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Sample records for visibility matching tone

  1. PAPR reduction based on tone reservation scheme for DCO-OFDM indoor visible light communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jurong; Li, Yong; Yi, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Du, Huimin

    2017-10-02

    High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) leads to out-of-band power and in-band distortion in the direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) systems. In order to effectively reduce the PAPR with faster convergence and lower complexity, this paper proposes a tone reservation based scheme, which is the combination of the signal-to-clipping noise ratio (SCR) procedure and the least squares approximation (LSA) procedure. In the proposed scheme, the transmitter of the DCO-OFDM indoor visible light communication (VLC) system is designed to transform the PAPR reduced signal into real-valued positive OFDM signal without doubling the transmission bandwidth. Moreover, the communication distance and the light emitting diode (LED) irradiance angle are taking into consideration in the evaluation of the system bit error rate (BER). The PAPR reduction efficiency of the proposed scheme is remarkable for DCO-OFDM indoor VLC systems.

  2. Egg colour matching in an African cuckoo, as revealed by ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M I; Bennett, A T

    2001-01-01

    Despite major differences between human and avian colour vision, previous studies of cuckoo egg mimicry have used human colour vision (or standards based thereon) to assess colour matching. Using ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry (300-700 nm), we measured museum collections of eggs of the red-chested cuckoo and its hosts. The first three principal components explained more than 99% of the variance in spectra, and measures of cuckoo host egg similarity derived from these transformations were compared with measures of cuckoo host egg similarity estimated by human observers unaware of the hypotheses we were testing. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate laying of cuckoo eggs at random in nests. Results showed that host and cuckoo eggs were very highly matched for an ultraviolet versus greenness component, which was not detected by humans. Furthermore, whereas cuckoo and host were dissimilar in achromatic brightness, humans did not detect this difference. Our study thus reveals aspects of cuckoo-host egg colour matching which have hitherto not been described. These results suggest subtleties and complexities in the evolution of host-cuckoo egg mimicry that were not previously suspected. Our results also have the potential to explain the longstanding paradox that some host species accept cuckoo eggs that are non-mimetic to the human eye. PMID:11297172

  3. Reverse Engineering Tone-Deafness: Disrupting Pitch-Matching by Creating Temporary Dysfunctions in the Auditory-Motor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hohmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving and producing vocal sounds are important functions of the auditory-motor system and are fundamental to communication. Prior studies have identified a network of brain regions involved in pitch production, specifically pitch matching. Here we reverse engineer the function of the auditory perception-production network by targeting specific cortical regions (e.g., right and left posterior superior temporal (pSTG and posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG with cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS—commonly found to decrease excitability in the underlying cortical region—allowing us to causally test the role of particular nodes in this network. Performance on a pitch-matching task was determined before and after 20 min of cathodal stimulation. Acoustic analyses of pitch productions showed impaired accuracy after cathodal stimulation to the left pIFG and the right pSTG in comparison to sham stimulation. Both regions share particular roles in the feedback and feedforward motor control of pitched vocal production with a differential hemispheric dominance.

  4. Visible quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation by electric-field-poled lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.; Batchko, Robert G.; Fejer, Martin M.; Byer, Robert L.

    1996-05-01

    Laser-based displays and illumination systems are applications which can capitalize on the brightness and efficiency of semiconductor lasers, provided that there is a means for converting their output into the visible spectrum. Semiconductor laser manufacturers can adjust their processes to achieve desired wavelengths in several near-infrared bands; an equally agile conversion technology is needed to permit display and illumination system manufacturers to choose visible wavelengths appropriate to their products. Quasi- phasematched second harmonic generation has the potential to convert high-power semiconductor laser output to the visible with 50% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency in a single-pass bulk configuration, using electric-field-poled lithium niobate. Lithographically- defined electrode structures on the positive or negative polar faces of this crystal are used to control the formation of domains under the influence of electric fields applied using those electrode structures. The quality of the resulting domain patterns not only controls the efficiency of quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation, but also controls the degree of resistance to photorefractive damage. We present a model which is used to identify the optimum electrode duty cycle and applied poling field for domain patterning and compare the predicted domain duty cycle with experimental results. We discuss factors which contribute to inhomogeneous domain pattern quality for samples poled under otherwise ideal conditions and our progress in limiting their influence. Finally, we present optical characterization of a 2.4 mm long 500 micrometers thick sample which produced an average second harmonic power of 1.3 W of 532 nm green from a 9 W average power Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in a loose- focus single-pass configuration.

  5. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  6. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone and a....... The last part of the article comprises a discussion of existing structured language stimulation program's potentials for challenging the professional adults' practice and the demonstrated differentiation and segregation processes. (Contains 13 footnotes.)...

  7. Using online tone generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Online tone generators are free, user friendly, and can make for engaging and meaningful study of many topics in the areas of interference, waves, and the physics of music. By using a website such as OnlineToneGenerator.com, and through opening multiple windows simultaneously, students can immediately perform several experiments. In this article, I highlight five lesson ideas that come naturally from these types of websites.

  8. Perceived Pitch of Violin and Cello Vibrato Tones among Music Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…

  9. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  10. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2004-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  11. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  12. Contrastive tone in Kalam Kohistani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan L.G. Baart

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that tonal phenomena occur in quite a few Indo-Aryan languages in the northwestern corner of the South-Asian subcontinent. This paper presents a study of the tone system of one of these languages, Kalam Kohistani. After establishing that Kalam Kohistani has five contrastive surface tones—a high tone, a low tone, a rising tone, and two types of falling tone—I propose an analysis of these tones in terms of Autosegmental Phonology. Furthermore, some observations are made on the relation between aspiration and tone, and on the functional load of tone in Kalam Kohistani. Its relatively rich inventory of tones makes Kalam Kohistani, along with two of its close neighbors, stand out as unique among the Indo-Aryan languages.

  13. Prosodic Transfer: From Chinese Lexical tone to English Pitch Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ploquin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables.  As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar.  The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese tone whose phonetic contour most closely matches the contour of the intended English pitch accent.  Six native speakers of Chinese recorded English and Chinese sentences, all including the segment [fan].  Results show that the subjects produced a Chinese tone 2 where a rising pitch accents was required and thus that speakers of Chinese rely on their lexical tones inventory to produce English prosody. The results obtained with falling pitch accents are much less conclusive partly because of the difficulty in measuring tone 3 due to the high level of creak that accompanies it.

  14. Change of tone

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  15. Tone deafness: a new disconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Alsop, David; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-08-19

    Communicating with one's environment requires efficient neural interaction between action and perception. Neural substrates of sound perception and production are connected by the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Although AF is known to be involved in language, its roles in non-linguistic functions are unexplored. Here, we show that tone-deaf people, with impaired sound perception and production, have reduced AF connectivity. Diffusion tensor tractography and psychophysics were assessed in tone-deaf individuals and matched controls. Abnormally reduced AF connectivity was observed in the tone deaf. Furthermore, we observed relationships between AF and auditory-motor behavior: superior and inferior AF branches predict psychophysically assessed pitch discrimination and sound production perception abilities, respectively. This neural abnormality suggests that tone deafness leads to a reduction in connectivity resulting in pitch-related impairments. Results support a dual-stream anatomy of sound production and perception implicated in vocal communications. By identifying white matter differences and their psychophysical correlates, results contribute to our understanding of how neural connectivity subserves behavior.

  16. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  17. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  18. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac vagal tone, a non-invasive measure of parasympathetic tone, is a clinically relevant tool in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Jessen, N. C.; Brock, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    in people with Type 1 diabetes than in a matched healthy cohort and lower still in people with established neuropathy. METHODS: Cardiac vagal tone is a validated cardiometrically derived index of parasympathetic tone. It is measured using a standard three-lead electrocardiogram which connects, via Bluetooth......, to a smartphone application. A 5-min resting recording of cardiac vagal tone was undertaken and observational comparisons were made between 42 people with Type 1 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy and 23 without peripheral neuropathy and 65 healthy people. In those with neuropathy, 24-h heart rate variability...... values were compared with cardiac vagal tone. Correlations between cardiac vagal tone and clinical variables were also made. RESULTS: Cardiac vagal tone was lower in people with established neuropathy and Type 1 diabetes in comparison with healthy participants [median (interquartile range) linear vagal...

  20. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that

  1. Loudness of brief tones in listeners with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level. Loudness functions derived from these data indicated that the gain required to restore loudness usually is the same for short and long sounds....

  2. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  3. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  4. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  5. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  6. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...... the envelope rate fenv), or whether (C) no salient pitch is evoked (random matches). Six musically-trained normal-hearing subjects matched the fundamental pitch of a broadband pulse train to that of transposed tones with carrier frequencies fc = [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] kHz and envelope rates fenv = [fc/11.5, fc/14...

  7. The Role of Tone Height, Melodic Contour, and Tone Chroma in Melody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among tone height, melodic contour, tone chroma, and recognition of recently learned melodies were investigated. Results replicated previous studies using familiar folk songs, providing evidence that melodic contour, tone chroma, and tone height contribute to recognition of both highly familiar and recently learned melodies.…

  8. Root Tone: A Holistic Approach to Tone Pedagogy of Western Classical Flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    BastaniNezhad, Arya

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how key components of holistic tone production can help flutists form a resonant tone. This is framed in an exploration of tone pedagogy and includes a model of tone evaluation and education. This research is also applicable to other instrumentalists, especially wind players. In this case study information was collected by…

  9. Tone-deafness – a new disconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Alsop, David; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Communicating with one’s environment requires efficient neural interaction between action and perception. Neural substrates ofsound perception and production are connected by the arcuate fasciculus (AF). While AF is known to be involved in language, its roles in non-linguistic functions are unexplored. Here we show that tone-deaf people, with impaired sound perception and production, have reduced AF connectivity. Diffusion tensor tractography and psychophysics were assessed in tone-deaf individuals and matched controls. Abnormally-reduced AF connectivity was observed in the tone-deaf. Furthermore, we observed relationships between AF and auditory-motor behavior: superior and inferior AF branches predict psychophysically-assessed pitch-discrimination and sound production-perception abilities respectively. This neural abnormality suggests that tone-deafness leads to a reduction in connectivity resulting in pitch-related impairments. Results support a dual-stream anatomy of sound production and perception implicated in vocal communications. By identifying white-matter differences and their psychophysical correlates, results contribute to our understanding of how neural connectivity subserves behavior. PMID:19692596

  10. Loudness perception of low tones undergoing partial masking by higher tones in orchestral music in concert halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Noriko; Hidaka, Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    Objective acoustical parameters for halls are often measured in 1-octave bands with mid-frequencies from 125 to 4000 Hz. In reality, the frequency range of musical instruments is much wider than that, and the fundamentals of the lower notes of bass instruments are contained in 31.5 or 63 Hz bands. Overtones of fundamentals in these bands fall in 125 Hz band. This report presents subjective experiments designed to determine to what extent the overtones in 125 Hz band and higher bands influence the loudness sensation of the components in 63 Hz band. In the experiments, the 125 Hz and higher components of the musical tone are used to act as a masker against the lower component used as a maskee. The threshold of the difference between G(125 Hz) and G(lower band) that just enables one to hear the fundamental tones in the lower band is determined. Masked loudness of 63 Hz sinusoidal tone caused by partial masking noise with higher frequencies was determined based on a similar procedure to the masked loudness-matching function. The result indicates that the difference in loudness of low tone will not be noticeable even if G changed by ±2.5 to ±3 dB, at least when there are other accompanying instruments.

  11. Tone Recognition of Continuous Mandarin Speech Based on Tone Nucleus Model and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Hirose, Keikichi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Minematsu, Nobuaki

    A method was developed for automatic recognition of syllable tone types in continuous speech of Mandarin by integrating two techniques, tone nucleus modeling and neural network classifier. The tone nucleus modeling considers a syllable F0 contour as consisting of three parts: onset course, tone nucleus, and offset course. Two courses are transitions from/to neighboring syllable F0 contours, while the tone nucleus is intrinsic part of the F0 contour. By viewing only the tone nucleus, acoustic features less affected by neighboring syllables are obtained. When using the tone nucleus modeling, automatic detection of tone nucleus comes crucial. An improvement was added to the original detection method. Distinctive acoustic features for tone types are not limited to F0 contours. Other prosodic features, such as waveform power and syllable duration, are also useful for tone recognition. Their heterogeneous features are rather difficult to be handled simultaneously in hidden Markov models (HMM), but are easy in neural networks. We adopted multi-layer perception (MLP) as a neural network. Tone recognition experiments were conducted for speaker dependent and independent cases. In order to show the effect of integration, experiments were conducted also for two baselines: HMM classifier with tone nucleus modeling, and MLP classifier viewing entire syllable instead of tone nucleus. The integrated method showed 87.1% of tone recognition rate in speaker dependent case, and 80.9% in speaker independent case, which was about 10% relative error reduction as compared to the baselines.

  12. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2009-01-01

    This book surveys matching theory, with an emphasis on connections with other areas of mathematics and on the role matching theory has played, and continues to play, in the development of some of these areas. Besides basic results on the existence of matchings and on the matching structure of graphs, the impact of matching theory is discussed by providing crucial special cases and nontrivial examples on matroid theory, algorithms, and polyhedral combinatorics. The new Appendix outlines how the theory and applications of matching theory have continued to develop since the book was first publish

  13. Does Central Bank Tone Move Asset Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeling, Maik; Wagner, Christian

    We explore whether the tone of central bank communication matters for asset prices. Using press conference statements by the ECB, which was the first central bank to establish live press conferences after meetings of its Governing Council, we find that tone changes have a statistically...... the next press conference. Moreover, we find that positive tone changes are associated with increasing government bond yields, lower implied equity volatility, lower variance risk premia, and lower corporate credit spreads. Since we also show that tone changes are unrelated to current and future economic...... fundamentals, these results support the conjecture that central bank tone matters for asset prices through a risk-based channel. Our main findings also apply to U.S. markets, where stock prices and Treasury yields increase when the Fed chair’s tone in the Congressional Testimony becomes more positive....

  14. Visibility Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Research production, which earns universities money, is accredited publications in peer-reviewed journals and books. Increasing research productivity is one policy amongst many used by management to boost growth and income. It is time for a pat on the back, the growth of knowledge and visibility...

  15. Tone as a health concept: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Donald; Emmanuel, Elizabeth; Grace, Sandra; Chaseling, Marilyn

    2017-11-01

    Concept analysis. This paper is a report on the analysis of the concept of tone in chiropractic. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of tone as originally understood by Daniel David Palmer from 1895 to 1914 and to monitor its evolution over time. Data was sourced from Palmer's original work, published between 1895 and 1914. A literature search from 1980 to 2016 was also performed on the online databases CINHAL, PubMed and Scopus with key terms including 'tone', 'chiropractic', 'Palmer', 'vitalism', 'health', 'homeostasis', 'holism' and 'wellness'. Finally hand-searches were conducted through chiropractic books and professional literature from 1906 to 1980 for any references to 'tone'. Rodgers' evolutionary method of analysis was used to categorise the data in relation to the surrogates, attributes, references, antecedents and consequences of tone. A total of 49 references were found: five from publications by Palmer; three from the database searches, and; the remaining 41 from professional books, trade journals and websites. There is no clear interpretation of tone in the contemporary chiropractic literature. Tone is closely aligned with functional neurology and can be understood as an interface between the metaphysical and the biomedical. Using the concept of tone as a foundation for practice could strengthen the identity of the chiropractic profession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TONE IN MALAWIAN TONGA VERBS1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most. of the studies on Bantu tonology have shown that the languages which belong to this family have two level tones namely, high and low and that in the majority of cases, particulary in verbs, there is no underlying or lexical contrast between these two tones. Root forms in such languages are either high or low.

  17. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2017-08-30

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  18. CONSTRUCTION SENSITIVITY IN PINGYAO TONE SANDHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-shan Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates tone sandhi phenomena in Pingyao, a Jin dialect spoken in Shanxi province in China. Pingyao tone sandhi is special in that tone sandhi in bi-syllabic strings is construction sensitive, but tone sandhi in tri-syllabic strings is not fully conditioned by construction types. Based on Optimality Theory (OT, this paper proposes analyses for bi-tonal and tri-tonal sandhi in Pingyao. We show that while bi-tonal sandhi can be accounted for by assuming that there are different grammars associated with different construction types, the lack of construction sensitivity in certain tri-syllabic strings suggests that the association between construction types and phonological grammars can be sacrificed to comply with a higher demand. In Pingyao, the higher demand is to avoid having a tri-tonal string with marked tone sandhi domain from being associated with conflicting grammars.

  19. Comparison of distortion product otoacoustic emissions and pure tone audiometry in occupational screening for auditory deficit due to noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooles, N; Mulheran, M; Bray, P; Brewster, M; Banerjee, A R

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether distortion product otoacoustic emissions can serve as a replacement for pure tone audiometry in longitudinal screening for occupational noise exposure related auditory deficit. A retrospective review was conducted of pure tone audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission data obtained sequentially during mandatory screening of brickyard workers (n = 16). Individual pure tone audiometry thresholds were compared with distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes, and a correlation of these measurements was conducted. Pure tone audiometry threshold elevation was identified in 13 out of 16 workers. When distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes were compared with pure tone audiometry thresholds at matched frequencies, no evidence of a robust relationship was apparent. Seven out of 16 workers had substantial distortion product otoacoustic emissions with elevated pure tone audiometry thresholds. No clinically relevant predictive relationship between distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude and pure tone audiometry threshold was apparent. These results do not support the replacement of pure tone audiometry with distortion product otoacoustic emissions in screening. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions at frequencies associated with elevated pure tone audiometry thresholds are evidence of intact outer hair cell function, suggesting that sites distinct from these contribute to auditory deficit following ototrauma.

  20. What Can Lexical Tone Training Studies in Adults Tell Us about Tone Processing in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies on the acquisition of lexical tone by adult learners have revealed that factors such as language background, musical experience, cognitive abilities, and neuroanatomy all play a role in determining tone learning success. On the basis of these findings, it has been argued that the effectiveness of tone learning in adulthood depends on individual differences in these factors. However, it is not clear whether similar individual differences play an analogous role in tone learning in childhood. Indeed, relatively few studies have made comparisons between how adults and children learn lexical tones. Here, we review recent developments for tone learning in both adults and children. The review covers tone training in a range of contexts, including in naive listeners, in native speakers of other tone languages, in listeners with varying levels of musical experience, and in individuals with speech and hearing disorders. Finally, we discuss the parallels between adult and child tone learning, and provide recommendations concerning how findings in adult tone training can provide insights into tone learning for children by accommodating the needs of individual learners.

  1. Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type

  2. Constraints on Tone Sensitivity in Novel Word Learning by Monolingual and Bilingual Infants: Tone Properties Are More Influential than Tone Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Singh, Leher; Mattock, Karen; Woo, Pei J.; Kalashnikova, Marina

    2018-01-01

    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation. PMID:29354077

  3. Perception of tones by infants learning a non-tone language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124; Liu, Liquan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perception of tones by non-tone-language-learning (non-tonelearning) infants between 5 and 18 months in a study that reveals infants’ initial sensitivity to tonal contrasts, deterioration yet plasticity of tonal sensitivity at the end of the first year, and a perceptual

  4. Complex mismatch negativity to tone pair deviants in long-term schizophrenia and in the first-episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential to stimulus change. MMN to infrequent deviant tones that differs in a simple physical parameter from repetitive standard tones is reduced in patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz; d=~1). However, this simple MMN is not uniformly reduced at the first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (FESz; d<0.1 for pitch; <0.4 for duration). Deviant stimuli that violate pattern rules also evoke MMN. This complex MMN is evoked by deviations in the relation of sounds to each other. The simplest pattern involves tone pairs. Although the pitch of first tone in the pair varies, the second tone's pitch always follows a rule (e.g., always 3 semitones higher). We measured complex MMN to deviant tone pairs that descended in pitch among standard tone pairs that ascended in pitch, never before examined in Sz or in FESz. Experiment 1 showed significant reductions in complex MMN in 20 Sz compared to 22 matched controls. Experiment 2 replicated smaller complex MMN in a shorter protocol in 24 Sz compared to 21 matched controls, but showed no significant complex MMN reduction in 21 FESz compared to 21 matched controls. Although reduced in Sz, indicating deficits in generation of a simple acoustic pattern rule, the tone pair complex MMN was within normal limits in FESz. This suggests that more complex perceptual pattern analysis processes are, at least partially, still intact at the first break. Future work will determine at what point of pattern complexity subtle auditory perception pathophysiology will be revealed in FESz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A tone mapping operator based on neural and psychophysical models of visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Praveen; Bertalmio, Marcelo; Kane, David; Vazquez-Corral, Javier

    2015-03-01

    High dynamic range imaging techniques involve capturing and storing real world radiance values that span many orders of magnitude. However, common display devices can usually reproduce intensity ranges only up to two to three orders of magnitude. Therefore, in order to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range screen, the dynamic range of the image needs to be compressed without losing details or introducing artefacts, and this process is called tone mapping. A good tone mapping operator must be able to produce a low dynamic range image that matches as much as possible the perception of the real world scene. We propose a two stage tone mapping approach, in which the first stage is a global method for range compression based on a gamma curve that equalizes the lightness histogram the best, and the second stage performs local contrast enhancement and color induction using neural activity models for the visual cortex.

  6. Jets instabilities producing the slot-tone

    OpenAIRE

    Billon, Alexis; Valeau, Vincent; Sakout, Anas

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the instability governing the self-sustained tones produced by a low Mach number free plane jet impinging on a slotted plate, known as slot-tone, is identified experimentally. The experimental apparatus permits to control the Reynolds number and the distance from the jet outlet to the plate. For a Reynolds number, the shear-layer natural frequency and the jet column mode frequency of the free jet without the obstacle are estimated and compared to the minimal and maximal frequenc...

  7. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  8. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production—A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M.; Cheung, Eunice Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers. PMID:28900404

  9. Memory and hedonic tone: 'personality' or 'mood' congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    desRosiers, G; Robinson, D

    1992-02-01

    Four groups of healthy women matched for age and IQ were reliably classified on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire as being either high or low in extraversion or neuroticism. As part of a larger research project, each participant was administered a range of psychometric measures together with three paired-associate learning lists varying in hedonic tone and difficulty levels together with the Beck Depression Inventory. Performance on the hedonic lists covaried with personality categories but, unlike what typically obtains in clinical patients, less association emerged between performance and mood states. Performance was particularly polarized in women scoring high in neuroticism but low in extraversion. Speculations about the apparent correlates of so-called mood congruence in healthy subjects are put forward and parallels are drawn with studies reporting the phenomenon in clinically depressed patients.

  10. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... have also been widely used as preservatives in hand and body creams and lotions; hair shampoos, hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair colour- ing, and other preparations. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 1, April 2008. 88. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams. Voegborlo et al ...

  11. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  12. Influences on tone in Sepedi, a Southern Bantu language

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zerbian, S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tone in Bantu languages is rarely studied experimentally. This paper reports a production study which reveals the intricate interaction of tonal context and morphological structure in surface tone realization in Sepedi, a South African Bantu...

  13. Pitch Ability as an Aptitude for Tone Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Anita R.; Chang, Charles B.; Karuzis, Valerie P.

    2016-01-01

    Tone languages such as Mandarin use voice pitch to signal lexical contrasts, presenting a challenge for second/foreign language (L2) learners whose native languages do not use pitch in this manner. The present study examined components of an aptitude for mastering L2 lexical tone. Native English speakers with no previous tone language experience…

  14. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  15. Cumulative effects in Xitsonga: High-tone spreading and depressor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressor consonants in Xitsonga block high-tone spreading. These voiced obstruents and breathy voice consonants do phonetically lower pitch, but phonological blocking of H-tone spreading is not common. This paper reports new findings in which depressors allow H tone to spread into toneless words in Xitsonga, ...

  16. Evaluation of a prototype 6 tone modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, R. C.

    1989-08-01

    A prototype 6 tone Multi-Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) modem intended for tactical data transmissions in the HF band is evaluated. The main testing consisted of extensive trials using the Cobbett Hill HF Channel Simulator. Some limited live ratio trials between Bodo, northern Norway, and Cobbett Hill, southern England, are included. The modem performed satisfactorily during the evaluation period and returned good availability figures, both on the simulator, and during the radio trials.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Aeolian Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-15

    simulation results of aeolian tones generated by a two-dimensional obstacle (circular cylinder, square cylinder, NACA0012 airfoil) in a uniform flow are...Square cylinder. M = 0.2, Re = 150. Fig. 3. Fluctuation pressure superimposed on vorticity. NACA0012 . M...0.2, Re = 300. 864 Osamu Inoue A typical example of computational results for the case of an NACA0012 airfoil is presented in Fig. 3

  18. Effects of increasing time delays on pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estis, Julie M; Coblentz, Joana K; Moore, Robert E

    2009-07-01

    Trained singers (TS) generally demonstrate accurate pitch matching, but this ability varies within the general population. Pitch-matching accuracy, given increasing silence intervals of 5, 15, and 25 seconds between target tones and vocal matches, was investigated in TS and untrained individuals. A relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was also examined. Thirty-two females (20-30 years) were grouped based on individual vocal training and performance in an immediate pitch-matching task. Participants matched target pitches following time delays, and completed a pitch discrimination task, which required the classification of two tones as same or different. TS and untrained accurate participants performed comparably on all pitch-matching tasks, while untrained inaccurate participants performed significantly less accurately than the other two groups. Performances declined across groups as intervals of silence increased, suggesting degradation of pitch matching as pitch memory was taxed. A significant relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was revealed across participants.

  19. Word tones cueing morphosyntactic structure: Neuroanatomical substrates and activation time-course assessed by EEG and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Mannfolk, Peter; Shtyrov, Yury; Johansson, Mikael; van Westen, Danielle; Horne, Merle

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies distinguish between right hemisphere-dominant processing of prosodic/tonal information and left-hemispheric modulation of grammatical information as well as lexical tones. Swedish word accents offer a prime testing ground to better understand this division. Although similar to lexical tones, word accents are determined by words' morphosyntactic structure, which enables listeners to use the tone at the beginning of a word to predict its grammatical ending. We recorded electrophysiological and hemodynamic brain responses to words where stem tones matched or mismatched inflectional suffixes. Tones produced brain potential effects after 136 ms, correlating with subject variability in average BOLD in left primary auditory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Invalidly cued suffixes activated the left inferior parietal lobe, arguably reflecting increased processing cost of their meaning. Thus, interaction of word accent tones with grammatical morphology yielded a rapid neural response correlating in subject variability with activations in predominantly left-hemispheric brain areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Two-Tone Suppression and Combination Tone Generation as Computations Performed by the Hopf Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, R.; Kern, A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the compressive nonlinearity responsible for the extreme dynamic range of the mammalian cochlea is implemented in the form of Hopf amplifiers. Whereas Helmholtz's original concept of the cochlea was that of a frequency analyzer, Hopf amplifiers can be stimulated not only by one, but also by neighboring frequencies. To reduce the resulting computational overhead, the mammalian cochlea is aided by two-tone suppression. We show that the laws governing two-tone suppression and the generation of combination tones naturally emerge from the Hopf-cochlea concept. Thus the Hopf concept of the cochlea reproduces not only local properties like the correct frequency response, but additionally accounts for more complex hearing phenomena that may be related to auditory signal computation.

  2. SpicyTones- A food blog production

    OpenAIRE

    Pennanen, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is written to demonstrate the learning outcome of the author in creating a food blog project, named SpicyTones. The goals of the thesis are to create a successful food blog, to educate the society about Asian food and encourage them to cook at home. The objectives of the thesis are to obtain at least 50 followers, to keep the blog running for at least 3 months and to share out 12 themed recipes onto the blog. In this thesis, figures and tables are used in order to support the find...

  3. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  4. First Language Attrition: An Investigation of Taiwanese Tones and Tone Sandhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yufen

    2012-01-01

    First language (L1) attrition research focuses on syntactic and morphological deterioration in environments where L1 "attriters" rarely have contact with their L1, such as immigrants. There is no study that investigates L1 attrition in tones and in contexts where L1 can still be often heard. This study examines this attrition type in…

  5. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  6. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  7. Computer-Generated Holographic Matched Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Steven Frank

    This dissertation presents techniques for the use of computer-generated holograms (CGH) for matched filtering. An overview of the supporting technology is provided. Included are techniques for modifying existing CGH algorithms to serve as matched filters in an optical correlator. It shows that matched filters produced in this fashion can be modified to improve the signal-to-noise and efficiency over that possible with conventional holography. The effect and performance of these modifications are demonstrated. In addition, a correction of film non-linearity in continuous -tone filter production is developed. Computer simulations provide quantitative and qualitative demonstration of theoretical principles, with specific examples validated in optical hardware. Conventional and synthetic holograms, both bleached and unbleached, are compared.

  8. A guide to tones in Tswana locatives | Zerbian | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article gives a description of the tones occurring with locatives in Tswana. Assuming a background in the morphology and semantics in locative formation it states the tones of the locative suffix -ng and the locative morphemes gá-, gó-, fá, kwá (kố), and mố, and describes how the suffix and the prefixes influence the tone ...

  9. Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.

  10. Image quality improvement of multi-projection 3D display through tone mapping based optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Zhu, Yanhong; Xie, Songlin; Chen, Duo; Guo, Nan; Yu, Chongxiu

    2017-08-21

    An optical 3D screen usually shows a certain diffuse reflectivity or diffuse transmission, and the multi-projection 3D display suffers from decreased display local contrast due to the crosstalk of multi-projection contents. A tone mapping based optimizing method is innovatively proposed to suppress the crosstalk and improve the display contrast by minimizing the visible contrast distortions between the display light field and a targeted one with enhanced contrast. The contrast distortions are weighted according to the visibility predicted by the model of human visual system, and the distortions are minimized for the given multi-projection 3D display model that enforces constrains on the solution. Our proposed method can adjust parallax images or parallax video contents for the optimum 3D display image quality taking into account the display characteristics and ambient illumination. The validity of the method is evaluated and proved in experiments.

  11. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häusler Udo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence for a tight coupling of sensorimotor processes in trained musicians led to the question of whether this coupling extends to preattentively mediated reflexes; particularly, whether a classically conditioned response in one of the domains (auditory is generalized to another (tactile/motor on the basis of a prior association in a second-order Pavlovian paradigm. An eyeblink conditioning procedure was performed in 17 pianists, serving as a model for overlearned audiomotor integration, and 14 non-musicians. Results: During the training session, subjects were conditioned to respond to auditory stimuli (piano tones. During a subsequent testing session, when subjects performed keystrokes on a silent piano, pianists showed significantly higher blink rates than non-musicians. Conclusion These findings suggest a tight coupling of the auditory and motor domains in musicians, pointing towards training-dependent mechanisms of strong cross-modal sensorimotor associations even on sub-cognitive processing levels.

  12. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  13. Consonants, vowels and tones across Vietnamese dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhȦm, Ben; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-04-01

    Vietnamese is spoken by over 89 million people in Vietnam and it is one of the most commonly spoken languages other than English in the US, Canada and Australia. This study defines between one and nine different dialects of Vietnamese spoken in Vietnam. In Vietnamese schools, children learn Standard Vietnamese which is based on the northern dialect; however, if they live in other regions they may speak a different dialect at home. This paper describes the differences between the consonants, semivowels, vowels, diphthongs and tones for four dialects: Standard, northern, central and southern Vietnamese. The number and type of initial consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 23, northern = 20, central = 23, southern = 21). For example, the letter "r" is pronounced in the Standard and central dialects as the retroflex /ʐ/, northern dialect as the voiced alveolar fricative /z/ or the trilled /r/ and in the southern dialect as the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. Additionally, the letter "v" is pronounced in the Standard, northern and central dialects as the voiced bilabial fricative /v/, the southern dialect as the voiced palatal approximant /j/ and in the lower northern dialect (Ninh Binh) as the voiceless bilabial fricative /f/. Similarly, the number of final consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 10, central = 10, southern = 8). Finally, the number and type of tones differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 6, central = 5, southern = 5). Understanding differences between Vietnamese dialects is important so that speech-language pathologists and educators provide appropriate services to people who speak Vietnamese.

  14. Tone Kralj, Illustrator of Printed Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Bezić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition Art Deco in the Croatian Music Institute, which I prepared in 2011 and was staged in Zagreb, presented interesting material from the Institute’s library and archives (sheet music, books, concert programmes, and so on. The artistic focus was on works by 15 artists born in the late 19th century, mainly from Croatia. One exhibit was an exception, however since it comes from my own collection, the edition of Kadar jaz, dekle, umrla bom (When I, a girl, will die, a collection of folk songs arranged for a mixed choir by the Slovenian composer Breda Šček (1893–1968, published in Trieste in 1933. The cover illustration was made by Anton (Tone Kralj (1900–1975, the Slovenian painter, graphic artist and sculptor, who probably met the composer Šček at the beginning of the 1930s. In the period from 1932 to 1954, Kralj made illustrations for 27 scores by seven Slovenian composers: Lojze Bratuž, Ivan Laharnar, Silvester Orel, Stanko Premrl, Breda Šček, Matija Tomc and Vinko Vodopivec. These composers were linked not only by Kralj’s contributions to their scores, but also by their engagement in church music, and most were from the same region of Slovenia, Primorska. The research presented in this paper showed that Breda Šček was probably the key person for Kralj’s involvement in illustrating sheet music. In addition to the list of works published in the book Tone Kralj. Retrospective (ed. by I. Kranjc, Ljubljana 1998, this paper notes five newly discovered works, illustrations for musical scores written by Silvester Orel (4 and Breda Šček (1.

  15. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  16. Tone-matched enhanced TIFF sidescan-sonar image from Boulder Basin, Lake Mead - UTM projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  17. Tone-matched enhanced TIFF sidescan-sonar image from Overton Arm, Lake Mead - UTM projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  18. Tone-matched enhanced TIFF sidescan-sonar image from Virgin Basin, Lake Mead - UTM projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  19. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  20. Headed tone spans: Binarity and minimal overlap | Key | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a theoretical framework for tone that builds on the Headed Spans theory of assimilation. We propose that spans have two important properties, which we term binarity and minimal overlap. Cilungu (Bantu, Zambia) exhibits a process of binary H tone spreading onto the following mora, and then onto the following ...

  1. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range...

  2. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the French dictation exercise stands to benefit from using isolated vocabulary words in addition to narratives or passages that put text in context. The issue of tone context also raises the question of definition of phonetics and how it differs from phonology. Last but not least the paper argued that tone patterns ...

  3. Discrimination of lexical tones in the first year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341414034; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the developmental course of the perception of non-native tonal contrast. We tested 4, 6 and 12-month-old Dutch infants on their discrimination of Chinese low-rising tone and low-dipping tone using the visual fixation paradigm. The infants were tested in two

  4. Empirical measurements on a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the empirical assessments employed on two versions of a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm. This algorithm uses linguistically-defined Sesotho tonal rules to predict the tone labels on the syllables of Sesotho words. The two...

  5. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children's baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic…

  6. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number for...

  8. Tone sandhi, prosodic phrasing, and focus marking in Wenzhou Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In most languages, focus (i.e. highlighting information) is marked by modifying the melody of the sentence. But how is focus marked in a Chinese dialect with eight different citation tones and a complex tonal phonology? This thesis investigates the connection between tonal realization and tone

  9. Realisation of two adjacent high tones: Acoustic evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present findings of a multi-speaker production study that was undertaken to investigate the realisation of two adjacent high tones within the verb word in Northern Sotho, a Southern Bantu language. Experimental tokens are selected to ensure that the high tones originate from different combinations of morphosyntactic ...

  10. The Significance of the Level Tone in Ghanaian English: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brazil's (1985, 1997) discourse intonation model, the level tone is used by speakers to make choices that do not have any real communicative significance within the context of interaction. According to the model, a speaker assigns the level tone in ritualized, unplanned, preplanned, prerecorded, formulaic language, and ...

  11. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted ...

  12. The Significance of the Level Tone in Ghanaian English: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-29

    May 29, 2016 ... University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Abstract e intonation model, the level tone is used by speakers to make choices that do not have any real communicative significance within the context of interaction. According to the model, a speaker assigns the level tone in ritualized, unplanned, preplanned ...

  13. Brainstem electrical responses from selected tone pip stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M H; Seitz, M R; Jacobson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Brainstem-electrical responses were obtained from 10 normal hearing adult subjects using frequency specific tone pips as stimuli. The four frequency specific tone pips (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were diamond shaped with a 2.5-msec rise/fall time. Each tone pip was presented at four intensity levels (70, 50, 30, and 10 dB hearing threshold level), and graphic recordings were made for each frequency at the specific intensity levels. Frequency specific Wave V intensity-latency functions were plotted, and these results were compared to tone pip data obtained in previous studies. In addition, suggested test procedures for obtaining tone pip brainstem-evoked responses under diagnostic conditions are discussed.

  14. The quantification of levator muscle resting tone by digital assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, H P; Shek, K L

    2008-11-01

    The biomechanical properties of the puborectalis muscle are likely to be important for pelvic organ support. However, neither elasticity nor its clinical correlate, muscle resting tone, have received much attention to date. We therefore conducted a prospective study to test a newly developed resting tone scale for validity and reproducibility. Ninety-eight patients underwent a physical examination including prolapse staging and palpation of the levator ani. They were also assessed by 4D translabial ultrasound for levator hiatal dimensions and prolapse assessment. Resting tone was negatively associated with anterior and posterior compartment prolapse. An independent test-retest series yielded a weighted kappa of 0.55 (CI 0.44-0.66), implying "moderate" repeatability. Resting tone of the puborectalis muscle can be determined by digital palpation. It is moderately repeatable and associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Palpation of resting tone may be a useful new tool for assessing women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  15. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  16. Syllabic tone articulation influences the identification and use of words during Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from ERP and eye movement recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Yan, Ming; Yan, Shaorong; Zhou, Xiaolin; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2016-02-01

    In two experiments, we examined the contribution of articulation-specific features to visual word recognition during the reading of Chinese. In spoken Standard Chinese, a syllable with a full tone can be tone-neutralized through sound weakening and pitch contour change, and there are two types of two-character compound words with respect to their articulation variation. One type requires articulation of a full tone for each constituent character, and the other requires a full- and a neutral-tone articulation for the first and second characters, respectively. Words of these two types with identical first characters were selected and embedded in sentences. Native speakers of Standard Chinese were recruited to read the sentences. In Experiment 1, the individual words of a sentence were presented serially at a fixed pace while event-related potentials were recorded. This resulted in less-negative N100 and anterior N250 amplitudes and in more-negative N400 amplitudes when targets contained a neutral tone. Complete sentences were visible in Experiment 2, and eye movements were recorded while participants read. Analyses of oculomotor activity revealed shorter viewing durations and fewer refixations on-and fewer regressive saccades to-target words when their second syllable was articulated with a neutral rather than a full tone. Together, the results indicate that readers represent articulation-specific word properties, that these representations are routinely activated early during the silent reading of Chinese sentences, and that the representations are also used during later stages of word processing.

  17. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  18. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  19. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  20. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  1. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  2. Tone-deaf ears in moths may limit the acoustic detection of two-tone bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Emanuel C; Fernández, Yohami; Hechavarría, Julio; Pérez, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Frequency alternation in the echolocation of insectivorous bats has been interpreted in relation to ranging and duty cycle, i.e. advantages for echolocation. The shifts in frequency of the calls of these so-called two-tone bats, however, may also play its role in the success of their hunting behavior for a preferred prey, the tympanate moth. How the auditory receptors (e.g. the A1 and A2 cells) in the moth's ear detect such frequency shifts is currently unknown. Here, we measured the auditory responses of the A1 cell in the noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda to the echolocation hunting sequence of Molossus molossus, a two-tone bat. We also manipulated the bat calls to control for the frequency shifts by lowering the frequency band of the search and approach calls. The firing response of the A1 receptor cell significantly decreases with the shift to higher frequencies during the search and approach phases of the hunting sequence of M. molossus; this could be explained by the receptor's threshold curve. The frequency dependence of the decrease in the receptor's response is supported by the results attained with the manipulated sequence: search and approach calls with the same minimum frequency are detected by the moth at the same threshold intensity. The two-tone bat M. molossus shows a call frequency alternation behavior that may enable it to overcome moth audition even in the mid-frequency range (i.e. 20-50 kHz) where moths hear best. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  4. A linear programming approach for optimal contrast-tone mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithmic approach of image enhancement via optimal contrast-tone mapping. In a fundamental departure from the current practice of histogram equalization for contrast enhancement, the proposed approach maximizes expected contrast gain subject to an upper limit on tone distortion and optionally to other constraints that suppress artifacts. The underlying contrast-tone optimization problem can be solved efficiently by linear programming. This new constrained optimization approach for image enhancement is general, and the user can add and fine tune the constraints to achieve desired visual effects. Experimental results demonstrate clearly superior performance of the new approach over histogram equalization and its variants.

  5. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J. L. B.; Webster, R. L.; Pindor, B.; Mitchell, D. A.; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm. The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using Positional Update and Matching Algorithm based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm, and find that Positional Update and Matching Algorithm can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when correcting positions by an average of 0.3 arcmin given a synthesised beam-width of 2.3 arcmin.

  6. BLIND CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT ASSESSMENT BY GRADIENT RATIOING AT VISIBLE EDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hautière

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contrast of outdoor images acquired under adverse weather conditions, especially foggy weather, is altered by the scattering of daylight by atmospheric particles. As a consequence, differentmethods have been designed to restore the contrast of these images. However, there is a lack of methodology to assess the performances of the methods or to rate them. Unlike image quality assessment or image restoration areas, there is no easy way to have a reference image, which makes the problem not straightforward to solve. In this paper, an approach is proposed which consists in computing the ratio between the gradient of the visible edges between the image before and after contrast restoration. In this way, an indicator of visibility enhancement is provided based on the concept of visibility level, commonly used in lighting engineering. Finally, the methodology is applied to contrast enhancement assessment and to the comparison of tone-mapping operators.

  7. Voice low tone to high tone ratio--a new index for nasal airway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guoshe; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2003-09-30

    There are several methodology based on voice analysis to evaluate nasal airway. Here we introduce a new quantitative index based on voice spectrum analysis to evaluate nasal obstruction. Ten subjects of nasal blockage were instructed to produced the sustained consonant-vowel syllable /m partial partial differential/ at comfortable levels of speech for at least 5 seconds. After nasal decongestant treatment, the second voice sample was collected. Sound spectrum was obtained by the algorithm of fast Fourier transform and the fundamental frequency (F0) was calculated by the method of autocorrelation. Voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was defined as the division of low frequency power (LFP) into high frequency power (HFP) of the sound power spectrum and was finally expressed in decibels. The cut-off frequency was the product of F0 and square root of (4 x 5). The VLHR after nasal decongestant treatment increased significantly as compared with that before treatment (P voice during treatment for nasal obstruction. The index is quantitative, non-invasive, and potentially useful for basic researches and clinical applications.

  8. Evaluation of hypernasality in vowels using voice low tone to high tone ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Wang, Ching-Ping; Fu, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) is defined as the power ratio of low frequency to high frequency energy obtained by dividing the voice spectrum with a specific cutoff frequency. In a previous study, VLHR correlated significantly with nasalance and perceptual rating of hypernasality for a single vowel. The methodology was optimized in this study by investigating the correlations among other vowels. Voice signals of six sustained vowels vocalized by subjects with hypernasality were collected. Vowel nasalance was obtained with a nasometer, and hypernasality rating scores were provided by two speech-language pathologists. The VLHRs calculated using different cutoff frequencies were correlated with nasalance and hypernasality rating scores. Eight subjects with hypernasality caused by palatal fistula or velopharyngeal insufficiency. VLHR, nasalance, and hypernasality rating score. The correlation of VLHR with nasalance and hypernasality rating was most significant using a cutoff frequency of 600 Hz. The correlation of VLHR with nasalance was significant (r = .62, p < .01, Pearson's correlation), as was the correlation of VLHR with hypernasality score (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = .62, p < .01). VLHR correlated significantly with nasalance and hypernasality in the six sustained vowels and may provide another quantitative index for the evaluation of hypernasality in sustained vowels.

  9. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  10. Two-tone masking in normal hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, W M; Bilger, R C; Trahiotis, C; Nuetzel, J

    1980-10-01

    Psychophysical measurements of two-tone masking [E. Zwicker, Acustica 4, 415-420 (1954)] were made at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz utilizing a masker level of 62 dB SPL/tone. Fifty-eight "untrained" subjects were tested using a single run of a 4IFC adaptive procedure for each condition. Individual data were highly variable. Average data were systematic; they were analyzed using a two-line-regression procedure and the obtained critical-bandwidth estimates approximated normative values. Analysis of the literature revealed that a substantial increase of estimated critical bandwidth versus masker level occurs in two-tone masking. A portion of this increase appears artificial and stems from the relative effectiveness of the higher frequency masker tone at high masker levels. An alternative masker-frequency spacing is suggested to reduce level effects. Implications for an underlying critical-band mechanism are discussed.

  11. Stem Tones Pre-activate Suffixes in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated positively with the amplitude of an anterior negative ERP elicited by stem tones. This effect is proposed to reflect suffix pre-activation. Suffixes that were cued by an incorrect tone elicited a left-anterior negativity and a P600, suggesting that the correct processing of the suffix is crucially tied to the activation of the preceding validly associated tone.

  12. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  13. Pilot tone modulation used for channel identification in OTDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Bennike, Jon; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2004-01-01

    The principle of applying a pilot tone to an OTDM signal, in order to identify a specific channel, is presented. The impact on BER system performance is characterised as function of modulation index.......The principle of applying a pilot tone to an OTDM signal, in order to identify a specific channel, is presented. The impact on BER system performance is characterised as function of modulation index....

  14. Effect of harmonic rank on the streaming of complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Dau, Torsten; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the rank of the harmonics on sequential stream segregation of complex tones was investigated for normal-hearing participants with no musical training. It was hypothesized that stream segregation would be greater for tones with high pitch salience, as assessed by fundamental frequency....... There was a significant trend for less stream segregation with increasing harmonic rank. The amount of stream segregation was inversely correlated with the f0 difference limens, consistent with the hypothesis....

  15. Lost syllables and tone contour in Dzongkha (Bhutan)

    OpenAIRE

    Michailovsky, Boyd; Mazaudon, Martine

    1988-01-01

    The tonal system of Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, linguistically a Tibetan dialect, is presented synchronically and diachronically. The tone registers are similar to those of Central Tibetan. But in Dzongkha, many disyllabic words containing a derivational suffix have been reduced to monosyllables by apocope, the old suffix-initial functioning as the syllable final, and these monosyllables are distinguished from inherited monosyllables by tone contour, which thus differs function...

  16. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-12-14

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  17. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  18. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed.

  19. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  20. Synthesis of visibility detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Visibility is a critical component to the task of driving on all types of roads. The visibility detection and warning systems provide real-time, automated detection as well as appropriate responses to counteract reduced visibility conditions due to f...

  1. Matching critical intersection hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A matching in a hypergraph H is a set of pairwise vertex disjoint edges in H and the matching number of H is the maximum cardinality of a matching in H. A hypergraph H is an intersecting hypergraph if every two distinct edges of H have a non-empty intersection. Equivalently, H is an intersecting...

  2. Challenging equal temperament : perceived differences between twelve-tone equal temperament and twelve fifth-tones tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Leimu, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    A listening experiment was arranged to evaluate perceptual preferences between two musical tuning systems: twelve-tone equal temperament (i.e. the current international standard) and twelve fifth-tones tuning. The latter being a system that, according to its author Maria Renold, provides a more accurate and aurally genuine reproduction of musical harmonics. Hence, it is considered a superior tuning method compared to the equal temperament tuning. 34 participants (mainly experienced musici...

  3. Single-tone and two-tone AM-FM spectral calculations for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Sachse, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.

  4. A study on reproducing silicone shade guide for maxillofacial prostheses matching Indian skin color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Satyabodh S; Patil, Narendra P; Nadiger, Ramesh K; Kulkarni, Reshma

    2008-01-01

    The value and success of a well-fitting and anatomically correct prosthesis are compromised if the color does not match the adjoining tissues. The use of powder colors to help develop a simplified silicone shade guide to aid in the fabrication of silicone facial prostheses for Indian patients has been described here. Ten powder pigments were used to fabricate the silicone samples for three different subjects having light, medium and dark complexions who were separated into three groups depending on the value of their shades. Four-step wedge silicone samples with thickness variations of 1, 2, 4 and 6mm were fabricated. Visual assessment of the samples was done by four evaluators to check the agreement of color match. Data was statistically analyzed using kappa coefficients. The kappa values were found to be 0.09-0.44 for a light skin tone, -0.11 to 0.77 for medium skin and 0.44 to 0.85 for dark skin tones. This study showed that the samples of dark skin tone matched the skin tone well and showed a statistically good agreement. To further test the validity of these shade guides, facial silicone veneers were fabricated for three patients having light, medium and dark complexion. The color matching showed satisfactory results. The silicone veneers matched the skin color of all three patients. Hence, this shade guide will help clinicians to obtain a good intrinsic shade and minimize extrinsic coloration.

  5. A study on reproducing silicone shade guide for maxillofacial prostheses matching Indian skin color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttal Satyabodh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The value and success of a well-fitting and anatomically correct prosthesis are compromised if the color does not match the adjoining tissues. The use of powder colors to help develop a simplified silicone shade guide to aid in the fabrication of silicone facial prostheses for Indian patients has been described here. Materials and Methods: Ten powder pigments were used to fabricate the silicone samples for three different subjects having light, medium and dark complexions who were separated into three groups depending on the value of their shades. Four-step wedge silicone samples with thickness variations of 1, 2, 4 and 6mm were fabricated. Visual assessment of the samples was done by four evaluators to check the agreement of color match. Data was statistically analyzed using kappa coefficients. Results: The kappa values were found to be 0.09-0.44 for a light skin tone, -0.11 to 0.77 for medium skin and 0.44 to 0.85 for dark skin tones. This study showed that the samples of dark skin tone matched the skin tone well and showed a statistically good agreement. To further test the validity of these shade guides, facial silicone veneers were fabricated for three patients having light, medium and dark complexion. The color matching showed satisfactory results. Conclusion: The silicone veneers matched the skin color of all three patients. Hence, this shade guide will help clinicians to obtain a good intrinsic shade and minimize extrinsic coloration.

  6. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  7. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  8. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  9. A Possible New Cause of Tone-Splitting--Evidence from Cama, Yoruba, and Other Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddieson, Ian

    This paper reviews the evidence that Proto-Niger-Congo was a tone language with only two level tones and seeks to find the evidence that will explain how some of the descendant languages have more than two tones. In particular it shows how synchronic tone rules in Cama and consonant correspondences between Cama and Yoruba suggest a new factor in…

  10. Pitch representations in the auditory nerve: two concurrent complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Cedolin, Leonardo; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2008-09-01

    Pitch differences between concurrent sounds are important cues used in auditory scene analysis and also play a major role in music perception. To investigate the neural codes underlying these perceptual abilities, we recorded from single fibers in the cat auditory nerve in response to two concurrent harmonic complex tones with missing fundamentals and equal-amplitude harmonics. We investigated the efficacy of rate-place and interspike-interval codes to represent both pitches of the two tones, which had fundamental frequency (F0) ratios of 15/14 or 11/9. We relied on the principle of scaling invariance in cochlear mechanics to infer the spatiotemporal response patterns to a given stimulus from a series of measurements made in a single fiber as a function of F0. Templates created by a peripheral auditory model were used to estimate the F0s of double complex tones from the inferred distribution of firing rate along the tonotopic axis. This rate-place representation was accurate for F0s greater, similar900 Hz. Surprisingly, rate-based F0 estimates were accurate even when the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics, so long as some harmonics were resolved prior to mixing. We also extended methods used previously for single complex tones to estimate the F0s of concurrent complex tones from interspike-interval distributions pooled over the tonotopic axis. The interval-based representation was accurate for F0s less, similar900 Hz, where the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics. Together, the rate-place and interval-based representations allow accurate pitch perception for concurrent sounds over the entire range of human voice and cat vocalizations.

  11. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  12. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor......’ surveillance of anti-capitalist activists in social media....

  13. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  14. The role of temporal fine structure information for the low pitch of high-frequency complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    in their waveforms, rather than envelope maxima. Moreover, envelope cues did not take over as the absolute frequency or rank of the lowest component was raised and TFS cues thus became less effective. Instead, the low pitch became less salient. This suggests that complex pitch perception does not rely on envelope......The fused low pitch evoked by complex tones containing only unresolved high-frequency components demonstrates the ability of the human auditory system to extract pitch using a temporal mechanism in the absence of spectral cues. However, the temporal features used by such a mechanism have been...... amplitude fluctuations, or temporal fine structure (TFS), of the conveyed signal can be processed. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, the present study found that the low pitch of inharmonic transposed tones with unresolved components was consistent with the timing between the most prominent TFS maxima...

  15. Word associations contribute to machine learning in automatic scoring of degree of emotional tones in dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Reza; Sabourin, Catherine; De Koninck, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges' scoring of dream report's negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model's accuracy. Word associations were established using words' frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in a dictionary and an encyclopedia. It was hypothesized that this addition would facilitate the machine learning model and improve its predictability beyond those of previous models. With a sample of 458 dreams, this model demonstrated an improvement in accuracy from 59% to 63% (kappa=.485) on the negative emotional tone scale, and for the first time reached an accuracy of 77% (kappa=.520) on the positive scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-Tone Interference Caused by Active Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Andor, D.; Jülicher, F.

    2003-02-01

    To capture faint sounds, the ear uses an active system of amplification. We and our colleagues have put forward the idea that the amplifier comprises a set of "self-tuned critical oscillators": each hair cell contains a force-generating dynamical system which is maintained at the threshold of an oscillatory instability, or Hopf bifurcation. Our analysis shows that the active response to a pure tone is perfectly suited to the ear's needs, since it provides frequency selectivity, exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range. However, the intrinsic nonlinearity of the mechanism causes tones of different frequency to interfere with one another in the cochlea. In order to provide a framework for understanding how the ear processes the more complex sounds of speech and music, we have examined the response of a critical Hopf oscillator to two tones. Our calculations indicate how the response to one tone is suppressed by the presence of a second tone of similar frequency. They also show how a characteristic spectrum of distortion products is generated. Based on this analysis, we discuss to what extent psychophysical phenomena such as the sensation of dissonance and auditory illusions can be attributed to the physical nature of the peripheral detection apparatus.

  17. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  18. Word-stem tones cue suffixes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle

    2013-07-03

    High and low tones on Swedish word stems are associated with different classes of suffixes. We tested the electrophysiological effects of high and low stem tones as well as tonally cued and uncued suffixes. Two different tasks were used involving either choosing the suffix-dependent meaning of the words, or pressing a button when the word ended. To determine whether effects were in fact due to association of tones with lexical material, delexicalized stimuli were also used. High tones in lexical items produced an increase in the P2 component in both tasks, interpreted as showing passive anticipatory attention allocated to the associated upcoming suffix. This effect was absent for delexicalized forms, where instead an N1 increase was found for high tones, indicating that the high pitch was unexpected in the absence of lexical material, and did not lead to anticipatory attention. A P600 effect was found for uncued high-associated suffixes in the semantic task, which was also where the largest increase was found in reaction times. This suggests that the tonal cues were most important when participants were required to process the meaning of the words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple reaction time for broadband sounds compared to pure tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittenlacher, Josef; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Avci, Gül

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies have explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and loudness, including effects of intensity, frequency, and binaural summation, comparable work on spectral summation is rare. However, most real-world sounds are not pure tones and typically have bandwidths covering several critical bands. Since comparing to a 1-kHz pure tone, the reference tone, is important for loudness measurement and standardization, the present work focuses on comparing RTs for broadband noise to those for 1-kHz pure tones in three experiments using different spectral and binaural configurations. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 yield good quantitative agreement with spectral loudness summation models for moderate and high sound pressure levels, measured using both pink noise covering almost the entire hearing range and bandpass-filtered pink noise with different center frequencies. However, at lower levels, the RT measurements yield an interaction of level and bandwidth, which is not in line with loudness scaling data. In Experiment 3, which investigated the binaural summation of broadband sounds, the binaural gain for white noise was determined to be 9 dB, which is somewhat larger than what had been found in previous RT measurements using 1-kHz pure tones.

  20. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a “turbo-per-tone equalization” structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  1. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  2. DTM: Deformable Template Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  3. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  4. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  5. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  6. Evaluation of Visible Plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline discusses plumes with contaminants that are visible to the naked eye. Information covers: (1) history of air pollution control regulations, (2) need for methods of evaluating…

  7. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  8. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms....... The frequencies were 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz. All pulses were shaped by means of 1/3 octave filters. For 25 normal hearing observers the investigations were performed at the observer's threshold, and at 35 and 55 dB SPL. Fitting of the experimental data to a single exponential function yields a time constant (tau......) of about 200 ms near and at the threshold, whereas tau is about 100 ms at levels well above threshold. Discrepancies exist, nevertheless, between this single-time-constant model and the experimental data obtained for the pulses of shortest duration. To account for this, a model is proposed comprising...

  9. On the origin of impinging tones at low supersonic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Impinging compressible jets may cause deafness and material fatigue due to immensely loud tonal noise. It is generally accepted that a feedback mechanism similar to the screech feedback loop is responsible for impinging tones. The close of the loop remained unclear. One hypothesis hold up in the literature explains the emanated sound with the direct interaction of vortices and the wall. Other explanations name the standoff shock oscillations as the origin of the tones. Using direct numerical simulations (DNS) we were able to identify the source mechanism for under-expanded impinging jets with a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 2.15 and a plate distance of 5 diameters. We found two different types of interactions between vortices and shocks to be responsible for the generation of the impinging tones. They are not related to screech.

  10. The effect of a cavity on airfoil tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Karn L.; Doolan, Con J.; Kelso, Richard M.

    2014-03-01

    The presence of a cavity in the pressure surface of an airfoil has been found via experiment to play a role in the production of airfoil tones, which was attributed to the presence of an acoustic feedback loop. The cavity length was sufficiently small that cavity oscillation modes did not occur for most of the investigated chord-based Reynolds number range of 70,000-320,000. The airfoil tonal noise frequencies varied as the position of the cavity was moved along a parallel section at the airfoil's maximum thickness: specifically, for a given velocity, the frequency spacing of the tones was inversely proportional to the geometric distance between the cavity and the trailing edge. The boundary layer instability waves considered responsible for the airfoil tones were only detected downstream of the cavity. This may be the first experimental verification of these aspects of the feedback loop model for airfoil tonal noise.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of HDR tone-mapping operators for photogrammetric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Suma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of High Dynamic Range (HDR imaging to capture the full range of lighting in a scene has meant that it is being increasingly used for Cultural Heritage (CH applications. Photogrammetric techniques allow the semi-automatic production of 3D models from a sequence of images. Current photogrammetric methods are not always effective in reconstructing images under harsh lighting conditions, as significant geometric details may not have been captured accurately within under- and over-exposed regions of the image. HDR imaging offers the possibility to overcome this limitation, however the HDR images need to be tone mapped before they can be used within existing photogrammetric algorithms. In this paper we evaluate four different HDR tone-mapping operators (TMOs that have been used to convert raw HDR images into a format suitable for state-of-the-art algorithms, and in particular keypoint detection techniques. The evaluation criteria used are the number of keypoints, the number of valid matches achieved and the repeatability rate. The comparison considers two local and two global TMOs. HDR data from four CH sites were used: Kaisariani Monastery (Greece, Asinou Church (Cyprus, Château des Baux (France and Buonconsiglio Castle (Italy.

  12. Effects of tones associated with drilling activities on bowhead whale calling rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna B Blackwell

    Full Text Available During summer 2012 Shell performed exploratory drilling at Sivulliq, a lease holding located in the autumn migration corridor of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus, northwest of Camden Bay in the Beaufort Sea. The drilling operation involved a number of vessels performing various activities, such as towing the drill rig, anchor handling, and drilling. Acoustic data were collected with six arrays of directional recorders (DASARs deployed on the seafloor over ~7 weeks in Aug-Oct. Whale calls produced within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and localized using triangulation. A "tone index" was defined to quantify the presence and amplitude of tonal sounds from industrial machinery. The presence of airgun pulses originating from distant seismic operations was also quantified. For each 10-min period at each of the 40 recorders, the number of whale calls localized was matched with the "dose" of industrial sound received, and the relationship between calling rates and industrial sound was modeled using negative binomial regression. The analysis showed that with increasing tone levels, bowhead whale calling rates initially increased, peaked, and then decreased. This dual behavioral response is similar to that described for bowhead whales and airgun pulses in earlier work. Increasing call repetition rates can be a viable strategy for combating decreased detectability of signals arising from moderate increases in background noise. Meanwhile, as noise increases, the benefits of calling may decrease because information transfer becomes increasingly error-prone, and at some point calling may no longer be worth the effort.

  13. Pure tone audiometry: comparison of general practice and hospital services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.F.; Cable, Hugh R.; Wilmot, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Pure tone audiometry was obtained for both ears of 32 children by a general practitioner using a simple audiometer in his surgery, and by audiometricians in a hospital department on the same day. Comparing the worst hearing threshold at any of the three tested frequencies, the general practitioner did not find any ears to hear more than 10 dB better than the hospital (no false negatives). However, there were six false positives (9%) where the general practitioner identified an apparent hearing loss of greater than 15 dB. It is concluded that pure tone audiometry could be carried out accurately in the practice. PMID:3267745

  14. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...... mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  15. Pitch matching in bimodal cochlear implant patients: Effects of frequency, spectral envelope, and level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarefvand, Mohammad; Blamey, Peter J.; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically investigated the effects of frequency, level, and spectral envelope on pitch matching in twelve bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users. The participants were asked to vary the frequency and level of a pure or complex tone (adjustable sounds) presented in the nonimplanted ea...

  16. Implementation and preliminary evaluation of 'C-tone': A novel algorithm to improve lexical tone recognition in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Wang, Ningyuan; Tang, Guofang; Lu, Thomas; Yin, Li; Tu, Wenhe; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system. Subjects were given 2 weeks of experience with C-tone. Recognition of Chinese tones, monosyllables, and disyllables in quiet was measured with and without the C-tone algorithm. Subjective quality ratings were also obtained for C-tone. After 2 weeks of experience with C-tone, there were small but significant improvements in recognition of lexical tones, monosyllables, and disyllables (P C-tone were greater for disyllables than for monosyllables. Subjective quality ratings showed no strong preference for or against C-tone, except for perception of own voice, where C-tone was preferred. The real-time C-tone algorithm provided small but significant improvements for speech performance in quiet with no change in sound quality. Pre-processing algorithms to reduce noise and better real-time F0 extraction would improve the benefits of C-tone in complex listening environments. Chinese CI users' speech recognition in quiet can be significantly improved by modifying the amplitude contour to better resemble the F0 contour.

  17. Case Selection via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how statistical matching methods can be used to select "most similar" cases for qualitative analysis. I first offer a methodological justification for research designs based on selecting most similar cases. I then discuss the applicability of existing matching methods to the task of selecting most similar cases and…

  18. Computing Optimal Morse Matchings

    OpenAIRE

    Joswig, Michael; Pfetsch, Marc E.

    2004-01-01

    Morse matchings capture the essential structural information of discrete Morse functions. We show that computing optimal Morse matchings is NP-hard and give an integer programming formulation for the problem. Then we present polyhedral results for the corresponding polytope and report on computational results.

  19. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  20. Matched-pair classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  1. Gender and Language : A matched-guise study exploring linguistic stereotyping using voice morphing

    OpenAIRE

    Östling, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    The matched-guise test, which was originally developed by Lambert et al. (1960), has been useful in determining covert attitudes towards accents, dialects, or languages. In this paper, the author presents a fresh take on matched-guise tests in sociolinguistics utilizing modern technology to digitally manipulate a female voice into a male voice. This makes it possible to create recordings in which the tone, intonation, stress, and personality traits are the same, yet the apparent guise is diff...

  2. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  3. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2017-01-01

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...... studies as well as literature on activism and political participation in media studies. Empirically, it draws on files from BP on specific civil society individuals obtained through Subject Access Requests under the UK Data Protection Act 1998 as well as press responses from BP....

  4. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the interpreter as an invisible language switcher. However, a closer look at the data shows that, even in a less complex constellation like the one analysed here, there is clear evidence of the interpreter's visibility. We shall identify various forms of visibility based on the discourse data...

  5. Visibility graph motifs

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of visibility graph motifs, smaller substructures that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated to general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable to distinguish among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification a...

  6. Closed-Loop Feedback Illumination for Optical Inverse Tone-Mapping in Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimber, Oliver; Klöck, Daniel; Amano, Toshiyuki; Grundhöfer, Anselm; Kurz, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we show that optical inverse tone-mapping (OITM) in light microscopy can improve the visibility of specimens, both when observed directly through the oculars and when imaged with a camera. In contrast to previous microscopy techniques, we premodulate the illumination based on the local modulation properties of the specimen itself. We explain how the modulation of uniform white light by a specimen can be estimated in real time, even though the specimen is continuously but not uniformly illuminated. This information is processed and back-projected constantly, allowing the illumination to be adjusted on the fly if the specimen is moved or the focus or magnification of the microscope is changed. The contrast of the specimen's optical image can be enhanced, and high-intensity highlights can be suppressed. A formal pilot study with users indicates that this optimizes the visibility of spatial structures when observed through the oculars. We also demonstrate that the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in digital images of the specimen is higher if captured under an optimized rather than a uniform illumination. In contrast to advanced scanning techniques that maximize the S/N ratio using multiple measurements, our approach is fast because it requires only two images. This can improve image analysis in digital microscopy applications with real-time capturing requirements.

  7. Phonetic complexity affects children's Mandarin tone production accuracy in disyllabic words: A perceptual study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisan Wong

    Full Text Available This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones. Children's tones were judged with significantly lower accuracy than mothers' productions. Tone accuracy improved, while cross subject variability in tone accuracy decreased, with age. Children's tone accuracy was affected by the articulatory complexity of phonetic contexts. Children made more errors in tone combinations with more complex fundamental frequency (F0 contours than tone sequences with simpler F0 changes. When producing disyllabic tone sequences with complex F0 contours, children tended to shift the F0 contour of the first tone to reduce the F0 change, resulting in more tone errors in the first syllable than in the second syllable and showing substantially more anticipatory coarticulation than adults. The results provide further evidence that acquisition of lexical tones is a protracted process in children. Tones produced accurately by children in one phonetic context may not be produced correctly in another phonetic context. Children demonstrate more anticipatory coarticulation in their disyllabic productions than adults, which may be attributed to children's immature speech motor control in tone production, and is presumably a by-product of their inability to accomplish

  8. Interferometric visibility and coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612146), have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  9. Evacuation under limited visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guillermo A.; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2015-06-01

    A multiplicity of situations can trigger off an evacuation of a room under panic conditions. For "normal" (with "normal" meaning absence of obstacles, perfect visibility, etc.) environmental conditions, the "faster is slower" effect dominates the dynamics of this process. It states that as the pedestrians desire to reach the exit increases, the clogging phenomena delays the time to get out of the room. But, environmental conditions are usually far from "normal." In this work, we consider that pedestrians have to find their way out under low visibility conditions. Some of them might switch to a herding-like behavior if they do not remember where the exit was. Others will just trust on their memory. Our investigation handles the herding and memory effects on the evacuation of a single exit room with no obstacles. We also include a section on how signaling devices affect the evacuation process. Unexpectedly, some low visibility situations may enhance the evacuation performance. This can be resumed as a second paradoxical result, since we demonstrated in an earlier investigation that "clever is not always better" G. A. Frank and C. O. Dorso, Physica A 390, 2135 (2011).

  10. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  11. STEM Tones Pre-Activate Suffixes in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated…

  12. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  13. Perceptual space, pleasantness and periodicity of multi-tone sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpken, Stephan; Verhey, Jesko L; Weber, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Technical sounds often contain several tonal components, forming a multi-tone sound. The present study investigates the perception of multi-tone sounds consisting of two harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies and combination tones with frequencies that are equal to the sum of multiple integers of the two fundamentals. The experimental parameter is the ratio between the two fundamental frequencies ρ. A total of 15 synthetic multi-tone sounds are rated by 37 participants. In the first experiment, the perceptual space is assessed based on 16 adjective scales using categorical scaling. The resulting perceptual space has the four dimensions (i) pleasant, (ii) power, (iii) temporal structure, and (iv) spectral content of the sounds. In the second experiment, the pleasantness is measured with a paired comparison test. The data consistently show that sounds based on ratios of small integers (e.g., ρ=4:3) are significantly less pleasant than sounds with ratios based on large integers which were constructed by a slight detuning from a ratio of small integers. The repetition rate derived from an autocorrelation analysis of the stimuli turns out to be a good predictor of the (un-)pleasantness sensation.

  14. The Tone - Semantic Concept in Ibibio Revisited | Noah | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper thinks that though rules may have exceptions, an avalanche of such as in this Ibibio phono-semantic situation necessitates a fundamental reconsideration of the postulation with regard to the relationship between tone and ideophones of weight, colour and intensity, in Ibibio at least. Data for the study were elicited ...

  15. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, D/L, was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for D/L = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance (D/L=2.5 was greater than that without acoustic resonance (D/L=0.5. To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.

  16. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    but not least the paper argued that tone patterns represent dialect variations and their evolution to the extent that .... languages, including Afrikaans, Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Hindi,. Latin, Portuguese, etc. In some ..... morphotonologique dans les langues bantoues (Identification des morphotonèmes et description ...

  17. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  18. Hearing-aid-processed tone pips: electroacoustic and ABR characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E; Klein, A J; Snydee, K A

    1999-04-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) recorded while wearing a hearing aid may supply supplemental information about the benefit and appropriateness of the hearing aid for certain infants. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the effects of different output limiting circuits on the acoustics of tone-pip stimuli used for ABR recordings and (2) assess how changes in hearing-aid-processed stimuli affect ABR characteristics. Electroacoustic input/output functions to tone-pip stimuli were constructed for three different output limiting circuits (wide dynamic range compression, output compression, and linear with peak clipping) available in a programmable hearing aid. Wave V latency and amplitude functions were then measured to the same stimuli and hearing aid settings in five normal-hearing adults. Electroacoustic results showed that none of the output limiting circuits, including linear peak clipping, were effectively activated by tone pips compared to the hearing aid performance to continuous tones. Aided wave V latency and amplitude functions were asymptotic to high stimulus levels, suggesting that cochlear output was in saturation.

  19. Tone Attrition in Mandarin Speakers of Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of…

  20. Musical pitch and lexical tone perception with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wuqing; Zhou, Ning; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that cochlear implant (CI) users' music perception is correlated with their lexical tone perception, and the two types of perception share similar mechanisms in electric hearing. A lexical tone perception test and a pitch interval discrimination test were administered to a group of CI users and a group of normal-hearing (NH) listeners. SAMPLE STUDY: Nineteen adult CI users and 10 NH listeners who are native-Mandarin-Chinese speakers participated in the study. Tone-perception performance of the CI group was, on average, 58.3% correct (± 19.78% correct), and performance of the NH group was near perfect. The CI group had a mean threshold of 5.66 semitones (± 5.57 semitones) in pitch discrimination as compared to the threshold of 0.44 semitone from the NH group. There was a strong correlation between the CI users' tone-perception performance and their pitch discrimination threshold (r = -0.75, p pitch perceptions are strongly correlated with each other and they might share similar mechanisms in electric hearing.

  1. Representing morphological tone in a computational grammar of Hausa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Crysmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I shall discuss the representation of morphological tone in Hausa, as implemented in a computational grammar of the language, referred to as HaG, which has been developed within the framework of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Based on an in-depth study of segmental and suprasegmental properties manipulated by morphological processes, I shall argue that two fundamental insights from Autosegmental Phonology needs to be seamlessly integrated into typed feature structure grammars of languages with grammatical tone, namely (i the systematic separation of tonal and metrical information from the string of consonants and vowels, and (ii the possibility of tonal spreading, i.e. the possibility for a tonal specification to be assigned to an arbitrary number of adjacent tone-bearing units (syllables. To this end, I present a formalisation of tonal melodies in terms of typed list constraints that implement a notion of tonal spreading, allowing for an underspecified description of tonal melodies, independent of the number of tone-bearing units. I shall finally show that this minimal encoding is sufficient and flexible enough to capture the range of suprasegmental phenomena in Hausa.

  2. Is a Confrontational Tone Necessary in Conjoint Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wile, Daniel B.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the systems model and proposes an alternative approach, the paired bind model. The paired bind orientation retains the major advantage of the systems approach (its focus upon couple and family interactions) while eliminating its major disadvantage (its oppositional tone). (Author)

  3. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  4. Layered feet laid bare in Copperbelt Bemba tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, Jeroen; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a new type of ternarity found in bounded tone spreading in Copperbelt Bemba (Bickmore & Kula 2013). We argue that this ternarity must be metrical in nature, because it is quantity-sensitive and therefore not capturable in a straightforward counting rule. Traditional binary

  5. Muon Track Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Alberto C; Genchev, V; Khanov, A I; Stepanov, N; Vankov, P

    2000-01-01

    For most physical processes the tracks observed in the muon stations must be matched with the corresponding tracks in the inner tracker, the external muon system providing muon identification and triggering but the tracker points giving the precise momentum measurement at lower momenta. For high momenta the momentum resolution is much improved by the interconnection of inner and outer measurements. The matching of outer and inner measurements is more delicate in case of muons embedded in jets. A study of the matching procedure was carried out using samples of (b, anti b) jets at high Pt, requiring (b, anti b) -> mu decays.

  6. Development of a robust reverse tone pattern transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Doyle, Gary; Resnick, Douglas J.; Ye, Zhengmao; LaBrake, Dwayne; Milligan, Brennan; Alokozai, Fred; Chen, Jerry

    2017-03-01

    Pattern transfer is critical to any lithographic technology, and plays a significant role in defining the critical features in a device layer. As both the memory and logic roadmaps continue to advance, greater importance is placed on the scheme used to do the etching. For many critical layers, a need has developed which requires a multilayer stack to be defined in order to perform the pattern transfer. There are many cases however, where this standard approach does not provide the best results in terms of critical dimension (CD) fidelity and CD uniformity. As an example, when defining a contact pattern, it may be advantageous to apply a bright field mask (in order to maximize the normalized inverse log slope (NILS)) over the more conventional dark field mask. The result of applying the bright field mask in combination with positive imaging resist is to define an array of pillar patterns, which then must be converted back to holes before etching the underlying dielectric material. There have been several publications on tone reversal that is introduced in the resist process itself, but often an etch transfer process is applied to reverse the pattern tone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a three layer reverse tone process (RTP) that is capable of reversing the tone of every printed feature type. The process utilizes a resist pattern, a hardmask layer and an additional protection layer. The three layer approach overcomes issues encountered when using a single masking layer. Successful tone reversal was demonstrated both on 300mm wafers and imprint masks, including the largest features in the pattern, with dimensions as great as 60 microns. Initial in-field CD uniformity is promising. CDs shifted by about 2.6nm and no change was observed in either LER or LWR. Follow-up work is required to statistically qualify in-field CDU and also understand both across wafer uniformity and feature linearity.

  7. Precise matching of diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    Two circuit arrangements using ac and dc power source provide low-cost method for matching forward voltage drops of diodes and other semiconductors. Both circuits are simpler and less expensive than conventional, characteristic-curve tracers.

  8. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  9. Data Matching Imputation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...

  10. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  11. Hearing and Seeing Tone through Color: An Efficacy Study of Web-Based, Multimodal Chinese Tone Perception Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Ryu, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal approaches have been shown to be effective for many learning tasks. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of five multimodal methods for second language (L2) Mandarin tone perception training: three single-cue methods (number, pitch contour, color) and two dual-cue methods (color and number, color and pitch contour). A total of…

  12. Relationship between pure tone audiometry and tone burst auditory brainstem response at low frequencies gated with Blackman window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Andrea; Dagna, Federico; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Piumetto, Elena; Albera, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    To assess the reliability of Blackman windowed tone burst auditory brainstem response (ABR) as a predictor of hearing threshold at low frequencies. Fifty-six subjects were divided in to three groups (normal hearing, conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss) after pure tone audiometry (PTA) testing. Then they underwent tone burst ABR using Blackman windowed stimuli at 0.5 kHz and 1 kHz. Results were compared with PTA threshold. Mean threshold differences between PTA and ABR ranged between 11 dB at 0.5 kHz and 14 dB at 1 kHz. ABR threshold was worse than PTA in each but 2 cases. Mean discrepancy between the two thresholds was about 20 dB in normal hearing, reducing in presence of hearing loss, without any differences in conductive and sensorineural cases. Tone burst ABR is a good predictor of hearing threshold at low frequencies, in case of suspected hearing loss. Further studies are recommended to evaluate an ipsilateral masking such as notched noise to ensure greater frequency specificity.

  13. Magnetic safety matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  14. Manifestation of peripherial coding in the effect of increasing loudness and enhanced discrimination of the intensity of tone bursts before and after tone burst noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskaya-Korsavkova, L. K.

    2017-07-01

    To find the possible reasons for the midlevel elevation of the Weber fraction in intensity discrimination of a tone burst, a comparison was performed for the complementary distributions of spike activity of an ensemble of space nerves, such as the distribution of time instants when spikes occur, the distribution of interspike intervals, and the autocorrelation function. The distribution properties were detected in a poststimulus histogram, an interspike interval histogram, and an autocorrelation histogram—all obtained from the reaction of an ensemble of model space nerves in response to an auditory noise burst-useful tone burst complex. Two configurations were used: in the first, the peak amplitude of the tone burst was varied and the noise amplitude was fixed; in the other, the tone burst amplitude was fixed and the noise amplitude was varied. Noise could precede or follow the tone burst. The noise and tone burst durations, as well as the interval between them, was 4 kHz and corresponded to the characteristic frequencies of the model space nerves. The profiles of all the mentioned histograms had two maxima. The values and the positions of the maxima in the poststimulus histogram corresponded to the amplitudes and mutual time position of the noise and the tone burst. The maximum that occurred in response to the tone burst action could be a basis for the formation of the loudness of the latter (explicit loudness). However, the positions of the maxima in the other two histograms did not depend on the positions of tone bursts and noise in the combinations. The first maximum fell in short intervals and united intervals corresponding to the noise and tone burst durations. The second maximum fell in intervals corresponding to a tone burst delay with respect to noise, and its value was proportional to the noise amplitude or tone burst amplitude that was smaller in the complex. An increase in tone burst or noise amplitudes was caused by nonlinear variations in the two

  15. The intensitive DL of tones: dependence of signal/masker ratio on tone level and on spectrum of added noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, D D

    1993-02-01

    In Greenwood [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 484-502 (1961a)] the ratio of masked signal threshold to masker level (S/M) decreased about 4 dB at a masker level of about 50 dB SL, the 'transition' level, when noise bands were subcritical but not when supercritical. Schlauch et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, S73 (1982)] report a related result. A pilot study [Greenwood, Harvard Psychoacoustic Lab. Status Report 37, 8-9 (1961)] in which pure tones masked identical tones in-phase showed a larger change in S/M. Detailed tone-tone growth-of-masking curves from over a dozen subjects in 1967-69, and in 1960, are reported here. A transition in slope, of variable abruptness, often begins to occur at about 50 dB SL, dropping S/M ratio by 6 to 8 dB or more [Rabinowitz et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1053 (1976)]; the curves sometimes possess two segments, sometimes are simply convex. All have overall slopes less than 1.0, known also as the 'near miss'. Consistent with other results [Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-396 (1956); Viemeister, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1265-1296 (1972); Moore and Raab, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 1049-1060 (1974)], addition of low-level wide-band and high-pass noise was found to counteract the change in S/M, i.e., to raise the high-level section of the growth-of-masking curve. However, the ability of narrow 'band-pass' noise to exert this effect was greatest when added at a frequency ratio (band/masking-tone) of 1.3 to 1.5, which seems more closely to link the effects of added noise to the effects of increasing a masking band from sub- to supercritical width (above). Interpretation of the decrease in DL with level begins by noting that the 'transition' level correlates approximately with the level at which a primary unit population excited by a given pure tone begins rapidly to expand basally. Underlying this, the basalward shift of a tone's displacement envelope peak accelerates at about the same level [Rhode, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1218-1231 (1971); Sellick et al., J

  16. The visible ear simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mads Solvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume......, 2D, or optional anaglyph stereoscopic 3D was achieved on a standard Core 2 Duo personal computer with a GeForce 8,800 GTX graphics card, and surgical interaction was provided through a relatively inexpensive (approximately $2,500) Phantom Omni haptic 3D pointing device. CONCLUSION: This prototype...

  17. WWW visibility in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ollila, T.

    2013-01-01

    Social media is a vital channel for marketers nowadays. Customers are more empowered today than ever before and the Internet is accelerating the trend toward greater customer empowerment. In few years Web 2.0 has become a highly important media and it has changed the Web into platform where individuals can communicate, assemble and organize data. Web 2.0 also offers a variety of different “tools” for companies to be used in marketing. Because companies and products are visible and discussed i...

  18. Implicit and explicit statistical learning of tone sequences across spectral shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2014-10-01

    We investigated how the statistical learning of auditory sequences is reflected in neuromagnetic responses in implicit and explicit learning conditions. Complex tones with fundamental frequencies (F0s) in a five-tone equal temperament were generated by a formant synthesizer. The tones were subsequently ordered with the constraint that the probability of the forthcoming tone was statistically defined (80% for one tone; 5% for the other four) by the latest two successive tones (second-order Markov chains). The tone sequence consisted of 500 tones and 250 successive tones with a relative shift of F0s based on the same Markov transitional matrix. In explicit and implicit learning conditions, neuromagnetic responses to the tone sequence were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. The temporal profiles of the N1m responses to the tones with higher and lower transitional probabilities were compared. In the explicit learning condition, the N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased compared with responses to tones with lower transitional probability in the latter half of the 500-tone sequence. Furthermore, this difference was retained even after the F0s were relatively shifted. In the implicit learning condition, N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased only for the 250 tones following the relative shift of F0s. The delayed detection of learning effects across the sound-spectral shift in the implicit condition may imply that learning may progress earlier in explicit learning conditions than in implicit learning conditions. The finding that the learning effects were retained across spectral shifts regardless of the learning modality indicates that relative pitch processing may be an essential ability for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  20. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  1. Neural Control of Fundamental Frequency Rise and Fall in Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms used in tone rises and falls in Mandarin were investigated. Nine participants were scanned while they named one-character pictures that required rising or falling tone responses in Mandarin: the left insula and right putamen showed stronger activation between rising and falling tones; the left brainstem showed weaker…

  2. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  3. Effect of Linguistic and Musical Experience on Distributional Learning of Nonnative Lexical Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Escudero, Paola; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that extensive experience with lexical tones or musical training provides an advantage in perceiving nonnative lexical tones. This investigation concerns whether such an advantage is evident in learning nonnative lexical tones based on the distributional structure of the input. Method: Using an established protocol,…

  4. Domains of H tone spreading and the noun class prefix in Xitsonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports results from an investigation of domains of H tone spreading in Xitsonga, a southern Bantu language. High (H) tone spreads into toneless syllables but it spreads only to the first syllable if a nominal root has an H tone. Kisseberth (1994) argues that domain structures created by the Pre-High Projection rule ...

  5. Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; Hornsveld, Hellen; Toffolo, Marieke J B; Cath, Danielle C

    2012-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, patients make eye movements (EMs) while recalling traumatic memories, but recently therapists have replaced EMs by alternating beep tones. There are no outcome studies on the effects of tones. In an earlier analogue study, tones were inferior to EMs in the reduction of vividness of aversive memories. In a first EMDR session, 12 PTSD patients recalled trauma memories in three conditions: recall only, recall + tones, and recall + EMs. Three competing hypotheses were tested: 1) EMs are as effective as tones and better than recall only, 2) EMs are better than tones and tones are as effective as recall only, and 3) EMs are better than tones and tones are better than recall only. The order of conditions was balanced, each condition was delivered twice, and decline in memory vividness and emotionality served as outcome measures. The data strongly support hypothesis 2 and 3 over 1: EMs outperformed tones while it remained unclear if tones add to recall only. The findings add to earlier considerations and earlier analogue findings suggesting that EMs are superior to tones and that replacing the former by the latter was premature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii......) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that is not contained in the envelope spectrum itself but can be observed when the envelope of the envelope......, referred to as the "venelope" [Ewert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112. 2921-2931 (2002)], is calculated. For a signal frequency equal to the masker-venelope periodicity, modulation depth at threshold was measured as a function of the signal phase relative to the phase of the masker-venelope component...

  7. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones......, although their benefit was larger for the resolved harmonics. Additionally, task-evoked pupil responses were recorded as an indicator of processing effort while listeners performed a pitch-discrimination task. Although the difficulty of the task was adjusted for each participant to compensate...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result...

  8. Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas Howard

    This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are

  9. Schema matching and mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements

  10. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  12. Second Language Perception of Mandarin Vowels and Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yen-Chen

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the discrimination of Mandarin vowels and tones by native English speakers with varying amounts of Mandarin experience, aiming to investigate the relative difficulty of these two types of sounds for English speakers at different learning stages, and the source of their difficulty. Seventeen advanced learners of Mandarin (Ex group), eighteen beginning learners (InEx group), and eighteen English speakers naïve to Mandarin (Naïve group) participated in an AXB discrimination task. The stimuli were two Mandarin vowel contrasts, /li-ly/ and /lu-ly/, and two tonal contrasts, T1-T4 and T2-T3. The predicted difficulty for each contrast was hypothesized based on the assimilation of these sounds to English reported in previous work. The results showed that the Naïve group was more accurate with vowel contrasts than with tones, suggesting that non-tonal language speakers without any Mandarin training are less sensitive to tonal distinction than to vowels. The two learner groups, on the other hand, were highly accurate with all contrasts except for the T2-T3 pair, and achieved significantly higher accuracy than the Naïve group on /li-ly/ and T1-T4. This lends support to the view that experience in Mandarin improves English speakers' sensitivity to tonal distinction, helping them discriminate some tones as accurately as vowels. However, all three groups achieved low accuracy in discriminating T2 and T3, suggesting that this contrast may be inherently difficult and resistant to improvement. This study shows that various factors in addition to the native language experience may affect the perception of non-native vowels and tones.

  13. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME) in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME. Methods Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB. Results Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to

  14. TONE AND IMAGERY IN TENNYSON‟S „TITHONUS‟

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifqi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying poetry is considered the most difficult by most of the students in my classes in EFL context. This can be understood since poetry in general has a unique form different from other types of literary works. With very limited lines and space provided in poetry, poets are able to put forward their ideas. Such reality enables readers to explore the most possible and acceptable meaning of poetry. However, it seems impossible for readers to find out the poets‘ exact intended meaning through their writings. So, it is notthe readers‘ job to get the poets‘ exact intended meaning but to explore the possible and acceptable meaning by using the clues presented within the poem. In interpreting the poem‘s meaning, readers should consider any poetic devices applied by the poet in expressing his/her ideas. Poets are very intelligent in playing with figures of speech. They use figurative languages more freshly and vividly than common writers. Through this article, I intend to investigate how the tone and imagery are applied in the poem ―Tithonus‖ written by Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892, the most popular poet of Victorian Era. This poem is very rich of imagery. Afterward, the tone will also be scrutinized. As all poetic devices work complementarily and so do tone and imagery to support each other.I will also show how they work intertwiningly together in creating the whole meaning of the poem.

  15. Neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials using a tone pip auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, E S; Zamba-Papanicolaou, E; Pantziaris, M; Kleopas, K; Kyriakides, T; Papacostas, S; Pattichis, C; Iliopoulos, I; Piperidou, C

    2004-01-01

    To obtain neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials (NVESTEPs) with surface scalp recording using a tone pip auditory stimulus. Fourteen neurologically normal volunteers (Age range 26-45 years, 10 females and 4 males), and two patients with sensorineural hearing loss and possible multiple sclerosis respectively, were examined. Two channel recordings were obtained, the first channel being P3 referred to Fpz, and the second channel being P4 referred to Fpz. A 1 kHz tone pip stimulus with two cycles was delivered via headphones monoaurally with contralateral masking noise. A consistent negative wave with a mean absolute latency of 4.72 msec was obtained, which we have named N5. 25% of the ears tested had better responses at the ipsilateral parietal electrode. In the patient with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, NVESTEPs was present, suggesting that the NVESTEP is not a cochlear response. In the patient with possible multiple sclerosis, an abnormal NVESTEP response and a normal BAEP response were found. Use of a tone-pip rather than a click auditory stimulus allows a lower click intensity to be used in the production of NVESTEP responses, leads to a shorter testing time, and is therefore more comfortable for the patient. This study adds to our impression that the NVESTEP may be a physiological response that can be used to assess the vestibular system and is different from the BAEP response. Further testing in patients with symptoms of dizziness and with disorders specific for the vestibular nerve is required.

  16. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  17. TONE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES WITH A STUDENT DURING FLUTE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Aytemur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of a five stage study program applied by the researcher to one student who had entered university playing the flute, but who had not resolved lip and tone problems in one educational semester through basic long sound studies and scale studies. The participant in the research was a 19 year old student who had completed first year of the music teaching program and had performed in the year-end concert; however she was criticized by listeners and flute teachers for forced and scratchy tone. The research had the basic aim of solving these problems. As a result the “single subject study model”, chosen for research on individuals requesting private training, was chosen for this research model. The findings of the study were collected as video recordings of scale, study and piece work in initial, training and final stages of a six-week education course run every day. To evaluate the obtained recordings, a “Behavior for Quality Flute Tone Scale” was created. The video recordings were investigated by three flute teaching staff, expert in the area, who provided points in accordance with the scale. The obtained points were analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The results showed that the study program created by the researcher provided rapid tonal development of the student. It is considered that the study is important to present an alternative route for flute students experiencing similar problems.

  18. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ting Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  19. Mandarin lexical tones identification among children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aifeng; Wang, Ningyu; Li, Jinlan; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-11-01

    Mandarin Chinese is a lexical tone language that has four tones, with a change in tone denoting a change in lexical meaning. There are few studies regarding lexical tone identification abilities in deafened children using either cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Furthermore, no study has compared the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with their hearing devices turned on and off. The present study aimed to investigate the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with CIs or HAs. Forty prelingually deafened children (20 with CIs and 20 with HAs) participated in the study. In the HA group, 20 children were binaurally aided. In the CI group, all of the children were unilaterally implanted. All of the subjects completed a computerized lexical tone pairs test with their hearing devices turned on and off. The correct answers of all items were recorded as the total score and the correct answers of the tone pairs were recorded as subtotal scores. No significant differences in the tone pair identification scores were found between the CI group and HA group either with the devices turned on or off (t=1.62, p=0.11; t=1.863, p=0.07, respectively). The scores in the aided condition were higher than in the unaided condition regardless of the device used (t=22.09, pidentification abilities in both the CI and HA groups. Other demographic factors were not correlated with tone identification ability. The hearing device, whether a hearing aid or cochlear implant, is beneficial for tone identification. The lexical tone identification abilities were similar regardless of whether the subjects wore a HA or CI. Lexical tone pairs with different durations and dissimilar tone contour patterns are more easily identified. Receiving devices at earlier age tends to produce better lexical tone identification abilities in prelingually deafened children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    instructions. The main string-matching instruction is available in commodity processors (i.e., Intel’s SSE4.2 and AVX Advanced String Operations); the other maximal-suffix instruction is only required during pattern preprocessing. In the absence of these two specialized instructions, we propose theoretically...

  1. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...... signals in hybridization filters and (2) localization of knit units in textile samples....

  2. Factorized Graph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando

    2015-11-19

    Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.

  3. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to current 3D codes that simulate binary black holes. A prime application of characteristic evolution is Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  4. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  5. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  6. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  7. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  8. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  9. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  10. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  11. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2012-10-01

    Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.

  12. A New View of Language Development: The Acquisition of Lexical Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L

    2016-05-01

    Research in first language development draws disproportionately from nontone languages. Such research is often presumed to reveal developmental universals in spite of the fact that most languages are tone languages. Recent research in the acquisition of tone languages points to a distinct course of development as compared to nontone languages. Our purpose is to provide an integrated review of research on lexical tone acquisition. First, the linguistic properties and origins of tone languages are described. Following this, research on the acquisition of tones in perception and production is reviewed and integrated. Possible reasons for the uniqueness of tone in language acquisition are discussed. Finally, theoretical advances promised by further research on tone acquisition and specific research directions are proposed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Analysis of tones in Cantonese speech based on the command-response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wentao; Hirose, Keikichi; Fujisaki, Hiroya

    2007-01-01

    As one of the major Chinese dialects, Cantonese has a tone system consisting of nine lexical tones and three additional changed tones, which is considerably more complex than that of Mandarin. The most important acoustic feature characterizing these tones is the contour of the voice fundamental frequency (the F(0) contour). In this article we present an approach to modeling F(0) contours of Cantonese utterances, based on an extension of the command-response model. Analysis-bysynthesis of F(0) contours of the utterances with a fixed carrier frame, in which a target syllable with each tone type is embedded, shows that each tone type can be represented by a specific pattern (polarity, timing, and amplitude) of tone commands. These patterns are found to be essentially maintained in F(0) contours of the utterances with unconstrained text. With the definition of these tone command patterns, the command-response model not only provides a novel phonological description of tones, but also gives high accuracy of approximations to F(0) contours of Cantonese utterances and allows one to analyze various tonal phenomena in quantitative terms. Quantitative distinctions between various tones are then revealed by statistical analysis of the timing and amplitude of tone commands. Especially, systematic alignment in timing is found between the onsets/offsets of tone commands and the rhyme of a syllable, and hence a set of constraints can be introduced, which together with those on tone command amplitudes and phrase command parameters, is then applied for generating F(0) contours of Cantonese utterances. The validity of the approach is verified by perceptual evaluation of the synthetic speech stimuli with model-generated F(0) contours, both on the intelligibility of tones and on the naturalness of prosody.

  14. ATST visible broadband imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; Wöger, Friedrich; Hegwer, Steve L.; Ferayorni, Andrew; Gregory, B. Scott

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4 meter class telescope for observation of the solar atmosphere currently in the construction phase. The Visible Broadband Imager (VBI) is a diffraction limited imaging instrument planned to be the first-light instrument in the ATST instrumentation suite. The VBI is composed of two branches, the "VBI blue" and the "VBI red", and uses state-of-the-art narrow bandwidth interference filters and two custom designed high speed filter wheels to take bursts of images that will be re-constructed using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) optimized near-real-time speckle image reconstruction engine. At first light, the VBI instrument will produce diffraction-limited movies of solar activity at eight discrete wavelengths with a field of view of 2 arc minutes square. In this contribution, the VBI design team will discuss the capabilities of the VBI and describe the design of the instrument, highlighting the unique challenges faced in the development of this unique instrument.

  15. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    Modern physiologically based binaural models employ internal delay lines in the pathways from left and right peripheries to central processing nuclei. Various models apply the delay lines differently, and give different predictions for the detection of dichotic pitches, wherein listeners hear a virtual tone in the noise background. Two dichotic pitch stimuli (Huggins pitch and binaural coherence edge pitch) with low boundary frequencies were used to test the predictions by two different models. The results from five experiments show that the relative dichotic pitch strengths support the equalization-cancellation model and disfavor the central activity pattern (CAP) model. The CAP model makes predictions for the lateralization of Huggins pitch based on interaural time differences (ITD). By measuring human lateralization for Huggins pitches with two different types of phase boundaries (linear-phase and stepped phase), and by comparing with lateralization of sine-tones, it was shown that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli is similar to that of the corresponding sine-tones, and the lateralizations of Huggins pitch stimuli with the two different boundaries were even more similar to one another. The results agreed roughly with the CAP model predictions. Agreement was significantly improved by incorporating individualized scale factors and offsets into the model, and was further unproved with a model including compression at large ITDs. Furthermore, ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees, were consistently lateralized on the left or right based on individual asymmetries---which introduces the concept of "earedness". Interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural time difference (ITD) are two different forms of temporal cues. With varying frequency, an auditory system based on IPD or ITD gives different quantitative predictions on lateralization. A lateralization experiment with sine tones tested whether human auditory system is an

  16. DYNAMICALLY MAINTAINING THE VISIBILITY GRAPH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VEGTER, G

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to maintain the visibility graph of a set of N line segments in the plane in O(log2 N + K log N) time, where K is the total number of arcs of the visibility graph that are destroyed or created upon insertion or deletion of a line segment. The line segments should be

  17. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  18. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove a visibility criterion and study orchard problem and the cardinality of visible points in large circles. Author Affiliations. Fernando Chamizo1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 14 November 2005. Proceedings ...

  19. Visible Jovian Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Jupiter's aurora on the night side of the planet is seen here at five different wavelengths. Jupiter's bright crescent, which is about half illuminated, is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees West and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.Although Jupiter's aurora had been imaged from Earth in the ultraviolet and infrared, these are the first images at visible wavelengths, where most of the emission takes place. CLR stands for clear (no filter) and shows the integrated brightness at all wavelengths. The other panels show the violet, green, red, and 889 nanometer-wavelength filtered images. The brightness of the aurora is roughly independent of wavelength, at least at the spectral resolution obtainable with these filters.As on Earth, the aurora is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere, causing the molecules of the atmosphere to glow. The brightness in the different filters contains information about the energy of the impinging particles and the composition of the upper atmosphere. If atomic hydrogen were the only emitter, the light would be much stronger in the red filter, which is not consistent with the observed distribution.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  20. Perception and Representation of Lexical Tones in Native Mandarin-Learning Infants and Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushen Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the perceptual development of lexical tones in native tone-learning infants during the first 2 years of life, focusing on two important stages of phonological acquisition: the preverbal and vocabulary explosion stages. Experiment 1 examined monolingual Mandarin-Chinese-learning 4- to 13-month-olds' discrimination of similar lexical tones in Mandarin, Tone 2 (T2, rising vs. Tone 3 (T3, low-dipping. Infants were habituated to exemplars of one tone (either T2 or T3, and tested with new exemplars of the habituated tone vs. the contrasting tone. Results show that looking time increased for the contrasting tone, but not for new exemplars of the habituated tone, suggesting that infants discriminated the two tones as separate categories. Furthermore, infants' discrimination of the tones was comparable across ages. Experiment 2 tested whether tones are distinguished in toddlers' lexicon. Monolingual Mandarin-learning 19- to 26-month-olds were presented with pairs of objects while one was named. Targets were familiar words bearing T2 or T3, either correctly pronounced (CP or mispronounced (MP in tone. We found that word recognition was equally successful in CP and in MP trials when T2 was mispronounced as T3 and T3 as T2, indicating that T2 and T3 are confusable. In contrast, recognition failed when T2 and T3 words were mispronounced as Tone 4 (T4, falling, showing that T4 was represented as a distinct category. Results show that toddlers have difficulty encoding similar tones distinctly in known words. The T2-T3 contrast is particularly challenging because of Tone 3 Sandhi, which changes T3 to T2 when it precedes another T3. At the stage when toddlers track the meaning of T2 and T3 words and track the sandhi alternations, they seem to overgeneralize the two tones as variants of one functional category, reflecting perceptual organization at the level of phonemic learning.

  1. Job match and income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honggang; Wang, Dahui; Chen, Xianggui

    2004-10-01

    This paper studies the income distributions from the view of job match. By numerical simulation, we present different income distributions cases with different degrees of job match. In particular, we analyze the probability distribution of individual income, and we also discuss the economic efficiency and economic equality in different job match cases. Our basic results are that different job matchs can change income distributions, and good job matchs can not only improve economic efficiency but also aggravate economic inequality.

  2. Tone perception in Cantonese and Mandarin: a cross-linguistic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y S; Vakoch, D A; Wurm, L H

    1996-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of linguistic experience on tone perception. Both Cantonese (in Experiment 1) and Mandarin (in Experiment 2) tones, including both lexical and nonlexical tones, were presented to three groups of subjects: Cantonese, Mandarin, and English native speakers. Subjects were asked to determine whether two auditorily presented tones were the same or different. The interval between the presentation of the two tones, and the level of interference during this interval, were manipulated. Native speakers did better at discriminating tones from their own languages than the other two groups of subjects, for both lexical and nonlexical tones. Subjects did worst when they were required to count backward during the interstimulus interval. Cantonese speakers were better than both Mandarin and English speakers at discriminating Cantonese tones, and there was no difference between Mandarin and English speakers, except in one condition. Mandarin speakers did better than both Cantonese and English speakers, and Cantonese speakers did better than English speakers, at discriminating Mandarin tones. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of language background, differences between Cantonese and Mandarin tones, and the nature of encoding in short-term memory.

  3. Effects of temporal grouping on the memory representation of inter-tone relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegata, Rika; Roggia, Simone Mariotto; Winkler, István

    2005-01-01

    The length of silence between successive sounds is a dominant cue for temporal grouping of sounds. The present study tested whether the sensory memory representation of inter-tone relationships is dependent on the grouping of tones within a single stream of sound. Subjects were presented with sequences of two alternating tones that differed from each other in frequency. Perception of a sequence made up of tone-pairs was promoted by alternating a short and a long inter-tone interval. Occasional tone repetitions fell either within one tone-pair or across two pairs. We found that detecting tone repetitions was slower for across- than within-pair repetitions (Experiment 1). Also the amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential was lower for across-pair repetitions compared with that measured in the control isochronous sequences (Experiment 2). This attenuation of the MMN-amplitude could not be explained by the inter-tone interval differences that existed between the paired and the isochronous conditions (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that temporal grouping affects the sensory memory representation of inter-tone relationships within a single sound stream.

  4. Tone-matched enhanced TIFF sidescan-sonar image from Temple Basin and Iceberg Canyon, Lake Mead - UTM projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  5. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  6. The effect of kisspeptin on the regulation of vascular tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Zsófia; Zamani-Forooshani, Omid; Csabafi, Krisztina; Szikszai, Bence; Papp, Eszter; Ónodi, Ádám; Török, Dóra; Leprán, Ádám; Telegdy, Gyula; Szabó, Gyula

    2015-09-01

    Kisspeptin has been implicated in cardiovascular control. Eicosanoids play a crucial role in the activation of platelets and the regulation of vascular tone. In the present study, we investigated the effect of kisspeptins on eicosanoid synthesis in platelets and aorta in vitro. Platelets and aorta were isolated from Wistar-Kyoto rats. After preincubation with different doses of kisspeptin, samples were incubated with [1-(14)C]arachidonic acid (0.172 pmol/mL) in tissue culture Medium 199. The amount of labeled eicosanoids was measured with liquid scintillation, after separation with overpressure thin-layer chromatography. Kisspeptin-13 stimulated the thromboxane synthesis. The dose-response curve was bell-shaped and the most effective concentration was 2.5 × 10(-8) mol/L, inducing a 27% increase. Lipoxygenase products of platelets displayed a dose-dependent elevation up to the dose of 5 × 10(-8) mol/L. In the aorta, kisspeptin-13 induced a marked elevation in the production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, and lipoxygenase products. Different effects of kisspeptin on cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products indicate that beyond intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, other signaling pathways might also contribute to its actions. Our data suggest that kisspeptin, through the alteration of eicosanoid synthesis in platelets and aorta, may play a physiologic and (or) pathologic role in the regulation of vascular tone.

  7. Statistical learning of tone sequences by human infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, J R; Johnson, E K; Aslin, R N; Newport, E L

    1999-02-01

    Previous research suggests that language learners can detect and use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to discover words in continuous speech (e.g. Aslin, R.N., Saffran, J.R., Newport, E.L., 1998. Computation of conditional probability statistics by 8-month-old infants. Psychological Science 9, 321-324; Saffran, J.R., Aslin, R.N., Newport, E.L., 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274, 1926-1928; Saffran, J., R., Newport, E.L., Aslin, R.N., (1996). Word segmentation: the role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language 35, 606-621; Saffran, J.R., Newport, E.L., Aslin, R.N., Tunick, R.A., Barrueco, S., 1997. Incidental language learning: Listening (and learning) out of the corner of your ear. Psychological Science 8, 101-195). In the present research, we asked whether this statistical learning ability is uniquely tied to linguistic materials. Subjects were exposed to continuous non-linguistic auditory sequences whose elements were organized into 'tone words'. As in our previous studies, statistical information was the only word boundary cue available to learners. Both adults and 8-month-old infants succeeded at segmenting the tone stream, with performance indistinguishable from that obtained with syllable streams. These results suggest that a learning mechanism previously shown to be involved in word segmentation can also be used to segment sequences of non-linguistic stimuli.

  8. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  9. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Broersma, L.; Ours, J.C. van

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about employed job searchers and job searchers from outside the labour market. In this paper, we specify and estimate matching functions where the flow corresponds to the correct stock. We use several a...

  10. Temporal integration of loudness measured using categorical loudness scaling and matching procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash N.; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal integration of loudness of 1 kHz tones with 5 and 200 ms durations was assessed in four subjects using two loudness measurement procedures: categorical loudness scaling (CLS) and loudness matching. CLS provides a reliable and efficient procedure for collecting data on the temporal integration of loudness and previously reported nonmonotonic behavior observed at mid-sound pressure level levels is replicated with this procedure. Stimuli that are assigned to the same category are effect...

  11. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  12. On the design of tone-free ΣΔ modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Traditional one-bit ΣΔ modulators used for A/D and D/A conversion produce very predominant tones near half the sample rate which might intermodulate in the analog converter section and cause in-band tones. This paper demonstrates how the use of chaos can substitute dither as a means for extinguis...... for extinguishing these tones. Especially, modulator feedback filters derived from noise transfer functions having an all-pass term seem very promising...

  13. Statistical Modelling of Print half-tone mottle in PET-G and PVC Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PVC and PET-G (Glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate have the highest consumption in the shrink sleeve market due to its high shrink abilities and cost effectiveness. The reproductions of fine tone details on these films are challenging as the occurrence of graininess and image-noise results in print defect such as print half-tone mottle. The presence of print half-tone mottle is visually disturbing leading to wastage of ink, substrate and time. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gravure process parameters viz. ink viscosity, press speed, impression hardness and line screen and develop statistical model for print half-tone mottle in shrink films. The base line for print half-tone mottle was determined by conducting production runs on press with a defined set of process parameters and the target was set to minimize it from the baseline. The half-tone area was scanned and processed through SFDA algorithm to calculate print half-tone mottle. The design of experiments (DOE was generated for above-mentioned process parameters and was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA to find the significant factor affecting the print half-tone mottle. The analysis revealed line screen, viscosity and hardness as significant factors in minimizing print half-tone mottle. The results showed minimization of print half-tone mottle by 28% for both PVC and PET-G films. Furthermore, regression model was developed and validated for print half-tone mottle and a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.8696 and 0.879 was achieved for PET-G and PVC respectively. The proposed model is helpful in determining the impact of gravure process parameters and prediction of print half-tone mottle in shrink films.

  14. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses......This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...

  15. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  16. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N.; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features. PMID:24065950

  17. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin’s assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  18. Effects of Perceived Social Loafing, Social Interdependence, and Group Affective Tone on Students’ Group Learning Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Luo, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how students perceived social loafing and social interdependence influence group learning performance through group affective tone in undergraduate hospitality and tourism curricula...

  19. The Impacts of Facial Tones and Stimulus Durations on Perceived Oldness and Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of facial tone and stimulus duration on perceived oldness and judgement of attraction. The stimulus were facial images of Asians. Facial tone (bright, middle, dark and stimulus duration (50ms, 200ms, 800ms were manipulated. In Experiment 1 perceived oldness was measured, and in Experiment 2 attractiveness was evaluated. The results showed that face was perceived older and less attractive with increase facial tone facial regardless of stimulus duration. This suggest that perceived oldness and judgement of attraction are closely related and affected primarily by facial tone.

  20. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  1. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    of applications. @ Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1985 "’ki report dcs;crihrs rccarch done at the Arificial lInelligence lhaboratory of the...411FO111 OIMMI bm tpal) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY MOTES None A IS~~~1. KEY WORS (Co~me 01 reerseea ............ MIngUfy ySek It Vision Variational principles...perception of visible surfaces. The explicit representation of visible surfaces, an intermediate goal of computational vision , has since attracted

  2. Reduced cranial parasympathetic tone during the remission phase of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofte, Hilde K; von Hanno, Therese; Alstadhaug, Karl B

    2015-05-01

    Cluster headache (CH) attacks are accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms indicative of parasympathetic hyperactivity and sympathetic dysfunction ipsilateral to the pain. We aimed to assess cranial autonomic function in CH patients during the remission phase of cluster headache. During a remission phase, 38 episodic CH patients underwent the following: dynamic pupillometry, measurement of the superficial temporal artery diameter by ultrasound, and measurement of the retinal vessel diameters from digital retinal photographs. Pupillometry was also performed on 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Thirty patients were included (27 men, three women, mean age 50.2 years ± 12.6). Seven patients reported occasional side shift of their headache, but with a clear predominating side. Significantly reduced average pupillary constriction velocity and retinal venular diameter on the CH pain side were found. There was no asymmetry of the superficial temporal artery diameters. Compared to healthy controls, cluster patients displayed bilaterally reduced pupillary average and maximum constriction velocities, reduced constriction in percentage and increased latency of the light reflex. The present findings indicate a bilaterally reduced cranial parasympathetic tone in CH patients in remission phase, with significant lateralization to the CH pain side. This implies a central origin, and a central pathophysiological model of CH is discussed. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone in patients with sleep related alveolar hypoventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Urrestarazu, Elena; Lopez-Azcarate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Fernandez, Secundino; Artieda, Julio; Iriarte, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    To assess autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in patients with sleep related alveolar hypoventilation (SRAH) and to compare it with that of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control patients. Cross-sectional study. Sleep Unit, University Hospital of University of Navarra. Fifteen idiopathic and obesity related-SRAH patients were studied. For each patient with SRAH, a patient with OSA, matched in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), minimal oxygen saturation (SatO2), and mean SatO2 was selected. Control patients were also matched in age, sex, and BMI with patients with OSA and those with SRAH, and in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) with patients with SRAH. N/A. Time- and frequency-domain HRV measures (R-R, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR interval [SDNN], very low frequency [VLF], low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], LF/HF ratio) were calculated across all sleep stages as well as during wakefulness just before and after sleep during a 1-night polysomnography. In patients with SRAH and OSA, LF was increased during rapid eye movement (REM) when compared with control patients, whereas HF was decreased during REM and N1-N2 sleep stages. The LF/HF ratio was equally increased in patients with SRAH and OSA during REM and N1-N2. Correlation analysis showed that LF and HF values during REM sleep were correlated with minimal SatO2 and mean SatO2. Patients with SRAH exhibited an abnormal cardiac tone during sleep. This fact appears to be related to the severity of nocturnal oxygen desaturation. Moreover, there were no differences between OSA and SRAH, supporting the hypothesis that autonomic changes in OSA are primarily related to a reduced nocturnal oxygen saturation, rather than a consequence of other factors such as nocturnal respiratory events.

  4. Sparse window local stereo matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local algorithm for dense stereo matching of gray images. This algorithm is a hybrid of the pixel based and the window based matching approach; it uses a subset of pixels from the large window for matching. Our algorithm does not suffer from the common pitfalls of the window based

  5. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity is re...

  6. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel negative tone photodefinable low dielectric constant hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Thomas J.; Weigel, Scott J.; Kretz, Chris P.

    2005-05-01

    Multifunctional films have the potential to reduce the number of processing steps to prepare various complex electronic devices and thereby reduce the cost of manufacturing the device and increase the throughput of the process. By combining low dielectric thin film and photoresist technologies into one material, such an advantage could be provided to electronics device markets. Air Products and Chemicals has discovered negative tone photodefinable films having dielectric constant values less than 3.0 that are developable in water and/or aqueous TMAH solutions. The low dielectric films produced via a novel reaction pathway involving the use of photoacid generators (PAGs) provides a versatile link to various feature sizes depending on the choice of radiation source and PAG used. Specific examples of film properties and processing latitude will be presented for these developmental materials.

  8. Photoacoustic Doppler measurement of flow using tone burst excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Gilead, Sharon; Eyal, Avishay

    2010-03-01

    In this paper a novel technique for flow measurement which is based on the photoacoustic (PA) Doppler effect is described. A significant feature of the proposed approach is that it can be implemented using tone burst optical excitation thus enabling simultaneous measurement of both velocity and position. The technique, which is based on external modulation and heterodyne detection, was experimentally demonstrated by measurement of the flow of a suspension of carbon particles in a silicon tube and successfully determined the particles mean velocity up to values of 130 mm/sec, which is about 10 times higher than previously reported PA Doppler set-ups. In the theoretical part a rigorous derivation of the PA response of a flowing medium is described and some important simplifying approximations are highlighted.

  9. Ray tracing study of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Grison, Benjamin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions have been subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research in last years. These emissions are characterized by high coherence values and a frequency range of 0.5 - 2.0 Hz, close to local helium gyrofrequency. We perform ray tracing case studies of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft in both nightside and dayside regions off the equatorial plane. By comparison of simulated and measured wave properties, namely wave vector orientation, group velocity, dispersion and ellipticity of polarization, we determine possible source locations. Diffusive equilibrium density model and other, semi-empirical models are used with ion composition inferred from cross-over frequencies. Ray tracing simulations are done in cold plasma approximation with inclusion of Landau and cyclotron damping. Various widths, locations and profiles of plasmapause are tested.

  10. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  11. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    enhanced relative to the non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics in the right auditory cortex, right frontal regions and inferior colliculus. However, the increase in neural activation in the right auditory cortex of musicians was predictive of the increased pitch......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... of training, which seemed to be specific to the stimuli containing resolved harmonics. Finally, a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to examine the response of the auditory cortex to resolved and unresolved harmonics in musicians and non-musicians. The neural responses in musicians were...

  12. Regulation of coronary resistance vessel tone in response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; Bache, Robert J; Merkus, Daphne

    2012-04-01

    Exercise is a primary stimulus for increased myocardial oxygen demand. The ~6-fold increase in oxygen demand of the left ventricle during heavy exercise is met principally by augmenting coronary blood flow (~5-fold), as hemoglobin concentration and oxygen extraction (which is already ~70% at rest) increase only modestly in most species. As a result, coronary blood flow is tightly coupled to myocardial oxygen consumption over a wide range of physical activity. This tight coupling has been proposed to depend on periarteriolar oxygen tension, signals released from cardiomyocytes and the endothelium as well as neurohumoral influences, but the contribution of each of these regulatory pathways, and their interactions, to exercise hyperemia in the heart remain incompletely understood. In humans, nitric oxide, adenosine and K(ATP) channels each appear to contribute to resting coronary resistance vessel tone, but evidence for a critical contribution to exercise hyperemia is lacking. In dogs K(ATP)-channel activation together with adenosine and nitric oxide contribute to exercise hyperemia in a non-linear redundant fashion. In contrast, in swine nitric oxide, adenosine and K(ATP) channels contribute to resting coronary resistance vessel tone control in a linear additive manner, but do not appear to be mandatory for exercise hyperemia. Rather, exercise hyperemia in swine appears to involve β-adrenergic activation in conjunction with exercise-induced blunting of an endothelin-mediated vasoconstrictor influence. In view of these remarkable species differences in coronary vasomotor control during exercise, future studies are required to determine the system of vasodilator components that mediate exercise hyperemia in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Coronary Blood Flow". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Background Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. Objective To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Methods Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD, and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms: 1) crossed, 2) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Results Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (ptouch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD: r=− 0.72 to −0.95 and controls: r=−0.74 to−0.85). Conclusions We showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone. PMID:22415944

  14. Characteristic Evolution and Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  15. A Multinomial Model for Identifying Significant Pure-Tone Threshold Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Carney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Significant threshold differences on retest for pure-tone audiometry are often evaluated by application of ad hoc rules, such as a shift in a pure-tone average or in 2 adjacent frequencies that exceeds a predefined amount. Rules that are so derived do not consider the probability of observing a particular audiogram. Methods: A general…

  16. Illusory Continuity without Sufficient Sound Energy to Fill a Temporal Gap: Examples of Crossing Glide Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Shuntarou

    2012-01-01

    The gap transfer illusion is an auditory illusion where a temporal gap inserted in a longer glide tone is perceived as if it were in a crossing shorter glide tone. Psychophysical and phenomenological experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sound-pressure-level (SPL) differences between crossing glides on the occurrence of the gap…

  17. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  18. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  19. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  20. Effects of diazepam on auditory evoked potentials of rats elicited in a ten-tone paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Dirksen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats, by measuring diazepam effects on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n=8) received 4 mg.kg-1 diazepam s.c. or vehicle, counterbalanced over two

  1. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary:Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension, and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation...

  2. On the origin of falling-tone chorus elements in Earth's inner magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Breuillard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Generation of extremely/very low frequency (ELF/VLF chorus waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere has received increased attention recently because of their significance for radiation belt dynamics. Though past theoretical and numerical models have demonstrated how rising-tone chorus elements are produced, falling-tone chorus element generation has yet to be explained. Our new model proposes that weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus elements can be generated by magnetospheric reflection of rising-tone elements. Using ray tracing in a realistic plasma model of the inner magnetosphere, we demonstrate that rising-tone elements originating at the magnetic equator propagate to higher latitudes. Upon reflection there, they propagate to lower L-shells and turn into oblique falling tones of reduced power, frequency, and bandwidth relative to their progenitor rising tones. Our results are in good agreement with comprehensive statistical studies of such waves, notably using magnetic field measurements from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft. Thus, we conclude that the proposed mechanism can be responsible for the generation of weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus emissions.

  3. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

  4. Orthographic and Phonological Parafoveal Processing of Consonants, Vowels, and Tones when Reading Thai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…

  5. The role of tone and morphology in the syntax of the Ikalanga DP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that Ikalanga DPs are not simple DPs but relative clauses, supporting Koopman's (2003) proposal that the structure of DP is really D CP rather than D NP. The agreement morphology on all three types of DPs discussed in this paper carry a low tone, a feature characteristic of relativisation. The low tone on ...

  6. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An In Vivo Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Brubaker, B.; Wu, S.M.; MacWhinney, B.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to

  7. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  8. Perception Practice, Production Practice, and Musical Ability in L2 Mandarin Tone-Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; DeKeyser, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the differential effects of systematic perception and production practice and the role of musical ability in learning Mandarin tone-words by native English-speaking adults in a training study. In this study, all participants (N = 38; 19 for each practice group) were first taught declarative knowledge of Mandarin tones and of…

  9. Processing of Acoustic Cues in Lexical-Tone Identification by Pediatric Cochlear-Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Lu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Nelson; Lin, Yung-Song; Deroche, Mickael L. D.; Chatterjee, Monita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to investigate acoustic cue processing in lexical-tone recognition by pediatric cochlear-implant (CI) recipients who are native Mandarin speakers. Method: Lexical-tone recognition was assessed in pediatric CI recipients and listeners with normal hearing (NH) in 2 tasks. In Task 1, participants identified naturally…

  10. Endothelin-1 Regulation of exercise-induced changes in flow: Dynamic regulation of vascular tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapoport, R.M. (Robert M.); D. Merkus (Daphne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAlthough endothelin (ET)-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at

  11. Interaction and notation of tone, stress and intonation in Ika Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the existence of tone, stress and intonation in an otherwise tone language, Ika Igbo. It shows that stress and intonation actually exist in the dialect, as evidenced by the significant prominence of certain syllables in the utterances used for the study. This prominence has been proved by both acoustic ...

  12. Vortex Matching and Domain Structure in Large Arrays of Artificial Pinning Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, S. B.; James, S.; Barentine, J.; Metlushko, V.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G.; Shtrikman, H.

    2000-03-01

    We have used high-resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy to obtain spatial information about vortex configurations in very large periodic arrays of artificial pinning sites. Very clear matching effects are seen at matching fields where there are one or two vortices per pinning site. At the third matching field, however, no matching effects are seen. Instead, there is a very disordered vortex configuration presumably due to weakly-pinned interstitials. Further, matching effects have been observed at several non-integral multiples of the matching field, including 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and 3/2. There is a clear domain structure visible at many of these non-integral matching fields, with striking domain wall boundaries. Finally, at integral matching fields we observe a weak modulation in the flux density which may be related to an possible positional instability.

  13. Matching their courage. Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-sadr, W

    1998-01-01

    In this article, a physician working at Harlem Hospital in New York City describes how she awaited her Friday clinic with trepidation 10 years ago but now awaits it with eagerness inspired by her patients. To illustrate this phenomenon, she introduces several of her patients. First is Mary Ann who has multiple health problems compounded by AIDS and never misses a single dose of her medications, although the list of drugs she takes extends to two single-spaced pages. Next is Rochelle, a 36-year-old grandmother who transformed herself from a homeless drug addict when she learned she had AIDS. Then there is Jackie, whose fear sparked such irrational behavior that she caused commotions when she was in the waiting room. Jackie had to put AIDS treatment on hold to combat multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis yet she never missed a dose of medication. Another patient is Gardenia, who blames her young son's death not on AIDS but on his medication and who always has an excuse for not taking her medication. Lester has been drug-free for 102 days and asks tough, intelligent questions about the efficacy of his proposed treatment. Hermine arrives with a notebook stuffed with clippings and information she has gathered from a variety of sources because she is afraid of missing out on the newest magic drug. These patients are similar to other HIV/AIDS patients in that they encounter the same pain, frailties, and doubts, but they are individually distinct in the way that HIV/AIDS has transformed their lives and given them the courage to face daunting odds. This courage should be matched by a commitment on the part of physicians to understand current treatments and address key questions about treatment effectiveness.

  14. Particle swarm optimization for pilot tones design in MIMO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuri Seyman, Muhammet; Taşpinar, Necmi

    2011-12-01

    Channel estimation is an essential task in MIMO-OFDM systems for coherent demodulation and data detection. Also designing pilot tones that affect the channel estimation performance is an important issue for these systems. For this reason, in this article we propose particle swarm optimization (PSO) to optimize placement and power of the comb-type pilot tones that are used for least square (LS) channel estimation in MIMO-OFDM systems. To optimize the pilot tones, upper bound of MSE is used as the objective function of PSO. The effects of Doppler shifts on designing pilot tones are also investigated. According to the simulation results, PSO is an effective solution for designing pilot tones.

  15. Particle swarm optimization for pilot tones design in MIMO-OFDM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşpinar Necmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Channel estimation is an essential task in MIMO-OFDM systems for coherent demodulation and data detection. Also designing pilot tones that affect the channel estimation performance is an important issue for these systems. For this reason, in this article we propose particle swarm optimization (PSO to optimize placement and power of the comb-type pilot tones that are used for least square (LS channel estimation in MIMO-OFDM systems. To optimize the pilot tones, upper bound of MSE is used as the objective function of PSO. The effects of Doppler shifts on designing pilot tones are also investigated. According to the simulation results, PSO is an effective solution for designing pilot tones.

  16. Hierarchical structural matching algorithms for registration of aerospace images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Potapov, Alexey

    2004-02-01

    The aim of investigation was developing the image registration algorithms dealing with the aerial and cosmic pictures taken in different seasons from differing view points, or formed by differing kinds of sensors (visible, IR, SAR). The task could not be solved using the traditional correlation based approaches, thus we chose the structural juxtaposition of the stable specific details of pictures as the general image matching technique. Structural matching was usually applied in the expert systems where the rather reliable results were based on the target specific algorithms, but our algorithms deal with the aerospace photographs of arbitrary contents for which the application specific approaches could not be used. The chosen form of structural descriptions should provide distinguishing between the similar simple elements in the huge multitudes of image contours, thus the descriptions were made hierarchical: we grouped the contour elements belonging to the separate compact image regions. The structural matching was carried out in two levels: matching the simple elements of every group in the first image with the ones of every group in the second image; matching the groups as the wholes. The top-down links were used to enhance the lower level matching using the higher level matching results.

  17. Football match spectator sound exposure and effect on hearing: a pretest-post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Hall, James W

    2010-03-30

    To determine (i) noise exposure levels of spectators at a FIFA 2010 designated training stadium during a premier soccer league match; and (ii) changes in auditory functioning after the match. This was a one-group pretest-post-test design of football spectators attending a premier soccer league match at a designated FIFA 2010 training stadium in Gauteng, South Africa. Individual spectator noise exposure for the duration of the football match and post-match changes in hearing thresholds were measured with pure-tone audiometry, and cochlear functioning was measured with distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The average sound exposure level during the match was 100.5 LAeq (dBA), with peak intensities averaging 140.4 dB(C). A significant (p=0.005) deterioration of post-match hearing thresholds was evident at 2 000 Hz, and post-match DPOAE amplitudes were significantly reduced at 1,266, 3,163 and 5,063 Hz (p=0.011, 0.019, 0.013, respectively). Exposure levels exceeded limits of permissible average and peak sound levels. Significant changes in post-match hearing thresholds and cochlear responsiveness highlight the possible risk for noise-induced hearing loss. Public awareness and personal hearing protection should be prioritized as preventive measures.

  18. Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions.

  19. Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Song; Lee, Kim Y.; Chen, K. Rex; Schepis, Dominic

    1996-06-01

    Most high performance negative tone resists are chemically amplified systems. The chemistry involves a creation of acid during photo-exposure and subsequent crosslinking of the polymer matrix during post-exposure bake. The commonly used crosslinkers are epoxies, melamines, benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetates. In light of the high reactivity of vinyl group on vinyl ether type compounds, literature has suggested that photochemical addition reaction of a polymer- bearing pendant vinyl ether with various thiol compounds can potentially be highly sensitive negative-type photoresists. Recently, bis-dihydropyrane derivative has been used for the first time to develop high performance negative tone resists for DUV, E-beam and x-ray applications. A cyclic acetal system based on acetal blocked aromatic aldehyde has also been demonstrated to be a good crosslinker for negative DUV resist. In order to take advantage of the above chemistries, we have investigated a crosslinker, 3,9-divinylspirobi(M-dioxane) (DVSDO), which contains both cyclic acetal groups and vinyl groups. Different loadings of DVSDO from 8% to 17% were formulated in combination with triphenyl sulfonyl triflate and N-sulfonyl triflate derivatives in polyhydroxystyrene matrix. One composition contains 8% N- sulfonyloxy derivative, 12% DVSDO in 20% solid of polyhydroxystyrene has shown resolution to 0.35 micrometer from Canon 0.37 NA DUV stepper. It also shows promising resolution in E-beam lithography. Varying the post apply bake (PAB) temperatures and post exposure bake temperatures (PEB) demonstrate a great dependency of sensitivity to baking temperature. The sensitivity increases with decreasing PAB, while decreases with decreasing PEB. Insufficient baking time (less than 4 - 5 minutes) at lower PEB temperature 90 degrees Celsius causes significant film loss after development in 0.14N TMAH for 60 - 75s. On the other hand, when the PEB temperature is too high (greater than 120 degrees Celsius), the resist

  20. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  1. Visibility Management and the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Wicker, Nichole

    2008-01-01

    The authors employed grounded theory to explore the high school experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in Central Texas. The central phenomenon that emerged from the study was Visibility Management, or decisions made regarding the disclosure of invisible traits. This article reviews the results of this research with an emphasis on the…

  2. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  3. Visible fluorescent proteins for FRET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, G.J.; Goedhart, J.; Gadella, T.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of Visible fluorescent proteins (VFPs) for FRET studies, a comprehensive table with Förster radii of VFP pairs is presented and recommendations for choosing the right pairs are made. The chapter discusses VFPs that are used for studies that use fluorescence resonance

  4. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  5. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  6. Modulatory compartments in cortex and local regulation of cholinergic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A

    2016-09-01

    Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and study of aqueous processable positive-tone photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shintaro; Owens, Jordan; Rager, Timo; Nielsen, Morton; Byers, Jeff D.; Willson, C. Grant

    2000-06-01

    Interest in developing materials with reduced environmental impact has led us to design resist formulations that can be cast from and developed with aqueous media. A water soluble chemically amplified positive tone photoresist based on thermal decarboxylation of a half ester of malonic acid has been designed. Two solubility switches are required for this application. Sequential volatilization of ammonia followed by decarboxylation of a malonic acid gives the first solubility switch and an acid catalyzed thermolysis of an acid labile protecting group gives the second. The thermal stability of the acid labile protecting group is critical in this design. Tert-butyl esters decompose during the decarboxylation process resulting in poor imaging contrast. Polymers bearing isobornyl esters are more thermally stable, and show excellent reaction selectivity between the decarboxylation and the thermolysis of the ester. Preliminary imaging of this system provided 1 micrometer resolution with 248 nm exposure and standard TMAH developer. The dry etch stability of the photoresist films is comparable to a conventional photoresist APEX-ER.

  8. Negative-tone cycloolefin photoresist for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, ShihChi; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Wang, Lon A.

    2001-08-01

    The chemistry of acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction and followed by crosslinking of the tert-alcohol group in the cycloolefin photoresists was used to tailor the performance of the photoresists for 193nm lithography. A radiation- sensitive photoacid generator (PAG) in this chemically amplified photoresist (CAMP) can change the polarity of the exposed area of the resist and exhibit a negative-tone behavior. The cycloolefin resists are synthesized by the free radical copolymerization of alicyclic monomer and maleic anhydride, and/or by the cationic polymerization of alicyclic monomer via Pd catalyst followed by the attaching of tert-alcohol group in to the resist. The side reaction of cycloolefin copolymer was observed at the temperature below the post exposure baking (PEB) temperature, but this problem can be eliminated by the introduction of isobornyl methacrylate into the polymer. The lithographic performance of the resists was investigated by using isopropyl alcohol as a developer under various processing conditions. The results demonstrate that these resists are the promising candidates for being used in 193nm lithography.

  9. Show Your Stuff and Watch Your Tone: Nurses' Caring Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, Ruth A; Clukey, Lory; Roberts, Melanie; Henderson, Ann

    2017-03-01

    Although it is perceived as essential, documentation of caring behaviors executed by nurses is rarely done. To facilitate what is important to patients and their family members, we need to understand what behaviors are perceived as caring or not caring. To explore perceptions of nurses' caring behaviors among intubated patients and their family members. A phenomenological study of 14 patients who were intubated, restrained, sedated, and received pain medication in an acute cardiovascular intensive care unit. The 14 patients and 8 of their family members were interviewed about their perceptions of this experience. A semistructured interview guide was used. Data were analyzed by using an inductive method consistent with qualitative research. Themes that emerged most often were providing information, providing reassurance, demonstrating proficiency, and being present. Other behaviors identified as caring behaviors were nurses giving guidance and using a soothing tone of voice. Behavior that was contrary to the perception of caring appeared as isolated incidents. These included negative attitude, interrupting sleep, not receiving information, and poor pain management. When patients and family members are asked directly about their experience, valuable insight is gained into what they perceive as caring and what contributes to recovery as perceived by those in crisis and in high-intensity medical settings. Capturing these data is elemental to designing high-quality, safe environments that facilitate healing. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  11. Comparison of machine and human recognition of isolated instrument tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes three different machine recognition experiments and a recently conducted human experiment in order to compare the abilities of machines and humans to recognize isolated instrument tones. The computer recognition software is based on the Lazy Learning Machine, which is an exemplar-based learning system using a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier with a genetic algorithm to find the optimal set of weights for the features to improve its performance. The performance of the software was progressively improved by adding more features. These include centroid and other higher order moments, such as skewness and kurtosis, the velocities of moments, spectral irregularity, tristimulus, and time-domain envelope shape. Also, realtime recognition is now possible by using Miller Pucketts PD, a realtime software synthesis system, and his fiddle~ object. The training data was taken from the McGill Master Samples. The human experiment involved eighty-eight conservatory students. Although the average human scores are similar to the machine scores, the best human subjects far exceeded the capabilities of the machine. The excellent performance of the humans in this experiment presents new challenges for timbre-recognition computer models.

  12. Effects of native language experience on perceptual learning of Cantonese lexical tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian

    2004-05-01

    In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.

  13. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot.

  14. Training for learning Mandarin tones: A comparison of production and perceptual training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2005-04-01

    Mandarin Chinese lexical tones pose difficulties for non-native speakers whose first languages contrast or do not contrast lexical tones. In this study, both tone language and non-tone language speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese were trained for three weeks to identify the four Mandarin lexical tones. One group took the production training with both visual and audio feedback using Kay Sona Speech II software. The target tones produced by native Mandarin speakers were played back through a pair of headphones and the pitch contours of the target tones were displayed on the computer screen on the top window to be compared with the trainees productions which appear in real time in the bottom window. Another group of participants took the perceptual training only with four-way forced choice identification tasks with immediate feedback. The same training tokens were used in both training modes. Pretest and post test data in perception and production were collected from both groups and were compared for effectiveness of training procedures.

  15. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  16. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  17. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  18. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  19. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17). Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES), skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.07–0.89). A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86), suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72) but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55). Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination. PMID:29231903

  20. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilanga Dilum Wewalaarachchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation – tone Sandhi – on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, ‘flour mill’ (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [fən(214 tʂʰɑŋ(214] undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [fən(35 tʂʰɑŋ(214]. In the current study, preschoolers’ sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: words that were labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post-Sandhi; words that were labeled with an unaltered form when tone Sandhi was licensed (Pre-Sandhi; non-Sandhi words correctly produced (Correct Pronunciation; and words labeled with a phonological alternation of tone not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation. Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation.

  1. Control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise in health and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Houweling, Birgit; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of the pulmonary circulation as a determinant of exercise capacity in health and disease, studies into the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the healthy lung during exercise are scarce. This review describes the current knowledge of the role of various endogenous vasoactive mechanisms in the control of pulmonary vascular tone at rest and during exercise. Recent studies demonstrate an important role for endothelial factors (NO and endothelin) and neurohumoral factors (noradrenaline, acetylcholine). Moreover, there is evidence that natriuretic peptides, reactive oxygen species and phosphodiesterase activity can influence resting pulmonary vascular tone, but their role in the control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise remains to be determined. K-channels are purported end-effectors in control of pulmonary vascular tone. However, K(ATP) channels do not contribute to regulation of pulmonary vascular tone, while the role of K(V) and K(Ca) channels at rest and during exercise remains to be determined. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with alterations in pulmonary vascular function and structure, resulting in blunted pulmonary vasodilatation during exercise and impaired exercise capacity. Although there is a paucity of studies pertaining to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, the few studies that have been performed in models of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction suggest altered control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. Since the increased pulmonary vascular tone during exercise limits exercise capacity, future studies are needed to investigate the vasomotor mechanisms that are responsible for the blunted exercise-induced pulmonary vasodilatation in pulmonary hypertension.

  2. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  3. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  4. Individual aptitude in Mandarin lexical tone perception predicts effectiveness of high-variability training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko eSadakata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the high-variability training method can enhance learning of non-native speech categories, this can depend on individuals’ aptitude. The current study asked how general the effects of perceptual aptitude are by testing whether they occur with training materials spoken by native speakers and whether they depend on the nature of the to-be-learned material. Forty-five native Dutch listeners took part in a five-day training procedure in which they identified bisyllabic Mandarin pseudowords (e.g., asa pronounced with different lexical tone combinations. The training materials were presented to different groups of listeners at three levels of variability: low (many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker, medium (fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by 3 speakers and high (similar to medium but with 5 speakers. Overall, variability did not influence learning performance, but this was due to an interaction with individuals’ perceptual aptitude: increasing variability hindered improvements in performance for low-aptitude perceivers while it helped improvements in performance for high-aptitude perceivers. These results show that the previously observed interaction between individuals’ aptitude and effects of degree of variability extends to natural tokens of Mandarin speech. This interaction was not found, however, in a closely-matched study in which native Dutch listeners were trained on the Japanese geminate/singleton consonant contrast. This may indicate that the effectiveness of high-variability training depends not only on individuals’ aptitude in speech perception but also on the nature of the categories being acquired.

  5. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  6. Automatic structural matching of 3D image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Svjatoslav; Lutsiv, Vadim; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A new image matching technique is described. It is implemented as an object-independent hierarchical structural juxtaposition algorithm based on an alphabet of simple object-independent contour structural elements. The structural matching applied implements an optimized method of walking through a truncated tree of all possible juxtapositions of two sets of structural elements. The algorithm was initially developed for dealing with 2D images such as the aerospace photographs, and it turned out to be sufficiently robust and reliable for matching successfully the pictures of natural landscapes taken in differing seasons from differing aspect angles by differing sensors (the visible optical, IR, and SAR pictures, as well as the depth maps and geographical vector-type maps). At present (in the reported version), the algorithm is enhanced based on additional use of information on third spatial coordinates of observed points of object surfaces. Thus, it is now capable of matching the images of 3D scenes in the tasks of automatic navigation of extremely low flying unmanned vehicles or autonomous terrestrial robots. The basic principles of 3D structural description and matching of images are described, and the examples of image matching are presented.

  7. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  8. Electrical Grounding Improves Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Rohit; Doheny, Kim K; Gordin, Yuri; Hinssen, Hans; Palmer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Low vagal tone (VT) is a marker of vulnerability to stress and the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Electric fields produced by equipment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) induce an electric potential measurable on the skin in reference to ground. An electrical connection to ground reduces the skin potential and improves VT in adults. We aimed to measure the electric field strengths in the NICU environment and to determine if connecting an infant to electrical ground would reduce the skin potential and improve VT. We also wished to determine if the skin potential correlated with VT. Environmental magnetic flux density (MFD) was measured in and around incubators. Electrical grounding (EG) was achieved with a patch electrode and wire that extended to a ground outlet. We measured the skin potential in 26 infants and heart rate variability in 20 infants before, during, and after grounding. VT was represented by the high-frequency power of heart rate variability. The background MFD in the NICU was below 0.5 mG, but it ranged between 1.5 and 12.7 mG in the closed incubator. A 60-Hz oscillating potential was recorded on the skin of all infants. With EG, the skin voltage dropped by about 95%. Pre-grounding VT was inversely correlated with the skin potential. VT increased by 67% with EG. After grounding, the VT fell to the pre-grounding level. The electrical environment affects autonomic balance. EG improves VT and may improve resilience to stress and lower the risk of neonatal morbidity in preterm infants. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Robustness of regional matching scheme over global matching scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The paper has established and verified the theory prevailing widely among image and pattern recognition specialists that the bottom-up indirect regional matching process is the more stable and the more robust than the global matching process against concentrated types of noise represented by clutter, outlier or occlusion in the imagery. We have demonstrated this by analyzing the effect of concentrated noise on a typical decision making process of a simplified two candidate voting model where ...

  10. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    OpenAIRE

    ROYAL, KENNETH; Hardie, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to ?think? and do not know where to begin when asked to teach ?thinking.? We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of...

  11. Visibility of halos and rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D

    1980-09-15

    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  12. Minimalist surface-colour matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Foster, David H; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

    2005-01-01

    Some theories of surface-colour perception assume that observers estimate the illuminant on a scene so that its effects can be discounted. A critical test of this interpretation of colour constancy is whether surface-colour matching is worse when the number of surfaces in a scene is so small that any illuminant estimate is unreliable. In the experiment reported here, observers made asymmetric colour matches between pairs of simultaneously presented Mondrian-like patterns under different daylights. The patterns had either 49 surfaces or a minimal 2 surfaces. No significant effect of number was found, suggesting that illuminant estimates are unnecessary for surface-colour matching.

  13. Musical duplex perception: perception of figurally good chords with subliminal distinguishing tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M D; Pastore, R E

    1992-08-01

    In a variant of duplex perception with speech, phoneme perception is maintained when distinguishing components are presented below intensities required for separate detection, forming the basis for the claim that a phonetic module takes precedence over nonspeech processing. This finding is replicated with music chords (C major and minor) created by mixing a piano fifth with a sinusoidal distinguishing tone (E or E flat). Individual threshold intensities for detecting E or E flat in the context of the fixed piano tones are established. Chord discrimination thresholds defined by distinguishing tone intensity were determined. Experiment 2 verified masked detection thresholds and subliminal chord identification for experienced musicians. Accurate chord perception was maintained at distinguishing tone intensities nearly 20 dB below the threshold for separate detection. Speech and music findings are argued to demonstrate general perceptual principles.

  14. The ideomotor principle and motor sequence acquisition: tone effects facilitate movement chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Christian; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2004-04-01

    Participants practiced short sequences of key presses; sequence length and response-effect mapping were the independent variables. Contingent, distinct key-effect relations were contrasted with either contingent but uniform or no response effects. In Experiment 1, tone effects were relevant as response-specific stimuli and also as effects. The sequence length effect for the tones group was reduced. In Experiment 2, participants were informed about the sequences to be executed and then given varying amounts of preparation time before the start signal. A reduction in the sequence length effect was observed, and initiation times and mean interresponse time (IRTs) were generally reduced in the tone group. Preparation time could compensate for some but not all of the latency reducing influence of the tone effects. The results are discussed with reference to ideomotor approaches to motor control, i.e., the notion that actions are represented in sensory format. Copyright 2003 Springer-Verlag

  15. Cortical pitch representations of complex tones in musicians and non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    enhancement. In a previous behavioral study, musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance for both resolved and unresolved complex tones suggesting an enhanced neural representation of pitch at central stages of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to clarify whether musicians show...... (i) differential neural activation in response to complex tones as compared to non-musicians and/or (ii) finer fundamental frequency (F0) representation in the auditory cortex. Assuming that the right auditory cortex is specialized in processing fine spectral changes, we hypothesized that an enhanced...... F0 representation in musicians would be associated with a stronger right-lateralized response to complex tones compared to non-musicians. Fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds were obtained for harmonic complex tones with F0s of 100 and 500 Hz, filtered in either a low or a high...

  16. Discrimination between Tone Quality and Intonation in Unaccompanied Flute/Oboe Duets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that investigated patterns of judgmental discriminations and preferences with regard to tone quality versus intonation of accompanied flute and oboe duet performances of simple melodies among music and nonmusic graduate and undergraduate students. (AM)

  17. Photometric invariant stereo matching method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Jinjun; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin

    2015-01-01

    A robust stereo matching method based on a comprehensive mathematical model for color formation process is proposed to estimate the disparity map of stereo images with noise and photometric variations...

  18. Matched Spectral Filter Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes the development of an imaging spectrometer for greenhouse gas and volcanic gas imaging based on matched spectral filtering and compressive imaging....

  19. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  20. Abnormal truncal muscle tone as a useful early marker for developmental delay in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, M K; Bernbaum, J C; Hoffman-Williamson, M; Daft, A

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-four outborn premature infants of appropriate gestational ages with birth weights less than 1,750 g were seen in follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, corrected age to assess the incidence of abnormalities of muscle tone and the relationship of the site of early abnormalities to 18-month developmental status. The incidence of abnormal tone was most common at 3 months and declined with increasing age. The percentages of infants with abnormal tone at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively, were: increased lower extremity tone--62%, 71%, 38%, 9%; decreased lower extremity tone--3%, 3%, 6%, 9%; increased truncal tone--41%, 15%, 6%, 0%; decreased truncal tone--21%, 18%, 15%, 6%. Infants with truncal hypertonicity at 3 months had significantly lower Bayley motor and mental scores at 18 months when compared with infants with normal truncal tone (P less than .05). However, infants with lower extremity hypertonicity at 3 months were no different developmentally at 18 months from infants with normal tone. Infants with truncal or lower extremity hypotonicity fared the worst developmentally (P less than .05). We conclude that there is a high incidence of abnormal muscle tone in premature infants up to 18 months of age and that early truncal tone abnormalities are associated with a worse developmental outcome.

  1. Transient tone abnormalities in high risk infants and cognitive outcome at five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sudha; Bhalerao, Mangalmurti; Chitale, Anjali; Patil, Bharati; Pandit, Anand; Hoge, Mahendra

    2010-11-01

    to identify transient tone abnormalities and determine its prevalence in high risk infants and their cognitive outcome at 5 years. prospective cohort observational study. high risk infants discharged from a level II neonatal unit in a 12 month period, and followed upto 5 years. High risk infants and normal controls were assessed for abnormalities of tone using the method described by Amiel Tison at 3, 6, 9, 12 months. An IQ by Stanford Binet method and a preschool inventory by Ayres, Bobath was done at 5 years. Those infants who had normal tone at 6 and 12 months were called normal high risk (HR) group and those who had abnormalities at 6 months, which disappeared at 12 months, were called the transient tone abnormalities (TTA) group. out of 190 high risk infants, 113 were normal HR and 67 (35.2%) were labeled as TTA. Ten infants with cerebral palsy had abnormal tone throughout the first year. Controls had normal tone throughout the follow-up period. Although there was no difference in the IQ of the TTA group (98.5 ± 12.4) and the normal HR (99.1 ± 13.1) group, it was significantly less (P=0.04) than that of controls (106.1 ± 9.1). Preschool inventory in TTA children showed poor language development (P=0.014). many of the tone abnormalities detected at 6 months resolve by 12 months, hence a hasty diagnosis of cerebral palsy should not be made. High risk infants with transient tone abnormalities have a normal cognitive outcome at 5 years, except for poor language skills.

  2. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  3. Lower cardiac vagal tone in non-obese healthy men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio S. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m², healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications, aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old. Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype, a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles - unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005, sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037 and waist circumference (p<0.001. In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023, while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  4. Pure-Tone-Spondee Threshold Relationships in Functional Hearing Loss: A Test of Loudness Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Han, Heekyung J.; Yu, Tzu-Ling J.; Carney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine explanations for pure-tone average-spondee threshold differences in functional hearing loss. Method: Loudness magnitude estimation functions were obtained from 24 participants for pure tones (0.5 and 1.0 kHz), vowels, spondees, and speech-shaped noise as a function of level (20-90 dB SPL).…

  5. Left auditory cortex is involved in pairwise comparisons of the direction of frequency modulated tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eAngenstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating series of complex sounds like those in speech and music requires sequential comparisons to extract task-relevant relations between subsequent sounds. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we investigated whether sequential comparison of a specific acoustic feature within pairs of tones leads to a change in lateralized processing in the auditory cortex of humans. For this we used the active categorization of the direction (up versus down of slow frequency modulated (FM tones. Several studies suggest that this task is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex. These studies, however, tested only the categorization of the FM direction of each individual tone. In the present study we ask the question whether the right lateralized processing changes when, in addition, the FM direction is compared within pairs of successive tones. For this we use an experimental approach involving contralateral noise presentation in order to explore the contributions made by the left and right auditory cortex in the completion of the auditory task. This method has already been applied to confirm the right-lateralized processing of the FM direction of individual tones. In the present study, the subjects were required to perform, in addition, a sequential comparison of the FM-direction in pairs of tones. The results suggest a division of labor between the two hemispheres such that the FM direction of each individual tone is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex whereas the sequential comparison of this feature between tones in a pair is probably performed in the left auditory cortex.

  6. Review og pattern matching approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfaat, D.; Duffy, Alex; Lee, B. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of pattern matching techniques. The application areas for pattern matching are extensive, ranging from CAD systems to chemical analysis and from manufacturing to image processing. Published techniques and methods are classified and assessed within the context of three...... key issues: pattern classes, similiarity types and mathing methods. It has been shown that the techniques and approaches are as diverse and varied as the applications....

  7. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  8. Cortical thickness of planum temporale and pars opercularis in native language tone processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schremm, Andrea; Novén, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Söderström, Pelle; van Westen, Danielle; Roll, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between linguistic tone processing and cortical thickness of bilateral planum temporale (PT) and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo). Swedish tones on word stems function as cues to upcoming endings. Correlating structural brain imaging data with participants' response time patterns for suffixes, we found that thicker cortex in the left PT was associated with greater reliance on tones to anticipate upcoming inflections on real words. On inflected pseudoword stems, however, the cortical thickness of left IFGpo was associated with tone-suffix processing. Thus cortical thickness of the left PT might play a role in processing tones as part of stored representations for familiar speech segments, most likely when inflected forms are accessed as whole words. In the absence of stored representations, listeners might need to rely on morphosyntactic rules specifying tone-suffix associations, potentially facilitated by greater cortical thickness of left IFGpo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  10. The immediate effect of PNF pattern on muscle tone and muscle stiffness in chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joong-San; Lee, Sang-Bin; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscle tone and muscle stiffness in stroke patients. [ Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 patients with chronic stroke (stroke group) and 15 healthy persons (healthy group). We measured the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation intervention on the lower extremity using a muscle tone measurement device; this detected changes in muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles. [Results] Measurements taken before the intervention showed that, on average, the lower extremity muscles of the stroke group showed abnormally increased muscle tone and stiffness compared to the lower extremity muscles of the healthy group. After the intervention, the average muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles of the stroke group decreased, but this change was insignificant, and the differences between the two groups were also insignificant. [Conclusion] Based on the findings of this study, we recommend proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment of both affected and non-affected sides to decrease the abnormally increased muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles of chronic stroke patients.

  11. Van Allen Probes observations of whistler-mode chorus with long-lived oscillating tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Chen, Lunjin; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2017-06-01

    Whistler-mode chorus plays an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. In the frequency-time spectrogram, chorus often appears as a hiss-like band and/or a series of short-lived (up to ˜1 s) discrete elements. Here we present some rarely reported chorus emissions with long-lived (up to 25 s) oscillating tones observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside (MLT ˜9-14) midlatitude (|MLAT|>15°) region. An oscillating tone can behave either regularly or irregularly and can even transform into a nearly constant tone (with a relatively narrow frequency sweep range). We suggest that these highly coherent oscillating tones were generated naturally rather than being related to some artificial VLF transmitters. Possible scenarios for the generation of the oscillating tone chorus are as follows: (1) being nonlinearly triggered by the accompanying hiss-like bands or (2) being caused by the modulation of the wave source. The details of the generation and evolution of such a long-lived oscillating tone chorus need to be investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the future.

  12. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  13. Visibility and invisibility in chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, S.

    2010-01-01

    Does the visibility of a condition necessarily lead to stigmatization? Is it easier to suffer from an invisible than a visible condition? And what are the consequences of living with an invisible or visible illness? In this article the author draws on the concepts of stigma and concealability to

  14. Semiglobal Matching Results on the Isprs Stereo Matching Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    Digital surface models can be efficiently generated with automatic image matching from optical stereo images. The Working Group 4 of Commission I on "Geometric and Radiometric Modelling of Optical Spaceborne Sensors" provides a matching benchmark dataset with several stereo data sets from high and very high resolution space borne stereo sensors at http://www.commission1.isprs.org/wg4/ . The selected regions are in Catalonia, Spain, and include three test areas, covering city areas, rural areas and forests in flat and medium undulated terrain as well as steep mountainous terrain. In this paper, digital surface models (DSM) are derived from the Cartosat-1 and Worldview-1 datasets using Semiglobal Matching. The resulting DSM are evaluated against the first pulse returns of the LIDAR reference dataset provided by the Institut Cartogr`afic de Catalunya (ICC), using robust accuracy measures.

  15. Visible spectrum of stable sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joseph T.

    1992-12-01

    Synchronous emissions of picosecond pulses of light are observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field. The spectrum has been measured using a single slit spectrometer equipped with a linear array CCD detector. Spectra from differing solutions of water and glycerin are compared to the visible blackbody spectrum distribution. Assuming a blackbody model, apparent temperatures of 18,900 Kelvins are observed in pure water. Increasing glycerin concentration appears to correlate with cooler blackbody temperatures. The spectrum is also found to continually change with time, independent of input parameters.

  16. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Royal; Lizette Hardie

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of...

  17. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Royal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of thinking and presents more than 20 teaching routines that can help engage learners and improve learning to think.

  18. Book Review: Making Thinking Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth; Hardie, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in medical education emphasize the importance of producing well-rounded graduates who not only possess a sufficient fund of medical knowledge but who can think clearly and deeply. Unfortunately, many medical educators struggle with what exactly it means to “think” and do not know where to begin when asked to teach “thinking.” We believe the book Making Thinking Visible, though written for K-12, will be of great interest to medical educators. The book describes different types of thinking and presents more than 20 teaching routines that can help engage learners and improve learning to think.

  19. Fingerprint Matching and Non-Matching Analysis for Different Tolerance Rotation Degrees in Commercial Matching Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Perez-Diaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is the most important step in the fingerprint-based biometric systems. The matching score islinked to the chance of identifying a person. Nowadays, two fingerprint matching methods are the most popular: thecorrelation-based method and the minutiae-based method. In this work, three biometric systems were evaluated:Neurotechnology Verifinger 6.0 Extended, Innovatrics IDKit SDK and Griaule Fingerprint SDK 2007. The evaluationwas performed according to the experiments of the Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC. The influence of thefingerprint rotation degrees on false match rate (FMR and false non-match rate (FNMR was evaluated. The resultsshowed that the FMR values increase as rotation degrees increase too, meanwhile, the FNMR values decrease.Experimental results demonstrate that Verifinger SDK shows good performance on false non-match testing, with anFNMR mean of 7%, followed by IDKit SDK (6.71% ~ 13.66% and Fingerprint SDK (50%. However, Fingerprint SDKdemonstrates a better performance on false match testing, with an FMR mean of ~0%, followed by Verifinger SDK(7.62% - 9% and IDKit SDK (above 28%. As result of the experiments, Verifinger SDK had, in general, the bestperformance. Subsequently, we calculated the regression functions to predict the behavior of FNMR and FMR fordifferent threshold values with different rotation degrees.

  20. Excessive anterior cervical muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether excessive neck muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing using videofluorography (VF in an unnatural posture in healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 28 healthy adults (12 men, 16 women; mean age, 39.75±9.50 years without any history or present complaints of swallowing disorders. We first established the participant’s posture a reclining wheelchair that was adjusted to a 30-degree angle with the headrest (without excessive neck muscle tone or without headrest (with excessive neck muscle tone, used an electromyogram above the mylohyoid muscle to represent the suprahyoid muscles and above the sternohyoid muscle to represent the infrahyoid muscles to confirm neck muscle tone, and then conducted VF of swallowing measurements. Videofluorographic images were obtained when 5 mL of 50% (w/v barium sulfate was being swallowed, and hyoid bone coordinate (the resting position and the elevated position, extent of horizontal and vertical hyoid bone elevation, as well as duration and velocity of hyoid bone elevation were evaluated (x-axis and y-axis coordinates for the resting position of hyoid bone are referred to as Xr and Yr, respectively; those for the elevated hyoid bone position induced during swallowing are referred to as Xs and Ys, respectively. Results: In the resting position of the hyoid bone, the Yr coordinates in those with excessive neck muscle tone were significantly lower than in those without excessive neck muscle tone. Vertical hyoid bone elevation and hyoid bone elevation velocity were significantly higher with excessive neck muscle tone than without excessive neck muscle tone, whereas horizontal elevation showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Our findings

  1. JPEG ringing artifact visibility evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sirui; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve high perceptual quality of compressed images, many objective image quality metrics for compression artifacts evaluation and reduction have been developed based on characterization of local image features. However, it is the end user who is judging the image quality in various applications, so the validation of how well these metrics predict human perception is important and necessary. In this paper, we present a preliminary psychophysics experiment method to capture human perception of local ringing artifacts in JPEG images with different severity levels. Observers are asked to annotate the compressed image where they perceive artifacts along the edges, directly on the screen using an interactive tablet display. They are asked to catalog the severity of artifacts into one of the three levels: Strong, Medium, and Light. We process the hand-marked data into a ringing visibility edge map showing a ringing severity mean opinion score (MOS) at every edge pixel. The perceptual information captured in this experiment, enables us to study the correlation between human perception and local image features, which is an important step towards the goal of developing a non-reference (NR) objective metric to predict the visibility of JPEG ringing artifacts in alignment with the assessments of human observers.

  2. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  3. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  5. Juvenile growth reduces the influence of epithelial sodium channels on myogenic tone in skeletal muscle arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lori S; Masilamani, Shyama; Boegehold, Matthew A

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that rapid juvenile growth is accompanied by functional changes in the arteriolar endothelium, but much less is known about functional changes in arteriolar smooth muscle over this period. In this study, we investigate the possible contribution of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) to the myogenic behaviour of arterioles at two stages of juvenile growth. The effects of the ENaC inhibitor benzamil on different levels of myogenic tone were studied in isolated gracilis muscle arterioles from rats aged 21-28 days ("weanlings") and 42-49 days ("juveniles"). ENaC subunit expression in the arteriolar wall was also determined, and the interaction between ENaC and nitric oxide (NO) in regulating vascular tone was explored by combined use of benzamil and NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). At physiological pressures, both steady-state myogenic tone and the dynamic adjustments in this tone triggered by acute pressure changes were less in juvenile arterioles than in weanling arterioles. α, β and γ ENaC protein was present in arterioles at both ages, but benzamil only had an effect on myogenic tone in weanling arterioles. In these vessels, benzamil increased, rather than decreased, myogenic tone, and this effect was prevented by l-NMMA or endothelial removal. These findings suggest that although ENaC is present in gracilis muscle arterioles of both weanling and juvenile rats, it is not obligatory for the genesis of myogenic activity in these vessels at either age. However, ENaC activity can significantly modulate the level of myogenic tone through stimulation of endothelial NO release at an early stage of growth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. [The application of artificial neural network on the assessment of lexical tone production of pediatric cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y T; Chen, Z M; Xu, L

    2017-08-07

    Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the tone production ability of the Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CI) by using an artificial neural network model and to examine the potential contributing factors underlining their tone production performance. The results of this study might provide useful guidelines for post-operative rehabilitation processes of pediatric CI users. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight prelingually deafened children who received unilateral CI participated in this study. As controls, 170 similarly-aged children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited. A total of 36 Chinese monosyllabic words were selected as the tone production targets. Vocal production samples were recorded and the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of each syllable was extracted using an auto-correlation algorithm followed by manual correction. An artificial neural network was created in MATLAB to classify the tone production. The relationships between tone production and several demographic factors were evaluated. Results: Pediatric CI users produced Mandarin tones much less accurately than did the NH children (58.8% vs. 91.5% correct). Tremendous variability in tone production performance existed among the CI children. Tones 2 and 3 were produced less accurately than tones 1 and 4 for both groups. For the CI group, all tones when in error tended to be judged as tone 1. The tone production accuracy was negatively correlated with age at implantation and positively correlated with CI use duration with correlation coefficients (r) of -0.215 (P=0.003) and 0.203 (P=0.005), respectively. Age was one of the determinants of tonal ability for NH children. Conclusions: For children with severe to profound hearing loss, early implantation and persistent use of CI are beneficial to their tone production development. Artificial neural network is a convenient and reliable assessment tool for the development of tonal ability of hearing

  7. Stereo matching using Hebbian learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, G; Cruz, J M; Lopez-Orozco, J A

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the local stereo matching problem using edge segments as features with several attributes. We have verified that the differences in attributes for the true matches cluster in a cloud around a center. The correspondence is established on the basis of the minimum distance criterion, computing the Mahalanobis distance between the difference of the attributes for a current pair of features and the cluster center (similarity constraint). We introduce a learning strategy based on the Hebbian Learning to get the best cluster center. A comparative analysis among methods without learning and with other learning strategies is illustrated.

  8. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2017-11-22

    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  9. Psychophysical performance and Mandarin tone recognition in noise by cochlear implant users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli; Jin, Xin; Chen, Xiaowei; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychophysical performance in temporal and spectral resolution and Mandarin tone recognition in noise by cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. Design Seventeen Nucleus-24 implant users, 10 post-lingually deafened and 7 pre-lingually deafened, participated in the experiments. A 3-interval, forced-choice procedure was used to measure gap detection and pure-tone frequency discrimination at 250 to 4,000 Hz in octave steps. A 4-alternative forced-choice procedure was used to measure Mandarin tone recognition in quiet and in noise. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) varied from +10 to -10 dB. All stimuli were delivered to the clinical processor via a speaker in a sound free field. The obtained data were compared to data collected from normal-hearing control subjects, as well as cochlear-implant users who performed similar tasks using single-electrode stimulation via a research interface. Results Post-lingually deafened CI subjects generally performed better than pre-lingually deafened subjects. The average gap detection threshold was ~ 30 ms with a range from 4 to 128 ms. The average frequency difference limen was ~100 Hz with a range from 12 to 192 Hz, regardless of the standard frequency. The average tone recognition was 80% correct in quiet, which dropped to 55% at +10 dB SNR and essentially chance performance at -5 dB SNR. In comparison, the normal-hearing control subjects maintained essentially perfect performance over this SNR range. Only frequency discrimination at 1,000 Hz was significantly correlated with tone recognition in quiet but all psychophysical measures were correlated to tone recognition in noise. Conclusions The present result suggests that the CI users can rely on either temporal or spectral cues to perform tone recognition in quiet, but need both cues for tone recognition in noise. Future CI processors need to extract and encode these acoustic cues to achieve better performance in tone

  10. Low vagal tone magnifies the association between psychosocial stress exposure and internalizing psychopathology in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13-17; N = 168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients.

  11. Visual comfort is affected by urban colorscape tones in hazy weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People׳s visual perception and recognition of urban colorscape tones change significantly in hazy weather. A psychological experiment is conducted in this study to investigate visual comfort related to commercial and residential buildings. Visual observations are performed on the tones of an urban colorscape during hazy weather and air pollution in Harbin, China. Fifty-eight color samples selected through an orthogonal method are evaluated through a Likert scale by 30 subjects in a laboratory setting. Statistical analysis is performed with the maximal information coefficient and R language. Experimental results show that the changing threshold values of color tones are related to the visual comfort levels of the subjects. The influence of the three factors of color tones on visual comfort level is relatively independent, and the effects of value and chroma contrast on color comfort level are greater than that of hue contrast in hazy weather. Furthermore, the comfort recognition threshold values of color tones in hazy weather are determined through data comparisons and analyses.

  12. Immediate effects of kinematic taping on lower extremity muscle tone and stiffness in flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joong-San; Um, Gi-Mai; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the immediate effects of kinematic taping on the tone and stiffness in the leg muscles of subjects with flexible flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 subjects, 15 in the kinematic taping and 15 in the sham taping group, were administered respective taping interventions. Subsequently, the foot pressure and the tone and stiffness in the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles of both the lower extremities were measured. [Results] The foot pressure of the dominant leg significantly decreased in the kinematic taping group. The muscle tone and stiffness in the rectus femoris muscle of the dominant and non-dominant leg, tibialis anterior muscle of the dominant leg, medial gastrocnemius muscle of the non-dominant leg, and the stiffness in the dominant leg significantly decreased. The muscle tone and stiffness generally increased in the sham taping group. However, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that kinematic taping on flexible flat feet had positive effects of immediately reducing the abnormally increased foot pressure and the tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles.

  13. The effects of non-elastic taping on muscle tone in stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Jun Sub; Jang, Gwon Uk; Park, Seol; Park, Ji Won

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] Hemiplegia occurs when posturing with a dominant flexor tone is present in the upper limbs, thus preventing increased abnormal tone. We attempted to improve the side effects of this condition using elbow re-positioning with non-elastic tape; this method is used to modulate abnormal muscle tone in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen post-stroke patients were included in this study. Non-elastic tape was applied to the elbow joint in a spiral manner. Before and after the tape was applied, the degree of spasticity (hypertonia) was measured in the elbow flexor muscles using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Global synkinesis (GS) intensity using electromyography (EMG) was measured in the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during voluntary isometric elbow contractions of the contralateral upper limbs. [Results] Application of non-elastic tape at the elbow joint significantly changed the GS intensity, but no significant changes were found when compared with the MAS. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that non-elastic tape can be used to decrease abnormal elbow flexor tone. The findings may be used to influence the choice of intervention regarding muscle tone and spastic elbow flexion.

  14. Effects of linguistic experience on early levels of perceptual tone processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsan; Johnson, Keith

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the phenomenon of language-specificity in Mandarin Chinese tone perception. The main question was whether linguistic experience affects the earliest levels of perceptual processing of tones. Chinese and American English listeners participated in four perception experiments, which involved short inter-stimulus intervals (300 ms or 100 ms) and an AX discrimination or AX degree-of-difference rating task. Three experiments used natural speech monosyllabic tone stimuli and one experiment used time-varying sinusoidal simulations of Mandarin tones. AE listeners showed psychoacoustic listening in all experiments, paying much attention to onset and offset pitch. Chinese listeners showed language-specific patterns in all experiments to various degrees, where tonal neutralization rules reduced perceptual distance between two otherwise contrastive tones for Chinese listeners. Since these experiments employed procedures hypothesized to tap the auditory trace mode (Pisoni, Percept. Psychophys. 13, 253-260 (1973)], language-specificity found in this study seems to support the proposal of an auditory cortical map [Guenther et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23, 213-221 (1999)]. But the model needs refining to account for different degrees of language-specificity, which are better handled by Johnsons (2004, TLS03:26-41) lexical distance model, although the latter model is too rigid in assuming that linguistic experience does not affect low-level perceptual tasks such as AX discrimination with short ISIs.

  15. Deriving bounded tone with layered feet in Harmonic Serialism: The case of Saghala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Breteler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to bounded tone shift and spread as found in Bantu languages. Its core intuition is that the bounding domain is delimited by foot structure. The approach uses layered foot representations to capture ternary phenomena, following Martinez-Paricio & Kager (2015. A set of licensing and structural constraints regulate tone-foot interactions. Harmonic Serialism is adopted as the grammatical framework, to allow for an account of opaque patterns (Prince & Smolensky 1993/2004; McCarthy 2010a. The present approach improves on previous accounts in two ways. Firstly, the size of the tonal bounding domain follows from independently motivated foot representations, rather than being stipulated in the constraint set. Secondly, the approach obviates the need for markedness constraints that refer to underlying structure, because all relevant lexical information is reflected in foot structures. The approach is demonstrated on Saghala (Patin 2009. Saghala shows both shift and spread in a trisyllabic domain. There are six tone patterns, dependent on the contact or near-contact of tones, and the position of word boundaries. An analysis is presented that accounts for all patterns. The success of the analysis shows that the foot-based approach is equipped to deal with a variety of bounded tone phenomena.

  16. The effects of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonhee

    Building mechanical equipment often generates prominent tones because most systems include rotating parts like fans and pumps. These tonal noises can cause unpleasant user experiences in spaces and, in turn, lead to increased complaints by building occupants. Currently, architectural engineers can apply the noise criteria guidelines in standards or publications to achieve acceptable noise conditions for assorted types of spaces. However, these criteria do not apply well if the noise contains perceptible tones. The annoyance thresholds experienced by the general population with regards to the degree of tones in noise is a significant piece of knowledge that has not been well-established. Thus, this dissertation addresses the relationship between human perception and noises with tones in the built environment. Four phases of subjective testing were conducted in an indoor acoustic testing chamber at the University of Nebraska to achieve the research objective. The results indicate that even the least prominent tones in noises can significantly decrease the cognitive performance of participants on a mentally demanding task. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance of test results have proven that tonality has a crucial influence on working memory capacity of subjects, whereas loudness levels alone did not. A multidimensional annoyance model, incorporating psycho-acoustical attributes of noise in addition to loudness and tonality, has been proposed as a more accurate annoyance model.

  17. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  18. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  19. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  20. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas...

  1. Sample-whitened matched filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ib

    1973-01-01

    A sample-whitened matched filter (SWMF) for a channel with intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise is defined as a linear filter with the properties that its output samples are a sufficient statistic for the MAP estimation of the transmitted sequence and have uncorrelated noise...

  2. Joint inpainting of depth and reflectance with visibility estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marco; Aujol, Jean-François; Biasutti, Pierre; Brédif, Mathieu; Bugeau, Aurélie

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy to generate, from 3-D lidar measures, dense depth and reflectance images coherent with given color images. It also estimates for each pixel of the input images a visibility attribute. 3-D lidar measures carry multiple information, e.g. relative distances to the sensor (from which we can compute depths) and reflectances. When projecting a lidar point cloud onto a reference image plane, we generally obtain sparse images, due to undersampling. Moreover, lidar and image sensor positions typically differ during acquisition; therefore points belonging to objects that are hidden from the image view point might appear in the lidar images. The proposed algorithm estimates the complete depth and reflectance images, while concurrently excluding those hidden points. It consists in solving a joint (depth and reflectance) variational image inpainting problem, with an extra variable to concurrently estimate handling the selection of visible points. As regularizers, two coupled total variation terms are included to match, two by two, the depth, reflectance, and color image gradients. We compare our algorithm with other image-guided depth upsampling methods, and show that, when dealing with real data, it produces better inpainted images, by solving the visibility issue.

  3. Pure tone audiometry and impedance screening of school entrant children by nurses: evaluation in a practical setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Holtby, I; Forster, D P; Kumar, U

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for hearing loss in English children at entry to school (age 5-6 years) is usually by pure tone audiometry sweep undertaken by school nurses. This study aimed to compare the validity and screening rates of pure tone audiometry with impedance screening in these children. METHODS: Two stage pure tone audiometry and impedance methods of screening were compared in 610 school entry children from 19 infant schools in north east England. Both procedures were completed by school...

  4. Berlyne revisited: Evidence for the multifaceted nature of hedonic tone in the appreciation of paintings and music

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Maria Marin; Allegra Lampatz; Michaela Wandl; Helmut Leder

    2016-01-01

    In his seminal book on aesthetics, Berlyne (1971) posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific ...

  5. On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Roger M; Dille, Marilyn L; Leek, Marjorie R; Fausti, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octave-bandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limited-bandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad implementation and analysis of our MFTB synthesis technique and sample performance measurements of the MFTB stimulus configuration used in a clinical research ABR system.

  6. Effects of frequency-modulated auditory tones on the voice fundamental frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, S; McClean, M D; Luschei, E S

    1983-03-01

    The sensitivity of audio-laryngeal reflex pathways to sinusoidal changes in the fundamental frequency of complex auditory tones (AF0) was assessed indirectly in three young adult human subjects. The subjects sustained phonation at constant voice fundamental frequency (VF0) and voice intensity while listening to a sawtooth tone whose AF0 varied over time in a sinusoidal fashion (rates = 5-13 Hz). The subjects phonated at a low voice intensity so that the intensity of the auditory tone (80-85 dB SL) completely masked their voice. Using computer signal averaging and Fourier analysis techniques it was found that the sinusoidally modulated AF0 induced similar modulations in the VF0 signal. The VF0 modulations were extremely small in amplitude and showed large phase shifts relative to the auditory input. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of auditory feedback in phonatory control.

  7. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New segmentation-based tone mapping algorithm for high dynamic range image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weiwei; Guo, Huinan; Zhou, Zuofeng; Huang, Huimin; Cao, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    The traditional tone mapping algorithm for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) image has the drawback of losing the impression of brightness, contrast and color information. To overcome this phenomenon, we propose a new tone mapping algorithm based on dividing the image into different exposure regions in this paper. Firstly, the over-exposure region is determined using the Local Binary Pattern information of HDR image. Then, based on the peak and average gray of the histogram, the under-exposure and normal-exposure region of HDR image are selected separately. Finally, the different exposure regions are mapped by differentiated tone mapping methods to get the final result. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm achieve the better performance both in visual quality and objective contrast criterion than other algorithms.

  9. Presbycusis occurs after cochlear implantation also: a retrospective study of pure tone thresholds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Samuel; Matusik, Deanna Kattah; Ferro, Lia; Gao, Weihua; Saadia-Redleaf, Miriam

    2012-12-01

    To assess aided soundfield pure tone thresholds after cochlear implantation in adults over time. Retrospective case review. Academic tertiary care center. Seventy-seven severe-to-profoundly deafened adults implanted with one of 5 different internal devices. Cochlear implantation. Outcome measures were cochlear implant aided soundfield pure tone thresholds at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz. For the 77 adult patients in the study, pure tone aided thresholds deteriorated over time at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz at rates ranging from 0.54 to 0.86 dB per year with the implant (p presbycusis, this deterioration is most prominent at the highest frequencies; however, the incidence and rate of deterioration is higher than that seen in presbycusis. These physiologic changes are not indicative of device failure and do not mean that performance measures will necessarily deteriorate.

  10. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Quam

    Full Text Available Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58, regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28, but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  11. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  12. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  13. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  14. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss among cerebellopontine-angle tumor patients examined with pure tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked response audiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinindra, A. M.; Zizlavsky, S.; Bashiruddin, J.; Aman, R. A.; Wulani, V.; Bardosono, S.

    2017-08-01

    Tumor in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) accurs for approximately 5-10% of all intracranial tumors, where unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus are the most frequent symptoms. This study aimed to collect data on sensorineural hearing loss in CPA tumor patients in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH) using pure tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked response audiometry (BERA). It also aimed to obtaine data on CPA-tumor imaging through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This was a descriptive, analytic, and cross-sectional study. The subjects of this study were gathered using a total sampling method from secondary data between July 2012 and November 2016. From 104 patients, 30 matched the inclusion criteria. The CPA-tumor patients in the ENT CMH outpatient clinic were mostly female, middle-aged patients (41-60 years) whose clinical presentation was mostly tinnitus and severe, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss in 10 subjects. From 30 subjects, 29 showed ipsilaterally impaired BERA results, and 17 subjects showed contralaterally impaired BERA results. There were 24 subjects who with large-sized tumors and 19 subjects who had intracanal tumors that had spread until they were extracanal in 19 subjects.

  16. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  17. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that young people’s prototypes of science students and scientists affect their inclination to choose tertiary STEM programs (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). Consequently, many recruitment initiatives include role models to challenge these prototypes......’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...... images and situation-specific conceptions of role models. Furthermore, the study underlined the positive effect of prolonged role-model contact, the importance of using several role models and that traditional school subjects catered more resistant prototype images than unfamiliar ones did...

  18. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  19. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  20. Unwanted sounds generated with test tone presentation can spoil extended high-frequency audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakata, Kenji; Mizunami, Tazu; Matsushita, Kazuma; Shiraishi, Kimio

    2010-10-01

    Unwanted sounds from a commercially available audiometer were evaluated in terms of their effects on extended high-frequency (EHF) audiometry. Although the manufacturer reported that the audiometer conformed to relevant International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, the audiograms obtained using the audiometer were erroneous because the subjects had responded falsely to noise generated with the test tone presentation before detecting the test tone. Analyses of acoustic and electric output signals revealed that the audiometer generated most of the unwanted sounds, not the earphones that were used. Based on the measurement results, clinical implications of the measurement results are discussed for conducting more reliable EHF audiometry.

  1. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with approx......In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  2. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedbacka)

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J.; Babu, Tara; Charles R Larson

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject’s voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a trian...

  3. Heightened Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone and Altered Contractility in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Khalifé, Samir; Ouellet, Stéphane; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions are reported to be involved in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Although heightened PFM tone has been suggested, the relative contribution of active and passive components of tone remains misunderstood. Likewise, alterations in PFM contractility have been scarcely studied. To compare PFM tone, including the relative contribution of its active and passive components, and muscular contractility in women with PVD and asymptomatic controls. Fifty-six asymptomatic women and 56 women with PVD participated in the study. The PVD diagnosis was confirmed by a gynecologist based on a standardized examination. PFM function was evaluated using a dynamometric speculum combined with surface electromyography (EMG). PFM general tone was evaluated in static conditions at different vaginal apertures and during repeated dynamic cyclic stretching. The active contribution of tone was characterized using the ratio between EMG in a static position and during stretching and the proportion of women presenting PFM activation during stretching. Contribution of the passive component was evaluated using resting forces, stiffness, and hysteresis in women sustaining a negligible EMG signal during stretching. PFM contractility, such as strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance, also was assessed during voluntary isometric efforts. Greater PFM resting forces and stiffness were found in women with PVD compared with controls, indicating an increased general tone. An increased active component also was found in women with PVD because they presented a superior EMG ratio, and a larger proportion of them presented PFM activation during stretching. Higher passive properties also were found in women with PVD. Women with PVD also showed decreased strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance compared with controls. Findings provide further evidence of the contribution of PFM alterations in the etiology of PVD. These alterations should be

  4. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due......, spectral broadening is calculated and analyzed for typical meteorological regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer and different flight trajectories of UAVs. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Spectral broadening might also provide a means for remotely sensing...

  5. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  6. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    diskuteres en nyskabende metode som kombinerer en eksisterende geostatistisk metode med gradient information. Arbejdet har resulteret i en omfattende beskrivelse af eksisterende teknikker og har desuden resulteret i udviklingen af en nyskabende metode, som kombinerer gradient information med en stokastisk...... history matching metode. Den foreslåede metode forsøger at forbedre konvergensen af traditionel probability perturbation ved at inkludere kvalitativ gradient information....

  7. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  8. On String Matching with Mismatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nicolae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider several variants of the pattern matching with mismatches problem. In particular, given a text \\(T=t_1 t_2\\cdots t_n\\ and a pattern \\(P=p_1p_2\\cdots p_m\\, we investigate the following problems: (1 pattern matching with mismatches: for every \\(i, 1\\leq i \\leq n-m+1\\ output, the distance between \\(P\\ and \\(t_i t_{i+1}\\cdots t_{i+m-1}\\; and (2 pattern matching with \\(k\\ mismatches: output those positions \\(i\\ where the distance between \\(P\\ and \\(t_i t_{i+1}\\cdots t_{i+m-1}\\ is less than a given threshold \\(k\\. The distance metric used is the Hamming distance. We present some novel algorithms and techniques for solving these problems. We offer deterministic, randomized and approximation algorithms. We consider variants of these problems where there could be wild cards in either the text or the pattern or both. We also present an experimental evaluation of these algorithms. The source code is available at http://www.engr.uconn.edu/\\(\\sim\\man09004/kmis.zip.

  9. Toward More Accurate Iris Recognition Using Cross-Spectral Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalla, Pattabhi Ramaiah; Kumar, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Iris recognition systems are increasingly deployed for large-scale applications such as national ID programs, which continue to acquire millions of iris images to establish identity among billions. However, with the availability of variety of iris sensors that are deployed for the iris imaging under different illumination/environment, significant performance degradation is expected while matching such iris images acquired under two different domains (either sensor-specific or wavelength-specific). This paper develops a domain adaptation framework to address this problem and introduces a new algorithm using Markov random fields model to significantly improve cross-domain iris recognition. The proposed domain adaptation framework based on the naive Bayes nearest neighbor classification uses a real-valued feature representation, which is capable of learning domain knowledge. Our approach to estimate corresponding visible iris patterns from the synthesis of iris patches in the near infrared iris images achieves outperforming results for the cross-spectral iris recognition. In this paper, a new class of bi-spectral iris recognition system that can simultaneously acquire visible and near infra-red images with pixel-to-pixel correspondences is proposed and evaluated. This paper presents experimental results from three publicly available databases; PolyU cross-spectral iris image database, IIITD CLI and UND database, and achieve outperforming results for the cross-sensor and cross-spectral iris matching.

  10. Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, A.H.; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen

    Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An

  11. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hermosilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  12. Basic Study on Visibility and Water Equivalency of a New Colorless Transparent Bolus for Electron Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daiki; Yamazaki, Shinichi; Honda, Emi; Suzuki, Eiji; Hommatsu, Kouji; Oshiba, Ryo; Sato, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Boluses used in electron radiotherapy need to have radiation field visibility and water equivalence. In this report, we have examined field visibility and water equivalence of a new colorless transparent bolus. We examined field visibility, water equivalence, and dose profile. Field visibility was evaluated by comparison to conventional bolus. Water equivalence was investigated by a measured fluence scaling factor. The dose profile was measured by using radiochromic film with the bolus and an ionization chamber in water. We confirmed that the irradiation field could clearly be seen through the transparent colorless bolus. The bolus did not cast a field edge as compared with the conventional bolus. The fluence scaling factor was less than 0.8% as compared to water. We confirmed that the colorless transparent bolus was treated as a water equivalent material. The percentage depth dose (PDD) measured by using radiochromic film with the bolus matched the PDD measured with an ionization chamber in water. R50 was less than 1 mm as compared to PDD measured with an ionization chamber. It was confirmed that the colorless transparent bolus can use to set up patient without losing visibility on flat ground planes. The fluence scaling factor and dose profile measured by using the bolus matched the results measured in water. Therefore, the new colorless transparent bolus has feasibility to improve patient setup efficiency and can improve calculation accuracy by using the fluence scaling factor.

  13. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  14. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Lee, Meg Mei Ling; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  15. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  16. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children’s performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults’ performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants’ difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts’ similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  17. Heterochrony and cross-species intersensory matching by infant vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they get older. We investigated the evolutionary origins of this behavioral phenotype by examining whether or not this developmental process occurs in non-human primates as well.We tested the ability of infant vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops, ranging in age from 23 to 65 weeks, to match the faces and voices of another non-human primate species (the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Even though the vervets had no prior exposure to rhesus monkey faces and vocalizations, our findings show that infant vervets can, in fact, recognize the correspondence between rhesus monkey faces and voices (but indicate that they do so by looking at the non-matching face for a greater proportion of overall looking time, and can do so well beyond the age of perceptual narrowing in human infants. Our results further suggest that the pattern of matching by vervet monkeys is influenced by the emotional saliency of the Face+Voice combination. That is, although they looked at the non-matching screen for Face+Voice combinations, they switched to looking at the matching screen when the Voice was replaced with a complex tone of equal duration. Furthermore, an analysis of pupillary responses revealed that their pupils showed greater dilation when looking at the matching natural face/voice combination versus the face/tone combination.Because the infant vervets in the current study exhibited cross-species intersensory matching far later in development than do human infants, our findings suggest either that intersensory perceptual narrowing does not occur in Old World monkeys or that it occurs later in development. We argue that these

  18. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  19. Generation of correlated UV and visible rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Li, Wenxue; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate concurrent frequency up-conversion and down-conversion in a quadratic nonlinear medium for the generation of correlated ultraviolet and visible rainbows with one-to-one angular and spectral correspondence, facilitating generation of continuously tunable and photon-momentum-dependent multi-wavelength UV and visible twin photons.

  20. No-visible-scar cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz M. Wróblewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is a laparoscopic method providing a good cosmetic effect,but requiring the application of special ports and instruments enabling the surgeon to perform the procedure.We report three-ports cholecystectomy through umbilical and suprapubic incisions performed with typical laparos -copic instruments which calls no-visible-scar cholecystectomy (NVSC.Material and methods: Twenty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were qualified for NVSC. Typical CO2 pneumoperitoneumwas done after umbilical skin incision. Two ports of 5 mm were inserted in the maximum externaledges of this incision. After cystic duct and cystic artery dissection the right one was exchanged for a port of 11 mm.The second incision for the 11-mm trocar for the laparoscope was done in the suprapubic median line within the hairarea.Results: Cholecystectomies were performed without any conversion to classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHor open surgery. They were not technically identical due to the gradual improvement in the access and manipulationof instruments. The time of the intervention ranged from 2 hours during the introduction of the new method to 50 minfor the last procedures. No postoperative complications were observed and all patients were discharged not later thanafter conventional LCH.Conclusions: NVSC is a three-port laparoscopic intervention performed with typical laparoscopic instruments. It ismore convenient for the surgeon than single incision LCH, because the placement of the optic in the suprapubic regiongives more space for the instruments. It also provides a very good cosmetic effect of the intervention. The describedprocedure is easy to learn and in case of technical problems additional ports can be applied (as in typical LCH.

  1. Glasses for seeing beyond visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiangHua; Bureau, Bruno; Lucas, Pierre; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lucas, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Conventional glasses based on oxides have a transparency limited by phonon absorption in the near IR region and have a limited interest for analyzing information located far beyond the visible. The IR spectral domain is nevertheless of prime interest, since it covers fundamental wavelength ranges used for thermal imaging as well as molecular vibrational signatures. Besides spectacular advances in the field of IR detectors, the main significant progresses are related to the development of IR glass optics, such as lenses or IR optical fibres. The field of IR glasses is almost totally dominated by glasses formed from heavy atoms such as the chalcogens S, Se and Te. Their transparency extends up to 12, 16 and 28 microm for sulfide-, selenide- and the new generation of telluride-based glasses, respectively. They cover the atmospheric transparency domains, 3-5 and 8-13 microm, respectively, at which the IR radiation can propagate allowing thermal imaging and night-vision operations through thick layers of atmosphere. The development of new glass compositions will be discussed on the basis of structural consideration with the objective of moulding low-cost lenses for IR cameras used, for instance, in car-driving assistance. Additionally, multimode, single-index, optical fibres operating in the 3 to 12 microm window developed for in situ remote evanescent-wave IR spectroscopy will also be mentioned. The detection of molecular IR signatures is applied to environmental monitoring for investigating the pollution of underground water with toxic molecules. The extension of this technique to the investigation of biomolecules in three different studies devoted to liver tissues analysis, bio-film formation, and cell metabolism will also be discussed. Finally we will mention the developments in the field of single-mode fibres operating around 10 mum for the Darwin space mission, which is aiming at discovering, signs of biological life in telluric earth-like exoplanets throughout

  2. Sequential motif profile of natural visibility graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    The concept of sequential visibility graph motifs—subgraphs appearing with characteristic frequencies in the visibility graphs associated to time series—has been advanced recently along with a theoretical framework to compute analytically the motif profiles associated to horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs). Here we develop a theory to compute the profile of sequential visibility graph motifs in the context of natural visibility graphs (VGs). This theory gives exact results for deterministic aperiodic processes with a smooth invariant density or stochastic processes that fulfill the Markov property and have a continuous marginal distribution. The framework also allows for a linear time numerical estimation in the case of empirical time series. A comparison between the HVG and the VG case (including evaluation of their robustness for short series polluted with measurement noise) is also presented.

  3. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  4. Effects of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions on pure-tone frequency difference limens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rói; Santurette, Sébastien; Verhulst, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    of nerve cells tuned to the SOAE frequency could lead to a central oversensitivity to that frequency, hence a better frequency-discrimination ability. However, it is also known that tones close in frequency to an SOAE can “entrain” the emission to oscillate at their own frequency. This may instead explain...

  5. Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) flight tones: Frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin J.; Emr, Kevin S.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. Recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female Aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. Fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. The male fundamental frequency was higher than that of the female and males modulated it over a wider range. Analysis of harmonics shows that the first six partials were nearly always within 1 Hz of integer multiples of the fundamental, even when the fundamental was being modulated. Along the front-back axis, amplitude attenuated as a function of distance raised to the power 2.3. Front and back recordings were out of phase, as were above and below, while left and right were in phase. Recordings from ahead and behind showed quadratic phase coupling, while others did not. Finally, two methods are presented for separating simultaneous flight tones in a single recording and enhancing their frequency resolution. Implications for mosquito behavior are discussed. PMID:25234901

  6. Developing a corpus to verify the performance of a tone labelling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on a study that involved the development of a corpus used to verify the performance of two tone labelling algorithms, with one algorithm being an improvement on the other. These algorithms were developed for speech synthesis...

  7. Evaluation of pure tone audiometry and impedance screening in infant schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtby, I; Forster, D P

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to evaluate impedance measurements against pure tone audiometry as a screening method for the detection of middle ear changes associated with hearing loss in infant school children; (2) to estimate the costs of the health authority of each method. DESIGN--The study involved two stage screening in which both methods were offered, pure tone audiometry being carried out by school nurses and impedance screening by a doctor. SETTING--18 infant or primary schools in Langbaurgh, Cleveland, UK. PARTICIPANTS--610 previously unscreened infant school children took part in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of each screening method, using clinical assessment and action as the validating technique. The sensitivity and the predictive value of a positive test in two stage impedance screening was markedly superior to that of pure tone audiometry. The specificity was similar using the two methods. In addition the impedance methods was more rapid and estimated to consume less resource as a screening procedure than pure tone audiometry. CONCLUSIONS--The superiority of the use of impedance screening established in this study should be confirmed in a subsequent audit carried out purely by school nurses. PMID:1573355

  8. An Exploration of the Effects of Skin Tone on African American Life Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Alfiee M.; Collins, Wanda; Damico, Karen Lowenstein; Steward, Robbie; King, Jennifer

    This study surveys African Americans to assess perceptions of and life experiences with the issue of skin tone. Thirty-seven African American adults agreed to complete a survey packet and participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Skin…

  9. Pre-attentive modulation of brain responses to tones in coloured-hearing synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäncke Lutz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coloured-hearing (CH synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which an acoustic stimulus (the inducer initiates a concurrent colour perception (the concurrent. Individuals with CH synesthesia "see" colours when hearing tones, words, or music; this specific phenomenon suggesting a close relationship between auditory and visual representations. To date, it is still unknown whether the perception of colours is associated with a modulation of brain functions in the inducing brain area, namely in the auditory-related cortex and associated brain areas. In addition, there is an on-going debate as to whether attention to the inducer is necessarily required for eliciting a visual concurrent, or whether the latter can emerge in a pre-attentive fashion. Results By using the EEG technique in the context of a pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we show that the binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is associated with increased MMN amplitudes in response to deviant tones supposed to induce novel concurrent colour perceptions. Most notably, the increased MMN amplitudes we revealed in the CH synesthetes were associated with stronger intracerebral current densities originating from the auditory cortex, parietal cortex, and ventral visual areas. Conclusions The automatic binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is accompanied by an early pre-attentive process recruiting the auditory cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as ventral occipital areas.

  10. Skin Tone, Racism, Locus of Control, Hostility, and Blood Pressure in Hispanic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Brandy; Ernst, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence that blood pressure is higher in persons with darker skin tone but the reasons for this remain unclear. When seen in minorities, the positive relationship between darkness of skin and blood pressure invites hypotheses about potential mediators of the relationship. We investigated the relationship in Hispanics of primarily…

  11. [Speech perception with hearing aids in comparison to pure-tone hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, U; Hast, A; Hocke, T

    2014-06-01

    Speech perception is the most important social task of the auditory system. Consequently, speech audiometry is essential to evaluate hearing aid benefit. The aim of the study was to describe the correlation between pure-tone hearing loss and speech perception. In particular, pure-tone audiogram, speech audiogram, and speech perception with hearing aids were compared. In a retrospective study, 102 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included. Pure-tone loss (PTA) was correlated to monosyllabic perception at 65 dB with hearing aid and with maximum monosyllabic perception with headphones. Speech perception as a function of hearing loss can be represented by a sigmoid function. However, for higher degrees of hearing loss, substantial deviations are observed. Maximum monosyllabic perception with headphones is usually not achieved with hearing aids at standard speech levels of 65 dB. For larger groups, average pure-tone hearing loss and speech perception correlate significantly. However, prognosis for individuals is not possible. In particular for higher degrees of hearing loss substantial deviations could be observed. Speech performance with hearing aids cannot be predicted sufficiently from speech audiograms. Above the age of 80, speech perception is significantly worse.

  12. Discrimination of Tone Contrasts in Mandarin Disyllables by Naive American English Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the perception of Mandarin disyllabic tones by inexperienced American English speakers. Participants heard two naturally-produced Mandarin disyllables, and indicated if the two were the same or different. A small native Mandarin-speaking control group participated as well. All 21 possible Mandarin contrasts where the…

  13. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q

    2016-01-01

    -VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which...

  14. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044

  15. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82% LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51% of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3. Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2, while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  16. How to Study a Tone Language, with Exemplification from Oku (Grassfields Bantu, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to requests I have often got as to how one approaches a tone language, I present a personal view of the three stages involved, starting from scratch and arriving at an analysis: Stage I: Determining the tonal contrasts and their approximate phonetic allotones. Stage II: Discovering any tonal alternations ("morphotonemics").…

  17. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  18. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d 920...

  19. [The role of temporal fine structure in tone recognition and music perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Gu, X; Liu, B

    2017-11-07

    The sound signal can be decomposed into temporal envelope and temporal fine structure information. The temporal envelope information is crucial for speech perception in quiet environment, and the temporal fine structure information plays an important role in speech perception in noise, Mandarin tone recognition and music perception, especially the pitch and melody perception.

  20. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension and...

  1. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian Camoro; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...

  2. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  3. Comparative study between pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state responses in normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Ramos, Bernardo Faria; Grasel, Signe Schuster; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Moraes, Maria Flávia Bonadia B de; Almeida, Edigar Rezende de; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) are an important tool to detect objectively frequency-specific hearing thresholds. Pure-tone audiometry is the gold-standard for hearing evaluation, although sometimes it may be inconclusive, especially in children and uncooperative adults. Compare pure tone thresholds (PT) with ASSR thresholds in normal hearing subjects. In this prospective cross-sectional study we included 26 adults (n = 52 ears) of both genders, without any hearing complaints or otologic diseases and normal puretone thresholds. All subjects had clinical history, otomicroscopy, audiometry and immitance measurements. This evaluation was followed by the ASSR test. The mean pure-tone and ASSR thresholds for each frequency were calculated. The mean difference between PTand ASSR thresholdswas 7,12 for 500 Hz, 7,6 for 1000 Hz, 8,27 for 2000 Hz and 9,71 dB for 4000 Hz. There were no difference between PT and ASSR means at either frequency. ASSR thresholds were comparable to pure-tone thresholds in normal hearing adults. Nevertheless it should not be used as the only method of hearing evaluation.

  4. Time and frequency characteristics of temporary threshold shifts caused by pure tone exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The time-frequency characteristics of Temporary Threshold Shifts (TTS) caused by pure tones were determined using the Békésy audiometric method with narrow-band noise of short duration as the probe stimuli. Two experiments were done using exposures of 3 min at 100 dB above threshold. In the first...

  5. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian Camoro; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video re...

  6. Auditory Pattern Recognition and Brief Tone Discrimination of Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marianna M.; Givens, Gregg D.; Cranford, Jerry L.; Holbert, Don; Walker, Letitia

    2006-01-01

    Auditory pattern recognition skills in children with reading disorders were investigated using perceptual tests involving discrimination of frequency and duration tonal patterns. A behavioral test battery involving recognition of the pattern of presentation of tone triads was used in which individual components differed in either frequency or…

  7. Perceived Control and Hedonic Tone Dynamics during Performance in Elite Shooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Filho, Edson; Hanin, Yuri; Bortoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the individuals' dynamics of perceived control and hedonic tone over time, with respect to the 4 performance states as conceptualized within the multiaction plan (MAP) model. We expected to find idiosyncratic and differentiated trends over time in the scores of perceived control and hedonic…

  8. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  9. Effects of Focus of Attention on Tone Production in Trained Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor performance in familiar tasks is often advantaged when performers focus on the effects of their movements rather than on the movements themselves. But, this phenomenon has yet to be studied systematically in the context of vocal production. I evaluated 20 trained singers' vocal tone as they varied their focus of attention. Each participant…

  10. Temporal integration of consecutive tones into synthetic vowels demonstrates perceptual assembly in audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saija, Jefta D; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz; Akyürek, Elkan G

    2014-04-01

    Temporal integration is the perceptual process combining sensory stimulation over time into longer percepts that can span over 10 times the duration of a minimally detectable stimulus. Particularly in the auditory domain, such "long-term" temporal integration has been characterized as a relatively simple function that acts chiefly to bridge brief input gaps, and which places integrated stimuli on temporal coordinates while preserving their temporal order information. These properties are not observed in visual temporal integration, suggesting they might be modality specific. The present study challenges that view. Participants were presented with rapid series of successive tone stimuli, in which two separate, deviant target tones were to be identified. Critically, the target tone pair would be perceived as a single synthetic vowel if they were interpreted to be simultaneous. During the task, despite that the targets were always sequential and never actually overlapping, listeners frequently reported hearing just one sound, the synthetic vowel, rather than two successive tones. The results demonstrate that auditory temporal integration, like its visual counterpart, truly assembles a percept from sensory inputs across time, and does not just summate time-ordered (identical) inputs or fill gaps therein. This finding supports the idea that temporal integration is a universal function of the human perceptual system.

  11. The Effect of Instructor's Major/Instrument on Student Melodic Imitation Scores and Tone Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the Intermediate Ear to Hand Test melodic-imitation and tone-quality scores between students who played their teacher's major instrument and students who played a different instrument. Finds statistically significant higher scores on overall performance quality among students who played their teacher's instrument than among the other…

  12. Endothelin-1 Regulation of Exercise-Induced Changes in Flow: Dynamic Regulation of Vascular Tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Rapoport

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although endothelin (ET-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO. Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO. Moreover, even if the balance between ET-1 and NO were reversed as the result of lowered NO activity, as occurs in a number of pathophysiologies associated with endothelial dysfunction, the well-known resistance of ET-1 constriction to reversal (as determined with exogenous ET-1 precludes ET-1 in the dynamic, i.e., moment-to-moment, regulation of vascular tone. On the other hand, and as presently reviewed, findings of ET-1-dependent modulation of organ blood flow with exercise under physiologic conditions demonstrate the dynamic regulation of vascular tone by ET-1. We speculate that this regulation is mediated at least in part through changes in ET-1 synthesis/release caused by pulsatile flow-induced shear stress and NO.

  13. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  14. Cortical processing of vowels and tones as measured by event-related desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C M; Lang, H; Laine, M; Kuusisto, M; Pörn, B

    1995-01-01

    Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) and Synchronization (ERS) were studied in 20 normal subjects during a Sternberg-type auditory memory-scanning paradigm. Half of the subjects performed the experiment with vowels and the other half with tones as stimuli. The stimuli consisted of 100 msec long synthesized vowels and 100 msec long tones produced by eight different synthesized instruments. In this paradigm each trial started with the presentation of a visual warning signal, after which a four-stimulus set was presented for memorization whether after a probe stimulus was presented and identified by the subject as belonging or not belonging to the memorized set. The ERD/ERS of the lower (8-10 Hz) and upper (10-12 Hz) alpha frequency bands differed in their reactivity to stimulus type; the differences between the two frequency bands reached statistical significance only in the case of vowels. The presentation of the memory set elicited ERS which was more pronounced in the 10-12 Hz frequency band and greater for vowels than for tones. On the other hand, the presentation of the probe elicited ERD which was greater for vowels than for tones, especially in the upper alpha frequency band. The results of this exploratory study suggest that ERD is closely related to memory process and that the ERD/ERS-technique might provide a valuable tool for future research encompassing more complex auditory stimulation like speech and music.

  15. Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, J.M.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights

  16. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  17. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  18. Oh what a beautiful morning! The time of day effect on the tone and market impact of conference calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Demers, E.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using textual analysis software, we examine whether and how the tone of the question and answer ("Q&A") portion of earnings-related conference calls varies with the time of day. We find that the tone of the conversations between analysts and managers becomes significantly more negative as the day

  19. The influence of cochlear hearing loss and probe tone level on compound action potential tuning curves in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cochlear hearing loss and of probe tone level on slopes and sharpness of compound action potential tuning curves was investigated. Thirty-one simultaneously masked isoreduction (50%) tuning curves were determined in 26 adults with cochlear hearing losses up to 60 dB. Probe tone

  20. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  1. Development and evaluation of methods for assessing tone production skills in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Xu, Li

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to develop methods for evaluating tone production of children with cochlear implants (CIs) who speak Mandarin Chinese and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of using these methods to assess tone production. The subjects included two groups of native-Mandarin-Chinese-speaking children: 14 prelingually deafened children who had received CIs and 61 normal-hearing (NH) children as controls. The acoustic analysis focused on quantification of the degree of differentiation among lexical tones based on tonal ellipses and the overall similarity of tone contours produced by the children with CIs to normative contours derived from the 61 NH children. An artificial neural network was used to recognize tones produced by the children with CIs after trained with tone tokens produced by the NH children. Finally, perceptual judgments on the tone production of both groups were obtained from eight native-Mandarin-speaking NH adults to evaluate the efficacy of the methods. The results showed that all measures using the acoustic, neural-network, and perceptual analyses were highly correlated with each other and could be used to effectively evaluate tone production of children with CIs.

  2. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  3. Binaural loudness summation for speech and tones presented via earphones and loudspeakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Florentine, Mary

    2009-04-01

    Literature reviews of binaural loudness summation assume nearly perfect summation (i.e., a tone presented binaurally is assumed to be twice as loud as the same tone presented monaurally). However, some recent data and classroom demonstrations of this phenomenon using speech stimuli from a familiar visually present talker yield much less summation. Therefore, the following two hypotheses were tested using a preliminary procedure that controlled some, but not all, variables. First, the amount of binaural loudness summation is less for speech from a visually present talker than for recorded speech or tones. Second, the amount of binaural loudness summation is less when sounds are presented via loudspeakers than when sounds are presented via earphones. Three types of stimuli (monitored live-voice [MLV] spondees, recorded spondees, and tones) were presented monaurally and binaurally across a wide range of levels. The same stimuli were presented via earphones and loudspeakers in an audiometric test booth. Eight young listeners with normal hearing judged the loudness of the stimuli using magnitude estimation. The amount of binaural loudness summation was significantly less for MLV spondees than for tones or recorded spondees. Binaural loudness summation was also significantly less for loudspeaker presentation than for earphone presentation. Binaural loudness summation was found to be less than perfect (i.e., a sound presented binaurally is less than twice as loud as the same sound presented monaurally) for all conditions. The amount of binaural loudness summation was the least for MLV spondees presented via loudspeakers. The present results support both hypotheses and indicate that binaural loudness summation in the loudspeaker conditions is significantly less than binaural loudness summation in typical laboratory test conditions using earphones. There may be a subjective effect resulting from expectations about loudness of a familiar, visually present talker, termed here

  4. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Vessières

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO and control mother offspring (CMO aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.

  5. ERP correlates of pitch error detection in complex tone and voice auditory feedback with missing fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2012-04-11

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The derived allele of ASPM is associated with lexical tone perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zheng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The ASPM and MCPH1 genes have been implicated in the adaptive evolution of the human brain [Mekel-Bobrov N. et al., 2005. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in homo sapiens. Science 309; Evans P.D. et al., 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309]. Curiously, experimental attempts have failed to connect the implicated SNPs in these genes with higher-level brain functions. These results stand in contrast with a population-level study linking the population frequency of their alleles with the tendency to use lexical tones in a language [Dediu D., Ladd D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104]. In the present study, we found a significant correlation between the load of the derived alleles of ASPM and tone perception in a group of European Americans who did not speak a tone language. Moreover, preliminary results showed a significant correlation between ASPM load and hemodynamic responses to lexical tones in the auditory cortex, and such correlation remained after phonemic awareness, auditory working memory, and non-verbal IQ were controlled. As in previous studies, no significant correlation between ASPM and cognitive measures were found. MCPH1 did not correlate with any measures. These results suggest that the association between the recently derived allele of ASPM is likely to be specific and is tied to higher level brain functions in the temporal cortex related to human communication.

  7. The derived allele of ASPM is associated with lexical tone perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The ASPM and MCPH1 genes have been implicated in the adaptive evolution of the human brain [Mekel-Bobrov N. et al., 2005. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in homo sapiens. Science 309; Evans P.D. et al., 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309]. Curiously, experimental attempts have failed to connect the implicated SNPs in these genes with higher-level brain functions. These results stand in contrast with a population-level study linking the population frequency of their alleles with the tendency to use lexical tones in a language [Dediu D., Ladd D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104]. In the present study, we found a significant correlation between the load of the derived alleles of ASPM and tone perception in a group of European Americans who did not speak a tone language. Moreover, preliminary results showed a significant correlation between ASPM load and hemodynamic responses to lexical tones in the auditory cortex, and such correlation remained after phonemic awareness, auditory working memory, and non-verbal IQ were controlled. As in previous studies, no significant correlation between ASPM and cognitive measures were found. MCPH1 did not correlate with any measures. These results suggest that the association between the recently derived allele of ASPM is likely to be specific and is tied to higher level brain functions in the temporal cortex related to human communication.

  8. Tone burst evoked otoacoustic emissions in neonates Emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo "tone burst" em neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Costa Soares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A potential research project in otoacoustic emissions is the use tone bursts - frequency-specific stimulus. AIM:to study otoacoustic emission responses evoked by tone bursts in neonates with hearing loss risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 neonates with risk factors for hearing loss (study group and 30 neonates without these risk factors (control group were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions at the frequency range of 2,000 and 4,000 hertz. STUDY: Clinical and experimental. RESULTS: There was a right ear advantage in female individuals and in the control group, although without statistical significance. Mean "Response" values at 2,000 hertz were 17.73 dB in the control group and 16.55 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 16.63 dB in the control group and 16.12 dB in the study group for male subjects. At 4,000 hertz, the values were 14.63 dB in the control group and 15.09 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 18.57 dB in the control group and 15.06 dB in the study group for male subjects. CONCLUSION: Tone bursts may help evaluate cochlear function in neonates.Uma possibilidade de pesquisa em emissões otoacústicas é utilização do estímulo de frequência específica "tone burst". OBJETIVO: Verificar as respostas das emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo "tone burst" em neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 21 neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva (grupo estudo e 30 neonatos sem indicadores (grupo controle por meio das emissões otoacústicas nas frequências de 2000 e 4000 hertz. ESTUDO: Clínico e experimental. RESULTADOS: Houve vantagem da orelha direita, do gênero feminino e do grupo controle, embora sem significância estatística. Os valores médios de "Response" em 2000 hertz foram 17,73 dB no grupo controle e 16,55 dB no grupo estudo, para o gênero feminino e 16,63 dB no grupo controle e 16,12 dB no grupo estudo, para o g

  9. Automated tone grading of granite; Clasificación automática de granito según su tono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-09-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [Spanish] La producción de una planta de elaboración de piedra natural está sujeta a la variabilidad inherente a los bloques de piedra que constituyen su materia prima, lo que puede causar problemas de uniformidad en el material suministrado que frecuentemente ocasionan conflictos con los clientes.La mejor forma de atajar

  10. Can hospital dashboards provide visibility of information from bedside to board? A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Adriana; Buttigieg, Sandra C

    2017-04-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse hospital dashboards' visibility of information at different management levels to improve quality and performance in an acute general hospital. Design/methodology/approach Data were generated via 21 semi-structured interviews across different management levels. Findings All management levels had greater visibility of information, could make informed decisions, and registered performance improvement. Specifically, waiting time improved, however since introduction of hospital dashboards was work-in-progress at time of study, managers could not record improvement in terms of cost reductions, clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient satisfaction. Different managerial levels had different visibility with top management having the greatest. Research limitations/implications In single case studies, where only one context is used, the findings cannot be reproduced in different contexts; even though most of the results could be matched with the current literature. Practical implications The need to have balanced key performance indicators that take into account other facets of improvements, apart from time, has been emphasised. Furthermore, if middle and departmental managers have greater visibility, this would allow them to work towards a strategic fit between the departments that they manage with the rest of the hospital. Originality/value There is scant literature regarding performance dashboards' enhancement of visibility of information at different management levels. Furthermore, according to the authors' knowledge, no other paper has tried to identify and discuss the different levels of information, which should be visible from bedside to board namely to management, clinicians and public.

  11. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Hybrid Schema Matching for Deep Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kerui; Zuo, Wanli; He, Fengling; Chen, Yongheng

    Schema matching is the process of identifying semantic mappings, or correspondences, between two or more schemas. Schema matching is a first step and critical part of data integration. For schema matching of deep web, most researches only interested in query interface, while rarely pay attention to abundant schema information contained in query result pages. This paper proposed a mixed schema matching technique, which combines attributes that appeared in query structures and query results of different data sources, and mines the matched schemas inside. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of this method for improving the accuracy of schema matching.

  13. A Carpet Cloak Device for Visible Light

    CERN Document Server

    Gharghi, Majid; Zentgraf, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin; Yin, Xiaobo; Valentine, Jason; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    We report an invisibility carpet cloak device, which is capable of making an object undetectable by visible light. The cloak is designed using quasi conformal mapping and is fabricated in a silicon nitride waveguide on a specially developed nano-porous silicon oxide substrate with a very low refractive index. The spatial index variation is realized by etching holes of various sizes in the nitride layer at deep subwavelength scale creating a local effective medium index. The fabricated device demonstrates wideband invisibility throughout the visible spectrum with low loss. This silicon nitride on low index substrate can also be a general scheme for implementation of transformation optical devices at visible frequency.

  14. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Howat, Peter A; Pratt, Iain S; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah Anne

    2016-01-19

    Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing "junk food" and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a substitution tone for fruit and vegetable

  15. Matching conditions on capillary ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Aresky H.; Marin Antuna, J.; Rodriguez Coppola, H. [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-12-01

    The physics of the oscillatory motion in the interface between two immiscible viscous fluids is presented based on a detailed analysis of the matching conditions. These conditions are almost completely derived from the dynamical equations of the system. This unusual approach in graduated courses in hydrodynamics, is proposed as an alternative. The role of viscosity in the modes of oscillation of the interface is also clearly shown. [Spanish] Se explica la fisica de las oscilaciones de la interfase de dos fluidos viscosos no miscibles a partir del analisis detallado de las condiciones de empalme que se derivan casi completamente del sistema de ecuaciones dinamicas que lo rigen. Ese enfoque, no habitual en los cursos de doctorado de esta materia, se propone como alternativa para estos cursos. Se explica tambien de forma clara el posible papel de la viscosidad en los modos de oscilacion de la interfase.

  16. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....

  17. 24 CFR 576.51 - Matching funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specific statutory subtitle from which ESG funds are provided), as well as State, local, and private... match a previous ESG grant may not be used to match a subsequent grant award under this part. A grantee...

  18. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov laser at visible wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    -matching condition [1]. The resonant ultrafast wave conversion via the fiber-optic CR mechanism is instrumental for applications in biophotonics such as bio-imaging and microscopy [2]. In this work, we demonstrate a highly-stable all-fiber, fully monolithic CR system based on an Yb-fiber femtosecond laser, producing...... electrically tunable femtosecond CR output in the visible (VIS) spectral range of 580-630 nm, with the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm, with average power in the milliwatt range. Relative intensity noise (RIN) of this laser, affecting the sensitivity of bio-imaging and microscopy systems, is found...... to be as low as -103 dBc/Hz. This is 2 orders of magnitudes lower noise as compared to spectrally-sliced supercontinuum, which is the current standard of ultrafast fiber-optic generation at visible wavelength. The layout of the laser system is shown in Fig. 1(a). The system consists of two parts: an all...

  19. Target visibility for multiple maneuvering target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    We present a recursion of the probability of target visibility and its applications to analysis of track life and termination in the context of Global Nearest Neighbour (GNN) approach and Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. In the presence of uncertainties brought about by clutter; decisions to retain a track, terminate it or initialise a new track are based on probability, rather than on distance criterion or estimation error. The visibility concept is introduced into a conventional data-association-oriented multitarget tracker, the GNN; and a random finite set based-tracker, the PHD filter, to take into account instances when targets become invisible or occluded by obstacles. We employ the natural logarithmof the Dynamic Error Spectrum to assess the performance of the trackers with and without probability of visibility incorporated. Simulation results show that the performance of the GNN tracker with visibility concept incorporated is significantly enhanced.

  20. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visible Light Dye-Sensitized Photosensititve Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fang Gao; Yong-yuan Yang

    2000-01-01

      The visible light dyes were employed to sensitized o-Cl-Hexaarylbiimidazole (o-Cl-HABI). The obtained results suggested that o-Cl-HABI displayed a efficient sensitized photocleavage when exposed to Xenon lamp...

  2. Crisis Management- Operational Logistics & Asset Visibility Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunbeck, Richard A; Mastria, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    .... Recent crisis response operations that would have benefited from improved asset visibility include the Indian Ocean tsunami, the Pakistani earthquake, Hurricane Katrina and those related to the Global War on Terror...

  3. Solar Synthesis: Prospects in Visible Light Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Danielle M.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2015-01-01

    Chemists have long aspired to synthesize molecules the way that plants do — using sunlight to facilitate the construction of complex molecular architectures. Nevertheless, the use of visible light in photochemical synthesis is fundamentally challenging because organic molecules tend not to interact with the wavelengths of visible light that are most strongly emitted in the solar spectrum. Recent research has begun to leverage the ability of visible light absorbing transition metal complexes to catalyze a broad range of synthetically valuable reactions. In this review, we highlight how an understanding of the mechanisms of photocatalytic activation available to these transition metal complexes, and of the general reactivity patterns of the intermediates accessible via visible light photocatalysis, has accelerated the development of this diverse suite of reactions. PMID:24578578

  4. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  5. The challenge of improving visibility in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. H. Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The "Blue Sky Project" was proposed in 1998 to investigate by how much emissions should be reduced to increase blue sky frequency in Beijing, which hosted the Summer Olympics in 2008. This paper focuses on the temporal variation of visibility and its dependence on meteorological conditions and suspended particles at Beijing using the hourly observed visibility data at Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA from 1999 to 2007. It has been found that about 47.8% (24.2% of the hours in Beijing are "bad" ("good" hours with visibility below 10 km (equal or higher than 20 km between 1999 and 2007. Due to the high Relative Humidity (RH, summer is the season with the lowest mean visibility in a year. Although PM10 index was reported in a decreasing trend (Chan and Yao, 2008, the increase of RH has resulted in a decreasing trend of visibility over BCIA in the summer from 1999 to 2007. To ensure blue sky ("good" visibility for Olympics 2008, daily mean PM10 index should have been reduced from 81 to 44. This requires that not only vehicle emissions, but also other emissions should be limited. Observations verify that blue-sky-hour rate increased significantly after mean PM10 index was reduced to 53 during Olympics 2008, however, the visibility of 2009 returned to the mean level from 1999 to 2007 during the period 8−24 August. RH (aerosol contribute 24% (76% of the improvement of visibility during August 2008.

  6. Horizon Detection In The Visible Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    techniques can also recognize star patterns in star trackers for satellite attitude determination. Horizon detection in the visible spectrum was largely...analysis of visual imagery from low-earth orbit was conducted to develop a horizon brightness transition model, which allows for consistent and...vision techniques can also recognize star patterns in star trackers for satellite attitude determination. Horizon detection in the visible spectrum was

  7. Mutagenesis by near-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschek, H E

    1967-03-24

    Mutants resistant to bacter iophage T5 were produced both in continuous and in stationary cultures of Escherichia coli by near-visible light, 320 to 400 millimicrons, at rates greatly exceeding spontaneous rates in the ab sence of light. Aerobic mutation rates were about twice anaerobic rates, which shows that mutations were induced in either of at least two different proces ses. Mutations induced by near-visible light involve different photochemical processes than those induced by ul traviolet light.

  8. The absent Rurbano. Media visibility and invisibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cimadevilla, Gustavo; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Demarchi, Paola; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto; Galimberti, Silvina; Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with analyzing how the media gives visibility to a social sector that meets your trash tasting existence through the use of chariots and horses in the city of Rio Cuarto. The cart drivers, rag pickers and recyclers, among other names, focus here Rurbano actors. The text shows that particularly the local tv and the press make visible some features over others and paying certain stigmatization. In this regard, we discuss the budgets that support that view and offer different inte...

  9. 24 CFR 92.221 - Match credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Match credit. 92.221 Section 92.221... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements Matching Contribution Requirement § 92.221 Match credit. (a) When credit is given. Contributions are credited on a fiscal year basis at the time the...

  10. Image Matching Using Generalized Hough Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.; Hu, F. P.; Hwang, V.; Kitchen, L.

    1983-01-01

    An image matching system specifically designed to match dissimilar images is described. A set of blobs and ribbons is first extracted from each image, and then generalized Hough transform techniques are used to match these sets and compute the transformation that best registers the image. An example of the application of the approach to one pair of remotely sensed images is presented.

  11. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  12. 7 CFR 3406.5 - Matching support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching support. 3406.5 Section 3406.5 Agriculture... § 3406.5 Matching support. The Department strongly encourages and may require non-Federal matching support for this program. In the annual program solicitation, CSREES will announce any incentives that may...

  13. Sample evaluation of ontology-matching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, W.R. van; Isaac, A.; Aleksovski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Ontology matching exists to solve practical problems. Hence, methodologies to find and evaluate solutions for ontology matching should be centered on practical problems. In this paper we propose two statistically-founded evaluation techniques to assess ontology-matching performance that are based on

  14. The Analysis for Activations in the Brain during Hearing the Amplitude-Modulated Tone by fMRI Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (pprecuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (p<0.021, uncorrected). Activations of visual perception due to eye-opened state were detected in some parts of activations. As a result, we inferred that modulated tone was recognized in the medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.

  15. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  16. Effects of longitudinal stretch on VSM tone and distensibility of muscular conduit arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulliger, Martin A; Kwak, Naomi T M R; Tsapikouni, Theodora; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2002-12-01

    With progressing age, large arteries diminish their longitudinal stretch, which in extreme cases results in tortuosity. Increased age is also associated with loss of vessel distensibility. We measured pressure-diameter curves from muscular porcine carotid arteries ex vivo at different longitudinal stretch ratios (lambda(z) = 1.4 and 1.8) and under different vascular smooth muscle (VSM) conditions (fully relaxed, normal VSM tone, and maximally contracted). Distensibility was found to be halved by decreasing longitudinal stretch from lambda(z) = 1.8 to 1.4 at physiological pressures. This counterintuitive observation is possible because highly nonlinear elastic modulus of the artery and anisotropic properties. Furthermore, a significantly larger basal VSM contraction was observed at lambda(z) = 1.8 than 1.4, although this was clearly not related to a myogenic response during inflation. This dependence of VSM tone to longitudinal stretch may have possible implications on the functional characteristics of the arterial wall.

  17. Complex-Tone Pitch Discrimination in Listeners With Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitch......-discrimination performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained for 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) complex tones. When all harmonics were unresolved, the HI listeners performed, on average, worse than NH listeners...... estimated in the same listeners. The estimated reduction of cochlear compression was significantly correlated with the increase in the F0DL ratio, while no correlation was found with filter bandwidth. The effects of degraded frequency selectivity and loss of compression were considered in a simplified...

  18. Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Beckett, C

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.

  19. Cytoglobin regulates blood pressure and vascular tone through nitric oxide metabolism in the vascular wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Hemann, Craig; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Ismail, Raed S.; Little, Sean C.; Zhou, Danlei; Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Kawada, Norifumi; Zweier, Jay L.

    2017-04-01

    The identity of the specific nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) that serves as the main in vivo regulator of O2-dependent NO degradation in smooth muscle remains elusive. Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a recently discovered globin expressed in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells with unknown function. Cygb, coupled with a cellular reducing system, efficiently regulates the rate of NO consumption by metabolizing NO in an O2-dependent manner with decreased NO consumption in physiological hypoxia. Here we show that Cygb is a major regulator of NO degradation and cardiovascular tone. Knockout of Cygb greatly prolongs NO decay, increases vascular relaxation, and lowers blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. We further demonstrate that downregulation of Cygb prevents angiotensin-mediated hypertension. Thus, Cygb has a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone and disease. We suggest that modulation of the expression and NOD activity of Cygb represents a strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, J B; Bergmann, S; Brock, C

    2016-01-01

    , using transcutaneous electrical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) and deep slow breathing (DSB) respectively, could increase musculoskeletal pain thresholds and enhance gastroduodenal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized to a subject-blinded, sham......-controlled, cross-over study with an active protocol including stimulation of auricular branch of the vagus nerve, and breathing at full inspiratory capacity and forced full expiration. Recording of cardiac derived parameters including cardiac vagal tone, moderate pain thresholds to muscle, and bone pressure......BACKGROUND: The parasympathetic nervous system, whose main neural substrate is the vagus nerve, exerts a fundamental antinociceptive role and influences gastrointestinal sensori-motor function. Our research question was to whether combined electrical and physiological modulation of vagal tone...