between the anatase and rutile phases in the optimal Au3(DP350)/TiO2 sample, and these joint active sites at the interface were beneficial for charge separation. The obtained optimal photocatalytic efficiency of Au3(DP350)/TiO2 was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced visible absorption and the anatase/rutile mixed-phase composition, and the possible mechanism for this was discussed in detail.

  11. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-guo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  12. From hollow olive-shaped BiVO4 to n-p core-shell BiVO4@Bi2O3 microspheres: controlled synthesis and enhanced visible-light-responsive photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mei-Li; Ma, De-Kun; Hu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Yan-Jun; Huang, Shao-Ming

    2011-02-07

    In this study, hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) and n-p core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres were synthesized by a novel sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)-assisted mixed solvothermal route and a thermal solution of NaOH etching process under hydrothermal conditions for the first time, respectively. The as-obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in detail. The influence of AOT and solvent ratios on the final products was studied. On the basis of SEM observations and XRD analyses of the samples synthesized at different reaction stages, the formation mechanism of hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) microspheres was proposed. The photocatalytic activities of hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) and core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres were evaluated on the degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results indicated that core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than pure olive-shaped BiVO(4). The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity of core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres was discussed on the basis of the calculated energy band positions as well. The present study provides a new strategy to enhancing the photocatalytic activity of visible-light-responsive Bi-based photocatalysts by p-n heterojunction.

  13. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Natural dyes adsorbed on TiO2 nanowire for photovoltaic applications: enhanced light absorption and ultrafast electron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sheng; Ren, Jun; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the electronic coupling between a TiO2 nanowire and a natural dye sensitizer, using state-of-the-art time-dependent first-principles calculations. The model dye molecule, cyanidin, is deprotonated into the quinonoidal form upon adsorption on the wire surface. This results in its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) being located in the middle of the TiO2 bandgap and its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) being close to the TiO2 conduction band minimum (CBM), leading to greatly enhanced visible light absorption with two prominent peaks at 480 and 650 nm. We find that excited electrons are injected into the TiO2 conduction band within a time scale of 50 fs with negligible electron-hole recombination and energy dissipation, even though the dye LUMO is located 0.1-0.3 eV lower than the CBM of the TiO2 nanowire.

  15. Room-temperature synthesis of TiO 2 nanospheres and their solar driven photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Avasare, Vidya

    2015-08-13

    Highly monodisperse and crystalline anatase phase TiO2 nanospheres have been synthesized at room temperature from organometallic precursor, titanocene dichloride and sodium azide. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the TiO2 nanospheres was studied under illumination of AM 1.5G. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency of TiO2 NSPs were observed ~0.95mAcm-2 at 1.23V and 0.69%, respectively. The transient photocurrent response measurements on the TiO2 NSPs during repeated ON/OFF visible light illumination cycles at 1.23V vs RHE show that both samples exhibited fast and reproducible photocurrent responses. The TiO2 NSPs show excellent catalytic stability, and significant dark current was not observed even at high potentials (2.0V vs RHE). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Metal-Ion- (Ag-, Co-, Ni-, and Pd- Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterisation, and Visible Light Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphilisi M. Mahlambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-ion- (Ag, Co, Ni and Pd doped titania nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on glass slides by layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique using a poly(styrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH polyelectrolyte system. Solid diffuse reflectance (SDR studies showed a linear increase in absorbance at 416 nm with increase in the number of m-TiO2 thin films. The LbL assembled thin films were tested for their photocatalytic activity through the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light illumination. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM, the thin films had a porous morphology and the atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed “rough” surfaces. The porous and rough surface morphology resulted in high surface areas hence the high photocatalytic degradation (up to 97% over a 6.5 h irradiation period using visible-light observed. Increasing the number of multilayers deposited on the glass slides resulted in increased film thickness and an increased rate of photodegradation due to increase in the availability of more nanocatalysts (more sites for photodegradation. The LbL assembled thin films had strong adhesion properties which made them highly stable thus displaying the same efficiencies after five (5 reusability cycles.

  17. The role of high oxygen vacancy concentration on modification of surface properties and H2S adsorption on the rutile TiO2 (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiqian; Wang, Fang; Dan, Meng; Zeng, Kaiyue; Zhou, Ying

    2017-11-01

    In this work, spin-polarized DFT + U method has been employed to investigate adsorption properties of H2S on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface with a high coverage of bridging oxygen vacancies (BOVs). The influence of different BOV coverage (θ-BOVs) on the surface electronic structure is examined. Defected states increase within the band gap with θ-BOVs increasing from 1/8 to 4/8 monolayer (ML). The high defected surface with θ-BOVs = 4/8 ML is determined to have a desired band structure and noticeable visible light response. In addition, H2S adsorption behaviors are noticeably affected by different H2S coverage (θ-H2S). Particularly, it is found molecular adsorption at θ-H2S ≤ 1/8 ML and dissociative adsorption at the higher θ-H2S. The maximization of spontaneous dissociation of H2S can be realized when the BOVs are all covered by H2S molecules. This work gains mechanistic insights into BOVs in tuning the surface properties and provides a guide for the effective utilization of the active surface sites on the rutile TiO2 (110) in the field of H2S splitting.

  18. Transparent TiO2-PMMA Nanohybrids of High Nanocrystallinity and Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Xue, Junmin; Wang, John; Elim, Hendry Izaac; Ji, Wei

    Nanohybrid thin films of titania-polymethyl methacrylate (TiO2-PMMA) with varying degrees of nanocrystallinity have been successfully synthesized via an in-situ sol gel-polymerization route, assisted by subsequent thermal and water vapor treatments. Post-hydrothermal treatment by water vapor at relatively low temperatures led to a higher degree of crystallinity for TiO2 nanoparticles than the conventional thermal annealing. The degree of TiO2 crystallinity in the resulting nanohybrid films was studied by using XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopies and HRTEM. The resulting nanohybrid thin films are highly transparent in the visible region, with an estimated band gap energies, Eg, close to that of anatase TiO2 (~ 3.20 eV). The nanocrystallinity level of TiO2 phase strongly affects both linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanohybrids. A significant enhancement in linear refractive index, no, up to 1.780 and a third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) as high as 5.27 × 10-9 esu, were demonstrated with the nanohybrid exhibiting the enhanced TiO2 crystallinity and well-preserved PMMA matrix.

  19. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting on TiO2 via Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Thomas Kochuveedu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for an alternative to replace conventional fuel has been going on for years due to the limited storage of fossil fuel and excess CO2 emission from the fuel. Using H2 as fuel has gained wide attention recently, as well as consequently splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Seminal semiconductors such as TiO2 and ZnO have their position of CB and VB in alignment with water reduction and oxidation potential, respectively, but their wide bandgap allows them to absorb only UV light of the solar spectrum. Combining narrow bandgap semiconductors or other visible light active sensitizers with TiO2/ZnO is a facile route to exploit the visible light region of the solar spectrum. In this review, I make an attempt to summarize the various photosensitizers used in combination with TiO2 for water splitting with recent reports as examples.

  20. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-09-24

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity.

  1. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N. F.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Various weight loadings of Ag (1-10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag0, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  3. Comparative study of (N, Fe) doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larumbe, S.; Monge, M.; Gómez-Polo, C.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of N and Fe doping on the structural, optical, photocatalytic and magnetic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles is analyzed. Undoped, N and Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as the alkoxyde precursor and iron (III) nitrate and urea were the employed precursors to obtain Fe and N doped TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA) enabled the analysis of the thermal decomposition process and the final calcination temperature. X-Ray Diffraction patterns of the calcined nanoparticles displayed a monophasic anatase structure in all the samples with mean crystallite diameter around 4-6 nm. The introduction of Fe or N induced a red-shift in the absorption spectra. Such a red-shift is characterized by a decrease in the band-gap energy and the occurrence of an absorption (Urbach) tail in the visible region. Finally, the photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated under UV and Visible light, obtaining an improvement of the kinetic constants in the nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles with respect to undoped and Fe doped TiO2. The differences in the photocatalytic response under Fe and N doping are also analyzed in terms of the magnetic response of the analyzed photocatalysts.

  4. Ecotoxicity of TiO2 to Daphnia similis under irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, Glauciene P S; Oliveira, Adria C; Almeida, Gilberto; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Jardim, Wilson F

    2012-04-15

    Currently, there are a large number of products (sunscreen, pigments, cosmetics, plastics, toothpastes and photocatalysts) that use TiO(2) nanoparticles. Due to this large production, these nanoparticles can be released into the aquatic, terrestrial and aerial environments at relative high concentration. TiO(2) in natural water has the capacity to harm aquatic organisms such as the Daphnia (Cladocera) species, mainly because the photocatalytic properties of this semiconductor. However, very few toxicity tests of TiO(2) nanoparticles have been conducted under irradiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate anatase and rutile TiO(2) toxicity to Daphnia similis exploring their photocatalytic properties by incorporating UV A and visible radiation as a parameter in the assays. Anatase and rutile TiO(2) samples at the highest concentration tested (100 mg L(-1)) were not toxic to D. similis, neither in the dark nor under visible light conditions. The anatase form and a mixture of anatase and rutile, when illuminated by a UV A black light with a peak emission wavelength of 360 nm, presented photo-dependent EC50 values of 56.9-7.8 mg L(-1), which indicates a toxicity mechanism caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Charge-transfer complex formation between TiO2 nanoparticles and thiosalicylic acid: A comprehensive experimental and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Bojana; Đorđević, Vesna; Lončarević, Davor; Dostanić, Jasmina M.; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Sredojević, Dušan; Švrakić, Nenad M.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2017-11-01

    Under normal conditions, titanium dioxide does not absorb visible light photons due to large band gap. Nevertheless, when titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are surface-modified with thiosalicylic acid (TSA), their optical properties are altered owing to the formation of charge transfer complex that initiates absorption in the visible spectral range. Colloidal and sol-gel techniques were used to synthesize uniform TiO2 NPs of different sizes (average diameters in the range 4-15 nm), and effects of their subsequent modification by TSA molecules were compared with effect of modification of commercial Degussa TiO2 powder. Thorough microstructural characterization of TiO2 nanoparticulates was performed including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as well as nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Optical measurements revealed that all surface-modified TiO2 samples with TSA have similar spectral features independent of their morphological differences, and, more importantly, absorption onset of modified TiO2 samples was found to be red-shifted by 1.0 eV compared to the unmodified ones. The mode of binding between TSA and surface Ti atoms was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Finally, the quantum chemical calculations, based on density functional theory, were performed to support optical characterization of surface-modified TiO2 with TSA.

  6. Rough gold films as broadband absorbers for plasmonic enhancement of TiO2 photocurrent over 400–800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Li, Tenghao; Wang, Ning; Lai, Sin Ki; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in highly-efficient absorbers of visible light for the conversion of solar energy into electrochemical energy. This study presents a TiO2-Au bilayer that consists of a rough Au film under a TiO2 film, which aims to enhance the photocurrent of TiO2 over the whole visible region and may be the first attempt to use rough Au films to sensitize TiO2. Experiments show that the bilayer structure gives the optimal optical and photoelectrochemical performance when the TiO2 layer is 30 nm thick and the Au film is 100 nm, measuring the absorption 80–90% over 400–800 nm and the photocurrent intensity of 15 μA·cm−2, much better than those of the TiO2-AuNP hybrid (i.e., Au nanoparticle covered by the TiO2 film) and the bare TiO2 film. The superior properties of the TiO2-Au bilayer can be attributed to the rough Au film as the plasmonic visible-light sensitizer and the photoactive TiO2 film as the electron accepter. As the Au film is fully covered by the TiO2 film, the TiO2-Au bilayer avoids the photocorrosion and leakage of Au materials and is expected to be stable for long-term operation, making it an excellent photoelectrode for the conversion of solar energy into electrochemical energy in the applications of water splitting, photocatalysis and photosynthesis. PMID:27608836

  7. Remarkable catalytic activity of Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal method for the degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malligavathy, M.; Iyyapushpam, S.; Nishanthi, S. T.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-04-01

    Visible light Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites are successfully prepared with different dosages of Bi2O3 by hydrothermal process. All the as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET), N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). XRD and Raman spectra reveal the anatase phase of both TiO2 and Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that the bismuth ions did not enter into the lattice of TiO2, and Bi2O3 is extremely dispersive on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The incorporation of Bi2O3 in TiO2 leads to the spectral response of TiO2 in the visible light region and efficient separation of charge carriers. The enhanced visible light activity is tested by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under light illumination, and the performance of Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites are superior than that of pure TiO2 which is ascribed to the efficient charge separation and transfer across the Bi2O3/TiO2 junction. Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposite (20 mg) loaded with 0.25 of Bi2O3 dispersed in 50 ml of 5 ppm methyl orange solution exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of 98.86% within 240 min of irradiation, which is attributed to the low band gap, high surface area, and the strong interaction between Bi2O3 and TiO2.

  8. Rough gold films as broadband absorbers for plasmonic enhancement of TiO2 photocurrent over 400-800 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Li, Tenghao; Wang, Ning; Lai, Sin Ki; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-09-09

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in highly-efficient absorbers of visible light for the conversion of solar energy into electrochemical energy. This study presents a TiO2-Au bilayer that consists of a rough Au film under a TiO2 film, which aims to enhance the photocurrent of TiO2 over the whole visible region and may be the first attempt to use rough Au films to sensitize TiO2. Experiments show that the bilayer structure gives the optimal optical and photoelectrochemical performance when the TiO2 layer is 30 nm thick and the Au film is 100 nm, measuring the absorption 80-90% over 400-800 nm and the photocurrent intensity of 15 μA·cm(-2), much better than those of the TiO2-AuNP hybrid (i.e., Au nanoparticle covered by the TiO2 film) and the bare TiO2 film. The superior properties of the TiO2-Au bilayer can be attributed to the rough Au film as the plasmonic visible-light sensitizer and the photoactive TiO2 film as the electron accepter. As the Au film is fully covered by the TiO2 film, the TiO2-Au bilayer avoids the photocorrosion and leakage of Au materials and is expected to be stable for long-term operation, making it an excellent photoelectrode for the conversion of solar energy into electrochemical energy in the applications of water splitting, photocatalysis and photosynthesis.

  9. Intense photocurrent from Mo-doped TiO2 film with depletion layer array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Yun; Yan, Bing-Xi; Shen, Jie

    2014-06-25

    A novel bilayer structure of TiO2 film was found capable of yielding fairly strong photocurrent under visible light. The base layer was lightly doped with Mo and then etched by reactive ion beam, and was finally covered by an undoped TiO2 surface layer. Because of Fermi level drop at the interface of the trenches, such a deposition-etching-redeposition process implanted an array of depletion layer into TiO2 film successfully. Microstructures, crystallite parameters, and the absorption property were investigated with scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy in order. Photocurrent density was collected on an electrochemical workstation under visible light. The results indicate that carrier collection probability near depletion layer was enhanced significantly owing to high parallel diffusivity. Under visible light, current density demonstrates a marked increase as etching depth grows. At an etching depth around 660 nm, photocurrent density achieved is 56 times larger than TiO2 film. Depletion layer at vertical trench edges may have a much bigger universal value than anticipated for various doping cases of wide-bandgap films.

  10. Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material shows higher photocatalytic activity both in UV and visible region of the solar radiation compared to commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. Transition metal ion substitution for Ti4+ creates mid-gap states which act as recombination centers for electron{hole induced by photons thus reducing photocatalytic activity.

  11. Study of the Photodynamic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Conjugated with Aluminum Phthalocyanine

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xiaobo; Liang, Xinyue; Yao, Longfang; Wang, Xinyi; Jing, Yueyue; Ma, Jiong; Fei, Yiyan; Chen, Li; Mi, Lan

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles modified with phthalocyanines (Pc) have been proven to be a potential photosensitizer in the application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by TiO2 nanoparticles modified with Pc has not been demonstrated clearly. In this study, nitrogen-doped TiO2 conjugated with Pc (N-TiO2-Pc) were studied by means of monitoring the generation of ROS. The absorbance and photokilling effect on HeLa cells upon visible light of different r...

  12. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccheri, Tommaso; Colonna, Martino; Stefanini, Ilaria; Santini, Cecilia; Gioia, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol %) for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired inf...

  13. Daylight photocatalytic activity of TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures: An experimental and density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures is prepared via a simple sol-gel process and compared with bare TiO2 nanoparticles. We carried out XRD, TEM and UV-Visible characterization for evaluating structural and optical properties. A better and promising day light photocatalytic activity is observed for TiO2/SnO2 in comparison to TiO2 in the degradation of methyl orange (MO). We have also done DFT calculation based VASP 5.2 to calculate Density of States of both the system. Finally, a correlation is established between theory and experiment.

  14. Structural and Optical Properties of Core-Shell TiO2/CdS Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.

    2017-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). TiO2 NRAs were also obtained by using the same method on glass substrates coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The structure of the FTO/TiO2/CdS core-shell was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and photoelectrocatalysis of FTO/TiO2 and FTO/TiO2/CdS. The FTO/TiO2 conformed to anatase and rutile phase structures for different pH values and also with annealing. XRD patterns of the FTO/TiO2/CdS sample exhibited two peaks corresponding to hexagonal (100) and (101) for CdS. Scanning electron micrographs showed nanorod structures for the TiO2 thin films deposited at a pH value equal 0.7. Optical results showed the CdS deposited on nanorod TiO2 exhibited increased absorption ability in the visible light, indicating an increased photocatalytic activity for TiO2/CdS core-shell nanorods in the visible light. When illuminated with a UV-Vis light source, the TiO2/CdS core-shell films displayed high responses. A composite exists between the TiO2 nanostructure and CdS NPs because the film absorbs the incident light located in both the visible and UV-Vis regions. A higher response to UV-Vis light was attained with the use of TiO2 NRAs/CdS NPs films prepared by CBD. This approach offers a technique for fabricating photoelectrodes.

  15. Preparation of an antibacterial, hydrophilic and photocatalytically active polyacrylic coating using TiO2nanoparticles sensitized by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali; Shakoori, Sahar

    2017-11-01

    In recent years more attentions have been paid for preparation of coatings with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. These properties allow the surface to maintain clean and health over long times without any need to cleaning or disinfection. Acrylic coatings are widely used on various surfaces such as automotive, structural and furniture which their self-cleaning and antibacterial ability is very important. The aim of this work is the preparation of a polyacrylic based self-cleaning and antibacterial coating by the modification of TiO 2 as a coating additive. TiO 2 nanoparticles were sensitized to the visible light irradiation using graphene oxide through the preparation of TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite. Graphene oxide was prepared via a modified Hummers method. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite was used as additive in a polyacrylic coating formulation. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities as well as coating stability were evaluated for TiO 2 /graphene oxide modified polyacrylic coating and compared with that of pristine TiO 2 modified and unmodified polyacrylic coatings. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite and polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide additive were characterized using FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and FESEM techniques. The effect of TiO 2 /graphene oxide composition and its percent in the coating formulation was evaluated on the polyacrylic coating properties. Results showed that polyacrylic coating having 3% W TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite additive with TiO 2 to graphene oxide ratio of 100:20 is the best coating considering most of beneficial features such as high photodecolorization efficiency of organic dye contaminants, high hydrophilicity, and stability in water. According to the results, TiO 2 is effectively sensitized by graphene oxide and the polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite shows good photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2017

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-Jiao Huang; Hong-Bing Ji; Xian-Tai Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu) adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25) surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis) and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2) sho...

  17. Photocatalytic degration kinetics in Rhodamine B dye degradation with poriferous TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Ping; Jiao, Cai-Shan; Chen, Xing-Juan

    2006-06-01

    A type of poriferous TiO2 material was prepared using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide as a template agent and butyl tetra titanate as a precursor. Through studying the photocatalytic kinetic activity of Rhodamine B photocatalytic degradation reaction with a UV-1601PC ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, the photocatalytic degradation process of Rhodamine B was found to not correspond to the first-order kinetic process completely. According to the reaction phenomenon, the photocatalytic degradation process of Rhodamine B with poriferous TiO2 involved two irrevesible reactions. The kinetic model was tested using experimental data.

  18. Band edge movement and structural modifications in transition metal doped TiO2 nanocrystals for the application of DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, L. B.; Huse, V. R.; Chaudhari, A. L.

    2017-10-01

    Nanocrystalline undoped and transition metal ion doped (TM:Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+) TiO2 nanoparticles, with 1 mol% were synthesized by a simple and cost effective modified co-precipitation method at room temperature and were successfully used as photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The effect of transition metal ions into TiO2 nano crystalline powder has been systematically investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectroscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results of XRD confirm nanocrystalline anatase tetragonal structure of prepared undoped and TM doped TiO2 semiconductor. The influence of doping on band edge movement has been estimated using UV–visible spectroscopy. The SEM results indicate that microscopic effect of doping on morphology of the TiO2. The peaks of EDX signify incorporation of transition metal cations into TiO2 lattice. The effect of doping on flat band potential was estimated using interpolation on Mott-Schottky plot. The performances of DSSCs of undoped and doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were investigated under light illumination. In comparison with undoped and (Cu2+, Fe3+) doped TiO2 photoanodes we found that incorporation of Mn2+ into TiO2 exhibits improvement in photoconversion efficiency (η). There is increase in photoconversion efficiency of DSSCs with Mn2+ doped TiO2 by 6% as compared to that of undoped TiO2 photoanode.

  19. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (maps (Lucey et al., 2000) have systematically higher values relative to the WAC estimates. The Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) TiO2 map is consistent with the WAC TiO2 map, although there are local offsets possibly due to the different depth sensitivities and large pixel scale of the GRS relative to the WAC. We find a wide variation of TiO2 abundances (from 0 to 10 wt%) for early mare volcanism (>2

  20. The TiO(2) nanoparticle effect on the performance of a conducting polymer Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K H; Kang, K S; Chen, Y; Han, K J; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-12-17

    Among the conjugate polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been paid a great deal of attention for various application fields. The absorption intensity of the whole UV-visible range increases linearly, as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. When a small amount of TiO(2) nanoparticles are dispersed in the PEDOT:PSS solution, the absorption in the visible range normally increases, but the UV range absorption (TiO(2) absorption area) is greatly depressed as the concentration of PEDOT:PSS increases. Various weight ratios of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS were prepared. The TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS solution was spin-coated onto the Al electrode and thermally treated to remove water molecules and densify the film. These thermal processes generated nanocracks and nanoholes on the surface of the TiO(2)/PEDOT:PSS film. As the heating temperature increased, wider and longer nanocracks were generated. These nanocracks and nanoholes can be removed by subsequent coating and heating processes. Schottky diodes were fabricated using four different concentrations of TiO(2)-PEDOT:PSS solution. The forward current increased nearly two orders of magnitude by doping approximately 1% of TiO(2) nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS. Increasing the TiO(2) nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS matrix, the forward current was continuously enhanced. The enhancement of forward current is nearly four orders of magnitude with respect to the pristine PEDOT:PSS Schottky diode. The possible conduction mechanisms were examined by using various plotting and curve-fitting methods including a space-charge-limited conduction mechanism [Ln(J) versus Ln(V)], Schottky emission mechanism [Ln(J) versus E(1/2)], and Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism [Ln(J/V) versus E(1/2)]. The plot of Ln(J) versus Ln(V) shows a linear relationship, implying that the major conduction mechanism is SCLC. As the concentration of TiO(2) increased, the conduction mechanism slightly detracted from the

  1. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  2. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  3. Controllable synthesis of TiO2 nanoflowers and their morphology-dependent photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jinbo; Gao, Juan; Geng, Xianya; He, Dandan; Guo, Xiaoning

    2017-03-01

    Different surface morphologies of TiO2 films were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis method on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by changing reaction temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). As the hydrothermal temperatures increases, the surface morphologies of the TiO2 changes from nanorods (150 °C) to nanobuds (180 °C), and finally to nanoflowers (210 °C). Evolution of these structures are accompanied by great variations of optical properties and photocatalytic activities including a narrowing of band gap from 3.01 to 2.97 eV, increase of UV-visible absorption intensity and specific surface area, and photocatalytic degradation efficiencies from 88.18 to 95.56%. Under ultraviolet light (UV light) irradiation, the TiO2 nanoflowers exhibit significantly activity (95.56%) in degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to commercial P25 (76.15%). The outstanding photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers can be attributed to the synergetic effect of much larger specific surface area, the larger content of oxygen vacancy, and higher intensity of absorption. These findings help to grow unique TiO2 films with desired structure and activities for photocatalyst applications.

  4. Deliberate Design of TiO2 Nanostructures towards Superior Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Liao, Ting; Sheng, Liyuan; Kou, Liangzhi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nanostructures are being sought after as flexibly utilizable building blocks for the fabrication of the mesoporous thin-film photoelectrodes that are the heart of the third-generation photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and the recently promoted perovskite-type solar cells. Here, we report deliberate tailoring of TiO2 nanostructures for superior photovoltaic cells. Morphology engineering of TiO2 nanostructures is realized by designing synthetic protocols in which the precursor hydrolysis, crystal growth, and oligomer self-organization are precisely controlled. TiO2 nanostructures in forms varying from isolated nanocubes, nanorods, and cross-linked nanorods to complex hierarchical structures and shape-defined mesoporous micro-/nanostructures were successfully synthesized. The photoanodes made from the shape-defined mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and nanospindles presented superior performances, owing to the well-defined overall shapes and the inner ordered nanochannels, which allow not only a high amount of dye uptake, but also improved visible-light absorption. This study provides a new way to seek an optimal synthetic protocol to meet the required functionality of the nanomaterials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: Bulk and surface doping

    KAUST Repository

    Ould-Chikh, Samy

    2014-04-15

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions: the first series (Cr:TiO2) is intended to dope the bulk of TiO2, whereas the second series (Cr/TiO2) is intended to load the surface of TiO2 with Cr. The catalytic properties have been compared in the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. Characterization data provides evidence that in the Cr/TiO2 catalysts chromium is located on the surface of TiO2 as amorphous CrOOH clusters. In contrast, in the Cr:TiO 2 series, chromium is mostly dissolved in the titania lattice, although a minor part is still present on the surface. Photocatalytic tests show that both series of chromium-doped titania demonstrate visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. Surface-doped Cr/TiO2 solids appear to be more efficient photocatalysts than the bulk-doped Cr:TiO2 counterparts. It\\'s classified! The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two types of modified titania are discussed: one with CrIII doped in the bulk and one with CrOOH clusters on the TiO2 surface (see picture). Both series show visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. However, surface modification appears to be a more efficient strategy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Transparent, Adherent, and Photocatalytic SiO2-TiO2 Coatings on Polycarbonate for Self-Cleaning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Latthe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic TiO2 coatings are famously known for their excellent self-cleaning behavior, where very thin water layer formed on the superhydrophilic surface can easily wash-off the dirt particles while flowing. Here we report the preparation of the optically transparent, adherent, highly wettable towards water and photocatalytic SiO2-TiO2 coatings on polycarbonate (PC substrate for self-cleaning applications. The silica barrier layer was applied on UV-treated PC substrate before spin coating the SiO2-TiO2 coatings. The effect of different vol% of SiO2 in TiO2 and its influence on the surface morphology, mechanical stability, wettability, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings were studied in detail. The coatings prepared from 7 vol% of SiO2 in TiO2 showed smooth, crack-free surface morphology and low surface roughness compared to the coatings prepared from the higher vol% of SiO2 in TiO2. The water drops on this coating acquires a contact angle less than 10° after UV irradiation for 30 min. All the coatings prepared from different vol% (7 to 20 of SiO2 in TiO2 showed high transparency in the visible range.

  7. Photocatalytic activity of magnetically anatase TiO2 with high crystallinity and stability for dyes degradation: Insights into the dual roles of SiO2 interlayer between TiO2 and CoFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zewei; Shi, Yingying; Wang, Bing

    2017-03-01

    A novel magnetically separable photocatalyst comprising hollow TiO2-SiO2-CoFe2O4 (TSC) was prepared. In the TSC photocatalyst, an SiO2 interlayer between CoFe2O4 core and TiO2 shell is used to both weaken adverse influence of the magnetic core on photocatalysis and increase the temperature of the transition from anatase to rutile phase TiO2, thus increasing the anatase TiO2 crystallinity. Such an interlayer promotes photocatalytic activity by changing the competition between the injecting process and reacting process of the photogenerated carriers. The photocatalytic activity of TSC was determined for degradation of dye molecules in water under either UV or visible light. The photocatalytic reaction of cationic dyes was governed by rad OH radicals, while O2rad - was the main active species in the initial photoreaction of anionic dyes.

  8. A comparative study of photo-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiter, E; Hai, Z; Alfaro, S; Remita, H; Valenzuela, M A; Colbeau-Justin, C

    2013-07-01

    Noble metals deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps facilitating electron-hole separation and promoting the interfacial electron transfer process. In particular, silver nanoparticles have the ability to absorb visible light due to localized surface plasmon resonance. Here we report a photochemical and photocatalytic method for depositing Ag nanoparticles (2-20 nm) on TiO2 by using UV light at room temperature. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-resolved microwave conductivity were used as characterization techniques. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by measuring the decomposition of rhodamine B under UV and visible light irradiation. The fastest bleaching of RhB under visible-light irradiation has been obtained by Ag/TiO2 plasmonic photocatalyst prepared by the photocatalytic route. These results were explained in terms of the more efficient photon absorption due to the presence of the surface plasmon resonance.

  9. TiO2 Nanoparticles Are Phototoxic to Marine Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J Miller; Samuel Bennett; Keller, Arturo A.; Scott Pease; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO(2). Because TiO(2) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO(2) has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO(2) is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiment...

  10. Fabrication of a TiO2@porphyrin nanofiber hybrid material: a highly efficient photocatalyst under simulated sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Duong Duc; Rananaware, Anushri; Phuong Nguyen Thi, Hoai; Jones, Lathe; Bhosale, Sheshanath V.

    2017-03-01

    The solar spectrum consists of 8% UV radiation, while 45% of solar energy is from visible light. It is therefore desirable to fabricate a hybrid material which is able to harvest energy from a wide range of photons from the sun for applications such as solar cells, photovoltaics, and photocatalysis. In this study we report on the fabrication of a TiO2@porphyrin hybrid material by surfactant-assisted co-assembly of monomeric porphyrin molecules with TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained TiO2@porphyrin composite shows excellent integration of TiO2 particles with diameters of 15-30 nm into aggregated porphyrin nanofibers, which have a width of 70-90 nm and are several µm long. SEM, XPS, XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to characterize the TiO2@TCPP hybrid material. This material exhibits efficient photocatalytic performance under simulated sunlight, due to synergistic photocatalytic activities of the porphyrin aggregates in visible light and TiO2 particles in the UV region. A plausible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation is also proposed and discussed.

  11. Synthesis of Cu Loaded TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Improved Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, V.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2016-10-01

    Copper doped Titanium dioxide TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide and copper sulfate as precursors. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminesce spectroscopy (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis confirms the formation of anatase titanium dioxide and average particle size was 35nm. Cu- TiO2 exhibits a shift in the absorption edge toward visible spectrum. The rate of recombination and transfer behavior of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. From SEM spherical shaped nanoparticles was observed. Comparing with pure TiO2 nanoparticles, Cu doped TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight irradiation in the decomposition of rhodamine B aqueous solution. The maximum 97% of degradation efficiency of Rhodamine B was observed at 0.6% Cu-TiO2 within 180min. The photocatalytic efficiency of Rhodamine B of Cu doped TiO2 nanoparticle was higher than the pure TiO2, which could be attributed to the small crystallinity intense light absorption in Sunlight and narrow bandgap energy of Copper.

  12. Removal of 4-Nitrophenol from Water Using Ag-N-P-Tridoped TiO2 by Photocatalytic Oxidation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamo, Temesgen; Yadav, O P

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation using semiconductor nanoparticles is an efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective process for the removal of organic pollutants, such as dyes, pesticides, phenols, and their derivatives in water. In the present study, nanosize Ag-N-P-tridoped titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) was prepared by using sol-gel-synthesized Ag-doped TiO2 and soybean (Glycine max) or chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds as nonmetallic bioprecursors. As-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopic techniques. Average crystallite size of the studied photocatalysts was within 39-46 nm. Whereas doped Ag in TiO2 minimized the photogenerated electron-hole recombination, doped N and P extended its photoabsorption edge to visible region. Tridoping of Ag, N, and P in TiO2 exhibited synergetic effect toward enhancing its photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), separately, under UV and visible irradiations. At three hours, degradations of 4-NP over Ag-N-P-tridoped TiO2 under UV and visible radiations were 73.8 and 98.1%, respectively.

  13. Removal of 4-Nitrophenol from Water Using Ag–N–P-Tridoped TiO2 by Photocatalytic Oxidation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamo, Temesgen; Yadav, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation using semiconductor nanoparticles is an efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective process for the removal of organic pollutants, such as dyes, pesticides, phenols, and their derivatives in water. In the present study, nanosize Ag–N–P-tridoped titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) was prepared by using sol–gel-synthesized Ag-doped TiO2 and soybean (Glycine max) or chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds as nonmetallic bioprecursors. As-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and ultra violet (UV)–visible spectroscopic techniques. Average crystallite size of the studied photocatalysts was within 39–46 nm. Whereas doped Ag in TiO2 minimized the photogenerated electron–hole recombination, doped N and P extended its photoabsorption edge to visible region. Tridoping of Ag, N, and P in TiO2 exhibited synergetic effect toward enhancing its photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), separately, under UV and visible irradiations. At three hours, degradations of 4-NP over Ag–N–P-tridoped TiO2 under UV and visible radiations were 73.8 and 98.1%, respectively. PMID:27081309

  14. One-step synthesis of hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Ren, Feng; Yang, Jinlin; Su, Weiming; Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chang-an

    2016-03-01

    Hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres were solvothermally synthesized successfully by using tetrabutyl titanate as titanium precursor and hydrated metal sulfates as soft templates. The as-prepared TiO2 spheres with hierarchically pore structures and high specific surface area and pore volume consisted of highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals hybridized with a small amount of metal oxide from the hydrated sulfate. The proposed hydrated-sulfate assisted solvothermal (HAS) synthesis strategy was demonstrated to be widely applicable to various systems. Evaluation of the hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres for the photo-decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation revealed that they exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and durability.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Hierarchical Structured TiO2 Nanotubes and Their Photocatalytic Performance on Methyl Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by mechanical ball milling of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by electrochemical anodization of titanium foil. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area analysis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent measurement, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectra, and photocatalytic degradation test were applied to characterize the nanocomposites. Surface area increased as the milling time extended. After 5 h ball milling, TiO2 hierarchical nanotubes exhibited a corn-like shape and exhibited enhanced photoelectrochemical activity in comparison to commercial P25. The superior photocatalytic activity is suggested to be due to the combined advantages of high surface area of nanoparticles and rapid electron transfer as well as collection of the nanotubes in the hierarchical structure. The hierarchical structured TiO2 nanotubes could be applied into flexible applications on solar cells, sensors, and other photoelectrochemical devices.

  16. Screened coulomb hybrid DFT study on electronic structure and optical properties of anionic and cationic Te-doped anatase TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-06-27

    The origin of the enhanced visible-light optical absorption in Te-doped bulk anatase TiO2 is investigated in the framework of DFT and DFPT within HSE06 in order to ensure accurate electronic structure and optical transition predictions. Various oxidation states of Te species are considered based on their structural location in bulk TiO2. In fact, TiO (2-x)Tex (with isolated Te2- species at Te-Te distance of 8.28 Å), TiO2Tex (with isolated TeO 2- species at Te-Te distance of 8.28 Å), TiO2Te 2x (with two concomitant TeO2- species at Te-Te distance of 4.11 Å), and Ti(1-2x)O2Te2x (with two neighboring Te4+ species at nearest-neighbor Te-Te distance of 3.05 Å) show improved optical absorption responses in the visible range similarly as it is experimentally observed in Te-doped TiO2 powders. The optical absorption edges of TiO(2-x)Tex, TiO 2Tex, and TiO2Te2x are found to be red-shifted by 400 nm compared with undoped TiO2 whereas that of Ti(1-2x)O2Te2x is red-shifted by 150 nm. On the basis of calculated valence and conduction band edge positions of Te-doped TiO2, only TiO(2-x)Tex and Ti (1-2x)O2Te2x show suitable potentials for overall water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The electronic structure analysis revealed narrower band gaps of 1.12 and 1.17 eV with respect to undoped TiO2, respectively, resulting from the appearance of new occupied electronic states in the gap of TiO2. A delocalized nature of the gap states is found to be much more pronounced in TiO (2-x)Tex than that with Ti(1-2x)O 2Te2x due to the important contribution of numerous O 2p orbitals together with Te 5p orbitals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Fabrication of Novel High Potential Chromium-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticulate Electrode-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehteram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, pure TiO2 and Cr-doped TiO2 (Cr@TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method and the resulting materials were applied to prepare the porous TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. It is hypothesized that the advantages of the doping of the metal ions into TiO2 lattice are the temporary rapping of the photogenerated electron-hole (charge carriers by the metal dopants and the retarding charge recombination during electron migration from TiO2 to the electrode surface. Spectroscopic and microscopic findings showed that all the prepared samples consist of only anatse phase with average size of 10-15nm. In addition, relative to the bare TiO2, Cr@TiO2 absorption in visible light region was considerably improved due to the surface Plasmon phenomenon. Current-voltage (I-V curves exhibited that the solar cells made of Cr@TiO2 nanoparticles results in higher photocurrent density than the cells made of bare TiO2. The large improvement of photovoltaic performance of the Cr-doped TiO2 cell stems from negative shift of TiO2 conduction band and retarding charge recombination. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed route in the current study is an effective way to enhance the energy conversion efficiency and overall performance of DSSC.

  18. Evaluation of Photocatalytic Properties of Portland Cement Blended with Titanium Oxynitride (TiO2−xNy Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of Portland cement pastes blended with nanoparticles of titanium oxynitride (TiO2−xNy was studied. Samples with different percentages of TiO2−xNy (0.0%, 0.5%, 1%, 3% and TiO2 (1%, 3% were evaluated in order to study their self-cleaning properties. The presence of nitrogen in the tetragonal structure of TiO2 was evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD as a shift of the peaks in the 2θ axis. The samples were prepared with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a concentration of Rhodamine B of 0.5 g/L. After 65 h of curing time, the samples were irradiated with UV lamps to evaluate the reduction of the pigment. The color analysis was carried out using a Spectrometer UV/Vis measuring the coordinates CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and with special attention to the reddish tones (Rhodamine B color which correspond to a* values greater than zero. Additionally, samples with 0.5%, 1%, 3% of TiO2−xNy and 1%, 3% of TiO2 were evaluated under visible light with the purpose of determining the Rhodamine B abatement to wavelengths greater than 400 nm. The results have shown a similar behavior for both additions under UV light irradiation, with 3% being the addition with the highest photocatalytic efficiency obtained. However, TiO2−xNy showed activity under irradiation with visible light, unlike TiO2, which can only be activated under UV light.

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  20. Efficient photodegradation of methyl violet dye using TiO2/Pt and TiO2/Pd photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Khalid; Khan, Idrees; Gul, Tamanna; Sadiq, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Titanium oxide supported palladium (TiO2/Pd) and titanium oxide supported platinum (TiO2/Pt) nanoparticles were prepared from their precursors through the incipient wetness method. The TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX), while the photodegradation study of methyl violet was performed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The morphological study shows that the Pd and Pt were well deposited on the surface of TiO2, which was confirmed by EDX. Both TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were used as photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methyl violet in aqueous media under UV-light irradiation. The photodegradation study revealed that the TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles degraded about 95 and 78% of dye within 20 min, respectively. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst dosage, concentration of dye, and medium on the photocatalytic degradation was examined. The activity of recovered TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles was studied.

  1. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  2. TiO2 nanoparticles for enhancing the refractive index of hydrogels for ophthalmological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Norbert; Dams, Christian; Badur, Thorben; Reinhardt, Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    Intraocular lenses (IOL) are currently the only treatment for cataract dependent vision impairment and blindness [1]. A polymer suitable for IOL manufacture needs to meet a plurality of properties, biocompatibility, excellent transmission in the visible range, a high flexibility for micro invasive surgery, a high refractive index as well as a good ABBE-number, just to mention the most important ones [2]. We present the use of in situ generated TiO2-nanoparticles to enhance the refractive index of poly-HEMA hydrogels - with are suitable polymers for IOL manufacture[3] - from 1.44 to 1.527 at 589.3 nm combined with an excellent ABBE-number of 54. The nanoparticles were prepared using titaniumdiisopropoxide- bis(acetylacetonate) as a precursor. First the titanium salt was diffused into the poly-HEMA matrix and then it was transformed into TiO2 in boiling water. The resulting pHEMA [TiO2] hydrogel was dried for 10 days under ambient conditions. By lathing these polymers were machined into lens precursors, the so-called Saturn-rings. After reswelling in physiological saline solutions flexible polymer lenses with high surface quality, shape memory and superior optical properties were obtained. The crystal structure of the formed TiO2 nanoparticles was identified as anatase via Xray. No release of titanium ions or TiO2 nanoparticles was observe under physiological conditions. Such hybrid materials of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly-HEMA like hydrogels are promising materials for IOL.

  3. Kelvin probe force microscopy of nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Henning

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a promising third-generation photovoltaic concept based on the spectral sensitization of a wide-bandgap metal oxide. Although the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrode of a DSC consists of sintered nanoparticles, there are few studies on the nanoscale properties. We focus on the microscopic work function and surface photovoltage (SPV determination of TiO2 photoelectrodes using Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with a tunable illumination system. A comparison of the surface potentials for TiO2 photoelectrodes sensitized with two different dyes, i.e., the standard dye N719 and a copper(I bis(imine complex, reveals an inverse orientation of the surface dipole. A higher surface potential was determined for an N719 photoelectrode. The surface potential increase due to the surface dipole correlates with a higher DSC performance. Concluding from this, microscopic surface potential variations, attributed to the complex nanostructure of the photoelectrode, influence the DSC performance. For both bare and sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes, the measurements reveal microscopic inhomogeneities of more than 100 mV in the work function and show recombination time differences at different locations. The bandgap of 3.2 eV, determined by SPV spectroscopy, remained constant throughout the TiO2 layer. The effect of the built-in potential on the DSC performance at the TiO2/SnO2:F interface, investigated on a nanometer scale by KPFM measurements under visible light illumination, has not been resolved so far.

  4. Effect of porphyrin on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles toward Rhodamine B photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A; Abou-Gamra, Z M; Medien, H A A; Hamza, M A

    2017-11-01

    As known, porphyrins have central role in photosynthesis, biological oxidation and reduction and oxygen transport beside to their intensive color which qualify them to be good photosensitizers. Herein, tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) was prepared by a simple one-pot synthesis to use as a visible antenna for TiO2 nanoparticles that were prepared via a simple template-free sol-gel method. Various loading percentages of TCPP (0.05-1%) were incorporated on the surface of TiO2 as photosensitizer for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) dye as a primary cationic pollutant model. Among them, 0.1% TCPP-TiO2 was the most reactive sample. It was found that the photoactivity of 0.1% TCPP-TiO2 sample (0.5g/L) was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of pure TiO2 (0.5g/L) toward the degradation of Rh B (1×10(-5)M) under UV-A irradiation. Transient fluorescence decay measurements showed that the life time of TiO2 excited state has doubled after anchoring TCPP, thus the probability of electron-hole recombination has decreased. The samples were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, DRS and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The XRD patterns confirmed the successful preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles with average crystalline size of 25.7nm. Also, XRD patterns suggested the presence of mixed phase TiO2 nanoparticles of 77% anatase and 23% rutile. DRS showed that the characteristic peaks of TCPP covered the whole visible range 400-700nm. HR-TEM images showed the spheroids shape of TiO2 nanoparticles and confirmed the presence of anatase and rutile phases as suggested from XRD data. The different parameters affecting the photodegradation of Rh B dye such as catalyst dose, dye concentration and pH were studied to obtain the optimum conditions. Almost complete degradation of Rh B was obtained which confirmed by HPLC and TOC measurements. The effect of scavengers was studied to indicate the most active species. TCPP-TiO2 gave a good response toward the photodegradation

  5. Study of the Photodynamic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Conjugated with Aluminum Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles modified with phthalocyanines (Pc have been proven to be a potential photosensitizer in the application of photodynamic therapy (PDT. However, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by TiO2 nanoparticles modified with Pc has not been demonstrated clearly. In this study, nitrogen-doped TiO2 conjugated with Pc (N-TiO2-Pc were studied by means of monitoring the generation of ROS. The absorbance and photokilling effect on HeLa cells upon visible light of different regions were also studied and compared with non-doped TiO2-Pc and Pc. Both N-TiO2-Pc and TiO2-Pc can be activated by visible light and exhibited much higher photokilling effect on HeLa cells than Pc. In addition, nitrogen-doping can greatly enhance the formation of 1O2 and •O2−, while it suppresses the generation of OH•. This resulted in significant photodynamic activity. Therefore, N-TiO2-Pc can be an excellent candidate for a photosensitizer in PDT with wide-spectrum visible irradiation.

  6. Study of the Photodynamic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Conjugated with Aluminum Phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaobo; Liang, Xinyue; Yao, Longfang; Wang, Xinyi; Jing, Yueyue; Fei, Yiyan; Chen, Li

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles modified with phthalocyanines (Pc) have been proven to be a potential photosensitizer in the application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by TiO2 nanoparticles modified with Pc has not been demonstrated clearly. In this study, nitrogen-doped TiO2 conjugated with Pc (N-TiO2-Pc) were studied by means of monitoring the generation of ROS. The absorbance and photokilling effect on HeLa cells upon visible light of different regions were also studied and compared with non-doped TiO2-Pc and Pc. Both N-TiO2-Pc and TiO2-Pc can be activated by visible light and exhibited much higher photokilling effect on HeLa cells than Pc. In addition, nitrogen-doping can greatly enhance the formation of 1O2 and •O2−, while it suppresses the generation of OH•. This resulted in significant photodynamic activity. Therefore, N-TiO2-Pc can be an excellent candidate for a photosensitizer in PDT with wide-spectrum visible irradiation. PMID:29053580

  7. Ultrasonic Preparation of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nan crystalline Photo catalysts and Evaluation of Photo catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Lu, Zixin; Tang, Mengyao; Cao, Wenping; Cai, Kangni; Liu, Hanhu

    2017-12-01

    Pure TiO2 and N-doped nano-TiO2 photo catalysts were individually prepared following the sol-gel method under ultrasonic conditions. The photo catalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO) solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation was used as a probe reaction to estimate their photo catalytic activities. The particle size, crystal structure, and optical properties of the prepared TiO2 were performed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results suggest that ultrasound significantly reduced the size of the TiO2 particles, improved particle dispersion, which in turn improve the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. Ultrasound also promoted the doping of non-metal nitrogen and markedly enhanced the visible light absorption capacity of the N-doped nano-TiO2. Compared with pure TiO2, the degradation rate for MO under visible light of U-N-TiO2 was increased by 70%.

  8. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2/SnO2 and SnO2/TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: An experimental and DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    We employed an efficient and cost effective method to synthesize core-shell TiO2/SnO2 and inverted core-shell SnO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and investigated their visible light photo catalytic activity for degradation of dye methyl orange. We carried out techniques such as XRD and TEM for the structural verification while UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra for the optical characterization. BET is done to reveal pore diameter and surface area of prepared nanosystems. We have also performed DFT based calculation using VASP 5.2 to calculate density of states. The analyses of density of states indicate a higher photocatalytic efficiency of core-shell TiO2/SnO2 nanostructures and which we indeed observe through experiment as well.

  9. The local structure and optical absorption characteristic investigation on Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Tianxing; Huang, Junheng; He, Jinfu; Liu, Qinghua; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    The local structures and optical absorption characteristic of Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD patterns show that all Fe-doped TiO2 samples have the characteristic anatase structure. Accurate Fe and Ti K-edge EXAFS analysis further reveal that all Fe atoms replace Ti atoms in the anatase lattice. The analysis of UV-Vis data shows a red shift to the visible range. According to the above results, we claim that substitutional Fe atoms lead to the formation of structural defects and new intermediate energy levels appear, narrowing the band gap and extending the optical absorption edge towards the visible region.

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over metalloporphyrins supported on TiO2 Degussa P25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-Tai; Ji, Hong-Bing; Huang, Xing-Jiao

    2012-01-25

    The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu) adsorbed on TiO(2) (Degussa P25) surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis) and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) photocatalyst (CuP-TiO(2)) showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO(2) catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  12. TiO2 Band Restructuring by B and P Dopants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available An examination of the effect of B- and P-doping and codoping on the electronic structure of anatase TiO2 by performing density functional theory calculations revealed the following: (i B- or P-doping effects are similar to atomic undercoordination effects on local bond relaxation and core electron entrapment; (ii the locally entrapped charge adds impurity levels within the band gap that could enhance the utilization of TiO2 to absorb visible light and prolong the carrier lifetime; (iii the core electron entrapment polarizes nonbonding electrons in the upper edges of the valence and conduction bands, which reduces not only the work function but also the band gap; and (iv work function reduction enhances the reactivity of the carriers and band gap reduction promotes visible-light absorption. These observations may shed light on effective catalyst design and synthesis.

  13. A new route for visible/near-infrared-light-driven H2 production over titania: Co-sensitization of surface charge transfer complex and zinc phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Peng, Bosi; Peng, Tianyou; Yu, Lijuan; Li, Renjie; Zhang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This work introduces a new strategy for visible/near-infrared (NIR) light responsive H2 production over TiO2 nanoparticles co-sensitized with zinc phthalocyanine derivative (Zn-tri-PcNc) and surface ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) complex, which is in situ formed on the TiO2 nanoparticles' surfaces by using ascorbic acid (AA). The in situ formed surface LMCT complex (AA-TiO2) exhibits obvious visible-light-responsive photoactivity (126.2 μmol/h) for H2 production with a high apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 16.1% at 420 nm monochromatic light irradiation. Moreover, the co-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles (Zn-tri-PcNc-TiO2-AA) shows a much higher photoactivity (162.2 μmol/h) for H2 production than the surface LMCT complex, and broader spectral responsive region (400-800 nm) with a relatively high AQY value (0.97%) at 700 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The present result reveals a possible substitute for the conventional Ru(II)-bipyridyl complexes or organic dyes as sensitizer of semiconductors in the field of solar fuel conversion.

  14. The Adsorption Geometry and Electronic Structure of Organic Dye Molecule on TiO2(101 Surface from First Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Mang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using density functional theory (DFT, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs comprised of I-doped anatase TiO2(101 surface sensitized with NKX-2554 dye. The calculation results indicate that the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group in NKX-2554 has a strong binding to the TiO2(101 surface. The dissociative and bidentate bridging type was found to be the most favorable adsorption configuration. On the other hand, the incorporations of I dopant can reduce the band gap of TiO2 photoanode and improve the of NKX-2554 dye, which can improve the visible-light absorption of anatase TiO2 and can also facilitate the electron injection from the dye molecule to the TiO2 substrate. As a result, the I doping can significantly enhance the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE of DSSCs.

  15. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO2. To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO2 than un-doped TiO2. The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO2 than to un-doped TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO2 than that on un-doped TiO2.

  16. Surface Modified TiO2 Obscurants for Increased Safety and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    sulfuric acid. Pure TiO2 exists in several different crystal morphologies, with the rutile being the most thermodynamically stable and having the highest...optimize its extinction properties for both the visible and near IR wavelength spectrum. The imparted surface coating will modify the surface energy...refluxing in toluene the titania, the particles were transferred to t- butanol and spray freeze dried (JCI0305). An image of the spray freeze dried powder

  17. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanobelts as highly efficient photocatalytic organic dye degradation and hydrogen evolution photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Leng, Yanhua; Cui, Hongzhi; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-15

    TiO2 nanobelts have gained increasing interest because of its outstanding properties and promising applications in a wide range of fields. Here we report the facile synthesis of hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) nanobelts, which exhibit excellent UV and visible photocatalytic decomposing of methyl orange (MO) and water splitting for hydrogen production. The improved photocatalytic property can be attributed to the Ti(3+) ions and oxygen vacancies in TiO2 nanobelts created by hydrogenation. Ti(3+) ions and oxygen vacancies can enhance visible light absorption, promote charge carrier trapping, and hinder the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. This work offers a simple strategy for the fabrication of a wide solar spectrum of active photocatalysts, which possesses significant potential for more efficient photodegradation, photocatalytic water splitting, and enhanced solar cells using sunlight as light source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-ZnO-graphene nanocomposite towards photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) - Zinc oxide (ZnO) - Graphene (G) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of TiO2-ZnO-Graphene (TZG) nanocomposite. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly noticeable in the Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FE-SEM). The UV-Visible absorption spectra clearly indicated that the formation of TZG nanocomposite enriched the absorption in the visible region. Hence, the prepared nanocomposite can be used as photocatalyst to remove organic dyes from water and as photoanode in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  19. Enhancing the photoresponse and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 by controllably tuning defects across {101} facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Piaopiao; Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Xu, Yunfan; Yang, Shize; Wu, Sujuan

    2018-03-01

    Introducing defects into semiconductors with well-controlled exposed facets offers an effective route for the development of photocatalytic materials with greatly improved properties. Here, we report a facile ethylene glycol reduction procedure to make anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) with different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets, leading to different surficial defects. TiO2 with increased concentrations of {101} facets shows a 5-fold improvement in photocurrent generation as well as improved photocatalytic activity towards water splitting under visible light irradiation. The improved activity is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies as well as the variable surface chemical states, which collectively induce a slower recombination rate of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. This work also highlights a feasible strategy to obtain the defective TiO2 and explore the synergistic effect of surface defects and different concentrations of exposed {001} and {101} facets for photocurrent and photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

  20. Magnetically recoverable TiO2-WO3 photocatalyst to oxidize bisphenol A from model wastewater under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, S; Huebra, M; Han, C; Campo, P; Nadagouda, M N; Rivero, M J; Ortiz, I; Dionysiou, D D

    2017-05-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable, visible light active TiO2-WO3 composite (Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-WO3) was prepared to enable the photocatalyst recovery after the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated solar light. For comparison, the photocatalytic activity of other materials such as non-magnetic TiO2-WO3, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2, TiO2, and the commercial TiO2 P25 was also evaluated under the studied experimental conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and magnetic properties of the samples were determined. The Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-WO3 and TiO2-WO3 led to a BPA degradation of 17.50 and 27.92 %, respectively, after 2 h of the simulated solar light irradiation. Even though their activity was lower than that of P25, which degraded completely BPA after 1 h, our catalysts were magnetically separable for their further reuse in the treatment. Furthermore, the influence of the water matrix in the photocatalytic activity of the samples was studied in municipal wastewater. Finally, the identification of reaction intermediates was performed and a possible BPA degradation pathway was proposed to provide a better understanding of the degradation process. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Synthesis and optical properties of TiO2-based magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Fleaca, C.-T.; Morjan, I. P.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Dutu, E.; Badoi, A.; Birjega, R.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Danciu, V.; Filoti, G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic titania nanoparticles covered/embedded in SiO2 shell/matrix were simultaneously manufactured by the single-step laser pyrolysis. The present study is a continuation of our previous investigations on the TiO2/Fe and TiO2/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) derived-systems. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis by IR (Infrared) laser pyrolysis of magnetic TiO2 based nanocomposites which implies many concurrent processes induced in the gas phase by the laser radiation. The dependence between characteristic properties and the synthesis parameters was determined by many analytical and complementary methods: XRD (X-ray diffraction) structural analysis, UV-vis (ultraviolet-visible) and EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy, TEM and HRTEM (transmission electron microscopy at low and high resolution) analysis and magnetic measurements. The results of analysis indicate the presence of disordered silica, Fe, α-Fe2O3 and mixtures of anatase and rutile phases with mean crystallite dimensions (in the 14-34 nm range) with typical character of diluted magnetic oxide systems and a lower bandgap energy (Eg = 1.85 eV) as compared with TiO2 P25 Degussa sample.

  2. The effect of TiO2 thin film thickness on self-cleaning glass properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, Nandang; Laila, Ifa K. R.; Hartatiek; Fuad, Abdulloh

    2017-05-01

    TiO2 is one of semiconductor materials which are widely used as photocatalyst in the form of a thin film. The TiO2 thin film is prepared by using the spin coating sol-gel method. The researcher prepared TiO2 thin film with 3 coating variations and X-Ray Diffraction characterization, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Electron Microscopy Scanning, and examined its hydrophilic and anti-fogging properties. The result of X-Ray Diffraction showed that the phase formed is the anatase on 101crystal field. The Electron Microscopy Scanning images showed that TiO2 thin films had a homogeneous surface with the particle sizes as big as 235 nm, 179 nm, and 137 nm. The thickness of each thin film was 2.06μm, 3.33μm, and 5.20μm. The characterization of UV-Vis Spectrophotometer showed that the greatest absorption to the wavelength of visible light was in the thin film’s thickness of 3 coatings with the band-gap determined by using 3.30 eV, 3.33 eV, and 3.33 eV Plot Tuoc. These results indicated that the rate of absorption would be increased by increasing the thickness of film. The increasing thickness of the thin film makes the film hydrophilic able to be used as an anti-fogging substance.

  3. Improved light harvest in diffraction grating-embedded TiO2 nanoparticle film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2017-12-01

    We show that a high-efficiency diffraction grating can be embedded into nanoparticulate TiO2 film via imprinting combined with TiCl4 treatment. The grating-embedded film consists of two layers in intimate contact. A thin TiO2 layer was first patterned on a glass substrate by imprinting. The patterned layer was TiCl4-treated with a higher concentration than the over-coated thicker layer, so that it diffracts incident light as a refractive-index grating. Gratings with a period scaled down to 1 µm could be embedded into the film. Diffraction efficiency increased with an increasing grating height and an efficiency over 80% was achieved in the near-ultraviolet and visible range. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using a grating-embedded TiO2 photoanode exhibited much better photovoltaic performance than those without a grating. It was also found that the incorporation of a diffraction grating greatly enhances the photocatalytic activity of nanoparticulate TiO2 film. All these are attributed to improved light harvest.

  4. Fe doped TiO2 nanofibers on the surface of graphene sheets for photovoltaics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Medina-Gonzalez, Yaocihuatl; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2011-08-01

    Highly ordered, visible light driven TiO2 nanowire arrays doped with Fe photocatalysts were grown on the surface of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) using a sol-gel method with titanium isopropoxide (TIP) monomer, acetic acid (HAc) as the polycondensation agent and iron chloride in the green solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The morphology of the synthesized materials was studied by SEM and TEM, which showed uniform formation of Fe doped TiO2 nanofibers on the surface of graphene sheets, which acted as a template for nanowire growth through surface -COOH functionalities. Increasing Fe content in the nanowires did not change the morphology significantly. Optical properties of the synthesized composites were examined by UV spectroscopy which showed a significant reduction in band gap with increasing Fe content, i.e. 2.25 eV at 0.6% Fe. The enhancement of the optical properties of synthesized materials was confirmed by photocurrent measurement. The optimum sample containing 0.6% Fe doped TiO2 on the graphene sheets increased the power conversation efficiency by 6-fold in comparison to TiO2 alone.

  5. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    /electrolyte interface if the potential is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band due to moderate to large band bending. This means that the lesser doped TiO2 can be used to prevent the inadvertent oxidation of sensitive species on the surface (e.g. H2 evolution catalysts) as long as the redox...... potential of the material is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band. Conversely, for situations where an oxidative process on the surface is desired, highly doped TiO2 may be used to enable current flow via tunneling....

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Brass In Tio2 Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Ge, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Hong-Wang

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion behavior of brass electrode in TiO2 nanofluids was analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that TiO2 nanoparticles promote corrosion of brass. The corrosion resistance of brass electrode decreases with the increase of the temperature of the TiO2 nanofluids. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a dispersant in nanofluids and also appears corrosion inhibition to brass, and the corrosion inhibition enhances with the increase of SDBS concentration. The corrosion resistance of brass in TiO2 nanofluids would decrease when the concentration of dispersant SDBS exceeds a certain value.

  7. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Liming; Chai, Bo; Yan, Juntao; Li, Jianfen

    2018-02-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts with different TiO2 content have been synthesized via a facile electrospinning and subsequent in situ evaporation and calcination process for the first time, which are examined in terms of morphology, component content, optical properties, PL spectra, photocurrent response, EIS measurement, photocatalytic activity and mechanism. SEM images exhibit TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst possesses the excellent 1D structure. HRTEM and element mapping images confirm the formation of heterojunction structure. DRS tests identify that TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction exhibits the intensitive absorption in both UV and visible light region. The photoelectrochemical tests prove that the recombination between electrons and holes are effectively inhibited. Based on TG analysis and photodegradation experiments, TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst with TiO2 content of 29.30 wt% possesses the best photocatalytic degradation efficiency for the RhB among the g-C3N4, TiO2 and their mixture under simulated sunlight irradiation. Moreover, 1D morphology of TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst is in favor of separating from solution for reuse and transferring the electrons, and maintains a very high photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 96% even after four recycles experiments, which is beneficial for practical application.

  9. Hydrothermal etching fabrication of TiO2@graphene hollow structures: mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals and its synergistic photocaltalytic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Zhiling; Dong, Xiaonan; Liu, Tingting

    2016-09-20

    Highly exposed facets TiO2 attracts enormous attention due to its excellent separation effect of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and induced high performance of photocatalytic activity. Herein, a novel hydrothermal etching reaction was used to synthesize graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow core-shell structures. Different with the reported co-exposed facets TiO2 single crystal nanoparticles, the present TiO2 core layer is composed by the mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals. Combined with the reduced graphene oxide shell layer, this graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow core-shell structures formed a Z-scheme photocatalytic system, which possess simultaneously the high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. Additionally, the as-prepared samples show a higher absorption property for organic molecules and visible light due to the presence of graphene. All of these unique properties ensure the excellent photocatalytic activity for the graphene-wrapped TiO2 hollow structures in the synergistic photo-oxidation of organic molecules and photo-reduced of Cr(VI) process. The TiO2 core composed with mutually independent exposed {001} and {101} facets nanocrystals is propose to play an important role in the fabrication of this Z-scheme photocatalytic system. Fabrication of Z-scheme photocatalytic system based on this unique exposed facets TiO2 nanocrystals will provides a new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced photocatalytic materials.

  10. Facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis toward strongly coupled TiO2/graphene quantum dots photocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shixiong; Hou, Jianhua; Lei, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaohua; Lu, Gongxuan

    2017-02-01

    The coupling of semiconductor photocatalysts with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the photocatalytic and photoelectrical conversion performances of the resulted composites; however, the preparation of semiconductor/GQDs composites usually involves several time-inefficient and tedious post-treatment steps. Herein, we present a facile one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of GQDs coupled TiO2 (TiO2/GQDs) photocatalysts using 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP) as the sole precursor of GQDs. During the hydrothermal process, TNP molecules undergo an intramolecular fusion to form GQDs, which simultaneously decorate on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, leading to a strong surface interaction between the two components. The effective coupling of GQDs on TiO2 can effectively extend the light absorption of the TiO2 to visible region and enhance the charge separation efficiency of TiO2/GQDs composites as a result of GQDs acting as a photosensitizer and an excellent electron acceptor. These key advances make the TiO2/GQDs photocatalyst highly active towards the H2 evolution reaction, resulting in 7 and 3 times higher H2 evolution rate and photocurrent response at optimal GQDs content than TiO2 alone, respectively. This study provides a new methodology for the development of high-performance GQDs modified semiconductor photocatalysts for energy conversion applications.

  11. Biotemplated Mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 Composite Derived from Aquatic Plant Leaves for Efficient Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biotemplating technique is an environmental-protective high-efficiency new technology by which the resulting TiO2 may simultaneously attain the duplication of structure and self-doping elements from biotemplate materials, which is highly desirable for photocatalytic applications. In this paper, aquatic plant leaves—including reed, water hyacinth, and duckweed—were used as both templates and silicon precursors to successfully synthesize biomorphic TiO2/SiO2 composite with mesoporous structures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption, and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to characterize the microstructures of the samples. The results show that all TiO2/SiO2 composites are mainly composed of an anatase phase with mesoporous structure and possess high specific surface area. Compared with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, all TiO2/SiO2 samples display intensive light-harvesting efficiency, particularly in the visible light range. The activities were evaluated by using gentian violet as a target for photocatalytic degradation experiments under simulated solar irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 samples templated by reed and water hyacinth leaves exhibit high activity, while the TiO2/SiO2 samples obtained from duckweed are inferior to P25 in the degradation of gentian violet. A synergistic effect of SiO2 incorporation and structural construction through biotemplating is proposed to be beneficial to photocatalytic activity.

  12. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-02-26

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti(3+) doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti(3+) in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications.

  13. Enhanced solar light photodegradation of brilliant black bis-azo dye in aqueous solution by F, Sm3+ codoped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonza, Sabastian S.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Mishra, Ajay K.

    2017-05-01

    This research focuses on improving the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 during the photo-mineralisation of brilliant black (BN) bis-azo dye pollutant in aqueous solution. This was achieved by improving the visible light activity of TiO2 photocatalyst semiconductor through co-doping of fluorine (F) and trivalent samarium ions (Sm3+) into a TiO2 matrix using a modified sol-gel synthesis method. Structural, morphological, and textural properties were evaluated using ultra-violet /visible spectroscopy (UV-visible), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Photocatalytic and degradation efficiencies were assessed by decolourisation of BN dye in aqueous solution. Complete degradation of BN was attained after an irradiation time of 3 h using F, Sm3+-TiO2 (0.6% Sm3+) compared to 73.4% achieved using pristine TiO2. Pseudo first order kinetics rate constants (Ka) were 2.73×10-2 and 6.6×10-3 min-1 for Sm3+-TiO2 (0.6%Sm3+) and pristine TiO2, respectively, which translates to a remarkably high enhancement factor of 4. The results obtained established that doping of TiO2 by F and Sm3+ enhances the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 during solar light radiation which enables the utilisation of freely available and clean solar energy.

  14. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanoparticles of TiO2 doped with Pt produced via the self-combustion route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, A. A.; Chavarriaga, E. A.; Estupiñan, H. A.; Valencia, I. C.; Paucar, C.; Garcia, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is the most important semiconductor used in photocatalysis. For that reason, most recent scientific studies have focused on improving the absorbance of this material in the visible region. In this paper, we report on the production of nanopowders of TiO2 doped with platinum via the solution combustion synthesis method, using glycine as a fuel at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% w/w of Pt with respect to TiO2 (Pt / TiO2), in order to study the influence of the dopant content on the absorbance spectrum in the visible region. The structure of the samples was characterized using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the production of a pure anatase phase. VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that in the visible region the samples doped with Pt absorb within the range of 400 nm to 800 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of 13 nm and with spherical morphology. Colorimetry (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L *, a *, b *) confirmed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B using visible light. It was concluded that the route of synthesis and the Pt content play important roles in the absorbance spectrum and the activation energy of TiO2.

  15. Uniform Gold-Nanoparticle-Decorated {001}-Faceted Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets for Enhanced Solar-Light Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Shi; Zhu, Xupeng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Tian; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao

    2017-10-25

    The {001}-faceted anatase TiO2 micro-/nanocrystals have been widely investigated for enhancing the photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 nanostructures, but their practical applications still require improved energy conversion efficiency under solar-light and enhanced cycling stability. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled growth of ultrathin {001}-faceted anatase TiO2 nanosheets on flexible carbon cloth for enhancing the cycling stability, and the solar-light photocatalytic performance of the synthesized TiO2 nanosheets can be significantly improved by decorating with vapor-phase-deposited uniformly distributed plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au-TiO2 hybrid system shows an 8-fold solar-light photocatalysis enhancement factor in photodegrading Rhodamine B, a high photocurrent density of 300 μA cm-2 under the illumination of AM 1.5G, and 100% recyclability under a consecutive long-term cycling measurement. Combined with electromagnetic simulations and systematic control experiments, it is believed that the tandem-type separation and transition of plasmon-induced hot electrons from Au nanoparticles to the {001} facet of anatase TiO2, and then to the neighboring {101} facet, is responsible for the enhanced solar-light photochemical performance of the hybrid system. The Au-TiO2 nanosheet system addresses well the problems of the limited solar-light response of anatase TiO2 and fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, representing a promising high-performance recyclable solar-light-responding system for practical photocatalytic reactions.

  16. Photocatalytic properties of porous C-doped TiO2 and Ag/C-doped TiO2 nanomaterials by eggshell membrane templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Yabo; Chen, Daimei; Yang, Dong

    2009-02-01

    Porous organic carbon-doped titania (C-TiO2) nanomaterials and their composites with Ag nanoparticles (Ag/C-TiO2) were synthesized by an eggshell membrane templating method, and their structural and photocatalytic properties were systematically characterized. These nanomaterials, exhibiting a macroscopic morphology of a thin film, are composed of interwoven tubes, and the tube wall consists of nanocrystals. The doped organic carbon was composed of the active carbon and carbonate species, which could form a layer around the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, while the silver was incorporated into Ag/C-TiO2 composites as separated Ag nanoparticles. The degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation was employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of these as-prepared TiO2-based materials. Both C-TiO2 and Ag/C-TiO2 nanomaterials showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 material-commercial Degussa P25. These results can be accounted for the coupling effect of the incorporation of carbon species and Ag nanoparticles.

  17. Bare TiO2 and graphene oxide TiO2 photocatalysts on the degradation of selected pesticides and influence of the water matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Marta; Gomez, Cristina; Duran-Valle, Carlos J.; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M.; Faria, Joaquim L.; Silva, Adrián M. T.; Faraldos, Marisol; Bahamonde, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photocatalytic activity of a home-made titanium dioxide (TiO2) and its corresponding composite based on graphene oxide (GO), the GO-TiO2 catalyst, has been investigated under UV-vis in the photodegradation of a mixture of four pesticides classified by the European Union as priority pollutants: diuron, alachlor, isoproturon and atrazine. The influence of two water matrices (ultrapure or natural water) was also studied. Natural water led to a decrease on the degradation of the studied pollutants when the bare TiO2 photocatalyst was employed, since this water contains both inorganic and organic species that are dissolved and commonly restrain the photocatalytic process. On the contrary, the photo-efficiency of the GO-TiO2 composite seems to be less affected by water matrix variation, with very good initial pesticide photodegradation rates under both natural and ultrapure water matrices. A comparative study between GO-TiO2 and the commercial Evonik TiO2 P25 catalyst was also carried out to analyze the photocatalytic degradation of these pesticides under visible light illumination conditions. Once again, a higher photocatalytic activity was found for the GO-TiO2 composite.

  18. Surface chemical functionalisation of epoxy photoresist-based microcantilevers with organic-coated TiO2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrosso, C.; Sardella, E.; Keller, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a solution-based approach has been used for chemically immobilising oleic acid (OLEA)-capped TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) on the surface of microcantilevers formed of SU-8, a negative tone epoxy photoresist. The immobilisation has been carried out at room temperature, under visible lig...

  19. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  20. PEMILIHAN JENIS BULIR POLIMER SEBAGAI PENYANGGA MATERIAL FOTOKATALIS TIO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasniah Aliah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan aktivitas fotokatalitik suatu material katalis adalah dengan melapiskan material katalis Titanium dioksida (TiO2  pada permukaan polimer yang berukuran cukup besar, ringan, transparan dan bersifat termoplastik.  Untuk memilih jenis polimer terbaik sebagai material penyangga katalis, dilakukan pengujian pelapisan partikel TiO2 pada tiga jenis polimer berbentuk bulir, yaitu polystyrene (PS, linear-low density polyethylene (LLDPE, dan polypropilene (PP.Pelapisan material TiO2 di permukaan polimer dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik thermalmilling berbasis oven listrik. Temperatur dalam proses milling diatur di sekitar titik HDT (Heat Deflection Temperaturematerial polimer dan berlangsung selama 60 menit.  Massa jenis dan transmitansi polimer setelah dilapisi TiO2 merupakan parameter fisik yang menjadi acuan dalam pemilihan polimer penyangga katalis. Imobilisasi menggunakan teknik thermal milling menghasilkan polimer PP berlapis katalis TiO2 yang homogen. Pabrikasi dengan parameter milling 100°C dan 60 menit menghasilkan PP berlapis katalis TiO2 dengan massa jenis rata-rata 0,872 g/cm3 sehingga dapat mengapung di permukaan air.  Di samping itu, PP berlapis TiO2 mempunyai transmitansi 58%. Polimer PP inilah yang kemudian dipilih sebagai material penyangga katalis TiO2 dalam proses penelitian selanjutnya.

  1. Electronic properties of anatase TiO2 doped by lanthanides: A DFT+U study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiguang; Yuan, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Qiang; Liang, Erjun; Jia, Yu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of mono-doping of 4f lanthanides with and without oxygen vacancy defect on the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 have been studied by first-principles calculations with DFT+U (DFT with Hubbard U correction) to treat the strong correlation of Ti 3d electrons and lanthanides 4f electrons. Our results revealed that dopant Ce is easy to incorporate into the TiO2 host by substituting Ti due to its lower substitutional energy (∼-2.0 eV), but the band gap of the system almost keeps intact after doping. The Ce 4f states are located at the bottom of conduction band, which mainly originates from Ti 3d states. The magnetic moment of doped Ce disappears due to electron transfer from Ce to the nearest O atoms. For Pr and Gd doping, their substitutional energies are similar and close to zero, indicating that both of them may also incorporate into the TiO2 host. For Pr doping, some 4f spin-down states are located next to the bottom of the conduction band and narrow the band gap of the doping system. However, for Gd doping, the 4f states are located in deep valence band and there is no intermediate band in the band gap. The magnetic moment of dopant Gd is close to the value of isolated Gd atom (∼7 μB), indicating no overlapping between Gd 4f with other orbitals. For Eu, it is hard to incorporate into the TiO2 host due to its very higher substitutional energy. The results also indicated that oxygen vacancy defect may enhance the adsorption of the visible light in Ln-doped TiO2 system.

  2. TiO2 with controlled nanoring/nanotube hierarchical structure: Multiabsorption oscillating peaks and photoelectrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Lixia; Zhao, Yangbo; Niu, Youchen; Bai, Guangmei

    2018-02-01

    TiO2 with Nanoring/Nanotube (R/T) hierarchical structure can be prepared by tuning the oxidation time and oxidation voltage in the second step anodization. The resulting multiabsorption oscillating peaks in the visible light region present a strong dependence on the tube length which are derived from the interference of light reflected from the top nanorings and the bottom Ti substrate, and the optical path length in TiO2 R/T hierarchical structure can be estimated as about 2 μm. The tube length of the as-prepared TiO2 photoelectrode affects greatly its saturation photocurrent density, and the different tube-wall thickness can change the photocurrent-saturation potential. Under simulated AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), TiO2 R/T hierarchical structure with tube diameters of 20-40 nm and tube length of about 1.5 μm shows higher photocurrent density and hydrogen production rate at the bias of 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The results from the IPCE plots and I-t curves verify that TiO2 R/T hierarchical structure can exhibit the visible light activity, which is more related to the absorption induced by the defects rather than oscillating peaks. Based on the unique multiple light reflection in TiO2 R/T hierarchical structure, surface treatment will pave a way for the better utilization of oscillating peaks in the visible light region.

  3. Organic degradation potential of a TiO2/H2O2/UV-vis system for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Oscar; Unosson, Erik; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan; Welch, Ken

    2017-12-01

    The combination of TiO 2 and H 2 O 2 under light activation constitutes a promising method for disinfection of dental prosthetics and implants, due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this work was to investigate the organic degradation ability of TiO 2 particles in combination with H 2 O 2 and under light activation utilizing the organic dye rhodamine B (RhB). Five different types of TiO 2 particles, consisting of anatase, rutile, or a mixture of these crystalline phases, were combined with H 2 O 2 and RhB, and subsequently exposed to UV (365nm) or visible (405nm) light at an irradiance of 2.1mW/cm 2 . It was found that rutile in combination with low concentrations of H 2 O 2 (1.0-3.5mM) resulted in a degradation of RhB of 96% and 77% after 10min exposure to 365nm and 405nm light, respectively, which was the highest degradation of all test groups. Control measurements performed without light irradiation or irradiation at 470nm, or without TiO 2 particles resulted in little or no degradation of RhB. Low H 2 O 2 concentrations (1.0mM-3.5mM) and visible light (405nm) used in combination with rutile TiO 2 particles showed the highest RhB degradation capacity. A combination of TiO 2 particles and H 2 O 2 exposed to low energy UV or high energy visible light has an organic degradation capability that could be utilized in applications to kill or inactivate bacteria on medical devices such as dental implants for treatment against, e.g., peri-implantitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of TiO2-Xwt%InVO4 Photocatalytic Nano-composites for Ambient Light Assisted Water Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha; Wilson, Jeremiah; Vickers, Eric; Integlia, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    We have developed nano-composites of TiO2-Xwt%InVO4 for environmental and biomedical research applications. TiO2 is commonly used as catalyst that utilizes the UV portion of the sun light spectrum to induce photo-oxidation and photo-reduction processes. We hypothesized that the combination of InVO4 and TiO2 will result in a material that will catalyze organic contaminants through photo-oxidation under visible light. We combined TiO2 with 2,4,6,8,10wt% of InVO4 via wet ball milling process. We have compared the various concentrations of InVO4 on TiO2 matrix by SEM, BET surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, and photodegradation of the organic contaminant Methyl Orange. After characterization we found that 4wt% InVO4 + TiO2 mixture displayed the most promising characteristics for photo-oxidation under visible light; From the BET surface area analysis it showed the largest surface area out of the prior mentioned TiO2 = Xwt% InVO4 mixtures and a degradation amount equivalent to 50% of Methyl Orange contaminant over 7 hours under visible light. In conclusion, TiO2-Xwt%InVO4 displayed evidence of photo-oxidation under visible light conditions. Authors would like to acknowledge the support from Sigma Pi Sigma and Society of Physics Students. National Science Foundation and Florida Energy Systems Consortium are gratefully acknowledged for the research and education grants.

  5. Silver doped TiO2 nano crystallites for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T.; Ashok Kumar, K.; Ramanathan, Rajajeyaganthan; Senthilselvan, J.; Jagannathan, K.

    2017-12-01

    This communication deals with the synthesis of Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doping concentrations prepared by reduction method for the possible usage of photo anode material in DSSC. The prepared nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray diffraction to study their structural properties which confirms the formation of mixed anatase-rutile crystalline phases. The particulate size, shape and surface morphology are examined using FESEM which indicates agglomerated nanostructures with the average particle size of 20–25 nm. The UV–visible absorption spectra showed enhanced absorption in the visible range in accordance with the doping concentration of Ag with a red shift in their absorption edge. The interfacial charge transport phenomena of the DSSCs are determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the corresponding efficiencies are calculated using J–V curve. In the present work, the UV active TiO2 and Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles are employed as photoanode for the fabrication of DSSCs based on N3 dye and maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.544% is realized.

  6. Optimizing the photochemical conversion of UV-vis light of silver-nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanotubes based photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidi, M; Trabelsi, K; Hajjaji, A; Chourou, M L; Alhazaa, A N; Bessais, B; El Khakani, M A

    2018-01-05

    Homogeneous decoration of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) by Ag metallic nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by a relatively simple photoreduction process. This Ag-NPs decoration was found to improve the photoconversion efficiency of the TiO2-NTs based photoanodes. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that all the Ag-NPs are metallic and the underlying TiO2-NTs crystallize in the anatase phase after their annealing at 400 °C, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observations have confirmed the effective decoration of the TiO2-NTs' surface by Ag-NPs, and allowed to measure the average Ag-NPs size, which was found to increase linearly from (4 ± 2) nm to (16 ± 4) nm when the photoreduction time is increased from 5 to 20 min. The diffuse reflectivity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to the undecorated TiO2-NTs. Interestingly, the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs exhibited a significantly enhanced photochemical response, under visible radiation, with regards to the undecorated NTs. This enhancement was found to reach its maximum for the TiO2-NTs decorated with Ag-NPs having the optimal average diameter of ∼8.5 nm. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was about two times greater than for the undecorated ones. This improved photo-electro-chemical response is believed to be associated with the additional absorption of visible light of Ag-NPs through the localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the photoluminescence intensity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to undecorated NTs, due to charge carriers trapping in the Ag NPs. This demonstrates that Ag-NPs decoration promotes photogenerated charges separation in the TiO2-NTs, increasing thereby their capacity for current photogeneration. The surface decoration of TiO2 NTs by noble metals NPs is expected

  7. Optimizing the photochemical conversion of UV–vis light of silver-nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanotubes based photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidi, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Hajjaji, A.; Chourou, M. L.; Alhazaa, A. N.; Bessais, B.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Homogeneous decoration of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) by Ag metallic nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by a relatively simple photoreduction process. This Ag-NPs decoration was found to improve the photoconversion efficiency of the TiO2-NTs based photoanodes. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that all the Ag-NPs are metallic and the underlying TiO2-NTs crystallize in the anatase phase after their annealing at 400 °C, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observations have confirmed the effective decoration of the TiO2-NTs’ surface by Ag-NPs, and allowed to measure the average Ag-NPs size, which was found to increase linearly from (4 ± 2) nm to (16 ± 4) nm when the photoreduction time is increased from 5 to 20 min. The diffuse reflectivity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to the undecorated TiO2-NTs. Interestingly, the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs exhibited a significantly enhanced photochemical response, under visible radiation, with regards to the undecorated NTs. This enhancement was found to reach its maximum for the TiO2-NTs decorated with Ag-NPs having the optimal average diameter of ∼8.5 nm. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was about two times greater than for the undecorated ones. This improved photo-electro-chemical response is believed to be associated with the additional absorption of visible light of Ag-NPs through the localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the photoluminescence intensity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to undecorated NTs, due to charge carriers trapping in the Ag NPs. This demonstrates that Ag-NPs decoration promotes photogenerated charges separation in the TiO2-NTs, increasing thereby their capacity for current photogeneration. The surface decoration of TiO2 NTs by noble metals NPs is expected to

  8. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  9. CdS Nanoparticle-Modified α-Fe2O3/TiO2 Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruiyang; Liu, Mingyang; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-09-02

    In this work, we demonstrate a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process accompanied by hydrothermal method to synthesize CdS nanoparticle-modified α-Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod array for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By integrating CdS/α-Fe2O3/TiO2 ternary system, light absorption ability of the photoanode can be effectively improved with an obviously broadened optical-response to visible light region, greatly facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers, giving rise to the enhancement of PEC water oxidation performance. Importantly, for the designed abnormal type-II heterostructure between Fe2O3/TiO2, the conduction band position of Fe2O3 is higher than that of TiO2, the photogenerated electrons from Fe2O3 will rapidly recombine with the photogenerated holes from TiO2, thus leads to an efficient separation of photogenerated electrons from Fe2O3/holes from TiO2 at the Fe2O3/TiO2 interface, greatly improving the separation efficiency of photogenerated holes within Fe2O3 and enhances the photogenerated electron injection efficiency in TiO2. Working as the photoanodes of PEC water oxidation, CdS/α-Fe2O3/TiO2 heterostucture electrode exhibits improved photocurrent density of 0.62 mA cm- 2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in alkaline electrolyte, with an obviously negatively shifted onset potential of 80 mV. This work provides promising methods to enhance the PEC water oxidation performance of the TiO2-based heterostructure photoanodes.

  10. Electrochemical reduction induced self-doping of Ti3+ for efficient water splitting performance on TiO2 based photoelectrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-element doping (e.g., N, F, C) of TiO2 is inevitably accompanied by significantly increased structural defects due to the dopants\\' nature being foreign impurities. Very recently, in situ self-doping with homo-species (e.g., Ti3+) has been emerging as a rational solution to enhance TiO2 photoactivity within both UV and visible light regions. Herein we demonstrate that conventional electrochemical reduction is indeed a facile and effective strategy to induce in situ self-doping of Ti3+ into TiO2 and the self-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes showed remarkably improved and very stable water splitting performance. In this study, hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were chosen as TiO2 substrates and then electrochemically reduced under varying conditions to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 NTs (ECR-TiO2 NTs). The optimized saturation photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency on the ECR-TiO2 NTs under simulated AM 1.5G illumination were identified to be 2.8 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 1.27% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported for TiO 2 based photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectra measurement confirms that the electrochemical induced Ti3+ self-doping improved the electrical conductivity of the ECR-TiO2 NTs. The versatility and effectiveness of the electrochemical reduction method for Ti3+ self-doping in P25 based TiO2 was also examined and confirmed. This journal is © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING

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    MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.

  12. Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxin; Gao, Zhifei; Jiang, Miaomiao; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-10-01

    We have previously developed silicon-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) with luminescent erbium (Er)-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Er) films [Yang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 031103 (2012)]. In an LED therein, the TiO2:Er film is sandwiched between the ITO film and heavily boron-doped p-type silicon (p+-Si). In this work, we have investigated the electroluminescence (EL) from two LEDs with the TiO2:Er films annealed at 650 and 850 °C, respectively. It is revealed that between the TiO2:Er film and p+-Si, there is an intermediate silicon oxide (SiOx, x ≤ 2) layer and its thickness increases from ˜4 to 8 nm with the increase of annealing temperature from 650 to 850 °C. Interestingly, the thickness of the intermediate SiOx layer is found to exhibit a profound impact on the EL from the LED with the TiO2:Er film on p+-Si. The EL from the LED with the 650 °C-annealed TiO2:Er film is activated only under the forward bias with the positive voltage connecting to the p+-Si substrate. Such EL consists of the oxygen-vacancy-related emissions from TiO2 host and the characteristic visible and ˜1540 nm emissions from the Er3+ ions, while the EL from the LED with the 850 °C-annealed TiO2:Er film can only be enabled by the reverse bias with the negative voltage applied on the p+-Si substrate. Such EL features only the visible and ˜1540 nm emissions from the Er3+ ions. The difference in the EL behaviors of the two LEDs as mentioned above is found to be ascribed to the different electrical conduction mechanisms.

  13. Mesoporous inverse opal TiO2 film as light scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Minyoung; Li, Zhenghua; Lee, Yoon Yun; Kim, Ji Man

    2012-01-01

    The light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells was enhanced by using a scattering layer. Such as sphere type TiO2, inverse photonic crystal TiO2, hollow spherical TiO2. Among these materials, the TiO2 with inverse photonic crystal (IPC) structure, synthesized by self-assembly using spherical templates, has attracted much attention due to their photonic crystal characteristics and light scattering effects. However, when applied in the DSSCs, the surface area of IPC is very low that caused insufficient adsorption amount of dye molecules. In the present work, a scattering layer with mesoporous inverse photonic crystal (MIPC) TiO2 film was fabricated by the sol-gel reactions with surfactant-assisted sol-gel method using poly(methyl methacrylate) as the template and titanium (IV) isopropoxide as the TiO2 precursor. After removing the PMMA and surfactant, a highly ordered macroporous structure with mesopores were successfully obtained. The surface area and total pore volume of the MIPC were 82 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g, respectively, which is much larger than those of the IPC. The DSSCs with the scattering layer of MIPC film exhibited 18 and 10% higher photo-conversion efficiency than those of cells only with a nano-crystalline TiO2 film and with scattering layer of IPC film. From UV-visible spectra of dye solutions, the MIPC film showed a higher amount of absorbed dye molecules than those of the reference and IPC films. Accordingly, an increase in the photo-current density through abundant adsorption of the dye, coupled with inherent light scattering ability can improve overall photo-conversion efficiency.

  14. Composite TiO2/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D.; Vaimakis, T.; Trapalis, C.

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO2 in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO2). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al3+ and Ca2+ intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO2 and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania under both types of irradiation. Significant visible light activity was recorded for the composites containing urea-modified titania that was accredited to the N-doping of the semiconductor. Among the different substrates, the hydrotalcite caused highest increase in the NOx removal, while among the intercalation ions the Ca2+ was more efficient. The results were related to the improved dispersion of the TiO2 and the synergetic activity of the substrates as NOx adsorbers.

  15. Study on the synthesis of novel TiO2-copper porphyrin catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorui CHEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different length side chain catalysts on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution, solving the poroblem of water pollution control, four novel porphyrins and their corresponding copper complexes are synthesized from the starting material 1-naphthol, and their structures are characterized by MS, NMR and elemental analysis. Novel TiO2-porphyrins hybrid systems are prepared and its photocatalytic activity is investigated by photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible light. The results indicate that when there are side chains on the benzene ring of copper-porphyrin derivatives, the photocatalytic activity of substituted TiO2-copper porphyrins is better than TiO2-copper tetraphenyl porphyrin, but the effect of the side chains' length on the activity is not obvious. This study provides an idea for the synthesis of highly efficient catalysts in the future.

  16. Directly assembled quantum dots on one dimension ordered TiO2 nanostructure in aqueous solution for improving photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-zhao; Kuang, Lei; Liu, Song; Zhao, Yong-dan; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shi-you; Wei, Ming-zhi

    2013-07-01

    One dimension (1D) ordered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructured photocatalysts sensitized by quantum dots (QDs) are fabricated. Their morphologies, crystal structures and photocatalytic properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the original TiO2 nanostructure, the nanostructured TiO2 sensitized by QDs exhibits a good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The QDs with core-shell structure can reduce the photocatalytic ability due to the higher potential barrier of carrier transport in ZnS shell layer. The results indicate that the proposed photocatalyst shows promising potential for the application in organic dye degradation.

  17. SYNTESIST AND CHARACTERISATION TiO2-Cu PHOTOCATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapti Riyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study begins with the manufacture of TiO2 -Cu photocatalyst by means of wet impregnation and fotodeposisi, the mole ratio of TiO2: Cu2+ is 100: 0; 99: 1; 98: 2; 97: 3 and 96: 4. Photocatalysts were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis DRS, FTIR and XRD. The results showed has been successfully carried out the synthesis of TiO2-Cu. From SEM characterization shows that the addition of Cu metal will alter the morphology of TiO2 photocatalysts. Based on analysis of UV-Vis DRS, the addition of Cu metal dopant to decrease the energy band gap of TiO2. From XRD analysis appears 2θ value at 29.607 and 48.401 which indicates the formation of monoclinic crystal H2Ti3O7. FTIR analysis results indicate a change in the specific uptake of TiO2 indicating a change in the structure of TiO2

  18. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Ni-Doped TiO2 Materials for Photocurrent and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibram Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different amounts of Ni-doped TiO2 (Ni=0.1 to 10% powders and thin films were prepared by following a conventional coprecipitation and sol-gel dip coating techniques, respectively, at 400 to 800°C, and were thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DRS, UV-visible, BET surface area, zeta potential, flat band potential, and photocurrent measurement techniques. Photocatalytic abilities of Ni-doped TiO2 powders were evaluated by means of methylene blue (MB degradation reaction under simulated solar light. Characterization results suggest that as a dopant, Ni stabilizes TiO2 in the form of anatase phase, reduces its bandgap energy, and adjusts its flat band potentials such that this material can be employed for photoelectrochemical (PEC oxidation of water reaction. The photocatalytic activity and photocurrent ability of TiO2 have been enhanced by doping of Ni in TiO2. The kinetic studies revealed that the MB degradation reaction follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood first-order reaction relationship.

  20. Photocatalytical Properties and Theoretical Analysis of N, Cd-Codoped TiO2 Synthesized by Thermal Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N, Cd-codoped TiO2 have been synthesized by thermal decomposition method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET specific surface area analysis, respectively. The products represented good performance in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The effect of the incorporation of N and Cd on electronic structure and optical properties of TiO2 was studied by first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory (DFT. The impurity states, introduced by N 2p or Cd 5d, lied between the valence band and the conduction band. Due to dopants, the band gap of N, Cd-codoped TiO2 became narrow. The electronic transition from the valence band to conduction band became easy, which could account for the observed photocatalytic performance of N, Cd-codoped TiO2. The theoretical analysis might provide a probable reference for the experimentally element-doped TiO2 synthesis.

  1. Characterization of Conjugated Polymer Poly(fluorene-co-thiophene and Its Application as Photosensitizer of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongliang Qiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The copolymer poly(fluorene-co-thiophene (PFT has strong absorption in the visible light region. In this paper, PFTs with four different thiophene contents were evaluated for their suitability as photosensitizers of TiO2. All four of the PFTs were capable of being excited by light with wavelengths above 455 nm, and all had reductive potentials more negative than the conduction band potential of TiO2. Consequently, it was deemed that transfer of electrons from the excited PFTs to the conduction band of TiO2 was thermodynamically possible. PFTs with higher thiophene content had more electron transitions in the excited state, resulting in increased photocatalytic activity of PFT-sensitized TiO2. The method used to prepare the combined PFT/TiO2 photocatalyst affected its photocatalytic activity. Best results in this study were achieved by dropwise addition of a tetrahydrofuran solution of PFT to a stirred TiO2/ethanol suspension.

  2. Degradation of Typical Indoor Air Pollutants Using Fe-Doped TiO2 Thin Film under Daylight Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaijie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of iron-doped titania thin film was prepared by means of sol-gel method to degrade indoor formaldehyde (HCHO, ammonia (NH3, and benzene (C6H6 under sunlight. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spetra (EDS. The results showed that the iron was doped in the TiO2 photocatalyst successfully. The absorption edge of doped TiO2 had red shifts and the doped TiO2 had a stronger absorption than the pure TiO2 in the visible region. Fe-doped TiO2 thin film prepared with the optimal preparation condition could remove indoor HCHO, NH3 and C6H6 effectively under solar light irradiation. The removal percentage of HCHO, NH3 or C6H6 after 9 h photocatalytic reaction under solar light reached 55%, 53.1%, and 37.5%, respectively, when they existed in the air individually. When the three pollutants were mixed in the air, the removal percentage decreased to 33.3%, 28.3%, and 28%. The degradation reaction of the three pollutants followed the pseudo first-order kinetics, which reflects that the photocatalytic reaction was controlled by the surface chemical reaction and the reaction rate was controlled by concentration of reactants.

  3. Interrelationship between TiO2 nanoparticle size and kind/size of dyes in the mechanism and conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahay, Pooya; Babapour Gol Afshani, Meisam; Alavi, Ali; Parsa, Zahra; Safari, Nasser

    2017-05-10

    In order to provide a comprehensive investigation of TiO2 nanoparticle size in relation with different dye types in DSSCs, three sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles and two different dye types including a porphyrin dye (T2) and a ruthenium dye (N3) were synthesized. Steady state current-voltage (J-V) characteristics were investigated for the fabricated DSSCs and the results demonstrated that the optimum TiO2 nanoparticle size changed with the dye type. The obtained J-V data were interpreted by cyclic voltammetry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, BET measurement, DFT calculation, IPCE measurement and impedance spectroscopy. The results for the N3 dye show that the surface area of the TiO2 nanoparticles is a key factor for the N3 cells, which is restricted by TiO2 pore diameter and surface state traps. In contrast, the density of localized states of the TiO2 film under the LUMO state of the porphyrin dyes is the dominating factor for the performance of the solar cells, which is restricted by the surface area of the TiO2 nanoparticles. These obtained results represent a significant advance in the development of porphyrin, ruthenium and even solid electrolyte DSSCs.

  4. Synthesis of solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano egg shell waste and its utilization for the photocatalytic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohini; Kumari, Pooja; Chavan, Prakash Dhondiram; Datta, Sudipta; Dutta, Suman

    2017-11-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles with excellent crystallinity were synthesized via solvothermal method and supported on the ground nano-sized egg shell waste at different loading concentrations. The photocatalytic degradation of the mixture of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) in aqueous solution utilizing prepared TiO2 nano composite under visible light irradiation was analysed. Different characterizations including UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM), energy dispersive studies (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to investigate the physicochemical properties of the prepared catalyst. In addition, FE-SEM and EDS analysis of the prepared egg shell support were carried out to confirm the morphology, particle size distribution, and composition. The solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano-sized egg shell waste exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. The synergistic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles and nano egg shell support is attributed to the effective dispersion of TiO2 that offers high specific surface area.

  5. Biomolecule-mediated CdS-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites for efficient visible light-driven photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumen; Sahoo, Ramakrishna; Ray, Chaiti; Sarkar, Sougata; Jana, Jayasmita; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-01-07

    We report an environmentally friendly synthetic strategy to fabricate reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based ternary nanocomposites, in which glutathione (GSH) acts both as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and sulfur donor for CdS synthesis under modified hydrothermal (MHT) conditions. The report becomes interesting as pH variation evolves two distinctly different semiconducting nanocrystals of anatase/rutile TiO2 and hexagonal yellow/cubic red CdS, and their packaging makes them suitable photocatalysts for dye degradation. Herein, a titanium peroxo compound, obtained from commercial TiO2, is hydrolyzed to TiO2 nanostructures without any additives. The yellow colored CdS-TiO2-rGO (YCTG), one of the ternary photocatalysts, shows maximum efficiency compared to the corresponding red ternary CdS-TiO2-rGO or binary photocatalysts (CdS-rGO, TiO2-rGO and CdS-TiO2) for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. Systematic characterizations reveal that TiO2 presents at the interface of rGO and CdS in YCTG and thus makes a barrier that inhibits the direct interaction between rGO and CdS. This leads to a relatively higher bandgap value for CdS in YCTG (2.15 eV vs. 2.04 eV for CdS-rGO) but with better photocatalytic activity simply by diminishing the possibility of the charge-recombination process. In the present situation, rGO in the YCTG also supports faster dye degradation through higher dye adsorption and rapid internal electron transfer (CdS→TiO2→rGO) in the YCTG nanocomposite. Thus, a simple aqueous phase and a greener synthetic procedure results in a low-cost, highly effective visible light-responsive material for environmental application.

  6. All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Zhou, Zhenxing; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Yisheng; Duan, Zonghui; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-05-23

    Recently, color generation in resonant nanostructures have been intensively studied. Despite of their exciting progresses, the structural colors are usually generated by the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles. Due to the inherent plasmon damping, such plasmonic nanostructures are usually hard to create very distinct color impressions. Here we utilize the concept of metasurfaces to produce all-dielectric, low-loss, and high-resolution structural colors. We have fabricated TiO2 metasurfaces with electron-beam lithography and a very simple lift-off process. The optical characterizations showed that the TiO2 metasurfaces with different unit sizes could generate high reflection peaks at designed wavelengths. The maximal reflectance was as high as 64% with full width at half-maximum (fwhm) around 30 nm. Consequently, distinct colors have been observed in bright field and the generated colors covered the entire visible spectral range. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the distinct colors were generated by the electric resonance and magnetic resonances in TiO2 metasurfaces. Based on the unique properties of magnetic resonances, distinct colors have been observed in bright field when the metasurfaces were reduced to a 4 × 4 array, giving a spatial resolution around 16000 dpi. Considering the cost, stability, and CMOS-compatibility, this research will be important for the structural colors to reach real-world industrial applications.

  7. Phycocyanin assemblies onto nanostructured TiO2 for photovoltaic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Enciso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies is of increasing importance due to depletion of fossil fuel sources and environmental damages caused by their utilization. The energy available from the sun is clean and widely distributed. Solar cells are devices used to convert solar energy into electricity. Among them, dye sensitized solar cells are an interesting alternative to conventional silicon ones, because of their low cost and simple assembly process. They are made of a semiconductor with colored dyes adsorbed onto the surface that work as antennas to catch energy in the visible range of the spectra. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 was synthesized and the protein phycocyanin was used as dye. TiO2 was characterized by electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Phycocyanin was extracted from commercial Spirulina spp. capsules. The assembly process of the electrode covered with TiO2 and phycocyanin was controlled by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR. Results were in accordance with the assembling of an electrode sensitized with phycocyanin.

  8. Effect of graphene thickness on photocatalytic activity of TiO2-graphene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrzak, Malgorzata; Adamski, Paweł; Kukułka, Wojciech; Zielinska, Beata; Mijowska, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets (RGO) with different number of graphene layers were used as platforms for TiO2 nanoparticles deposited using hydrothermal process. The nanomaterials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-vis). The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites was investigated in a model reaction of phenol decomposition under visible light irradiation. Here, the influence of graphene thickness on its photoactivity was explored. It was found that the highest photocatalytic activity was observed for the catalyst composed of single layer graphene and decreased when a number of graphene layers was higher. This might be related to the surface and electronic properties of reduced graphene oxide arising from different number of graphene layers and its interaction with titanium dioxide: (i) higher interfacial area of TiO2-RGO with lower thickness of RGO, which could influence in enhanced transferring of photoinduced electron-hole pairs between TiO2 and RGO, hence improving their separation; (ii) variations in excitations lifetime relating to the diverse surface quality and density of trap sites of reduced graphene oxide; (iii) higher charge carriers mobility in 1-layer RGO compared to 2- and few-layers.

  9. Role of Platinum Deposited on TiO2 in Photocatalytic Methanol Oxidation and Dehydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma M. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania modified nanoparticles have been prepared by the photodeposition method employing platinum particles on the commercially available titanium dioxide (Hombikat UV 100. The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible diffuse spectrophotometry (UV-Vis. XRD was employed to determine the crystallographic phase and particle size of both bare and platinised titanium dioxide. The results indicated that the particle size was decreased with the increasing of platinum loading. AFM analysis showed that one particle consists of about 9 to 11 crystals. UV-vis absorbance analysis showed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength for 0.5% Pt loading compared with bare titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Pt-loaded TiO2 was investigated employing the photocatalytic oxidation and dehydrogenation of methanol. The results of the photocatalytic activity indicate that the platinized titanium dioxide samples are always more active than the corresponding bare TiO2 for both methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation processes. The loading with various platinum amounts resulted in a significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. This beneficial effect was attributed to an increased separation of the photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers.

  10. Fabrication, characterization and application of a reusable immobilized TiO2-PANI photocatalyst plate for the removal of reactive red 4 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, S.; Nawi, M. A.; Haitham, K.

    2014-11-01

    A method for immobilizing TiO2-PANI composite using ENR and PVC as adhesives was successfully developed. The immobilized system known as TiO2/PANI/ENR/PVC plate was characterized by FTIR, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-vis, photo luminescence spectroscopy and HRTEM. The optimum weight ratio for the TiO2:PANI composite was 1:0.0035. The band gap energy of the optimum immobilized composite TiO2/PANI/ENR/PVC (1:0035) was 2.86 eV where polyaniline (PANI) formed a core-shell coating of about 0.9 nm with a strong TiO2-PANI interaction. Photo-etching of the immobilized TiO2/PANI/ENR/PVC (1:0.0035) composite for 7 h increased its surface area and improved its photocatalytic activity. TiO2/PANI/ENR/PVC (1:0.0035)-7 h was visible light sensitive where 85% of 30 mg L-1 reactive red 4 (RR4) dye was decolorized after 60 min of irradiation. The immobilized TiO2/PANI/ENR/PVC (1:0.0035)-7 h was reusable and its photocatalytic activity was sustainable with an average pseudo first order rate constant value of 0.103 ± 0.002 min-1. Adding PANI to the immobilized P25 TiO2 has enhanced its photocatalytic activity throughout the entire ten recycled applications due to the increased BET surface area and lower ecb and h+ recombination.

  11. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  12. Rapid fabrication of TiO2@carboxymethyl cellulose coatings capable of shielding UV, antifog and delaying support aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Lv, Junping; Li, Dehuai; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural plastic films capable of shielding UV, filtering visible light and antifog are important to prolong their life and protect safeties of agriculturists and crops. In this work, high stable and small size TiO2@polymer nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by an efficient one-pot microwave synthesis using titanic sulfate as Ti resource, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC) as complexing agent and stabilizer. The TiO2@CMC NPs obtained were then utilized to fabricate poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/TiO2@CMC coatings on the surface of polypropylene films by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The TiO2@CMC NPs show rapid deposition rate because small, spherical and anion-rich TiO2@CMC NPs possess large specific surface area and fast diffusion rate. More importantly, property experiments confirm that (PEI/TiO2@CMC)*15 coatings can not only effectively shield UV rays, filter visible light and prevent fogging but also delay the aging of their supports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoelectrochemical properties of N/C-codoped TiO2 film electrodes prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Hsun

    2010-02-01

    This paper aims to characterize the photoelectrochemical properties of the visible-light enabling titanium dioxide (TiO2) film electrodes prepared by codoping nitrogen (N) and a presputtered carbon film (C-film) onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using a direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technique. To improve its photoelectrochemical properties, different amount of C-doping sources, 2 h and 4 h C-film, are chose to prepare the N/C-codoped TiO2 film electrodes. Under visible-light (420 TiO2 film electrode prepared with a 4 h C-film (NC(4)-T) at an applied potential of +1.2 V versus SCE. Under ultraviolet (lambda approximately 365 nm) illumination, the NC(4)-T film electrode also exhibits the highest photocurrent density of 0.23 mA/cm2 among all samples tested. A more negative flat band potential of NC(4)-T film electrode is attributed to the synergistic effect of N/C codoping. The XRD spectrum of the NC(4)-T film electrode shows mainly the well-crystallized anatase TiO2 phase and an extremely intense (211) plane. Thus, photoelectrochemical activity of the NC(4)-T film electrode can be ascribed to the well-crystallized columnar crystals with pores at its grain boundary, open surface morphology, which are revealed by SEM and TEM images, and a more negative flat band potential. The visible-light induced activity is mostly enhanced as a result of the synergistic effects of N/C-codoping into the TiO2 crystals. A potential application to photocatalytic splitting of water for hydrogen evolution using solar light is practically possible.

  14. Electronic structures of anatase (TiO2)1-x(TaON)x solid solutions: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Wenqiang; Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto; Zhang, Junying

    2015-07-21

    Sensitizing wide band gap photo-functional materials under visible-light irradiation is an important task for efficient solar energy conversion. Although nitrogen doping into anatase TiO2 has been extensively studied for this purpose, it is hard to increase the nitrogen content in anatase TiO2 because of the aliovalent nitrogen substituted for oxygen, leading to the formation of secondary phases or defects that hamper the migration of photoexcited charge carriers. In this paper, electronic structures of (TiO2)1-x(TaON)x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions, in which the stoichiometry is satisfied with the co-substitution of Ti for Ta along with O for N, are investigated within the anatase crystal structure using first-principles calculations. Our computational results show that the solid solutions have substantially narrower band gaps than TiO2, without introducing any localized energy states in the forbidden gap. In addition, in comparison with the pristine TiO2, the solid solution has a direct band gap when the content of TaON exceeds 0.25, which is advantageous to light absorption. The valence band maximum (VBM) of the solid solutions, which is mainly composed of N 2p states hybridized with O 2p, Ti 3d or Ta 5d orbitals, is higher in energy than that of pristine anatase TiO2 consisting of non-bonding O 2p states. On the other hand, incorporating TaON into TiO2 causes the formation of d-d bonding states through π interactions and substantially lowers the conduction band minimum (CBM) because of the shortened distance between some metal atoms. As a result, the anatase (TiO2)1-x(TaON)x is expected to become a promising visible-light absorber. In addition, some atomic configurations are found to possess exceptionally narrow band gaps.

  15. In situ construction of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with enhanced photocatalytic activity over magnetic-driven rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Jia, Jia; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou

    2018-02-01

    Corn-shaped TiO2 nanofilms were fabricated by a glycerol-assisted hydrothermal method, and then g-C3N4 was deposited on the surface of TiO2 films using melamine as precursor under air atmosphere by an in site microwave-heating technique. The investigations indicate that microwave-heating process is a facile strategy to obtain g-C3N4 by thermal polymerization of melamine, which can achieve in situ constructing of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction films with high stability. The as-prepared TiO2 films with crack and holes have visible light scattering capability, and the scattering light overlaps with the intrinsic absorption of g-C3N4, leading to an absorption plateau in the range of 400-550 nm. Besides, a magnetic-driven rotating frame was developed to enhance the mass transfer processes during the photocatalytic water splitting. The result shows that g-C3N4/TiO2 films exhibit excellent activities under simulated-sunlight irradiation, in addition to the enhanced mass transfer, the overlapped visible light absorption, stable contact and effective charge transfer between g-C3N4 and TiO2 can facilitate the hydrogen production and light utilization efficiency as well. The hydrogen production rate can reach 13.8 mmol h-1 m-2 over g-C3N4/TiO2 films prepared using 0.5 g of melamine and 16.0 cm2 of TiO2.

  16. Optimization of TiO2 thin film thickness for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bat’hi, S. A. M.; Ahmed, N.; Othman, R.; Othman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) rely on the absorption of photons by the dye molecules which are transported to the conduction band of the TiO2 electrode. The microstructure, energy gap and the absorption spectra of the TiO2 electrodes highly affects the efficiency of the cell. In this paper, the absorption spectra and energy gap has been studied by varying the thickness of the TiO2 paste. Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were deposited on ITO glass substrate with three different thickness (4.54μm, 7.12μm and 12.3μm) by using doctor blade method. After deposition all the samples were sintered at 450°C after deposition to enhance the particle bonding and for achieving better adhesion. The samples were characterized by UV-VIS spectra for determining the absorption spectra and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for investigating the thickness and the surface morphology. Fabricating the electrodes with different thickness showed significant changes in the energy gap and from the results it can be concluded that the energy gap increases with the increased thickness. The highest energy gap of 2.25ev and absorption 3.791 was achieved by 12.3μm thick sample. The absorption spectra also shows better absorption throughout the whole visible light range but the SEM images suggests that 12.3μm thick sample shows cracks all over the deposited region which will cause current leakage when the cell is assembled. Therefore, the optimum result was achieved by 7.12μm thick sample providing 1.9 ev energy gap and 3.91 absorption peak.

  17. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  18. Genotoxicity of inhaled nanosized TiO(2) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Catalán, Julia; Koivisto, Antti J; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Rossi, Elina M; Nykäsenoja, Heli; Peltonen, Yrjö; Moreno, Carlos; Alenius, Harri; Tuomi, Timo; Savolainen, Kai M; Norppa, Hannu

    2012-06-14

    In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than BAL cells in the earlier intratracheal study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety Profile of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Guixin; Xin, Yan; Jiang, Xin; Dong, Mengqi; Li, Junling; Wang, Peng; Zhai, Shumei; Dong, Yongchun; Jia, Jianbo; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35) fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0%) during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to h...

  20. Hydrogen and nitrogen codoping of anatase TiO2for efficiency enhancement in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, Maria; Kelaidis, Nikolaos; Polydorou, Ermioni; Soultati, Anastasia; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Argitis, Panagiotis; Papadimitropoulos, Giorgos; Tsikritzis, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Auras, Florian; Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard G; Chroneos, Alexander

    2017-12-19

    TiO 2 has high chemical stability, strong catalytic activity and is an electron transport material in organic solar cells. However, the presence of trap states near the band edges of TiO 2 arising from defects at grain boundaries significantly affects the efficiency of organic solar cells. To become an efficient electron transport material for organic photovoltaics and related devices, such as perovskite solar cells and photocatalytic devices, it is important to tailor its band edges via doping. Nitrogen p-type doping has attracted considerable attention in enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO 2 under visible light irradiation while hydrogen n-type doping increases its electron conductivity. DFT calculations in TiO 2 provide evidence that nitrogen and hydrogen can be incorporated in interstitial sites and possibly form N i H i , N i H O and N Ti H i defects. The experimental results indicate that N i H i defects are most likely formed and these defects do not introduce deep level states. Furthermore, we show that the efficiency of P3HT:IC 60 BA-based organic photovoltaic devices is enhanced when using hydrogen-doping and nitrogen/hydrogen codoping of TiO 2 , both boosting the material n-type conductivity, with maximum power conversion efficiency reaching values of 6.51% and 6.58%, respectively, which are much higher than those of the cells with the as-deposited (4.87%) and nitrogen-doped TiO 2 (4.46%).

  1. Natural fiber templated TiO2 microtubes via a double soaking sol-gel route and their photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Li, Xu; Wang, Ziru; Shen, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    TiO2 microtubes with a yam-like surface were prepared for the first time through a simple and efficient double soaking sol-gel route by utilizing Platanus acerifolia seed fibers as bio-templates. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface analysis and Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results showed that the obtained TiO2 microtubes had an anatase phase and were composed of a smooth internal wall and a rough yam-like external wall with an average diameter of 24 μm and the wall thickness of 2 μm. The surface area and pore volume of the as-prepared TiO2 microtubes reached 128.271 m2/g and 0.149 cm3/g, respectively. The UV-vis analysis displayed a favorable extension of light absorption capacity of TiO2 microtubes. The synthetic mechanism was preliminarily discussed as well. The moisture in the natural fiber templates facilitated the mild hydrolysis of titanium sol, leaving a prime layer on the surface of the fibers, and subsequently assisted in the successful preparation of TiO2 microtubes with a yam-like surface without requiring specific control of hydrolysis. Photocatalytic experiments indicated that the as-obtained TiO2 microtubes exhibited a higher efficiency than commercial P25 in the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride.

  2. Enhancing the photoelectrochemical response of TiO2 nanotubes through their nanodecoration by pulsed-laser-deposited Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, K.; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Bessais, B.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) based nanodecoration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) by Ag nanoparticles (NPs). We focus here on the investigation of the effect of the number of laser ablation pulses (NLP) of the silver target on both the average size of the Ag-NPs and the photoelectrochemical conversion efficiency of the Ag-NP decorated TiO2-NT based photoanodes. By varying the NLP, we were able to not only control the size of the PLD-deposited Ag nanoparticles from 20 to ˜50 nm, but also to increase concomitantly the surface coverage of the TiO2 NTAs by Ag-NPs. The red-shifting of the surface plasmon resonance peak of the PLD-deposited Ag-NPs deposited onto quartz substrates confirmed the increase of their size as the NLP is increased from 500 to 10 000. By investigating the photo-electrochemical properties of Ag-NP decorated TiO2-NTAs, by means of linear sweep cyclic voltammetry under UV-Vis illumination, we found that the generated photocurrent is sensitive to the size of the Ag-NPs and reaches a maximum value at NLP =500 (i.e.,; Ag-NP size of ˜20 nm). For NLP = 500, the photoconversion efficiency of the Ag-NP decorated TiO2-NTAs is shown to reach a maximum of 4.5% (at 0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl). The photocurrent enhancement of Ag-NP decorated TiO2-NTAs is believed to result from the additional light harvesting enabled by the ability of Ag-NPs to absorb visible irradiation caused by various localized surface plasmon resonances, which in turn depend on the size and interdistance of the Ag nanoparticles.

  3. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li(+) pathways from surface to subsurface sites, which many chemists believe to contribute to the pseudocapacitive charging. Several disadvantages exist as well. TiO2(B), and titania in general, suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. Nanostructured TiO2(B) also exhibits significant irreversible capacity loss (ICL) upon first discharge (lithiation). Nanostructuring TiO2(B) can help alleviate problems with poor ionic conductivity by shortening lithium diffusion pathways. Unfortunately, this also increases the likelihood of severe first discharge ICL due to reactive Ti-OH and Ti-O surface sites that can cause unwanted electrolyte degradation and irreversible trapping of Li(+). Nanostructuring also results in lowered volumetric energy density, which could be a considerable problem for mobile applications. We will also discuss these problems and proposed solutions. Scientists have synthesized TiO2(B) in a variety of nanostructures including nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, mesoporous-ordered nanostructures, and nanosheets. Many of these structures exhibit enhanced Li(+) diffusion kinetics and increased specific capacities compared to bulk material, and thus warrant investigation on how nanostructuring influences lithiation behavior. This Account will focus on these influences from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. We will discuss the surface charging mechanism that gives rise to the increased lithiation and delithiation kinetics for TiO2(B), along with the influence of dimensional confinement of the nanoarchitectures, and how nanostructuring can change the lithiation mechanism considerably.

  4. THE APPLICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAPHENE DECORATED WITH TiO2 –Fe (1%-N ON COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doped TiO2/graphene nanocomposites are studied due to their capacity to absorb the visible rays and large applicability in photo-catalytic applications. In this paper, we summarize our experiments on the development of photocatalytic fabrics based on deposition of doped TiO2/graphene nanocomposites by ultrasound method. We have investigated the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and elemental composition was determinate through EDX. Other information were obtained from electrical resistivity analysis measured on Prostat PRS-801 instrument, evaluation of the cotton fabrics wettability by measuring the contact angle on a VCA Optima instrument and evaluation of the photo-catalytic properties of the treated fabrics under solar and visible light (Xenotest by measuring the trichromatic coordinates of the treated and untreated textile materials. The results demonstrated that the ultrasound is an effective method to deposit nanoparticles on textile materials and that the uniform dispersion of TiO2- graphene composites depends on sonication parameters. Also, the treatment used on textile materials doesn’t improve the electrical properties of the knit. The results obtain after evaluation of the photo-catalytic activity by photo degradation of methylene blue under visible and solar light show the performance of the developed fabrics and also that the photo-catalytic activity is high under visible light and solar light.

  5. Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel/impregnation method as photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsonti, Hathaithip; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Wetchakun, Natda; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified sol-gel method together with impregnation method. The samples were characterized by their physicochemical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties. XRD results indicated unloaded TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were all in the anatase phase with average crystallite size in the range of 10-13 nm. In addition, XPS analysis confirmed the presence of Au and Ag elements in Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated through the mineralization of formic acid under UV-light illumination. The results showed that Au-loading and Ag-loading could effectively improve the photocatalytic activities of TiO2. Furthermore, Au-loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than Ag-loaded TiO2.

  6. Synergetic Effect of Ti3+ and Oxygen Doping on Enhancing Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Huang, Baibiao; Gao, Shanmin; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-05

    To improve the utilization of visible light and reduce photogenerated electron/hole recombination, Ti3+ self-doped TiO2/oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Ti3+-TiO2/O-g-C3N4) heterojunctions were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of g-C3N4 and titanium oxohydride sol obtained from the reaction of TiH2 with H2O2. In this way, exfoliated O-g-C3N4 and Ti3+-TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained. Simultaneously, strong bonding was formed between Ti3+-TiO2 nanoparticles and exfoliated O-g-C3N4 during the hydrothermal process. Charge transfer and recombination processes were characterized by transient photocurrent responses, electrochemical impedance test, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances were investigated through rhodamine B degradation test under an irradiation source based on 30 W cold visible-light-emitting diode. The highest visible-light photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities were observed from the heterojunction with 1:2 mass ratio of Ti3+-TiO2 to O-g-C3N4. The photodegradation reaction rate constant based on this heterojuction is 0.0356 min-1, which is 3.87 and 4.56 times higher than those of pristine Ti3+-TiO2 and pure g-C3N4, respectively. The remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of the heterojunctions are mainly attributed to the synergetic effect of efficient photogenerated electron-hole separation, decreased electron transfer resistance from interfacial chemical hydroxy residue bonds, and oxidizing groups originating from Ti3+-TiO2 and O-g-C3N4.

  7. Characterization of SrTiO3 target doped with Co ions, SrCoxTi1-xO3-δ, and their thin films prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in water for visible light response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Fumihiko; Murata, Yuma; Ono, Hiroshi; Choo, Cheow-keong; Tanaka, Katsumi

    2017-10-01

    SrTiO3 (STO) and Co-doped SrTiO3 (Co-STO) sintered targets were synthesized and were Ar+ sputtered to elucidate the charge compensation effect between Sr, Ti and Co cations following the reduction by oxygen desorption. Following exposure of the Ar+-sputtered target to the air, charge transfer reactions occurred among Co2+, Ti3+, O2- and Sr2+ species which were studied by their XPS spectra. Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of these targets was carried out in water to prepare the nanoparticles which could be supplied to the thin films with much higher surface reactivity expected for photocatalytic reactions. The roles of Co ions were studied for the stoichiometry and crystallinity of the nanoparticles which constituted the thin films. Photo-degradation of methylene blue was carried out on the PLA thin films under very weak visible light at 460 nm. The PLA thin films showed the photocatalytic activities, which were enhanced by the presence of Co ions. Such the effect of Co ions was considered from viewpoint of the d-d transition and the charge-transfer between Co ions and the ligand oxygen.

  8. Fabrication of TiO2 nanorods/nanosheets photoelectrode on Ti mesh by hydrothermal method for degradation of methylene blue:influence of calcination temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoyong; Ma, Qiuling; Cui, Yuqi; Cheng, Xiuwen; Cheng, Qingfeng

    2017-10-01

    In the study, Using the strategy of hydrothermal reaction followed by annealing at different temperatures, TiO2 nanorods/nanosheets (NRs/NSs) photoelectrodes with diverse microcosmic morphologies and crystal structures were successfully fabricated. Moreover, all samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Meanwhile the photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties were recorded through open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) curves. The photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 NRs/NSs photoelectrodes were further measured by methylene blue (MB) degradation. Results suggest that the nanosheets possessed the width and thickness in the range of 100-400 and 10-20 nm, and the nanorods possessed the diameter in the range of around 10-20 nm, respectively. Also, the TiO2 NRs/NSs photoelectrode calcined at 500 °C exhibited the best proportion of both nanosheets and nanorods and higher photocatalytic activity (73.56%) than those of other TiO2 NRs/NSs photoelectrodes within 150 min under visible light illumination, which was ascribed to higher photoproduction electrons-holes (e/h+) pairs separation and visible light absorption. Therefore, the calcination temperature plays a significant role in altering the morphology and crystal structure of TiO2 NRs/NSs photoelectrode, and then enhanced PC performance.

  9. Dynamics of fibronectin adsorption on TiO2 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S R; Brás, M Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Barbosa, M A

    2007-06-19

    In the present work we analyze the dynamics of fibronectin (FN) adsorption on two different stable titanium oxides, with varied surface roughness, and chemically similar to those used in clinical practice. The two types of titanium oxide surfaces used were TiO2 sputtered on Si (TiO2 sp) and TiO2 formed on commercially pure titanium after immersion in H2O2 (TiO2 cp). Surface characterization was previously carried out using different techniques (Sousa, S. R.; Moradas-Ferreira, P.; Melo, L. V.; Saramago, B.; Barbosa, M. A. Langmuir 2004, 20 (22), 9745-9754). Imaging and roughness analysis before and after FN adsorption used atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping mode, in air, and in magnetic alternating current mode, in liquid (water). FN adsorption as a function of time was followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by radiolabeling of FN with 125I (125I-FN), and by ellipsometry. Exchangeability studies were performed using FN and HSA. AFM roughness analysis revealed that, before FN adsorption, both TiO2 surfaces exhibited a lower root-mean-square (Rq) and maximum peak with the depth of the maximum valley (Rmax) roughness in air than in water, due to TiO2 hydration. After protein adsorption, the same behavior was observed for the TiO2 sp substrate, while Rq and Rmax roughness values in air and in water were similar in the case of the TiO2 cp substrate, for the higher FN concentration used. Surface roughness was always significantly higher on the TiO2 cp surfaces. AFM led to direct visualization of adsorbed FN on both surfaces tested, indicating that after 10 min of FN incubation the TiO2 sp surface was partially covered by FN. The adsorbed protein seems to form globular aggregates or ellipsoids, and FN aggregates coalesce, forming clusters as the time of adsorption and the concentration increase. Radiolabeling of FN revealed that a rapid adsorption occurs on both surfaces and the amount adsorbed increased with time, reaching a maximum after 60 min of incubation. Time dependence is also observed for the evolution of the atomic (%) of N determined by XPS and by the increase of the thickness by ellipsometry. TiO2 cp adsorbs more FN than the TiO2 sp surfaces, after 60 min of adsorption, as shown by the radiolabeling data. FN molecules are also more strongly attached to the former surface as indicated by the exchangeability studies. The overall results provide novel evidence that FN spontaneously adsorbs as a self-assembly at TiO2 surfaces as a function of time. The aggregate structure is an intermediate feature shared by some protein fibrillar assemblies at interfaces, which is believed to promote cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization (Pellenc, D.; Berry, H.; Gallet, O. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 298 (1), 132-144. Maheshwari, G.; Brown, G.; Lauffenburger, D. A.; Wells, A.; Griffith, L. G. J. Cell Sci. 2000, 113 (10), 1677-1686).

  10. Photocatalytic synthesis of 2-methylquinolines with TiO2 Wackherr and Home Prepared TiO2 – A comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvam, Kaliyamoorthy; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the efficiency of titanium dioxide specimens Wackherr TiO2, prepared TiO2 and Aeroxide P25 toward the photocatalytic synthesis of pharmaceutically important 2-methylquinolines...

  11. Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Porous Network Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianqing; Zhi, Qianqian; Huang, Chengxing; Zhang, Yaping; Dong, Kaituo; Neppolian, B

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional porous network TiO2 film (PW-film) and nanoparticles film were synthesized on surface of the Ti foil by a facile method to investigate both the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) techniques. Methylene blue was used as a target molecule to estimate the photocatalytic activity of the films. Results revealed that the hydrothermal temperature and time have great influence on the crystal type and film morphology of TiO2 catalysts. A higher hydrothermal temperature is benefit for the formation of anatase phase of TiO2 nanotubes with PW-film, which had a large number of nodes. After investigation of the photoelectrochemical properties, a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 4.79% is observed for nanoparticles film with rutile phase of TiO2 under UV light illumination, which was incredible 2 times higher than that of the PW-film with anatase phase. It was shown that the morphology of TiO2 film contributes more significant effect on photocatalytic and photoelectric performance than its crystal type.

  12. Effect of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by N-Zr co-doped nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Wang, Li; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Pan, Huixian

    2017-11-01

    Modified sol-gel method was adopted to prepare TiO2, Zr-TiO2 and N/Zr-TiO2 composite catalyst. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner- Emmet- Teller measurement and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic performance toward CO2 reduction was evaluated under ultraviolet light. The catalyst particles were demonstrated in the nanometer level size. When N and Zr are co-doped, on the one hand, Ti4+ can be replaced by Zr4 +, which leads to lattice distortion and inhibits electron-hole recombination. On the other hand, N enters into TiO2 lattice gap to form O-Ti-N bond structure, and partial Ti4+ are reduced to Ti3+. Compared with pristine TiO2, the specific surface area and the band gap of N/Zr-TiO2 were improved and reduced, respectively. The N and Zr synergistically contribute to the obviously strengthened absorption intensity in visible region, as well as significantly improved photocatalytic activity. In the gas phase reactor, when the calcination temperature was 550°C, 0.125N/0.25Zr-TiO2 composite performed the highest photocatalytic activity UV irradiation for 8 h, and the corresponding CH4 yield was 11.837 µmol/g, which was 87.8% higher than that of pristine TiO2. For the visible light, the CH4 yield was 9.003 µmol/g after 8 h irradiation, which was 83.9% higher than that of pristine TiO2.

  13. Assessing Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Modified TiO 2 Nanomaterials for Virus Inactivation in Drinking Water: Mechanisms and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Michael Vincent

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an alternative water treatment method under consideration for disinfecting water. Chlorine disinfection can form harmful byproducts, and some viruses (e.g. adenoviruses) are resistant to other alternative disinfection methods. Photocatalytic oxidation using nano-sized photocatalytic particles (e.g. TiO2, fullerene) holds promise; however, it is limited by its low efficiency and long required treatment times. This research focuses on improving virus inactivation by photocatalytic oxidation by modifying catalysts for improved activity, by analyzing virus inactivation kinetics, and by elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2) and bacteriophage MS2. Modifying TiO2 with silver (nAg/TiO2) or silica (SiO2-TiO2) improves the inactivation kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 by a factor of 3-10. nAg/ TiO2 increases hydroxyl radical (HO·) production while SiO2 increases the adsorption of MS2 to TiO 2. These results suggest that modifying the photocatalyst surface to increase contaminant adsorption is an important improvement strategy along with increasing HO· production. The inactivation kinetics of AdV2 by P25 TiO2 is much slower than the MS2 inactivation kinetics and displays a strong shoulder, which is not present in the MS2 kinetics. nAg/TiO2 initially improves the inactivation rate of AdV2. SiO2-TiO2 reduces the AdV2 inactivation kinetics since adsorption is not significantly enhanced, as it is with MS2. Amino-C60 is highly effective for AdV2 inactivation under visible light irradiation, making it a good material for use in solar disinfection systems. The efficacy of amino-fullerene also demonstrates that singlet oxygen is effective for AdV2 inactivation. When exposed to irradiated TiO2, AdV2 hexon proteins are heavily damaged resulting in the release of DNA. DNA damage is also present but may occur after capsids break. With MS2, the host interaction protein is rapidly damaged, but not the coat protein. The kinetics

  14. Azo dyes degradation using TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide photocatalysts under UV and natural sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Magerusan, Lidia; Socaci, Crina; Turza, Alexandru; Pruneanu, Stela

    2017-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes with different structures (amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine) using TiO2-Pt nanoparticles (TPt), TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide (TPt-GO) and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide (TPt-rGO) composites were investigated in the presence of UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The modification of TiO2-Pt with graphene oxide shifted its optical absorption edge towards the visible region and increased its photocatalytic activity under UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The efficiency of catalysts on azo dyes degradation (in similar conditions) reached high values (above 99%) under sunlight conditions, proving the remarkable photocatalytic activities of obtained composites. TPt-GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photoactivity than TPt or TPt-rGO, demonstrating degradation efficiencies of 99.56% for amaranth, 99.15% for sunset yellow and 96.23% for tartrazine. The dye photodegradation process follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic with respect to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanism. A direct dependence between azo dyes degradation rate and chemical structure of dyes has been observed.

  15. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Di Gioia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol % for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections. The nanoparticles and the coating have been characterized using spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy, showing their homogenous dispersion in the acrylic urethane coating. A common fluorescent light source was used to activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The paint dispersion showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The coating containing the TiO2 nanoparticles maintained good UV stability, strong adhesion to the substrate and high hardness. Therefore, the approach used is feasible for paint formulation aimed at disinfection of healthcare surfaces.

  16. Growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods in Ti and Cu ion sequentially implanted SiO2 and the involved mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaohu; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Changlong

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 in nanoscale exhibits unique physicochemical and optoelectronic properties and has attracted much more interest of the researchers. In this work, TiO2 nanostructures are synthesized in amorphous SiO2 slices by implanting Ti ions, or sequentially implanting Ti and Cu ions combined with annealing at high temperature. The morphology, structure, spatial distribution and optical properties of the formed nanostructures have been investigated in detail. Our results clearly show that the thermal growth of TiO2 nanostructures in SiO2 substrate is significantly enhanced by presence of post Cu ion implantation, which depends strongly on the applied Cu ion fluence, as well as the annealing atmosphere. Due to the formation of Cu2O in the substrate, rutile TiO2 nanorods of large size have been well fabricated in the Ti and Cu sequentially implanted SiO2 after annealing in N2 atmosphere, in which Cu2O plays a role as a catalyst. Moreover, the sample with well-fabricated TiO2 nanorods exhibits a narrowed band gap, an enhanced optical absorption in visible region, and catalase-/peroxidase-like catalytic characteristics. Our findings provide an effective route to fabricate functional TiO2 nanorods in SiO2 via ion implantation.

  17. Studies on the Fe3+ Doping Effect on Structural, Optical and Catalytic Properties of Hydrothermally Synthesized TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Ravi [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Sabale, Sandip [P.G. Department of Chemistry, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, Maharashtra, India; Chikode, Prashant [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India; Puri, Vijaya [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004, India; Yu, Xiao-Ying [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA 99352, United States; Mahajan, Smita [Department of Physics, Jaysingpur College, Jaysingpur-416101, India

    2017-08-01

    Pure TiO2 and Fe3+-TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method with different Fe3+ concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles are analysed to determine its structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV-DRS, photoluminescence, Mossbauer, XPS, TEM and SEM/EDS. The EDS micrograph confirms the existence of Fe3+ atoms in the TiO2 matrix with 0.85, 1.52 and 1.87 weight percent. The crystallite size and band gap decrease with increase in Fe3+concentration. The average particle size obtained from TEM is 7-11 nm which is in good agreement with XRD results. Raman bands at 640 cm-1, 517 cm-1 and 398 cm-1 further confirm pure phase anatase in all samples. XPS shows the proper substitutions of few sites of Ti4+ ions by Fe3+ ions in the TiO2 host lattice. The intensity of PL spectra for Fe3+-TiO2 shows a gradual decrease in the peak intensity with increasing Fe3+ concentration in TiO2, and it indicates lower recombination rate as Fe3+ ions increases. These nanoparticles are further studied for its photocatalytic activities using malachite green dye under UV light, visible light and sunlight.

  18. Supercritical Flow Synthesis of TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well-known mater......A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well......-known material and has been synthesized to evaluate the performance of the new super critical reactor setup. TiO2 will form the basis for planned core-shell syntheses....

  19. TiO2/ZnS/CdS Nanocomposite for Hydrogen Evolution and Orange II Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štengl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/ZnS/CdS composites for photocatalytic hydrogen production from water were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions mixture of TiOSO4, ZnSO4, and CdSO4 with thioacetamide. Hydrogen evolution was observed in the presence of palladium and platinum nanoparticles deposited on TiO2/ZnS/CdS composites. The morphology was obtained by scanning electron microscopy, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption was used for determination of surface area (BET and porosity. The method of UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band-gap energies of prepared TiO2/ZnS/CdS nano-composites. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples were assessed by photocatalytic decomposition of Orange II dye in an aqueous slurry under UV irradiation at 365 nm wavelength and visible light up to 400 nm wavelength. Doped titanium dioxide by the CdS increased band-gap energy and doping with ZnS increased photocatalytic activity. The best photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution shows sample named TiZnCd7 on surface deposited with palladium, which contains 20.21% TiO2, 78.5% ZnS, and 1.29% CdS.

  20. Low Temperature Synthesis of Large-Size Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Chu, Wanyi; Qian, Jueshi; Lin, Jingcheng; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-12-01

    TiO2 nanosheets have continuously been intriguing due to their high surface activities as photocatalyst but still challenging to synthesis large-scale 2D nanostructures. A special microstructure evolution of TiO2 , ripening in aqueous solution at low temperature (≈4 °C), is found for the first time, i.e., from the initial aperiodic atom-networks gradually into low crystallized continuous spongy structure with small crystal facets and ultimately forming large-size anatase nanosheets with exposed (101) and (200) facets. Based on this finding, the synthesized anatase TiO2 nanosheets possess monodispersed large-scale 2D nanostructure so as to exhibit appreciable quantum size effects and remarkable enhanced optical absorption capacity. Using photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) as the probe reaction to evaluate photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 nanosheets, the reductivity of Cr (VI) achieves 99.8% in 15 min under irradiation of 200-800 nm light. At the same time, an in situ Cr (III)-doping occurs spontaneously and triggers pronounced visible light driven photocatalysis, reducing 99% of Cr (VI) in 100 min under irradiation of 400-800 nm light. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Kavei, Ghassem; Ahmadi, Kamran; Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO2 sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO2 thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO2 to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  2. Enhanced Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activities of Co-Doped TiO2 Immobilized on Silica for Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Negishi, Nobuaki; Hue, Nguyen Thi

    2018-01-01

    We studied the adsorption and photocatalysis of paraquat in an aqueous solution with cobalt-doped TiO2 supported on mesoporous silica gel. With Co concentration increasing from 0% to 9%, it was found that the TiO2 anatase phase remained unchanged and the Co was uniformly distributed, while the band gap energy decreased from 3.32 eV to 2.64 eV. The drop in band gap energy leads to the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst oxidation of paraquat to NH4 + and NO3 - products under visible light. Relative to TiO2, the incorporation of Co into TiO2 led to an increase in the adsorption ability against the paraquat. A possible mechanism of the paraquat degradation may be that the paraquat was selectively adsorbed onto the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst before light irradiation and after that the paraquat was continuously photodecomposed.

  3. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  4. Effect of TiO2 on the gas sensing features of TiO2/PANi nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Ngoc Huyen; Nguyen, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Duc Thien; Le, Hai Thanh

    2011-01-01

    A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and polyaniline (PANi) was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi) monomer and TiCl(4) as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO(2) nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO(2) and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH(3) gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO(2) shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600-700%, 20-25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO(2) nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  5. PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY OF N-TIO2 APPLIED ON COTTON KNIT – PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Iuliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research work is the development of photocatalytic textiles materials by treating them with TiO2 doped with nitrogen. Also, the research was focused on the nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2 formulation as homogeneous, stable solution, immobilization of large quantities of N-TiO2 on 100% cotton knit while preserving its genuine properties, minimize the loss of nanoparticles in wastewaters and achieve a high photocatalytic fabrics effects under visible light. The photocatalytic effect was investigated by exposing the materials to ultraviolet and visible light, and the evaluation of exposed and non-exposed fabrics was performed using a spectroscopic method. By using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the characteristic, morphology and distribution of nanoparticles covering the textile materials, and the presence of Ti and Fe on textile materials was analyzed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed the relatively uniform coating of cotton fibers by particles by using initial and re-used N-TiO2 dispersions. By using additives like polyethylene glycols and wetting agents, the stability of aqueous N-TiO2 is increased. Wetting agents, together with a higher treatment temperature represent important factors contributing to the deposition of increased amount of N-TiO2 particles existing in the dispersion remained after the first treatment of the fabric. Key words: nitrogen-doped TiO2, photocatalysis, cotton fabric, nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy.

  6. High-Efficiently Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production over Zn-Incorporated TiO2 Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the Zn dopant and nanotube morphology effects of TiO2 in electrochemical hydrogen production from the photo-splitting of methanol/water solution, we have designed a Zn-incorporated TiO2 nanotube (Zn-TNT photocatalyst. The TNT and Zn-TNT materials had a width of 70~100 nm. The hydrogen production over the Zn-TNT photocatalysts was higher than that over the TNT; specifically, 10.2 mL of H2 gas was produced after 9 hours when 0.5 g of 0.01 mol% Zn-TNT was used. The zeta-potential values in aqueous solution determined by electrophoretic light scattering (ELS had negative surface charges, which was related to the surface stability, and the absolute value was the largest in 0.01 mol% Zn-TNT. On the basis of UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL spectra results, the high photoactivity of Zn-TNT was attributed to the shift toward the visible region and increase of PL intensity due to the increased number of excited electrons and holes.

  7. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of palladium nanoparticles decorated black TiO2 calcined in argon atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Chan, Shun-Hsiang

    2018-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanoparticles (BTN) was prepared by sol-gel derived precursor calcined in an argon atmosphere. The synthesized BTN with trivalent titanium ion, structural defect, and oxygen vacancy shows a remarkably high absorbance in the visible light spectrum. BTN thus behaves a higher visible-active nanoreactor than white TiO2 nanoparticles (WTN) in the aqueous solution for organic pollutant degradation. Moreover, palladium decoration on the BTN surface (Pd-BTN) demonstrates a fascinating clean energy application. The obtained Pd-BTN fulfills a satisfied green material demand in the photocatalytic hydrogen production application. Pd-BTN calcined at 400 °C (Pd-BTN-400) shows the high photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate of 5200 μmol/g h under UV-A irradiation and 9300 μmol/g h under UV-B irradiation, respectively. The well-developed material, Pd-BTN-400, could be one of the best solutions in the concern of clean energy and water-purification with regard to the continuous environmental issue.

  8. Structure of a model TiO2 photocatalytic interface

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, H.; Tocci, G.; Woolcot, T.; Torrelles, X.; Pang, C. L.; Humphrey, D. S.; Yim, C. M.; Grinter, D. C.; Cabailah, G.; Bikondoa, O.; Lindsay, Robert; Zegenhagen, J.; Michaelides, A; Thornton, G.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of water with TiO2 is crucial to many of its practical applications, including photocatalytic water splitting. Following the first demonstration of this phenomenon 40 years ago there have been numerous studies of the rutile single-crystal TiO2(110) interface with water. This has provided an atomic-level understanding of the water–TiO2 interaction. However, nearly all of the previous studies of water/TiO2 interfaces involve water in the vapour phase. Here, we explore the interf...

  9. Effect of annealing ambience on the formation of surface/bulk oxygen vacancies in TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Min; Guan, Zhongjie; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    The surface and bulk oxygen vacancy have a prominent effect on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In this study, TiO2 possessing different types and concentration of oxygen vacancies were prepared by annealing nanotube titanic acid (NTA) at various temperatures in air or vacuum atmosphere. TiO2 with the unitary bulk single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies (SETOVs) formed when NTA were calcined in air. Whereas, TiO2 with both bulk and surface oxygen vacancies were obtained when NTA were annealed in vacuum. The series of TiO2 with different oxygen vacancies were systematically characterized by TEM, XRD, PL, XPS, ESR, and TGA. The PL and ESR analysis verified that surface oxygen vacancies and more bulk oxygen vacancies could form in vacuum atmosphere. Surface oxygen vacancies can trap electron and hinder the recombination of photo-generated charges, while bulk SETOVs act as the recombination center. The surface or bulk oxygen vacancies attributed different roles on the photo-absorbance and activity, leading that the sample of NTA-A400 displayed higher hydrogen evolution rate under UV light, whereas NTA-V400 displayed higher hydrogen evolution rate under visible light because bulk SETOVs can improve visible light absorption because sub-band formed by bulk SETOVs prompted the secondary transition of electron excited.

  10. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  11. Zinc-porphyrin-imide type sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoactive electrode in a dyes sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafaat, F.; Gunlazuardi, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, TiO2 nanotube was prepared by rapid breakdown electrooxidation of Ti foil in electrolyte containing 0.15 M HClO4. The obtained TiO2 nanotube bundling powder was calcinated at 450°C for 3 hours, then characterized by SEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS, and BET. Zinc-porphyrin-imide dyes was deposited into TiO2 nanotube by immersion of TiO2 nanotube in zinc-porphyrin-imide solution for 24 hours. Free zinc-porphyrin-imide dyes shows characteristics of absorption spectra in visible region at 439 nm and 620 nm. Meanwhile, when it was immobilized to TiO2-nanotube, the absorption peak shifted to 421 nm and 640 nm. The zinc-porphyrin-imide/TiO2 electrode showed an excellent response toward the visible light with the typical photocurrent density of 1.1 mA/cm2. When the fabricated photoelectrode was assembled in a typical Dyes Sensitize Solar Cell (DSSC), the I-V curve showed photoconversion efficiency of the assembled zinc-porphyrin-imide/TiO2 DSSC was 1.914% (front side illumination) and 1.147% (backside illumination), respectively.

  12. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO2 films under above-band-gap illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO2 nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  13. Chemical Structure of TiO2 Nanotube Photocatalysts Promoted by Copper and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs promoted by copper (5% (Cu-TNT and iron (5% (Fe-TNT were prepared for visible-light photocatalysis. By X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy, it is found that the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB on Cu-TNT and Fe-TNT is associated with the predominant surface photoactive sites A2 ((Ti=OO4. By extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy, the dispersed copper and iron also cause increases in the Ti–O and Ti–(O–Ti bond distances by 0.01-0.02 and 0.04-0.05 Å, respectively. The decreased Ti–O bonding energy may lead to an increase of photoexcited electron transport. The copper- or-iron promoted TNT can thus enhance photocatalytic degradation of MB under the visible-light radiation.

  14. INKJET PRINTING OF HIGH REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES BASED ON TiO2 SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Eremeeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with description of novel inkjet printing method for optical elements formed by structures based on TiO2 sol. The proposed approach presents effective way to obtain such optical nano objects as diffraction structures and transparent interference patterns. Methods. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (0.36 mol in deionized water (33.3 mol under vigorous stirring and using nitric acid (0.04 mol as a protonating agent. Viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and surface tension - by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Titanium dioxide inks were deposited on commercially available microembossed PET film with a thickness of 20 µm. To print titania ink Canon Pixma IP 2840 desktop office printer was used with a drop volume of 2 pL. The thickness of an inkjet TiO2 layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 500 nm with a refractive index not less than 2.08 in the entire visible range.Main Results. The synthesis of aqueous TiO2 sol was used to obtain the ink with desirable rheological characteristics: viscosity and surface tension. The required rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel transition in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The reviled ratio of titanium dioxide sol and ethanol in the system gives such values of viscosity and surface tension that make this material convenient for inkjet printing. The coatings created by sol have a high refractive index in the entire visible range (not less than 2.08. We have shown that the deposition of optical transparent microstructures with diffraction effect has an ability to be applied on the transparent surfaces. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optic and atomic-force microscopes.Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  16. Preparation of platinum- and silver-incorporated TiO2 coatings in thin-film photoreactor for the photocatalytic decomposition of o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Su, Te-Li; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Kung, Fu-Chen

    2011-12-01

    Platinum-incorporated TiO2 (Pt-TiO2) and silver-incorporated TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) coatings on sapphire tubes of a thin-film photoreactor were prepared using a photoreduction process. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the Ag-TiO2 coatings consisted of a mixture of Ag2O, Ag and TiO2 particles, owing to the partial oxidization of silver particles on the TiO2 coatings, while the Pt-TiO2 coating contained a mixture of Pt and TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DRS) showed that metal particles (Ag or Pt) incorporated into the TiO2 coatings promoted optical absorption in the visible region and made it possible for the coatings to be excited by visible light. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that the PL intensity of the Pt-TiO2 coating was lower than that of the Ag-TiO2 and TiO2 coatings, indicating that the Pt-TiO2 coating had a higher efficiency of charge carrier trapping, immigration and transfer, which subsequently promoted the pseudo-first-order rate constants after the UV/TiO2 process. The Pt-TiO2 coatings for the photocatalytic decomposition of o-cresol under UV light irradiation corresponded to a higher pseudo-first-order rate constant (k) of 0.02 min(-1) when compared with the photocatalytic decomposition rates of pure TiO2 coatings (k = 0.0062 min(-1)) and Ag-TiO2 coatings (k = 0.01 min(-1)). The experimental results also indicated that the photodegradation rate of the Pt-TiO2 coating under visible light irradiation was significantly higher than the photodegradation rates of the Ag-TiO2 and pure TiO2 coatings.

  17. Thin-film dye sensitization and impurity effects on TiO2 and SrTiO3 electrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, A.; Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of TiO2 and SrTiO3 are sensitized by thin films of a ruthenium surfactant dye, which is able to sustain catalytic oxidation of water upon irradiation with visible light. Calculated turnover numbers exceed 2000. Doping of the crystals with niobium does not improve the suitability of

  18. Síntese, caracterização e atividade fotocatalítica de catalisadores nanoestruturados de TiO2 dopados com metais Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 catalysts doped with metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.

  19. Preliminary spectroscopic investigation of tacrolimus TiO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todica, Mihai; Udrescu, Luciana

    2011-12-01

    The effect of air and UV exposure on the tacrolimus was observed by Raman and UV VIS spectroscopy. For moderate time exposure the chemical structure of tacrolimus is not affected. The absorption property of tacrolimus was enhanced by addition of TiO2.

  20. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Dielectric analysis of nanometre range size ceramic particles like TiO2 is very important in the understanding of the performance and design of their polymer nanocomposites for energy storage and other applications. In recent times, impedance spectroscopy is shown to be a very powerful tool to investigate the.

  1. Low temperature electroreflectance of TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, K.; Krusemeyer, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Franz-Keldysh type electroreflectance finestructure has been observed on single crystals of TiO2 between 3.0 and 3.7 eV at LNT. Critical points have been designated to two sets of oscillations which are dependent on the direction of polarization of the light and of the applied field.

  2. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa ...

  3. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline (PANI) as a promising conducting polymer has been used to prepare polyaniline/TiO2 (PANI/TiO2) nanocomposite with core-shell structure as photocatalyst. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with an average crystal size of 21 nm were encapsulated by PANI via the in situ polymerization of aniline on the ...

  4. Structure of a model TiO2 photocatalytic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, H.; Tocci, G.; Woolcot, T.; Torrelles, X.; Pang, C. L.; Humphrey, D. S.; Yim, C. M.; Grinter, D. C.; Cabailh, G.; Bikondoa, O.; Lindsay, R.; Zegenhagen, J.; Michaelides, A.; Thornton, G.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of water with TiO2 is crucial to many of its practical applications, including photocatalytic water splitting. Following the first demonstration of this phenomenon 40 years ago there have been numerous studies of the rutile single-crystal TiO2(110) interface with water. This has provided an atomic-level understanding of the water-TiO2 interaction. However, nearly all of the previous studies of water/TiO2 interfaces involve water in the vapour phase. Here, we explore the interfacial structure between liquid water and a rutile TiO2(110) surface pre-characterized at the atomic level. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction are used to determine the structure, which is comprised of an ordered array of hydroxyl molecules with molecular water in the second layer. Static and dynamic density functional theory calculations suggest that a possible mechanism for formation of the hydroxyl overlayer involves the mixed adsorption of O2 and H2O on a partially defected surface. The quantitative structural properties derived here provide a basis with which to explore the atomistic properties and hence mechanisms involved in TiO2 photocatalysis.

  5. Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly porous dye sensitized TiO2 thin film solar cells have been prepared by the sol gel process. Sensitization was achieved by use of anthocyanin pigment extracted from delphinidin purple and cyanidin 3-5 diglucose (C35D). Sensitization was also studied on ruthenium complex RuL* sensitization dye. Dye sensitized ...

  6. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    high photocatalytic activity, relatively low cost and nontoxi- city, is one of the most important photoactive reagents which are widely used for degradation of air and water organic po- llutants (Dey et al 2004; Wang et al 2010). TiO2 acts as a photocatalyst in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) by generation of reactive OH.

  7. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  8. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO2-SnS2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO2-SnS2/H2O2, for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO2-SnS2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO2-SnS2/H2O2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO2-SnS2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO2-SnS2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS2 into non-active SnO2. Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO2-SnS2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  9. Synthesis of Nano-Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped TiO2/Ti Electrode for Photoelectrocatalytic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmawati; Watoni, A. H.; Wibowo, D.; Maulidiyah; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped on Ti and TiO2/Ti electrodes were successfully prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of FeTiO3 are characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, and SEM. The FeTiO3 and TiO2 greatly affect the photoelectrocatalysis performance characterized by Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The characterization result shows a band gap of FeTiO3 is 2.94 eV. XRD data showed that FeTiO3 formed at 2θ were 35.1° (110), 49.9° (024), and 61.2° (214). The morphology of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti using SEM shows that the formation of FeTiO3 thin layer signifies the Liquid Phase Deposition method effectively in the coating process. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) test showed that FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrode was highly oxidation responsive under visible light compared to the FeTiO3/Ti electrodes i.e. 7.87×10‑4 A and 9.87×10‑5 A. Degradation test of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrodes on titan yellow showed that the percentages of degradation with photoelectrocatalysis at 0.5 mg/L were 41% and 43%, respectively.

  10. Remarkable Anti-Fouling Performance of TiO2-Modified TFC Membranes with Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that a versatile bio-glue, polydopamine, can firmly bind TiO2 (titanium dioxide nanoparticles on thin film composite (TFC membranes. In this work, the anti-fouling behaviour of this novel polydopamine-TiO2-modified membrane is evaluated, based on the static bovine serum albumin (BSA surface adhesion of the membranes and the relative flux decline. The results show that the anti-fouling performance of this new membrane is significantly improved in dark conditions when compared with the neat TFC membrane and the membranes only modified by polydopamine or TiO2. When filtrating a 0.5 g·L−1 BSA solution in dark conditions, the flux of the polydopamine-TiO2-modified membrane remains constant, at 95% of its pure water flux after 30 min filtration for 8 h of the experiment. This indicates a significant increase in anti-fouling performance when compared to the 25% flux decline observed for the neat TFC membrane, and to the 15% flux decline of those only modified by polydopamine or TiO2. This remarkable anti-fouling behaviour is attributed to an improved and uniform hydrophilicity, due to the presence of TiO2 and to the regular nanosized papillae structure of the polydopamine-TiO2 coating. Furthermore, since dopamine-modified TiO2 has visible light-induced photocatalytic properties, the membrane’s photocatalytic performance was also tested in light conditions. However an increase of flux and decrease of retention were observed after 24 h of continuous illumination, indicating that light may also affect the top layer of the membrane.

  11. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  12. Photodecolorisation of melanoidins in vinasse with illuminated TiO2-ZnO/activated carbon composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Benton O; Apollo, Seth O; Naidoo, Bobby E; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2017-06-07

    A hybrid photo-catalyst, TiO 2 -ZnO, was synthesized by immobilizing ZnO on commercial TiO 2 (aeroxide P25). Activated carbon (AC) was subsequently used to support the hybrid, thus forming a TiO 2 -ZnO/AC composite catalyst. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy integrated with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) investigations revealed successful catalyst synthesis. Optical properties of the hybrid determined from photoluminescence (PL) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed a restrained recombination of electron-hole pairs and reduced energy band gap due to a successful heterojunction formation. The prepared catalysts were used to photodecolorise vinasse in a 12-W UVC batch photoreactor. TiO 2 -ZnO had improved photocatalytic activity compared with TiO 2 and ZnO separately. On supporting the hybrid onto AC, both adsorption and photocatalytic activities were further enhanced with improved overall color removal of 86% from 68%. Photodecolorisation followed the pseudo-first-order reaction model with the rate constant ([Formula: see text]) observed decreasing from 0.0701 to 0.0436 min -1 on increasing the initial concentration from 5,000 to 14,000 ppm. The UV process was found to be 33-fold less energy intensive for color reduction as compared to total organic carbon (TOC) reduction. Formation of nitrates during the photodecolorisation process was attributed to the mineralization of nitrogen heteroatoms in the color-causing melanoidin compounds.

  13. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  14. Synthesis of Co3O4/Ag/TiO2 nanotubes arrays via photo-deposition of Ag and modification of Co3O4 (311) for enhancement of visible-light photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nie, Jutao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Qi; Cong, Yanqing

    2018-01-01

    A composite Co3O4/Ag/TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) electrode, that subsequently photo-reduction of Ag and thermal decomposition of Co3O4 nanoparticles onto electrochemical anodized TiO2-NTs, was synthesized for enhancement of visible light photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. The visible light response of Co3O4/Ag/TiO2-NTs with highest photocurrent of 0.54 mA/cm2 was obtained under calcination temperature of 400 °C for Co3O4 (311) crystal formation. The Co3O4/Ag/TiO2-NTs electrode provided a remarkable photoconversion efficiency of 0.18% at an on-set potential of 0.44 V which was twice than that of Co3O4/TiO2-NTs electrode (0.06%). The synergetic effect for degradation of nitrobenzene (NB) and reduction of Cr(VI) was studied to analyze the possible mechanism of Co3O4/Ag/TiO2-NTs. It was proposed that Ag nanoparticle acted as bridge transferred the photo-induced electrons from Co3O4 to TiO2-NTs and then largely facilitated the electron-holes separation to enhance the PEC activity.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feleke Zewge

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes, photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by using methyl orange (an azo dye as a model compound. The TiO2 thin film and TiO2/Cu2O composite electrodes were used as semiconductor photo electrodes. Photo catalysis by UV light corresponding to the light intensity range of the solar light was employed with the aim of using renewable and pollution-free energy. Result showed that the rate of removal of color was enhanced when potential bias of 1.5 V was applied. The degradation rate was also increased either in acidic (pH 2 or alkaline (pH 10 conditions. The application of a positive potential higher than the flat-band potential on the TiO2 electrode decreases the rapid charge recombination process, and enhanced the degradation of organic compound. When the TiO2/Cu2O thin film electrode was used, more efficient electron and hole separation was observed in the composite system under very low potential. It is considered that the photo-generated holes migrate towards the interface while the electrons migrate towards TiO2 and then to the back contact transparent fluorine doped tin-oxide-coated glass (TCO, making the behavior of the composite film analogous to that of an n-type semiconductor. In all cases, the kinetics of the photo catalytic oxidation of methyl orange followed a pseudo first order model and the apparent rate constant may depend on several factors such as, the nature and concentration of the organic compound, radiant flux, the solution pH and the presence of other organic substances.

  16. Fate of pristine TiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles in lettuce crop after foliar exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Trcera, Nicolas; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Cécillon, Lauric; Ouerdane, Laurent; Legros, Samuel; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-05-30

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are present in a large variety of consumer products, and are produced in largest amount. The building industry is a major sector using TiO2-NPs, especially in paints. The fate of NPs after their release in the environment is still largely unknown, and their possible transfer in plants and subsequent impacts have not been studied in detail. The foliar transfer pathway is even less understood than the root pathway. In this study, lettuces were exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs and aged paint leachate containing TiO2-NPs and microparticles (TiO2-MPs). Internalization and in situ speciation of Ti were investigated by a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Not only TiO2-NPs pristine and from aged paints, but also TiO2-MPs were internalized in lettuce leaves, and observed in all types of tissues. No change in speciation was noticed, but an organic coating of TiO2-NPs is likely. Phytotoxicity markers were tested for plants exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs. No acute phytotoxicity was observed; variations were only observed in glutathione and phytochelatin levels but remained low as compared to typical values. These results obtained on the foliar uptake mechanisms of nano- and microparticles are important in the perspective of risk assessment of atmospheric contaminations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of multilayered photoanodes by introducing mesoporous carbon and TiO2 for humic acid adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Soraya; Jahangirian, Hossein; Webster, Thomas J; Soltani, Salman Masoudi; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured photoanodes were prepared via a novel combination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and mesoporous carbon (C). Four different photoanodes were synthesized by sol–gel spin coating onto a glassy substrate of fluorine-doped tin oxide. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, TiO2/C/TiO2, TiO2/C/C/TiO2, and TiO2/C/TiO2/C/TiO2 photoanodes were evaluated by exposing the synthesized photoanodes to UV–visible light. The photocurrent density observed in these photoanodes confirmed that an additional layer of mesoporous carbon could successfully increase the photocurrent density. The highest photocurrent density of ~1.022 mA cm−2 at 1 V/saturated calomel electrode was achieved with TiO2/C/C/TiO2 under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm−2 from a solar simulator. The highest value of surface roughness was measured for a TiO2/C/C/TiO2 combination owing to the presence of two continuous layers of mesoporous carbon. The resulting films had a thickness ranging from 1.605 µm to 5.165 µm after the calcination process. The presence of double-layer mesoporous carbon resulted in a 20% increase in the photocurrent density compared with the TiO2/C/TiO2 combination when only a single mesoporous carbon layer was employed. The improved performance of these photoanodes can be attributed to the enhanced porosity and increased void space due to the presence of mesoporous carbon. For the first time, it has been demonstrated here that the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 can be improved by integrating several layers of mesoporous carbon. Comparison of the rate of removal of humic acid by the prepared photoanodes showed that the highest performance from TiO2/C/C/TiO2 was due to the highest photocurrent density generated. Therefore, this study showed that optimizing the sequence of mesoporous carbon layers can be a viable and inexpensive method for enhanced humic acid removal. PMID:27574426

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of multilayered photoanodes by introducing mesoporous carbon and TiO2 for humic acid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Soraya; Jahangirian, Hossein; Webster, Thomas J; Soltani, Salman Masoudi; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured photoanodes were prepared via a novel combination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and mesoporous carbon (C). Four different photoanodes were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating onto a glassy substrate of fluorine-doped tin oxide. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, TiO2/C/TiO2, TiO2/C/C/TiO2, and TiO2/C/TiO2/C/TiO2 photoanodes were evaluated by exposing the synthesized photoanodes to UV-visible light. The photocurrent density observed in these photoanodes confirmed that an additional layer of mesoporous carbon could successfully increase the photocurrent density. The highest photocurrent density of ~1.022 mA cm(-2) at 1 V/saturated calomel electrode was achieved with TiO2/C/C/TiO2 under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) from a solar simulator. The highest value of surface roughness was measured for a TiO2/C/C/TiO2 combination owing to the presence of two continuous layers of mesoporous carbon. The resulting films had a thickness ranging from 1.605 µm to 5.165 µm after the calcination process. The presence of double-layer mesoporous carbon resulted in a 20% increase in the photocurrent density compared with the TiO2/C/TiO2 combination when only a single mesoporous carbon layer was employed. The improved performance of these photoanodes can be attributed to the enhanced porosity and increased void space due to the presence of mesoporous carbon. For the first time, it has been demonstrated here that the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 can be improved by integrating several layers of mesoporous carbon. Comparison of the rate of removal of humic acid by the prepared photoanodes showed that the highest performance from TiO2/C/C/TiO2 was due to the highest photocurrent density generated. Therefore, this study showed that optimizing the sequence of mesoporous carbon layers can be a viable and inexpensive method for enhanced humic acid removal.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic water-splitting performance using Fe-doped hierarchical TiO2 ball-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Tong; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin; Chen, Changxin

    2018-01-01

    The photocatalytic water-splitting behavior of hierarchically structured TiO2 ball-flowers with different Fe ion contents was studied, in order to elucidate the effects of Fe doping on their water-splitting performance. It was found that with the increase of Fe doping content, the hydrogen evolution rate increased initially and then decreased. The highest hydrogen evolution of 697 μmol g‑1 is observed for 2Fe/TiO2, after 4 h of light irradiation, which was five times greater than that in the case of pure TiO2 who has 140 μmol g‑1 hydrogen evolution after 4 h of light irradiation. This improvement in the water-splitting efficiency owing to optimized Fe doping could be attributed to an enhancement in the visible-light absorption characteristics and an increase in the number of oxygen vacancies, which act as the reaction sites for water splitting.

  20. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.