Sample records for viscous resistive magnetohydrodynamic

  1. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan


    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating back...

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective slip flow over an inclined porous plate with viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das


    Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere (United States)

    Nursalim, Rahmat; Widodo, Basuki; Imron, Chairul


    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is important study in engineering and industrial fields. By study on MHD, we can reach the fluid flow characteristics that can be used to minimize its negative effect to an object. In decades, MHD has been widely studied in various geometry forms and fluid types. The sliced sphere is a geometry form that has not been investigated. In this paper we study magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere. Assumed that the fluid is incompressible, there is no magnetic field, there is no electrical voltage, the sliced sphere is fix and there is no barrier around the object. In this paper we focus on velocity profile at stagnation point (x = 0°). Mathematical model is governed by continuity and momentum equation. It is converted to non-dimensional, stream function, and similarity equation. Solution of the mathematical model is obtained by using Keller-Box numerical method. By giving various of slicing angle and various of magnetic parameter we get the simulation results. The simulation results show that increasing the slicing angle causes the velocity profile be steeper. Also, increasing the value of magnetic parameter causes the velocity profile be steeper. On the large slicing angle there is no significant effect of magnetic parameter to velocity profile, and on the high the value of magnetic parameter there is no significant effect of slicing angle to velocity profile.

  4. Viscous potential flow analysis of magnetohydrodynamic capillary instability with heat and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Tiwari


    Full Text Available A linear analysis of capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of axial magnetic field has been carried out when there is heat and mass transfer across the interface. Both fluids are taken as incompressible, viscous and magnetic with different kinematic viscosities and different magnetic permeabilities. Viscous potential flow theory is used for the investigation and a dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied magnetic field as well as critical wave number and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Various graphs are drawn showing the effect of various physical parameters such as magnetic field strength, heat transfer capillary number, and permeability ratio, on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial magnetic field and heat and mass transfer both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.

  5. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Mark F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Samtaney, Ravi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Brandt, Achi [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)


    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  6. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.


    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Criticality and turbulence in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic current sheet (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J.; Uritsky, Vadim M.


    Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes. We identify this dynamics as self-organized criticality (SOC) by verifying an extended set of scaling laws related to both global and local properties of the current sheet (critical susceptibility, finite-size scaling of probability distributions, geometric exponents). The critical exponents obtained from this analysis suggest that the model operates in a slowly driven SOC state similar to the mean-field state of the directed stochastic sandpile model. We also investigate multiscale correlations in the velocity field and find them numerically indistinguishable from certain intermittent turbulence (IT) theories. The results provide clues on physical conditions for SOC behavior in a broad class of plasma systems with propagating instabilities, and suggest that SOC and IT may coexist in driven current sheets which occur ubiquitously in astrophysical and space plasmas.

  8. Sparse Jacobian construction for mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.


    We apply the automatic differentiation tool OpenAD toward constructing a preconditioner for fully implicit simulations of mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), used in modeling tokamak fusion devices. Our simulation framework employs a fully implicit formulation in time, and a mapped finite volume spatial discretization. We solve this model using inexact Newton-Krylov methods. Of critical importance in these iterative solvers is the development of an effective preconditioner, which typically requires knowledge of the Jacobian of the nonlinear residual function. However, due to significant nonlinearity within our PDE system, our mapped spatial discretization, and stencil adaptivity at physical boundaries, analytical derivation of these Jacobian entries is highly nontrivial. This paper therefore focuses on Jacobian construction using automatic differentiation. In particular, we discuss applying OpenAD to the case of a spatially-adaptive stencil patch that automatically handles differences between the domain interior and boundary, and configuring AD for reduced stencil approximations to the Jacobian. We investigate both scalar and vector tangent mode differentiation, along with simple finite difference approaches, to compare the resulting accuracy and efficiency of Jacobian construction in this application. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Swimming Speeds of Filaments in Viscous Fluids with Resistance (United States)

    Ho, Nguyenho; Olson, Sarah


    Spermatozoa and bacteria can utilize lateral and spiral bending waves to propagate in a fluid. Often, they encounter different fluid environments filled with mucus, cells, hormones, and other large proteins. These extra materials act as friction, possibly preventing or enhancing forward progression of swimmers. To understand these effects, we employ Taylor's techniques to calculate the asymptotic swimming speeds of a cylinder of infinite extent in a viscous fluid with resistance known as a Brinkman fluid. We find that, up to the second order expansion, the swimming speeds are enhanced as resistance increases. The Stokes limit can also be also recovered from this result as resistance goes to zero. In addition, we show numerical results for a Lagrangian algorithm of a rod waving in a porous medium and compare numerical results to asymptotic swimming speeds.

  10. Two-component magnetohydrodynamical outflows around young stellar objects Interplay between stellar magnetospheric winds and disc-driven jets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meliani, Z; Casse, F; Sauty, C


    We present the first-ever simulations of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stellar magnetospheric winds coupled with disc-driven jets where the resistive and viscous accretion disc is self-consistently described...

  11. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet with viscous-Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal


    Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

  12. Analytical Solutions of the Slip Magnetohydrodynamic Viscous Flow over a Stretching Sheet by Using the Laplace-Adomian Decomposition Method (United States)

    Ghehsareh, Hadi Roohani; Abbasbandy, Saeid; Soltanalizadeh, Babak


    In this research, the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method (LADM) is applied for the analytical and numerical treatment of the nonlinear differential equation that describes a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow under slip condition over a permeable stretching surface. The technique is well applied to approximate the similarity solutions of the problem for some typical values of model parameters. The obtained series solutions by the LADM are combined with the Padé approximation to improve the accuracy and enlarge the convergence domain of the obtained results. Through tables and figures, the efficiency of the presented method is illustrated.

  13. Entropy analysis in electrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of nanofluid with effects of thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel


    Full Text Available The unsteady mixed convection flow of electrical conducting nanofluid and heat transfer due to a permeable linear stretching sheet with the combined effects of an electric field, magnetic field, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction have been investigated. A similarity transformation is used to transform the constitutive equations into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant system of equations is then solved numerically using implicit finite difference method. The velocity, temperature, concentration, entropy generation, and Bejan number are obtained with the dependence of different emerging parameters examined. It is noticed that the velocity is more sensible with high values of electric field and diminished with a magnetic field. The radiative heat transfer and viscous dissipation enhance the heat conduction in the system. Moreover, the impact of mixed convection parameter and Buoyancy ratio parameter on Bejan number profile has reverse effects. A chemical reaction reduced the nanoparticle concentration for higher values. Keywords: Entropy generation, MHD nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Bejan number, Chemical reaction, Viscous dissipation

  14. Entropy generation in magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow due to rotating disk in presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Khan, Muhammad Ijaz; Alsaedi, Ahmed


    Simultaneous effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating in flow by rotating disk of variable thickness are examined. Radiative flow saturating porous space is considered. Much attention is given to entropy generation outcome. Developed nonlinear ordinary differential systems are computed for the convergent series solutions. Specifically, the results of velocity, temperature, entropy generation, Bejan number, coefficient of skin friction, and local Nusselt number are discussed. Clearly the entropy generation rate depends on velocity and temperature distributions. Moreover the entropy generation rate is a decreasing function of Hartmann number, Eckert number, and Reynolds number, while they gave opposite behavior for Bejan numbers.

  15. Heat transfer analysis for magnetohydrodynamics axisymmetric flow between stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan


    Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.

  16. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Stability Spectrum with a Resistive Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    We show that the eigenvalue equations describing a cylindrical ideal magnetophydrodynamicsw (MHD) plasma interacting with a thin resistive wall can be put into the standard mathematical form: Α•χ = λΒ• χ. This is accomplished by using a finite element basis for the plasma, and by adding an extra degree of freedom corresponding to the electrical current in the thin wall. The standard form allows the use of linear eigenvalue solvers, without additional interations, to compute the complete spectrum of plasma modes in the presence of a surrounding restrictive wall at arbitrary separation. We show that our method recovers standard results in the limits of (1) an infinitely resistive wall (no wall), and (2) a zero resistance wall (ideal wall).

  17. Beyond ideal magnetohydrodynamics: resistive, reactive and relativistic plasmas (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Dionysopoulou, K.; Hawke, I.; Comer, G. L.


    We develop a new framework for the modelling of charged fluid dynamics in general relativity. The model, which builds on a recently developed variational multi-fluid framework for dissipative fluids, accounts for relevant effects like the inertia of both charge currents and heat and, for mature systems, the decoupling of superfluid components. We discuss how the model compares to standard relativistic magnetohydronamics and consider the connection between the fluid dynamics, the microphysics and the underlying equation of state. As illustrations of the formalism, we consider three distinct two-fluid models describing (i) an Ohm’s law for resistive charged flows, (ii) a relativistic heat equation, and (iii) an equation representing the momentum of a decoupled superfluid component. As a more complex example, we also formulate a three-fluid model which demonstrates the thermo-electric effect. The new framework allows us to model neutron stars (and related systems) at a hierarchy of increasingly complex levels, and should enable us to make progress on a range of exciting problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Determination of viscous pressure losssand resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.F.


      Determination of viscous pressure loss and resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties Ole F. Pedersen, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Denmark. AIM. To determine viscous pressure losses and resistances  upstream to CP...

  19. A Study of Hydraulic Resistance of Viscous Bypass Gap in Magnetorheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kubík


    Full Text Available The paper presents hydraulic resistance of viscous bypass hole in magnetorheological damper. The suitable design of bypass hole is essential for efficient function of MR damper in automotive industry. In the paper analytical hydraulic model of bypass gap is compared with experiments. The commonly used hydraulic model of bypass gap does not agree with experiments.

  20. Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, self-similar solutions of resistive advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) in the presence of a pure azimuthal magnetic field are investigated. The mechanism of energy dissipation is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow.

  1. Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, self-similar solutions of resistive advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) in the presence of a pure azimuthal magnetic field are investigated. The mechanism of energy dissipation is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbu- lence in the accretion flow. It is assumed that ...

  2. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, D. P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Finn, J. M. [Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite β and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for β = 0 and the marginal stability values β{sub rp,rw} < β{sub rp,iw} < β{sub ip,rw} < β{sub ip,iw} (resistive plasma, resistive wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below β{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above β{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with β > β{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below β{sub rp,iw}.

  3. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain (United States)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.


    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite β and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for β = 0 and the marginal stability values βrp,rw βrp,iw is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below βrp,iw.

  4. Viscosity and Vorticity in Reduced Magneto-Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Ilon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) critically relies on viscous forces in order for an accurate determination of the electric eld. For each charged particle species, the Braginskii viscous tensor for a magnetized plasma has the decomposition into matrices with special symmetries.

  5. A resistive magnetohydrodynamics solver using modern C++ and the Boost library (United States)

    Einkemmer, Lukas


    In this paper we describe the implementation of our C++ resistive magnetohydrodynamics solver. The framework developed facilitates the separation of the code implementing the specific numerical method and the physical model from the handling of boundary conditions and the management of the computational domain. In particular, this will allow us to use finite difference stencils which are only defined in the interior of the domain (the boundary conditions are handled automatically). We will discuss this and other design considerations and their impact on performance in some detail. In addition, we provide a documentation of the code developed and demonstrate that a performance comparable to Fortran can be achieved, while still maintaining a maximum of code readability and extensibility. Catalogue identifier: AFAH_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 592774 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 43771395 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++03. Computer: PC, HPC systems. Operating system: POSIX compatible (extensively tested on various Linux systems). In fact only the timing class requires POSIX routines; all other parts of the program can be run on any system where a C++ compiler, Boost, CVODE, and an implementation of BLAS are available. RAM: Hundredths of Kilobytes to Gigabytes (depending on the problem size) Classification: 19.10, 4.3. External routines: Boost, CVODE, either a BLAS library or Intel MKL Nature of problem: An approximate solution to the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics for a given initial value and given boundary conditions is computed. Solution method: The discretization is performed using a finite difference approximation in

  6. Derivation of canopy resistance for water vapour fluxes over a spruce forest, using a new technique for the viscous sublayer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.


    . The trees close their stomata to limit the water loss. This is also shown through a calculation of the canopy resistance to water vapour exchange. During periods around noon and in the afternoon the resistance becomes very high. The calculations are carried out by using a novel theory for the viscous...... sublayer resistance to atmosphere canopy exchange....

  7. Steady fall of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, B. C., E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Egan, A. K., E-mail: [Barnard College, New York, New York 10027, USA and Department of Physics, Colorado University, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    This is a basic MHD study of the steady fall of an infinite, vertical slab of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across a dipped magnetic field in uniform gravity. This double-diffusion steady flow in unbounded space poses a nonlinear but numerically tractable, one-dimensional (1D) free-boundary problem, assuming constant coefficients of resistivity and viscosity. The steady flow is determined by a dimensionless number μ{sub 1} proportional to the triple product of the two diffusion coefficients and the square of the linear total mass. For a sufficiently large μ{sub 1}, the Lorentz, viscous, fluid-pressure, and gravitational forces pack and collimate the fluid into a steady flow of a finite width defined by the two zero-pressure free-boundaries of the slab with vacuum. The viscous force is essential in this collimation effect. The study conjectures that in the regime μ{sub 1}→0, the 1D steady state exists only for μ{sub 1}∈Ω, a spectrum of an infinite number of discrete values, including μ{sub 1} = 0 that corresponds to two steady states, the classical zero-resistivity static slab of Kippenhahn and Schlüter [R. Kippenhahn and A. Schlüter, Z. Astrophys. 43, 36 (1957)] and its recent generalization [B. C. Low et al., Astrophys. J. 755, 34 (2012)] to admit an inviscid resistive flow. The pair of zero-pressure boundaries of each of the μ{sub 1}→0 steady-state slabs are located at infinity. Computational evidence suggests that the Ω steady-states are densely distributed around μ{sub 1} = 0, as an accumulation point, but are sparsely separated by open intervals of μ{sub 1}-values for which the slab must be either time-dependent or spatially multi-dimensional. The widths of these intervals are vanishingly small as μ{sub 1}→0. This topological structure of physical states is similar to that described by Landau and Liftshitz [L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1959)] to explain the onset

  8. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, C.H. III


    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Montgomery, David C.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  10. Finite difference method for inner-layer equations in the resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko


    The matching problem in resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis by the asymptotic matching method has been reformulated as an initial-boundary value problem for the inner-layer equations describing the plasma dynamics in the thin layer around a rational surface. The third boundary conditions at boundaries of a finite interval are imposed on the inner layer equations in the formulation instead of asymptotic conditions at infinities. The finite difference method for this problem has been applied to model equations whose solutions are known in a closed form. It has been shown that the initial value problem and the associated eigenvalue problem for the model equations can be solved by the finite difference method with numerical stability. The formulation presented here enables the asymptotic matching method to be a practical method for the resistive MHD stability analysis. (author)

  11. Application of Viscous Dampers in Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Moment Resisting Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghafi Mohammad Hossein


    Full Text Available In structural seismic rehabilitation, the structural capacity spectrum curve can be enhanced by increasing the stiffness and strength of the structures and also the application of the energy dissipation systems such as dampers can decrease the structural demand spectrum curve. Dampers are basically used to mitigate the structural response and decrease the damages to the main structural elements under severe earthquakes through energy dissipation.At the present paper, it is aimed to evaluate the seismic behavior of two conventional steel moment resisting frames having 4, 8 stories incorporating seismic strength imperfection equipped with viscous dampers. OpenSees and nonlinear time-history analysis incorporating seven seismic records have been used to define the frame response. The results revealed that the seismic response of rehabilitated frames has been considerably improved. Where, the maximum roof displacement, the maximum story drift, the maximum floor acceleration and shears have been declined in damper equipped frames and the seismic performance of the most rehabilitated frame elements under an earthquake having return period of 475 years has been upgraded to performance level of life-safety.

  12. Local properties of magnetic reconnection in nonlinear resistive- and extended-magnetohydrodynamic toroidal simulations of the sawtooth crash (United States)

    Beidler, M. T.; Cassak, P. A.; Jardin, S. C.; Ferraro, N. M.


    We diagnose local properties of magnetic reconnection during a sawtooth crash employing the three-dimensional toroidal, extended-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code M3D-C1. To do so, we sample simulation data in the plane in which reconnection occurs, the plane perpendicular to the helical (m,n)=(1,1) mode at the q = 1 surface, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers and q is the safety factor. We study the nonlinear evolution of a particular test equilibrium in a non-reduced field representation using both resistive-MHD and extended-MHD models. We find growth rates for the extended-MHD reconnection process exhibit a nonlinear acceleration and greatly exceed that of the resistive-MHD model, as is expected from previous experimental, theoretical, and computational work. We compare the properties of reconnection in the two simulations, revealing the reconnecting current sheets are locally different in the two models and we present the first observation of the quadrupole out-of-plane Hall magnetic field that appears during extended-MHD reconnection in a 3D toroidal simulation (but not in resistive-MHD). We also explore the dependence on toroidal angle of the properties of reconnection as viewed in the plane perpendicular to the helical magnetic field, finding qualitative and quantitative effects due to changes in the symmetry of the reconnection process. This study is potentially important for a wide range of magnetically confined fusion applications, from confirming simulations with extended-MHD effects are sufficiently resolved to describe reconnection, to quantifying local reconnection rates for purposes of understanding and predicting transport, not only at the q = 1 rational surface for sawteeth, but also at higher order rational surfaces that play a role in disruptions and edge-confinement degradation.

  13. Numerical magnetohydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.


    The ideal MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) equations accurately describe the macroscopic dynamics of a perfectly conducting plasma. Adopting a continuum, single fluid description in terms of the plasma density rho, velocity v, thermal pressure p and magnetic field B, the ideal MHD system expresses

  14. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a viscous soluble fiber, reduces insulin resistance and decreases fatty liver in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets producing a high glycemic response result in exaggerated insulin secretion which induces hepatic lipogenesis, contributing to development of insulin resistance and fatty liver. Viscous dietary fibers blunt the postprandial rise in blood glucose, however their effect on type 2 diabetes and obesity are not entirely known. This study examined the effect of chronic consumption of the viscous, non-fermentable dietary fiber, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, on glucose control, insulin resistance and liver lipids in an obese diabetic rat model. Methods Three groups of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats were fed diets containing either 5% non-viscous cellulose (control, low viscosity HPMC (LV-HPMC or high viscosity HPMC (HV- HPMC for six weeks. Zucker lean littermates consuming cellulose served as a negative control. Markers of glucose control, including oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and urinary glucose, were measured as well as adiposity and the accumulation of liver lipids. Results The HPMC diets increased the viscosity of the small intestinal contents and reduced the postprandial rise in blood glucose. The food efficiency ratio was greater with HPMC feeding compared to the obese control and urinary excretion of glucose and ketone bodies was reduced. The two HPMC groups had lower glycated hemoglobin and kidney weights and a reduced area under the curve during a glucose tolerance test, indicating improved glucose control. Epididymal fat pad weight as percent of body weight was reduced in the HV-HPMC group compared to the obese control group. The HV-HPMC group also had lower concentrations of liver lipid and cholesterol and reduced liver weight. However, HV-HPMC feeding did not affect hepatic gene expression of SREBP-1c or FAS. Muscle concentration of acylcarnitines, a lipid intermediate in fatty acid β-oxidation, was not different between the HPMC groups and obese control, suggesting no change in muscle

  15. Lidocaine Viscous (United States)

    Lidocaine viscous, a local anesthetic, is used to treat the pain of a sore or irritated mouth ... associated with cancer chemotherapy and certain medical procedures. Lidocaine viscous is not normally used for sore throats ...

  16. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel


    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  17. Swimming Speeds of Waving Cylindrical Tails in Viscous Fluids with Resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Nguyenho


    The mathematical analysis of swimming speeds for microorganisms in a 3D fluid is investigated by studying a cylinder propagating lateral or spiral waves of displacement at zero Reynolds number. Since many microorganisms swim in a highly heterogeneous environment with obstacles to swimming, we study swimming speeds of an infinite cylinder in a fluid governed by the Brinkman equation. This represents the effective flow due to a sparse, stationary network of obstructions (e.g. fibers or polymers) in a Newtonian fluid. For a fixed propagating wave of bending, we find that swimming speeds are enhanced due to the resistance from the obstructions. Additionally, we examine the work done per unit area on the surface of a cylindrical filament and recover the limit for the Stokes case as the resistance goes to zero.

  18. Mathematical and numerical analysis of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics system with self-generated magnetic field terms; Analyse mathematique et numerique du systeme de la magnetohydrodynamique resistive avec termes de champ magnetique auto-genere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Marc


    This work is devoted to the construction of numerical methods that allow the accurate simulation of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion processes by taking self-generated magnetic field terms into account. In the sequel, we first derive a two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model and describe the considered closure relations. The resulting system of equations is then split in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. Adequate numerical methods are then proposed for each of these subsystems. Particular attention is paid to the development of finite volume schemes for the hyperbolic operator which actually is the hydrodynamics or ideal magnetohydrodynamics system depending on whether magnetic fields are considered or not. More precisely, a new class of high-order accurate dimensionally split schemes for structured meshes is proposed using the Lagrange re-map formalism. One of these schemes' most innovative features is that they have been designed in order to take advantage of modern massively parallel computer architectures. This property can for example be illustrated by the dimensionally split approach or the use of artificial viscosity techniques and is practically highlighted by sequential performance and parallel efficiency figures. Hyperbolic schemes are then combined with finite volume methods for dealing with the thermal and resistive conduction operators and taking magnetic field generation into account. In order to study the characteristics and effects of self-generated magnetic field terms, simulation results are finally proposed with the complete two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model on a test problem that represents the state of an ICF capsule at the beginning of the deceleration phase. (author)

  19. Exact unsteady solutions to the Navier-Stokes and viscous MHD equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I


    Infinite-dimensional families of exact solutions that depend on all four variables t,x,y,z are derived for the Navier-Stokes equations and for viscous magnetohydrodynamics equations. Soliton-like solutions--viscons--are introduced.

  20. Shock structure in classical magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Kennel, Charles F.


    How the structure of coplanar MHD fast and slow shocks depends upon the relative magnitudes of the dissipation coefficients contained in classical magnetohydrodynamics is examined. An asymptotic method is used in which the scale lengths for resistivity, thermal conduction, and viscosity are widely separated, and the qualitative dependence of the shock solutions upon the ordering of the scales is studied. Upper limit Mach numbers for both fast and slow shocks are defined at which resistivity and thermal conduction taken together can provide all the shock dissipation and at which viscosity is not needed.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata (United States)

    Montgomery, David; Doolen, Gary D.


    A generalization of the hexagonal lattice gas model of Frisch, Hasslacher and Pomeau is shown to lead to two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. The method relies on the ideal point-wise conservation law for vector potential.

  2. Multi-Ion Magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Toth, G.; Glocer, A.; Ma, Y.; Najib, D.; Gombosi, T.


    We derive and numerically solve the full set of magnetohydrodynamic equations with multiple ion fluids. The numerical difficulties and the algorithmic solutions are discussed. We show some preliminary results for the interaction of Mars' ionosphere with the solar wind.

  3. Viscous froth lens (United States)

    Green, T. E.; Bramley, A.; Lue, L.; Grassia, P.


    Microscale models of foam structure traditionally incorporate a balance between bubble pressures and surface tension forces associated with curvature of bubble films. In particular, models for flowing foam microrheology have assumed this balance is maintained under the action of some externally imposed motion. Recently, however, a dynamic model for foam structure has been proposed, the viscous froth model, which balances the net effect of bubble pressures and surface tension to viscous dissipation forces: this permits the description of fast-flowing foam. This contribution examines the behavior of the viscous froth model when applied to a paradigm problem with a particularly simple geometry: namely, a two-dimensional bubble “lens.” The lens consists of a channel partly filled by a bubble (known as the “lens bubble”) which contacts one channel wall. An additional film (known as the “spanning film”) connects to this bubble spanning the distance from the opposite channel wall. This simple structure can be set in motion and deformed out of equilibrium by applying a pressure across the spanning film: a rich dynamical behavior results. Solutions for the lens structure steadily propagating along the channel can be computed by the viscous froth model. Perturbation solutions are obtained in the limit of a lens structure with weak applied pressures, while numerical solutions are available for higher pressures. These steadily propagating solutions suggest that small lenses move faster than large ones, while both small and large lens bubbles are quite resistant to deformation, at least for weak applied back pressures. As the applied back pressure grows, the structure with the small lens bubble remains relatively stiff, while that with the large lens bubble becomes much more compliant. However, with even further increases in the applied back pressure, a critical pressure appears to exist for which the steady-state structure loses stability and unsteady

  4. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flows in a rotating elastico-viscous fluid (United States)

    Puri, P.; Kythe, P. K.


    This paper points out the errors in the solutions of a research work by N. Nanousis under the same title published in this journal, volume 199, 1993. The correct solutions of the problem for the velocity field and the drag on the plate, by the Laplace transform technique, are presented. The results are discussed for two cases of an arbitrary time-dependent forcing effect. It is shown that the viscoelastic parameter k greater than 0 influences the velocity and introduces reverse flow. For a suddenly accelerated plate, k greater than 0 increases the velocity for z less than the square root of 2t and decreases it for z greater than the square root of 2t. In the case of the ramp-type boundary condition, k greater than 0 tends to decrease the velocity.

  5. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric


    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at

  7. A 2.5-dimensional viscous, resistive, advective magnetized accretion-outflow coupling in black hole systems: a higher order polynomial approximation (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu


    The correlated and coupled dynamics of accretion and outflow around black holes (BHs) are essentially governed by the fundamental laws of conservation as outflow extracts matter, momentum and energy from the accretion region. Here we analyze a robust form of 2.5-dimensional viscous, resistive, advective magnetized accretion-outflow coupling in BH systems. We solve the complete set of coupled MHD conservation equations self-consistently, through invoking a generalized polynomial expansion in two dimensions. We perform a critical analysis of the accretion-outflow region and provide a complete quasi-analytical family of solutions for advective flows. We obtain the physically plausible outflow solutions at high turbulent viscosity parameter α (≳ 0.3), and at a reduced scale-height, as magnetic stresses compress or squeeze the flow region. We found that the value of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B P is enhanced with the increase of the geometrical thickness of the accretion flow. On the other hand, differential magnetic torque (-{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z) increases with the increase in \\dot{M}. {\\bar{B}}{{P}}, -{r}2{\\bar{B}}\\varphi {\\bar{B}}z as well as the plasma beta β P get strongly augmented with the increase in the value of α, enhancing the transport of vertical flux outwards. Our solutions indicate that magnetocentrifugal acceleration plausibly plays a dominant role in effusing out plasma from the radial accretion flow in a moderately advective paradigm which is more centrifugally dominated. However in a strongly advective paradigm it is likely that the thermal pressure gradient would play a more contributory role in the vertical transport of plasma.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  9. Retrofitting the Structure of the Catalytic Cracking Reactor, from Petrobrazi Refinery, Ploieşti by Transforming the Steel Structure into a Moment Resisting Frame and Enhancing the Damping of the Structure by Means of Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilescu Ionuţ


    Full Text Available The present paper presents the structural and seismic retrofit solution for the structure of the Catalytic Cracking Reactor, from Petrobrazi Refinery, Ploiești, Romania. The spatial truss type steel structure was designed and built during 1965-1968, following United States codes of that time. The capacity of the reactor is intended to be increased, thus its weight increases by approx. 43%. The retrofit solution had to take into consideration many criteria, not only technical, but also technological. After analyzing several possibilities, it was decided that the only feasible solution in order to fulfill all these requirements was to significantly increase the viscous damping of the structure – by introducing viscous dampers in its diagonals, accompanied by the strengthening of steel structure and changing the structural system into a moment resisting frame.

  10. Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galtier, Sébastien


    Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.

  11. Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian


    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in astrophysics, planetary magnetism, engineering and controlled nuclear fusion. This comprehensive textbook emphasizes physical ideas, rather than mathematical detail, making it accessible to a broad audience. Starting from elementary chapters on fluid mechanics and electromagnetism, it takes the reader all the way through to the latest ideas in more advanced topics, including planetary dynamos, stellar magnetism, fusion plasmas and engineering applications. With the new edition, readers will benefit from additional material on MHD instabilities, planetary dynamos and applications in astrophysics, as well as a whole new chapter on fusion plasma MHD. The development of the material from first principles and its pedagogical style makes this an ideal companion for both undergraduate students and postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Elementary knowledge of vector calculus is the only prerequisite.

  12. Critical Mach numbers in classical magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Kennel, Charles F.


    Stationary point analysis is used to compute generalized critical Mach numbers for finite-amplitude fast and slow shocks in classical MHD fluids. Particular attention is paid to the case where the resistive and thermal conduction dissipation scale lengths are comparable and much larger than the viscous scale lengths. With both resistivity and thermal conduction, the critical Mach number at which viscosity must be invoked is determined by the condition that the downstream flow speed equals the isothermal sound speed. It is also shown that resistivity and thermal conduction can provide convergent stationary point solutions for nearly all slow shocks, except perhaps switch-off-shocks.

  13. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Habahbeh, O.M; Al-Saqqa, M; Safi, M; Abo Khater, T


    Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps...

  14. Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renormalized viscosity, renormalized resistivity, and various energy fluxes are calculated for helical magnetohydrodynamics using perturbative field theory. The calculation is of first-order in perturbation. Kinetic and magnetic helicities do not affect the renormalized parameters, but they induce an inverse cascade of ...

  15. Wormholes in viscous cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Deng


    We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...

  16. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Shibata


    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro


    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  18. One-Dimensional Problem of a Conducting Viscous Fluid with One Relaxation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angail A. Samaan


    Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Blokland, J. W. S.


    The magnetohydrodynamic model for fusion plasma dynamics governs the large-scale equilibrium properties, and sets the most stringent constraints on the parameter space accessible without violent disruptions. In conjunction with linear stability analysis in the complex tokamak geometry, the MHD

  20. A note on a nonlinear equation arising in discussions of the steady fall of a resistive, viscous, isothermal fluid across a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautz, R. C., E-mail: [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Lerche, I., E-mail: [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany)


    This note considers the evolution of steady isothermal flow across a uniform magnetic field from an analytic standpoint. This problem is of concern in developments of magnetic fields in the solar corona and for prominence dynamics. Limiting behaviors are obtained to the nonlinear equation describing the flow depending on the value of a single parameter. For the situation where the viscous drag is a small correction to the inviscid flow limiting structures are also outlined. The purpose of the note is to show how one can evaluate some of the analytic properties of the highly nonlinear equation that are of use in considering the numerical evolution as done in Low and Egan [Phys. Plasmas 21, 062105 (2014)].

  1. Global Classical Solutions of Three Dimensional Viscous MHD System Without Magnetic Diffusion on Periodic Boxes (United States)

    Pan, Ronghua; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Yi


    In this paper, we study the global existence of classical solutions to the three dimensional incompressible viscous magneto-hydrodynamical system without magnetic diffusion on periodic boxes, that is, with periodic boundary conditions. We work in Eulerian coordinates and employ a time-weighted energy estimate to prove the global existence result, under the assumptions that the initial magnetic field is close enough to an equilibrium state and the initial data have some symmetries.

  2. On Magnetohydrodynamic Gauge Field Theory


    Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.


    Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963). It is shown how the polarization vector ${\\bf P}$ in Calkin's approach, naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday's equation for the magnetic induction ${\\bf B}$, or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday's equation. Gauss's equation, (divergence of ${\\bf B}$ is zero), is incorporated in the variational principle...

  3. Slow viscous flow

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, William E


    Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." -    from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...

  4. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J


    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  5. Generalized global symmetries and dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Hofman, Diego M.; Iqbal, Nabil


    The conserved magnetic flux of U (1 ) electrodynamics coupled to matter in four dimensions is associated with a generalized global symmetry. We study the realization of such a symmetry at finite temperature and develop the hydrodynamic theory describing fluctuations of a conserved 2-form current around thermal equilibrium. This can be thought of as a systematic derivation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, constrained only by symmetries and effective field theory. We construct the entropy current and show that at first order in derivatives, there are seven dissipative transport coefficients. We present a universal definition of resistivity in a theory of dynamical electromagnetism and derive a direct Kubo formula for the resistivity in terms of correlation functions of the electric field operator. We also study fluctuations and collective modes, deriving novel expressions for the dissipative widths of magnetosonic and Alfvén modes. Finally, we demonstrate that a nontrivial truncation of the theory can be performed at low temperatures compared to the magnetic field: this theory has an emergent Lorentz invariance along magnetic field lines, and hydrodynamic fluctuations are now parametrized by a fluid tensor rather than a fluid velocity. Throughout, no assumption is made of weak electromagnetic coupling. Thus, our theory may have phenomenological relevance for dense electromagnetic plasmas.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics flow of nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and velocity slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the steady magnetohydrodynamic flow of viscous nanofluid. The flow is caused by a stretching surface with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. An incompressible fluid fills the porous space. Copper-water and silver-water nanofluids are investigated in this study. Transformation method reduces the non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow into the ordinary differential equation by similarity transformations. The obtained equations are then solved for the development of series solutions. Convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly discussed. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, concentration and skin friction coefficient are shown and analyzed through graphs.

  7. An efficient analytical approach for MHD viscous flow over a stretching sheet via homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an efficient analytical approach based on new homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM to investigate the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD viscous flow due to a stretching sheet. The viscous fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of magnetic field and the induced magnetic field is neglected for small magnetic Reynolds number. Finally, some numerical comparisons among the new HPSTM, the homotopy perturbation method and the exact solution have been made. The numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method show that the approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive.

  8. Entropy Generation in Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convection Flow over an Inclined Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees Afridi


    Full Text Available This research focuses on entropy generation rate per unit volume in magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an inclined stretching sheet. Analysis has been performed in the presence of viscous dissipation and non-isothermal boundary conditions. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by an appropriate similarity transformation. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are then solved numerically by a shooting technique along with the Runge-Kutta method. Expressions for entropy generation (Ns and Bejan number (Be in the form of dimensionless variables are also obtained. Impact of various physical parameters on the quantities of interest is seen.

  9. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.

  10. Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, K T; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B


    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Els\\"asser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets. (United States)

    Meier, D L; Koide, S; Uchida, Y


    A number of astronomical systems have been discovered that generate collimated flows of plasma with velocities close to the speed of light. In all cases, the central object is probably a neutron star or black hole and is either accreting material from other stars or is in the initial violent stages of formation. Supercomputer simulations of the production of relativistic jets have been based on a magnetohydrodynamic model, in which differential rotation in the system creates a magnetic coil that simultaneously expels and pinches some of the infalling material. The model may explain the basic features of observed jets, including their speed and amount of collimation, and some of the details in the behavior and statistics of different jet-producing sources.

  12. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W


    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...

  13. Electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: universal features (United States)

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K.


    The energy cascade of electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) turbulence is considered. Fractal and multi-fractal models for the energy dissipation field are used to determine the spatial intermittency corrections to the scaling behavior in the high-wavenumber (electron hydrodynamic limit) and low-wavenumber (magnetization limit) asymptotic regimes of the inertial range. Extrapolation of the multi-fractal scaling down to the dissipative microscales confirms in these asymptotic regimes a dissipative anomaly previously indicated by the numerical simulations of EMHD turbulence. Several basic features of the EMHD turbulent system are found to be universal which seem to transcend the existence of the characteristic length scale d e (which is the electron skin depth) in the EMHD problem: equipartition spectrum; Reynolds-number scaling of the dissipative microscales; scaling of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the electron-flow velocity (or magnetic field) gradient (even with intermittency corrections); dissipative anomaly; and critical exponent scaling.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B., E-mail: [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  16. Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Osman, K.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.


    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multifractal scaling observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational contraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  17. Using high performance Fortran for magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Toth, G.


    Two scientific application programs, the Versatile Advection Code (VAC) and the HEating by Resonant Absorption (HERA) code are adapted to parallel computer platforms. Both programs can solve the time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with different

  18. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics on a moving mesh (United States)

    Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kannan, Rahul; Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker


    In certain astrophysical systems the commonly employed ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation breaks down. Here, we introduce novel explicit and implicit numerical schemes of ohmic resistivity terms in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We include these non-ideal terms for two MHD techniques: the Powell 8-wave formalism, and a constrained transport scheme, which evolves the cell-centred magnetic vector potential. We test our implementation against problems of increasing complexity, such as one- and two-dimensional diffusion problems, and the evolution of progressive and stationary Alfvén waves. On these test problems our implementation recovers the analytic solutions to second order accuracy. As first applications, we investigate the tearing instability in magnetised plasmas and the gravitational collapse of a rotating magnetised gas cloud. In both systems resistivity plays a key role. In the former case, it allows for the development of the tearing instability through reconnection of the magnetic field lines. In the latter, the adopted (constant) value of ohmic resistivity has an impact on both the gas distribution around the emerging proto-star and the mass loading of magnetically-driven outflows. Our new non-ideal MHD implementation opens up the possibility to study magneto-hydrodynamical systems on a moving mesh beyond the ideal MHD approximation.

  19. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) driven droplet mixer (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Lemoff, Asuncion V.; Miles, Robin R.


    A magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system mixes a first substance and a second substance. A first substrate section includes a first flow channel and a first plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the first flow channel. A second substrate section includes a second flow channel and a second plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the second flow channel. A third substrate section includes a third flow channel and a third plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes operatively connected to the third flow channel. A magnetic section and a control section are operatively connected to the spaced electrodes. The first substrate section, the second substrate section, the third substrate section, the first plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the second plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the third plurality of pairs of spaced electrodes, the magnetic section, and the control section are operated to move the first substance through the first flow channel, the second substance through the second flow channel, and both the first substance and the second substance into the third flow channel where they are mixed.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes (United States)

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D.


    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  2. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback (United States)

    Mak, J.; Griffiths, S. D.; Hughes, D. W.


    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses—and thus the degree of disruption—that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter M , a ratio between the Alfvén speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number Rm ). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when M2Rm =O (1 ) . To test our prediction, we analyze direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flows with an initially weak background magnetic field. Using the Okubo-Weiss vortex coherence criterion, we introduce a vortex disruption measure, and show that it is consistent with our predicted scaling, for vortices generated by instabilities of both a shear layer and a jet.

  3. Solidity of viscous liquids. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe


    is much larger than estimated from the alpha relaxation time. This is shown to follow from the solidity of viscous liquids in an argument which, utilizing the irrelevance of momentum conservation at high viscosity, predicts that at high viscosity the coherent diffusion constant is much larger than...

  4. On magnetohydrodynamic gauge field theory (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.


    Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963 Can. J. Phys. 41 2241-51). It is shown how the polarization vector {P} in Calkin’s approach naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday’s equation for the magnetic induction {B} , or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday’s equation. Gauss’s equation, (divergence of {B} is zero) is incorporated in the variational principle by means of a Lagrange multiplier constraint. Noether’s theorem coupled with the gauge symmetries is used to derive the conservation laws for (a) magnetic helicity, (b) cross helicity, (c) fluid helicity for non-magnetized fluids, and (d) a class of conservation laws associated with curl and divergence equations which applies to Faraday’s equation and Gauss’s equation. The magnetic helicity conservation law is due to a gauge symmetry in MHD and not due to a fluid relabelling symmetry. The analysis is carried out for the general case of a non-barotropic gas in which the gas pressure and internal energy density depend on both the entropy S and the gas density ρ. The cross helicity and fluid helicity conservation laws in the non-barotropic case are nonlocal conservation laws that reduce to local conservation laws for the case of a barotropic gas. The connections between gauge symmetries, Clebsch potentials and Casimirs are developed. It is shown that the gauge symmetry functionals in the work of Henyey (1982 Phys. Rev. A 26 480-3) satisfy the Casimir determining equations.

  5. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, F


    Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen

  6. Melting heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic radiative Williamson fluid flow with non-uniform heat source/sink (United States)

    Kumaran, G.; Sandeep, N.; Vijayaragavan, R.


    We analyzed the influence of melting heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic radiative Williamson fluid flow past an upper paraboloid of revolution with viscous dissipation. The overseeing flow and thermal distributions of insecure flow is introduced and streamlined utilizing comparable and nonsimilar transforms. The diminished coupled nonlinear differential equations are solved systematically with the assistance of a strong explanatory strategy, in particular, the shooting technique. Numerical solutions for the imperative physical channel are figured and shown. The physical components of reasonable parameters are examined through the graphs of skin friction, local Nusselt number. Rising values of Eckert number depreciate the flow and heat transfer rate.

  7. Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Dochan


    This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...

  8. Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona (United States)

    Linker, Jon A.


    This report describes the progress made in the investigation of the solar corona using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Coronal mass ejections (CME) are believed to be the primary cause of nonrecurrent geomagnetic storms and these have been investigated through the use of three-dimensional computer simulation.

  9. Solar-driven liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic generator (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.


    A solar oven heated by concentrated solar radiation as the heat source of a liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) power generation system is proposed. The design allows the production of electric power in space, as well as on Earth, at high rates of efficiency. Two types of the solar oven suitable for the system are discussed.

  10. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K


    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  11. Magneto-hydrodynamical model for plasma (United States)

    Liu, Ruikuan; Yang, Jiayan


    Based on the Newton's second law and the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field, we establish a new 3-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics model for the motion of plasma under the standard Coulomb gauge. By using the Galerkin method, we prove the existence of a global weak solution for this new 3-D model.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics for a multicomponent ionic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvati, G.A.Q.; Suttorp, L.G.


    The magnetohydrodynamical equations for a multi-component magnetized ionic mixture are used to derive the spectrum of collective modes for small wavenumbers. The results are compared with those from formal kinetic theory, which is based on the microscopic balance equations and a projection-operator

  13. Boundary layer analysis of persistent moving horizontal needle in Blasius and Sakiadis magnetohydrodynamic radiative nanofluid flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penem Mohan Krishna


    Full Text Available The boundary layer of a two-dimensional forced convective flow along a persistent moving horizontal needle in an electrically conducting magnetohydrodynamic dissipative nanofluid was numerically investigated. The energy equation was constructed with Joule heating, viscous dissipation, uneven heat source/sink, and thermal radiation effects. We analyzed the boundary layer behavior of a continuously moving needle in Blasius (moving fluid and Sakiadis (quiescent fluid flows. We considered Cu nanoparticles embedded in methanol. The reduced system of governing Partial differential equations (PDEs was solved by employing the Runge–Kutta-based shooting process. Computational outcomes of the rate of heat transfer and friction factors were tabulated and discussed. Velocity and temperature descriptions were examined with the assistance of graphical illustrations. Increasing the needle size did not have a significant influence on the Blasius flow. The heat transfer rate in the Sakiadis flow was high compared with that in the Blasius flow.

  14. Edge localized linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability studies in an extended-magnetohydrodynamic code (United States)

    Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.


    A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n =1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of "ideal-like" and "vacuumlike" or "halo" regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 108 and 103 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 105, which is much larger than experimentally measured values using Te values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.

  15. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail:; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  16. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  17. Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.


    Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel`s theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism.

  18. Mathematical models of viscous friction

    CERN Document Server

    Buttà, Paolo; Marchioro, Carlo


    In this monograph we present a review of a number of recent results on the motion of a classical body immersed in an infinitely extended medium and subjected to the action of an external force. We investigate this topic in the framework of mathematical physics by focusing mainly on the class of purely Hamiltonian systems, for which very few results are available. We discuss two cases: when the medium is a gas and when it is a fluid. In the first case, the aim is to obtain microscopic models of viscous friction. In the second, we seek to underline some non-trivial features of the motion. Far from giving a general survey on the subject, which is very rich and complex from both a phenomenological and theoretical point of view, we focus on some fairly simple models that can be studied rigorously, thus providing a first step towards a mathematical description of viscous friction. In some cases, we restrict ourselves to studying the problem at a heuristic level, or we present the main ideas, discussing only some as...

  19. Viscous Design of TCA Configuration (United States)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.


    The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.

  20. Surfactant transport on viscous bilayers (United States)

    Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Warner, Mark


    We model the external delivery of surfactant to pulmonary airways, an integral part of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT), a method of treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in neonates. We examine the spreading dynamics of insoluble surfactant by Marangoni stresses along the mucus-perciliary liquid bilayers that line the inside of airways. The bilayer is modelled as a thin highly viscous mucus surface film (mucus) overlying a much less viscous perciliary liquid layer (PCL); this is appropriate for small airways. By exploiting this large viscosity constrast, a variant of standard lubrication theory is adopted wherein terms, which would have otherwise been neglected in the lubrication approximation, are promoted in order to model correctly the presence of the mucus. Inclusion of van der Waals forces in the model permit the study of the effect of this mucus 'skin' on the possibility of bilayer rupture, a potential cause of failure of SRT. We find that increasing the viscosity contrast and initial mucus layer thickness delays the onset of rupture, while increasing the relative significance of Marangoni stresses leads to more marked thinning and rapid bilayer rupture [1]. [1] O. K. Matar, R. V. Craster and M. R. Warner, submitted to J. Fluid Mech. (2001).

  1. Sudden viscous dissipation of compressing turbulence


    Davidovits, S.; Fisch, N. J.


    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  2. Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence. (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J


    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  3. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.


    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  4. On the role of surface rheology in a magnetohydrodynamic swirling flow (United States)

    Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent


    The original coupling between the surface rheology of a liquid metal surface and a supporting annular Couette magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow is theoretically and numerically investigated in this paper, in the general layout of the classical annular viscometer, as developed by Mannheimer and Schechter ["An improved apparatus and analysis for surface rheological measurements," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 195-211 (1970)]. The purely hydrodynamic interplay between the main azimuthal flow (induced by a rotating floor) and the secondary overturning flow (generated by centrifugation) is found to be strongly affected by both surface viscous shear and surface viscous dilatation. When the flow is subjected to an outer vertical magnetic field, the impact of varying interface boundary conditions (through the surface shear and dilatational viscosities) at the gas/liquid interface profoundly alters the MHD flow topology. Particularly, when centrifugation competes with electromagnetic effects, advection of the main flow by the secondary flow is proved to affect significantly the core MHD flow, leading to a variety of atypical MHD flow patterns.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow in vertical concentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports an analytical solution for fully developed mixed convection flow of viscous,incompressible, electrically conducting fluid in vertical concentric annuli under the influence of a transverse magnetic field, where the outer surface of inner cylinder is heated sinusoidally and the inner surface of outercylinder is kept ...

  6. Two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biskamp, D.; Schwarz, E.; Drake, J.F.


    A novel type of turbulence, which arises in 2D electron magnetohydrodynamics, is studied by numerical simulation. Energy dissipation rates are found to be independent of the dissipation coefficients. The energy spectrum E{sub k} follows the basic Kolmogorov-type predictions, k{sup -5/3} for kd{sub e} > 1 and k{sup -7/3} for kd{sub e} < 1 (d{sub e} = electron inertial length) and is hence independent of the linear wave properties. Results are compared with other 2D turbulent systems. (author).

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal polar plumes. (United States)

    Nakariakov, Valery M


    Polar plumes are cool, dense, linear, magnetically open structures that arise from predominantly unipolar magnetic footpoints in the solar polar coronal holes. As the Alfvén speed is decreased in plumes in comparison with the surrounding medium, these structures are natural waveguides for fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves. The simplicity of the geometry of polar plumes makes them an ideal test ground for the study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interaction with solar coronal structures. The review covers recent observational findings of compressible and incompressible waves in polar plumes with imaging and spectral instruments, and interpretation of the waves in terms of MHD theory.

  8. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of the NCSX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Isaev, Maxim Yu [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mikhailov, M [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Redi, M H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Subbotin, A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Hirshman, Steven Paul [ORNL; Cooper, W Anthony [CRPP/EPFL, Association Euratom-Suisse, Lausanne, Switzerland; Monticello, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Reiman, A H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zarnstorff, M. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)


    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is extensively analyzed using the most advanced three-dimensional MHD codes. It is shown that the NCSX is stable to finite-n MHD modes, including the vertical mode, external kink modes and ballooning modes. However, high-n external kink modes that peak near the plasma edge are found to be weakly unstable. A global calculation shows that finite-n ballooning modes are significantly more stable than the local infinite-n modes.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic effects in liquid metal batteries (United States)

    Stefani, F.; Galindo, V.; Kasprzyk, C.; Landgraf, S.; Seilmayer, M.; Starace, M.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.


    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) consist of two liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt ionic conductor sandwiched between them. The density ratios allow for a stable stratification of the three layers. LMBs were already considered as part of energy conversion systems in the 1960s and have recently received renewed interest for economical large-scale energy storage. In this paper, we concentrate on the magnetohydrodynamic aspects of this cell type with special focus on electro-vortex flows and possible effects of the Tayler instability.

  10. Elastic Deformation Analysis on MHD Viscous Dissipative Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid: An Exact Approach (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar


    This communication is devoted to analyze elastic deformation on electrically conducted viscoelastic fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation effects. Non-linear analysis is computed through exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Special emphasis is provided for elastic deformation in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics effects. Concentration profile is discussed significantly in the presence constructive and destructive chemical reaction. Results are displayed through graphs and discussed for physical parameters that are used in present analysis. Notable findings include that temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of Prandtl number and a decreasing function of elastic deformation. In addition, heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing the conjugate parameter (γ) which measures the strength of surface heating.

  11. MHD Jeffrey nanofluid past a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation effect (United States)

    Zokri, S. M.; Arifin, N. S.; Salleh, M. Z.; Kasim, A. R. M.; Mohammad, N. F.; Yusoff, W. N. S. W.


    This study investigates the influence of viscous dissipation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Jeffrey nanofluid over a stretching sheet with convective boundary conditions. The nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations by utilizing the similarity transformation variables. The Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method is used to solve the problem numerically. The numerical solutions obtained are presented graphically for several dimensionless parameters such as Brownian motion, Lewis number and Eckert number on the specified temperature and concentration profiles. It is noted that the temperature profile is accelerated due to increasing values of Brownian motion parameter and Eckert number. In contrast, both the Brownian motion parameter and Lewis number have caused the deceleration in the concentration profiles.

  12. Forced convection boundary layer MHD flow of nanofluid over a permeable stretching plate with viscous dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Matin Meisam


    Full Text Available Forced convection boundary layer magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching plate is studied in this paper. The effects of suction-injection and viscous dissi1pation are taken into account. The nanofluid model includes Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. The governing momentum, energy and nanofluid solid volume fraction equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method and the results are compared with available numerical data. The results for the dimensionless velocity, dimensionless temperature, dimensionless nanofluid solid volume fraction, reduced Nusselt and reduced Sherwood numbers are presented illustrating the effects of magnetic parameter, suction-injection parameter, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and Lewis number.

  13. Effects of viscous dissipation and heat source on unsteady MHD flow over a stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machireddy Gnaneswara Reddy


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and heat source. Utilizing a similarity variable, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations before they are solved numerically by applying Keller Box method. Effects of physical parameters on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles were depicted graphically and analyzed in detail. The numerical predictions have been compared with already published papers and good agreement is obtained. Finally, numerical values of physical quantities such as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing values of Prandtl number and unsteadiness parameter whereas it decreases with magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, Eckert number and heat source parameter.

  14. Causal viscous cosmology without singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Laciana, Carlos E


    An isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model with a source of dark energy is studied. That source is simulated with a viscous relativistic fluid with minimal causal correction. In this model the restrictions on the parameters coming from the following conditions are analized: a) energy density without singularities along time, b) scale factor increasing with time, c) universe accelerated at present time, d) state equation for dark energy with "w" bounded and close to -1. It is found that those conditions are satified for the following two cases. i) When the transport coefficient ({\\tau}_{{\\Pi}}), associated to the causal correction, is negative, with the aditional restriction {\\zeta}|{\\tau}_{{\\Pi}}|>2/3, where {\\zeta} is the relativistic bulk viscosity coefficient. The state equation is in the "phantom" energy sector. ii) For {\\tau}_{{\\Pi}} positive, in the "k-essence" sector. It is performed an exact calculation for the case where the equation of state is constant, finding that option (ii) is favored in r...

  15. Sintering of polydisperse viscous droplets (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Sintering—or coalescence—of compacts of viscous droplets is driven by the interfacial tension between the droplets and the interstitial gas phase. The process, which occurs in a range of industrial and natural settings, such as the manufacture of ceramics and the welding of volcanic ash, causes the compact to densify, to become stronger, and to become less permeable. We investigate the role of droplet polydispersivity in sintering dynamics by conducting experiments in which populations of glass spheres with different size distributions are heated to temperatures above the glass transition interval. We quantify the progress of sintering by tracking changes in porosity with time. The sintering dynamics is modeled by treating the system as a random distribution of interstitial gas bubbles shrinking under the action of interfacial tension only. We identify the scaling between the polydispersivity of the initial droplets and the dynamics of bulk densification. The framework that we develop allows the sintering dynamics of arbitrary polydisperse populations of droplets to be predicted if the initial droplet (or particle) size distribution is known.

  16. Influence of viscous loads on motor planning. (United States)

    Thoroughman, Kurt A; Wang, Wei; Tomov, Dimitre N


    Here we computationally investigate how encumbering the hand could alter predictions made by the minimum torque change (MTC) and minimum endpoint variance hypotheses (MEPV) of movement planning. After minutes of training, people have made arm trajectories in a robot-generated viscous force field that were similar to previous baseline trajectories without the force field. We simulate the human arm interacting with this viscous load. We found that the viscous forces clearly differentiated MTC and MEPV predictions from both minimum-jerk predictions and from human behavior. We conclude that learned behavior in the viscous environment could arise from minimizing kinematic costs but could not arise from a minimization of either torque change or endpoint variance.

  17. Viscous thread behavior in branching microchannels (United States)

    Cubaud, Thomas; Hu, Xiaoyi; Sauzade, Martin


    We experimentally study the properties of viscous core-annular flows using miscible fluids in bifurcating microchannels. A viscous filament is first generated using a square hydrodynamic focusing junction by injecting a thick fluid into the central channel and a thin fluid from the side-channels. This method allows us to produce miscible fluid threads of various sizes and lateral positions in the channel, and enables the systematic study of thread transport and stability from low to moderate Reynolds numbers in branching microfluidic networks. We examine, in particular, the role of viscous buckling instabilities on thread behavior and the formation of complex viscous mixtures and stratifications at the small-scale. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).

  18. Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....

  19. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria. (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I


    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)ball lightning with dynamics of plasma inside the fireball.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.

    Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.

  1. Aharonov–Bohm effects in magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahalom, Asher, E-mail: [Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel)


    It is shown that an Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect exists in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This effect is best described in terms of the MHD variational variables (Kats, 2004; Yahalom and Lynden-Bell, 2008; Yahalom, 2010) [1,10,12]. If a MHD flow has a non-trivial topology some of the functions appearing in the MHD Lagrangian are non-single-valued. These functions have properties similar to the phases in the AB celebrated effect (Aharonov and Bohm, 1959; van Oudenaarden et al., 1998) [2,3]. While the manifestation of the quantum AB effect is in interference fringe patterns (Tonomura et al., 1982) [4], the manifestation of the MHD Aharonov–Bohm effects are through new dynamical conservation laws.

  2. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A


    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulat...

  3. Geometrical shock dynamics of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks (United States)

    Mostert, Wouter; Pullin, Dale I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, Vincent


    We extend the theory of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD, Whitham 1958), to two-dimensional fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks moving in the presence of nonuniform magnetic fields of general orientation and strength. The resulting generalized area-Mach number rule is adapted to MHD shocks moving in two spatial dimensions. A partially-spectral numerical scheme developed from that of Schwendeman (1993) is described. This is applied to the stability of plane MHD fast shocks moving into a quiescent medium containing a uniform magnetic field whose field lines are inclined to the plane-shock normal. In particular, we consider the time taken for an initially planar shock subject to an initial perturbed magnetosonic Mach number distribution, to first form shock-shocks. Supported by KAUST OCRF Award No. URF/1/2162-01.

  4. Scale-locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.


    We investigate the scale-locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the 'inertial-inductive range' of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross-helicity - or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsaesser energies - are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Corresponding spectral transfers are also scale-local when defined using octave wavenumber bands. Flux and transfer of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term also may be dominated by non-local triads but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion non locally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{sup 3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

  5. Entropy generation analysis of magnetohydrodynamic induction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Hugo [UAEMor., Facultad de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cuevas, Sergio; Haro, Mariano Lopez de [UNAM, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico)


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) induction devices such as electromagnetic pumps or electric generators are analysed within the approach of entropy generation. The flow of an electrically-conducting incompressible fluid in an MHD induction machine is described through the well known Hartmann model. Irreversibilities in the system due to ohmic dissipation, flow friction and heat flow are included in the entropy-generation rate. This quantity is used to define an overall efficiency for the induction machine that considers the total loss caused by process irreversibility. For an MHD generator working at maximum power output with walls at constant temperature, an optimum magnetic field strength (i.e., Hartmann number) is found based on the maximum overall efficiency. (Author)

  6. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Stone, J M


    We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments.

  7. Exact solutions for helical magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villata, M. (Istituto di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)); Tsinganos, K. (Department of Physics, University of Crete and Research Center of Crete, GR-71409, Heraklion, Crete (Greece))


    Three novel classes of exact solutions of the generalized Grad--Shafranov equation for helically symmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria are presented. The first two classes may be applied to helical MHD equilibria for plasma confined between two coaxial cylinders, while the third one to the modeling of helicoidal magnetic fields and flows in several recently observed astrophysical jets. The same solutions can be also used for the testing of sophisticated numerical codes. It is also shown that all helically symmetric MHD equilibria can be treated by the same general method which is employed to generate exact MHD solutions for systems possessing an ignorable coordinate in a system of three orthogonal basis vectors, although in the case of helical symmetry an [ital orthogonal] ignorable coordinate does not exist, contrary to what happens in the well-known cases of axial and translational symmetries.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics within the extended thermodynamics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Carvalho, J.C.; Jafelice, L.C. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Experimental


    The equations of the magnetohydrodynamics are discussed in the framework of the extended thermodynamics. It is shown that such an approach is equivalent to consider the Ohm`s law when the inertial current (J) is included in it. Under certain conditions this new term implies that the magnetic field (B) diffusion is described by a telegrapher type equation (i.e., t{sub pl}{delta}{sup 2} B/{delta}t{sup 2} + {delta}B/{delta}t - n{nabla}{sup 2} B = 0: in the case the plasma velocity v = 0), instead of the usual hydromagnetic diffusion equation. As in the case of the temperature, the causality requirements are naturally obeyed since the propagation of the magnetic field is governed by a hyperbolic type equation. (author). 8 refs.

  9. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  10. Anisotropic Intermittency Scaling of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Osman, K.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.


    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when the local magnetic field direction is parallel to the flow, the full statistical signature of both the magnetic and Elsasser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a magnetic field-parallel turbulent energy cascade, as is consistent with several theoretical models. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  11. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail:; Morrison, P. J., E-mail:; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  12. Generic magnetohydrodynamic model at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (United States)

    Honkonen, I. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Glocer, A.


    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a multi-agency partnership to enable, support and perform research and development for next-generation space science and space weather models. CCMC currently hosts nearly 100 numerical models and a cornerstone of this activity is the Runs on Request (RoR) system which allows anyone to request a model run and analyse/visualize the results via a web browser. CCMC is also active in the education community by organizing student research contests, heliophysics summer schools, and space weather forecaster training for students, government and industry representatives. Recently a generic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model was added to the CCMC RoR system which allows the study of a variety of fluid and plasma phenomena in one, two and three dimensions using a dynamic point-and-click web interface. For example students can experiment with the physics of fundamental wave modes of hydrodynamic and MHD theory, behavior of discontinuities and shocks as well as instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz.Students can also use the model to experiments with numerical effects of models, i.e. how the process of discretizing a system of equations and solving them on a computer changes the solution. This can provide valuable background understanding e.g. for space weather forecasters on the effects of model resolution, numerical resistivity, etc. on the prediction.

  13. Comparison between Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Dennis, T. J.


    One-dimensional (1D) turbulence transport models have long been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to the large scale of the system. As a first step in this direction, we present results from a series of 3D simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VATc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models regarding energy cascade, correlation length scales, etc., and discuss the validity of different assumptions employed in such models. This work is supported by a NASA grant NNX15AU61G.

  14. Anisotropic diffusion in mesh-free numerical magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.


    We extend recently developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect) and turbulent 'eddy diffusion'. We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV). We show that the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behaviour even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators and non-linear flux limiters, which is trivially generalized to AMR/moving-mesh codes. We also present applications of some of these improvements for SPH, in the form of a new integral-Godunov SPH formulation that adopts a moving-least squares gradient estimator and introduces a flux-limited Riemann problem between particles.

  15. Laser printed graphene on polyimide electrodes for magnetohydrodynamic pumping of saline fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah


    An efficient, scalable pumping device is reported that avoids moving parts and is fabricated with a cost-effective method. The magnetohydrodynamic pump has electrodes facilely made by laser printing of polyimide. The electrodes exhibit a low sheet resistance of 22.75 Ω/square. The pump is implemented in a channel of 240 mm2 cross-section and has an electrode length of 5 mm. When powered by 7.3 V and 12.43 mA/cm2, it produces 13.02 mm/s flow velocity.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Flow with Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction Effects in the Presence of Variable Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Halima


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of flow parameters on the free convection and mass transfer of an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of variable suction. The thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects are assumed to exist within the channel. Non dimensional partial differential equations of governing equations of flow are solved numerically using Crank Nicolson finite difference method. The skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates as well as the effects of various parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed. The signifiant results from this study are that an increase in the values of radiation parameter and chemical reaction parameter causes a reduction in the velocity, temperature and concentration.

  17. The application of preconditioning in viscous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)); Merkle, C.L. (The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))


    A time-derivative preconditioning algorithm that is effective over a wide range of flow conditions from inviscid to very diffusive flows and from low speed to supersonic flows has been developed. The algorithm uses a preconditioning matrix that introduces well-conditioned eigen values while simultaneously avoiding nonphysical time reversals for viscous flows. The resulting algorithm also provides a mechanism for controlling the inviscid and viscous time step parameters at very diffusive flows, thereby ensuring rapid convergence for very viscous flows as well as for inviscid flows. Computational capabilities are demonstrated through computation of a wide variety of problems. Convergence rates are shown to be accelerated by as much as two orders of magnitudes, while providing solutions that are identical to those obtained without preconditioning method. 26 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Self-gravitational instability of dense degenerate viscous anisotropic plasma with rotation (United States)

    Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana


    The influence of finite Larmor radius correction, tensor viscosity and uniform rotation on self-gravitational and firehose instabilities is discussed in the framework of the quantum magnetohydrodynamic and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) fluid models. The general dispersion relation is obtained for transverse and longitudinal modes of propagation. In both the modes of propagation the dispersion relation is further analysed with respect to the direction of the rotational axis. In the analytical discussion the axis of rotation is considered in parallel and in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field. (i) In the transverse mode of propagation, when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, the Jeans instability criterion is affected by the rotation, finite Larmor radius (FLR) and quantum parameter but remains unaffected due to the presence of tensor viscosity. The calculated critical Jeans masses for rotating and non-rotating dense degenerate plasma systems are \\odot $ and \\odot $ respectively. It is clear that the presence of rotation enhances the threshold mass of the considered system. (ii) In the case of longitudinal mode of propagation when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes are obtained. The Alfvén mode is modified by FLR corrections and rotation. The analytical as well as graphical results show that the presence of FLR and rotation play significant roles in stabilizing the growth rate of the firehose instability by suppressing the parallel anisotropic pressure. The viscous self-gravitating mode is significantly affected by tensor viscosity, anisotropic pressure and the quantum parameter while it remains free from rotation and FLR corrections. When the direction of rotation is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the rotation of the considered system coupled the Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes to each other. The finding of the present work is applicable to

  19. Viscous dissipation and radiation effects on MHD natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sameh E., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, Qena (Egypt); Hussein, Ahmed Kadhim, E-mail: [College of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Babylon University, Babylon City—Hilla (Iraq); Mohammed, H.A. [Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Adegun, I.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin (Nigeria); Zhang, Xiaohui [School of Physics Science and Technology, School of Energy—Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, Jiangsu (China); Kolsi, Lioua [Unite de Metrologie en Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d’Ingenieurs, Monastir (Tunisia); Hasanpour, Arman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, PO Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sivasankaran, S. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)


    Highlights: • Ha decelerates the flow field. • Ha enhances conduction. • Magnetic field orientation is important. • Radiation parameter important. • Nu decreases as Ha increases. -- Abstract: Numerical two-dimensional analysis using finite difference approach with “line method” is performed on the laminar magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium to investigate the effects of viscous dissipation and radiation. The enclosure heated from left vertical sidewall and cooled from an opposing right vertical sidewall. The top and bottom walls of the enclosure are considered adiabatic. The flow in the square enclosure is subjected to a uniform magnetic field at various orientation angles (φ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°). Numerical computations occur at wide ranges of Rayleigh number, viscous dissipation parameter, magnetic field orientation angles, Hartmann number and radiation parameter. Numerical results are presented with the aid of tables and graphical illustrations. The results of the present work explain that the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot and cold sidewalls increase with increasing the radiation parameter. From the other side, the role of viscous dissipation parameter is to reduce the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot left wall, while it improves them at the cold right wall. The results are compared with another published results and it found to be in a good agreement.

  20. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.


    simplifies the theory by allowing for an ultra-local Hamiltonian (free energy), but also explains the observed general independence of chemistry. Whereas there are no long-ranged static (i.e., equal-time) correlations in the model, there are important long-ranged dynamic correlations on the alpha timescale.......Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  1. Viscous computations using a direct solver (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.


    Laminar viscous flows over airfoils are investigated analytically, applying the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe (1986) to solve the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Central-difference discretization is used for the viscous terms, and a fully implicit implementation is employed to minimize the Reynolds-number effect on convergence. Results for flows at freestream Mach number 0.5 and Reynolds number 5000 over NACA0012 airfoils at angles of attack 0 and 3 deg are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Good agreement with previous calculations is obtained, with accurate reproduction of essential features despite the use of coarser meshes.

  2. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.


    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  3. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Model of Jovian Magnetosphere (United States)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)


    The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5R(sub J). The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by C(sub max)(Delta)t/(Delta)x less than 1 where C(sub max) is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is C(sub w) and the flow speed is C(sub f), C(sub max) = C(sub w) + C(sub f). Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a

  4. Conservative regularization of ideal hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Thyagaraja, A.


    Inviscid, incompressible hydrodynamics and incompressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) share many properties such as time-reversal invariance of equations, conservation laws, and certain topological features. In three dimensions, these systems may lead to singular solutions (involving vortex and current sheets). While dissipative (viscoresistive) effects can regularize the equations leading to bounded solutions to the initial-boundary value (Cauchy) problem which presumably exist uniquely, the time-reversal symmetry and associated conservation properties are certainly destroyed. The present work is analogous to (and suggested by) the Korteweg-de Vries regularization of the one-dimensional, nonlinear kinematic wave equation. Thus the regularizations applied to the original equations of hydrodynamics and ideal MHD retain conservation properties and the symmetries of the original equations. Integral invariants which generalize those known for the original systems are shown to imply bounded enstrophy. The regularization developed can also be applied to the corresponding dissipative models (such as the Navier-Stokes equations and the viscoresistive MHD equations) and may imply interesting regularity properties for the solutions of the latter as well. The models developed thus have intrinsic mathematical interest as well as possible applications to large-scale numerical simulations in systems where dissipative effects are extremely small or even absent.

  5. Orbital Advection with Magnetohydrodynamics and Vector Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Wladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northrige, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge CA 91130 (United States); McNally, Colin P. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Heinemann, Tobias [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Masset, Frédéric, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)


    Orbital advection is a significant bottleneck in disk simulations, and a particularly tricky one when used in connection with magnetohydrodynamics. We have developed an orbital advection algorithm suitable for the induction equation with magnetic potential. The electromotive force is split into advection and shear terms, and we find that we do not need an advective gauge since solving the orbital advection implicitly precludes the shear term from canceling the advection term. We prove and demonstrate the third order in time accuracy of the scheme. The algorithm is also suited to non-magnetic problems. Benchmarked results of (hydrodynamical) planet–disk interaction and of the magnetorotational instability are reproduced. We include detailed descriptions of the construction and selection of stabilizing dissipations (or high-frequency filters) needed to generate practical results. The scheme is self-consistent, accurate, and elegant in its simplicity, making it particularly efficient for straightforward finite-difference methods. As a result of the work, the algorithm is incorporated in the public version of the Pencil Code, where it can be used by the community.

  6. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.


    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  7. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe. Keywords. Cosmology; viscous Universe; radiation phase; inflationary ...

  8. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids (United States)

    Fu, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.


    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Experimental and numerical studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible (e.g. water and glycerol) or perfectly immiscible (e.g. water and oil). In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other (e.g. CO2 and water). Following our recent work for miscible systems (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a porous medium, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. In our model, partial miscibility is characterized through the design of the thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We express the model in dimensionless form and elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution. Figure caption: final snapshots in simulations of viscous fingering with a two-fluid system mimicking that of CO2 and water. The colormap corresponds to the concentration of CO2. A band of less viscous gas phase rich in CO2 (red) displaces through the more viscous liquid phase that is undersaturated with CO2 (blue). At the fluid interface, an exchange of CO2 occurs as a result of local chemical potentials that drives the system towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This results in a shrinkage of gas phase as well as a local increase in

  9. Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws (United States)

    Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.


    Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8-106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem.

  10. Entropy generation minimization of a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow in a microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Guillermo [Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas 29000 (Mexico); Cuevas, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico)


    The dissipative processes that arise in a microchannel flow subjected to electromagnetic interactions, as occurs in a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) micropump, are analyzed. The entropy generation rate is used as a tool for the assessment of the intrinsic irreversibilities present in the microchannel owing to viscous friction, heat flow and electric conduction. The flow in a parallel plate microchannel produced by a Lorentz force created by a transverse magnetic field and an injected electric current is considered assuming a thermally fully developed flow and conducting walls of finite thickness. The conjugate heat transfer problem in the fluid and solid walls is solved analytically using thermal boundary conditions of the third kind at the outer surfaces of the walls and continuity of temperature and heat flux across the fluid-wall interfaces. Velocity, temperature and current density fields in the fluid and walls are used to calculate the global entropy generation rate. Conditions under which this quantity is minimized are determined for specific values of the geometrical and physical parameters of the system. The Nusselt number is also calculated and explored for different conditions. Results can be used to determine optimized conditions that lead to a minimum dissipation consistent with the physical constraints demanded by the microdevice. (author)

  11. Spontaneous rotation in the exact solution of magnetohydrodynamic equations for flow between two stationary impermeable disks (United States)

    Yavorskii, N. I.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a viscous electrically conducting incompressible fluid between two stationary impermeable disks is considered. A homogeneous electric current density vector normal to the surface is specified on the upper disk, and the lower disk is nonconducting. The exact von Karman solution of the complete system of MHD equations is studied in which the axial velocity and the magnetic field depend only on the axial coordinate. The problem contains two dimensionless parameters: the electric current density on the upper plate Y and the Batchelor number (magnetic Prandtl number). It is assumed that there is no external source that produces an axial magnetic field. The problem is solved for a Batchelor number of 0-2. Fluid flow is caused by the electric current. It is shown that for small values of Y, the fluid velocity vector has only axial and radial components. The velocity of motion increases with increasing Y, and at a critical value of Y, there is a bifurcation of the new steady flow regime with fluid rotation, while the flow without rotation becomes unstable. A feature of the obtained new exact solution is the absence of an axial magnetic field necessary for the occurrence of an azimuthal component of the ponderomotive force, as is the case in the MHD dynamo. A new mechanism for the bifurcation of rotation in MHD flow is found.

  12. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow with heat and mass transfer over a horizontal circular cylinder embedded in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boričić Branko Z.


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of flow parameters on the mixed convection heat and mass transfer of an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, and incompressible fluid over a horizontal circular cylinder embedded in porous medium, considering effects of chemical reaction and heat source/sink, by taking into account viscous dissipation. The present magnetic field is homogenous and perpendicular to the body surface. Magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower than one i. e. considered the problem is in approximation without induction. The governing non-linear partial differential equations and associated boundary conditions are made dimensionless using a suitable similarity transformation and similarity parameters. System of non-dimensionless equations are solved numerically by implicit finite difference three-diagonal and iteration method. Numerical results obtained for different values of porous medium, magnetic, diffusion and temperature parameters, buoyancy diffusion parameter and thermal parameter and for different values Prandtl, Echart, and Schmidt numbers. Variation of velocity, temperature and concentration and many integral and differential characteristics boundary layer are discussed and shown graphically.

  13. On the performance of exponential integrators for problems in magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Tokman, Mayya; Loffeld, John


    Exponential integrators have been introduced as an efficient alternative to explicit and implicit methods for integrating large stiff systems of differential equations. Over the past decades these methods have been studied theoretically and their performance was evaluated using a range of test problems. While the results of these investigations showed that exponential integrators can provide significant computational savings, the research on validating this hypothesis for large scale systems and understanding what classes of problems can particularly benefit from the use of the new techniques is in its initial stages. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling is widely used in studying large scale behavior of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In many problems numerical solution of MHD equations is a challenging task due to the temporal stiffness of this system in the parameter regimes of interest. In this paper we evaluate the performance of exponential integrators on large MHD problems and compare them to a state-of-the-art implicit time integrator. Both the variable and constant time step exponential methods of EPIRK-type are used to simulate magnetic reconnection and the Kevin-Helmholtz instability in plasma. Performance of these methods, which are part of the EPIC software package, is compared to the variable time step variable order BDF scheme included in the CVODE (part of SUNDIALS) library. We study performance of the methods on parallel architectures and with respect to magnitudes of important parameters such as Reynolds, Lundquist, and Prandtl numbers. We find that the exponential integrators provide superior or equal performance in most circumstances and conclude that further development of exponential methods for MHD problems is warranted and can lead to significant computational advantages for large scale stiff systems of differential equations such as MHD.

  14. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.


    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at

  15. Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.


    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003, most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly, the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general-relativistic hydrodynamics is enlarged to account for recent relevant advances, while those dealing with general-relativistic MHD are amply covered in this review for the first time. The basic outline of this article is nevertheless similar to its earlier versions, save for the addition of MHD-related issues throughout. Hence, different formulations of both the hydrodynamics and MHD equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of numerical approaches for solving such hyperbolic systems of equations is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. As previously stated, a comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is also presented. These are detailed in three basic sections, namely gravitational collapse, black-hole accretion, and neutron-star evolutions; despite the boundaries, these sections may (and in fact do overlap throughout the discussion. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances in the formulation of the gravitational field, hydrodynamics and MHD equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. To keep the length of this article reasonable

  16. Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity. (United States)

    Font, José A


    This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003), most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly, the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general-relativistic hydrodynamics is enlarged to account for recent relevant advances, while those dealing with general-relativistic MHD are amply covered in this review for the first time. The basic outline of this article is nevertheless similar to its earlier versions, save for the addition of MHD-related issues throughout. Hence, different formulations of both the hydrodynamics and MHD equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of numerical approaches for solving such hyperbolic systems of equations is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. As previously stated, a comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is also presented. These are detailed in three basic sections, namely gravitational collapse, black-hole accretion, and neutron-star evolutions; despite the boundaries, these sections may (and in fact do) overlap throughout the discussion. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances in the formulation of the gravitational field, hydrodynamics and MHD equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. To keep the length of this article reasonable, an effort has

  17. Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models. (United States)

    Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H


    The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.

  18. Instabilities and propagation of neutrino magnetohydrodynamic waves in arbitrary direction (United States)

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves


    In a previous work [Haas et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 012104 (2016)], a new model was introduced, taking into account the role of the Fermi weak force due to neutrinos coupled to magnetohydrodynamic plasmas. The resulting neutrino-magnetohydrodynamics was investigated in a particular geometry associated with the magnetosonic wave, where the ambient magnetic field and the wavevector are perpendicular. The corresponding fast, short wavelength neutrino beam instability was then obtained in the context of supernova parameters. The present communication generalizes these results, allowing for arbitrary direction of wave propagation, including fast and slow magnetohydrodynamic waves and the intermediate cases of oblique angles. The numerical estimates of the neutrino-plasma instabilities are derived in extreme astrophysical environments where dense neutrino beams exist.

  19. Influence of Newtonian heating on three dimensional MHD flow of couple stress nanofluid with viscous dissipation and Joule heating. (United States)

    Ramzan, Muhammad


    The present exploration discusses the influence of Newtonian heating on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional couple stress nanofluid past a stretching surface. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects are also considered. Moreover, the nanofluid model includes the combined effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Using an appropriate transformation, the governing non linear partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Series solutions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are computed. Plots are presented to portrait the arising parameters in the problem. It is seen that an increase in conjugate heating parameter results in considerable increase in the temperature profile of the stretching wall. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers tabulated and analyzed. Higher values of conjugate parameter, Thermophoresis parameter and Brownian motion parameter result in enhancement of temperature distribution.

  20. Radiation effects on unsteady MHD convective heat and mass transfer past a vertical plate with chemical reaction and viscous dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla


    Full Text Available A numerical analysis is performed to study the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic convective flow of heat and mass transfer of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting Newtonian fluid along a vertical permeable plate in the presence of a homogeneous first order chemical reaction and taking into account thermal radiation effects. The porous plate was subjected to a constant suction velocity with variable surface temperature and concentration. The governing coupled non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations were solved by an efficient and unconditionally stable finite element method based on Galerkin weighted residual approach. A representative set of computational results for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as Local skin-friction coefficient, Local Nusselt number and Local Sherwood number are presented graphically for various governing parameters such as M,R,Ec,Sc,andK. In the present analysis various comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in a good agreement.

  1. Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation effects in MHD flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid through Impermeable Surface with Heat Generation/Absorption (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpna; Gupta, Sumit


    This paper investigates steady two dimensional flow of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over an impermeable surface in presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. By using similarity transformation, the arising governing equations of momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration are transformed into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are than solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effect of different physical parameters, namely, Prandtl number Pr, Eckert number Ec, Magnetic parameter M, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophoresis parameter Nt, Lewis parameter Le and Radiation parameter Rd on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles along with the Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are discussed graphically and in tabular form in details. The present results are also compared with existing limiting solutions.

  2. Current-sheet formation in incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Victor P.


    The nonlinear dynamics of axisymmetric, as well as helical, frozen-in vortex structures is investigated by the Hamiltonian method in the framework of ideal incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics. For description of current-sheet formation from a smooth initial magnetic field, local and nonl......The nonlinear dynamics of axisymmetric, as well as helical, frozen-in vortex structures is investigated by the Hamiltonian method in the framework of ideal incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics. For description of current-sheet formation from a smooth initial magnetic field, local...

  3. Waves of pressure in viscous incompressible fluid (United States)

    Prosviryakov, E. Yu.


    A three-dimensional non-stationary flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in the infinite space is examined. The description of possible shapes of pressure is based on the equation for the axial component of velocity, which is an exact consequence of the basic equations. New analytical exact solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for periodic and localized traveling waves have been found.

  4. Viscous flow in a soft valve


    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare


    Fluid-structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The se...

  5. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture


    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Farkas


    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical simulation of the viscous flow around a tanker model was carried out utilizing software package STAR-CCM+. A mathematical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid method for describing the motion of two-phase media are given. Necessary boundary conditions for the mathematical model and the method of discretization are described as well. The influence of the grid density on the numerical results for the total resistance of tanker model was investigated using three different grid densities. Two different types of k-ε turbulence model are implemented and the deviations in numerical results are highlighted. Results for total resistance of tanker model, obtained by numerical simulations, were validated against experimental results. Experiments were performed in the towing tank of Brodarski Institut in Zagreb for wide range of Froude numbers. It has been shown that for all three grid densities and both types of k-ε turbulence model satisfactory agreement with experimental results can be achieved for whole range of Froude numbers. The scale effects are investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics study for the same tanker model in three different scales. Numerically calculated scale effects on the wave resistance are reviewed.

  7. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  8. Magneto-hydrodynamics Simulation in Astrophysics (United States)

    Pang, Bijia


    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) studies the dynamics of an electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. Many astrophysical phenomena are related to MHD, and computer simulations are used to model these dynamics. In this thesis, we conduct MHD simulations of non-radiative black hole accretion as well as fast magnetic reconnection. By performing large scale three dimensional parallel MHD simulations on supercomputers and using a deformed-mesh algorithm, we were able to conduct very high dynamical range simulations of black hole accretion of Sgr A* at the Galactic Center. We find a generic set of solutions, and make specific predictions for currently feasible observations of rotation measure (RM). The magnetized accretion flow is subsonic and lacks outward convection flux, making the accretion rate very small and having a density slope of around -1. There is no tendency for the flows to become rotationally supported, and the slow time variability of th! e RM is a key quantitative signature of this accretion flow. We also provide a constructive numerical example of fast magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional periodic box. Reconnection is initiated by a strong, localized perturbation to the field lines and the solution is intrinsically three-dimensional. Approximately 30% of the magnetic energy is released in an event which lasts about one Alfvén time, but only after a delay during which the field lines evolve into a critical configuration. In the co-moving frame of the reconnection regions, reconnection occurs through an X-like point, analogous to the Petschek reconnection. The dynamics appear to be driven by global flows rather than local processes. In addition to issues pertaining to physics, we present results on the acceleration of MHD simulations using heterogeneous computing systems te{shan2006heterogeneous}. We have implemented the MHD code on a variety of heterogeneous and multi-core architectures (multi-core x86, Cell, Nvidia and

  9. Fast magnetic and turbulent-wave dynamos in electron magnetohydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Moiseev, S. S.; Schep, T. J.


    The influence of inertia on the spontaneous amplification of large-scale perturbations by electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) turbulence is studied in a 2 1/2 -dimensional(2 1/2 -D) model. It is shown that electron inertia results in the modification of ct-like effects, which are due to the helicity

  10. Parallel, grid-adaptive approaches for relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.; van Marle, A. J.; Delmont, P.; Vlasis, A.; van der Holst, B.


    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics provide continuum fluid descriptions for gas and plasma dynamics throughout the visible universe. We present an overview of state-of-the-art modeling in special relativistic regimes, targeting strong shock-dominated flows with speeds approaching the speed

  11. Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his sabbatical leave. This work was supported in part by the Department of Science and. Technology, India. References. [1] H K Moffatt, Magnetic fields generation in electrically conducting fluids (Cambridge University. Press, Cambridge, 1978). [2] F Krause and K H Rädler, Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo ...

  12. Large-eddy simulations of fluid and magnetohydrodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper a procedure for large-eddy simulation (LES) has been devised for fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in Fourier space using the renormalized parameters; The parameters calculated using field theory have been taken from recent papers by Verma [1, 2]. We have carried out LES on 643 grid.

  13. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  14. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  15. Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Grete, Philipp


    Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the

  16. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography. (United States)

    Kovácsová, Gabriela; Grünbein, Marie Luise; Kloos, Marco; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce; Schlichting, Ilme


    Serial (femtosecond) crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates - gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydro-gels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carb-oxy-methyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new matrices afford

  17. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová


    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  18. Coarse-grained incompressible magnetohydrodynamics: analyzing the turbulent cascades (United States)

    Aluie, Hussein


    We formulate a coarse-graining approach to the dynamics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids at a continuum of length-scales ℓ. In this methodology, effective equations are derived for the observable velocity and magnetic fields spatially-averaged at an arbitrary scale of resolution. The microscopic equations for the ‘bare’ velocity and magnetic fields are ‘renormalized’ by coarse-graining to yield macroscopic effective equations that contain both a subscale stress and a subscale electromotive force (EMF) generated by nonlinear interaction of eliminated fields and plasma motions. Particular attention is given to the effects of these subscale terms on the balances of the quadratic invariants of ideal incompressible MHD—energy, cross-helicity and magnetic helicity. At large coarse-graining length-scales, the direct dissipation of the invariants by microscopic mechanisms (such as molecular viscosity and Spitzer resistivity) is shown to be negligible. The balance at large scales is dominated instead by the subscale nonlinear terms, which can transfer invariants across scales, and are interpreted in terms of work concepts for energy and in terms of topological flux-linkage for the two helicities. An important application of this approach is to MHD turbulence, where the coarse-graining length ℓ lies in the inertial cascade range. We show that in the case of sufficiently rough velocity and/or magnetic fields, the nonlinear inter-scale transfer need not vanish and can persist to arbitrarily small scales. Although closed expressions are not available for subscale stress and subscale EMF, we derive rigorous upper bounds on the effective dissipation they produce in terms of scaling exponents of the velocity and magnetic fields. These bounds provide exact constraints on phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence in order to allow the nonlinear cascade of energy and cross-helicity. On the other hand, we prove a very strong version of the Woltjer-Taylor conjecture

  19. Double stratification effects on unsteady electrical MHD mixed convection flow of nanofluid with viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel


    Full Text Available The problem of unsteady mixed convection electrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow and heat transfer induced due to nanofluid over a permeable stretching sheet using Buongiorno model is investigated. The transverse electric and magnetic fields are considered in the flow field, while in the heat convection is associated with the thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption, viscous and Ohmic dissipations, and chemical reaction is incorporated in the mass diffusion. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the boundary layer governing equations which are partial differential equations to nonlinear differential equations and then solved numerically using implicit finite difference scheme. The nanofluid velocity and temperature are sensitive to an increase in the electric field, which resolved the problem of sticky effects due to the magnetic field. Destructive chemical reaction increases the level nanoparticles concentration while reversed behave happened in the case of the generative chemical reaction. Heat source boosts the fluid temperature while as opposite occurred with the heat sink. Thermal and concentration stratifications decreased the fluid temperature and the nanoparticles concentration profiles. Buoyancy ratio parameter reduced the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers whereas mixed convection parameter increases for higher values. A comparison with the previous study available in literature has been done and found an excellent agreement with the published data. Keywords: Magnetic nanofluid, Doubly stratified flow, Mixed convection, Thermal radiation, Electric field, Viscous and Ohmic dissipations

  20. Viscous flows the practical use of theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard


    Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.

  1. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.


    implies that the Hamiltonian (free energy) may be taken to be ultralocal. As an illustration of the theory the case with the simplest nontrivial Hamiltonian is solved to second order in the Gaussian approximation, where it predicts an asymmetric frequency dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...

  2. Dragging cylinders in slow viscous flows (United States)

    Luca, Elena; Crowdy, Darren


    The so-called ``dragging problem'' in slow viscous fluids is an important basic flow with many applications. In two dimensions, the Stokes paradox means there is no solution to the dragging problem for a cylinder in free space. The presence of walls changes this; the solutions exist, but are not easy to find without purely numerical methods. This talk describes new ``transform methods'' that produce convenient, semi-analytical solutions to dragging problems for cylinders in various geometries. We apply the techniques to low-Reynolds-number swimming where dragging problem solutions can be combined with the reciprocal theorem to compute swimmer dynamics in confined domains.

  3. Free-Boundary Resistive Modes in Tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.


    There exist a number of observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity that can be related to resistive MHD modes localized near the plasma boundary. To study the stability of these modes, a free boundary description of the plasma is essential. The resistive plasma-vacuum boundary conditions

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in colliding-plasma-jet experiments with magnetic and viscous stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Colin Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.

  5. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth in a plasma regime with magnetic and viscous stabilization (United States)

    Adams, Colin


    Rayleigh-Taylor-instability (RTI) growth during the interaction between a high-Mach-number, unmagnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma is observed in a regime where the growth of short-wavelength modes is influenced by plasma viscosity and magnetic fields. The time evolution of mode growth at the mostly planar interface is captured by a multi-frame fast camera. Interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to experimentally infer ni, Te, Z , acceleration, B -->, and ion viscosity in the vicinity of the evolving interface. As the instability grows, an evolution from mode wavelengths of ~ 1 . 7 cm to ~ 2 . 8 cm is observed. The growth time (~ 10 μs) and wavelength (~ 1 cm) of the observed modes agree with theoretical predictions computed from the experimentally inferred density (~1014 cm-3), deceleration (~109 m /s2), and magnetic field (~ 15 G in direction of wavevector). Furthermore, comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations (which include a physical viscosity model) suggest that both magnetic and viscous stabilization contribute to the observed mode evolution. These data are relevant for benchmarking astrophysical and magneto-inertial-fusion-relevant computations of RTI. Supported by the LANL LDRD Program; PLX facility construction supported by OFES.

  6. Relativistic viscous hydrodynamics for heavy-ion collisions with ECHO-QGP (United States)

    Del Zanna, L.; Chandra, V.; Inghirami, G.; Rolando, V.; Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Pagliara, G.; Drago, A.; Becattini, F.


    We present ECHO-QGP, a numerical code for (3+1)-dimensional relativistic viscous hydrodynamics designed for the modeling of the space-time evolution of the matter created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The code has been built on top of the Eulerian Conservative High-Order astrophysical code for general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (Del Zanna et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 473:11, 2007] and here it has been upgraded to handle the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. ECHO-QGP features second-order treatment of causal relativistic viscosity effects both in Minkowskian and in Bjorken coordinates; partial or complete chemical equilibrium of hadronic species before kinetic freeze-out; initial conditions based on the Glauber model, including a Monte-Carlo routine for event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions; a freeze-out procedure based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is extensively validated against several test problems and results always appear accurate, as guaranteed by the combination of the conservative (shock-capturing) approach and the high-order methods employed. ECHO-QGP can be extended to include evolution of the electromagnetic fields coupled to the plasma.

  7. Relativistic viscous hydrodynamics for heavy-ion collisions with ECHO-QGP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Zanna, L. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Chandra, V. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Inghirami, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rolando, V.; Pagliara, G.; Drago, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Beraudo, A. [Theory Unit, CERN, Physics Department, Geneve (Switzerland); De Pace, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    We present ECHO-QGP, a numerical code for (3+1)-dimensional relativistic viscous hydrodynamics designed for the modeling of the space-time evolution of the matter created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The code has been built on top of the Eulerian Conservative High-Order astrophysical code for general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (Del Zanna et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 473:11, 2007) and here it has been upgraded to handle the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. ECHO-QGP features second-order treatment of causal relativistic viscosity effects both in Minkowskian and in Bjorken coordinates; partial or complete chemical equilibrium of hadronic species before kinetic freeze-out; initial conditions based on the Glauber model, including a Monte-Carlo routine for event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions; a freeze-out procedure based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is extensively validated against several test problems and results always appear accurate, as guaranteed by the combination of the conservative (shock-capturing) approach and the high-order methods employed. ECHO-QGP can be extended to include evolution of the electromagnetic fields coupled to the plasma. (orig.)

  8. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres. (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P


    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  9. Dense planetary rings and the viscous overstability (United States)

    Latter, Henrik N.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.


    This paper examines the onset of the viscous overstability in dense particulate rings. First, we formulate a dense gas kinetic theory that is applicable to the saturnian system. Our model is essentially that of Araki and Tremaine [Araki, S., Tremaine, S., 1986. Icarus 65, 83-109], which we show can be both simplified and generalised. Second, we put this model to work computing the equilibrium properties of dense planetary rings, which we subsequently compare with the results of N-body simulations, namely those of Salo [Salo, H., 1991. Icarus 90, 254-270]. Finally, we present the linear stability analyses of these equilibrium states, and derive criteria for the onset of viscous overstability in the self-gravitating and non-self-gravitating cases. These are framed in terms of particle size, orbital frequency, optical depth, and the parameters of the collision law. Our results compare favourably with the simulations of Salo et al. [Salo, H., Schmidt, J., Spahn, F., 2001. Icarus 153, 295-315]. The accuracy and practicality of the continuum model we develop encourages its general use in future investigations of nonlinear phenomena.

  10. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)


    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  11. Viscous Fingering in the Mantle Asthenosphere (United States)

    Nissanka, U. S.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Parmentier, E. M.; Rincon, J. M.


    Regional seismic tomography studies in the Pacific ocean and continental western U.S show linear bands of low velocity anomalies that are aligned with absolute plate motion and coincident with volcanic lineaments located within the interior of plates far from plate boundaries. Small-scale convection provides one possible explanation for these lineations but does not predict age progressive seafloor volcanism that opposes plate motion. We propose a new hypothesis where viscous fingering instabilities form due to hot and wet mantle plumes which rise and discharge into the upper mantle asthenosphere and displace higher viscosity depleted mantle. We perform laboratory fluid experiments scaled to the Earth's mantle, with stationary and moving surface plates that use fluids with viscosities (μ) from 1 to 300 Pas and viscosity ratios (μ1/μ2) from 3 to 400. Viscous fingers are observed to form for all viscosity ratios we consider and after an initial growth period, exhibit a constant wavelength that depends on several parameters. Fingering wavelength is strongly dependent on plate spacing (and therefore asthenospheric layer thickness) but shows weak or no dependence on viscosity ratio and injection rate. The radius, Ro, at which fingers first form varies inversely with increasing viscosity ratio. This indicates that low viscosity mantle may flow long distances before fingers develop if viscosity ratios are small. For mobile plates, a ratio Γ of plume flux to plate velocity is defined where Γ is varied from 3.6x10-4 to 3.6x105 which considers the range expected in the Earth (6.3x10-3 to 1.5x10-2). Results indicate that fingers align with plate motion both upstream and downstream, with longer wavelengths in the downstream direction. Particle imaging successfully resolves particle motion vectors and also indicates the presence of a thin film layer above and below each finger. This new geodynamic model for viscous fingering in the asthenosphere links off-axis and rising

  12. Investigation of a liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power system. (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.; Hays, L. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Bogdanoff, D. W.


    Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power conversion is being investigated for nuclear-electric propulsion. A liquid-metal MHD converter has no moving mechanical parts and requires a heat source temperature of only 1300 K. Cycle efficiencies of 5% to 8% for single-stage converters and 10% for multistage converters appear attainable. The specific weight of a 240 kWe MHD power plant has been estimated as 30 kg/kWe with shielding for unmanned science missions.

  13. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E


    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  14. Regularity of large solutions for the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yuming


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the initial-boundary value problem of one-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics flows. The existence and continuous dependence of global solutions in H 1 have been established in Chen and Wang (Z Angew Math Phys 54, 608-632, 2003. We will obtain the regularity of global solutions under certain assumptions on the initial data by deriving some new a priori estimates.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; Magnetohydrodynamische Kelvin-Helmholtz-Instabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Walter


    In the presented work the Kelvin-Helmholtz-Instability in magnetohydrodynamic flows is analyzed with the methods of Multiple Scales. The concerned fluids are incompressible or have a varying density perpendicular to the vortex sheet, which is taken into account using a Boussinesq-Approximation and constant Brunt-Vaeisaelae-Frequencies. The Multiple Scale Analysis leads to nonlinear evolution equations for the amplitude of the perturbations. Special solutions to these equations are presented and the effects of the magnetic fields are discussed.

  16. Attractor for a Viscous Coupled Camassa-Holm Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lixin


    Full Text Available The global existence of solution to a viscous coupled Camassa-Holm equation with the periodic boundary condition is investigated. We obtain the compact and bounded absorbing set and the existence of the global attractor for the viscous coupled Camassa-Holm equation in by uniform prior estimate.

  17. Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of bulk viscosity stops the Universe from becoming empty in its future evolution. It is observed that the Universe expands with decelerated rate in the presence of viscous fluid with magnetic field whereas, it expands with marginal inflation in the presence of viscous fluid without magnetic field. The other physical ...

  18. Plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid half-space with thermal relaxation times. There exist three basic waves, namely; thermal wave, longitudinal wave and transverse wave in a thermally conducting viscous liquid half-space. Reflection of plane waves from the free ...

  19. Poloidal variation of viscous forces in the banana collisionality regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.P.; Callen, J.D.


    The poloidal variation of the parallel viscous and heat viscous forces are determined for the first time using a rigorous Chapman- Enskog-like approach that has been developed recently. It is shown that the poloidal variation is approximately proportional to the poloidal distribution of the trapped particles, which are concentrated on the outer edge (large major radius side) of the tokamak.

  20. Diffusion on Viscous Fluids, Existence and Asymptotic Properties of Solutions, (United States)


    Matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). 11.* P. Secchi "On the Initial Value ProbleM for the Nquations of Notion of Viscous Incompressible Fluids In...of two viscous Incompressible Fluids’, preprint DepartLmento dl matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). -15- 11. P. Secchi 00n the XnitiaI Value

  1. A Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Model for Rotor Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A numerical model for the viscous-inviscid interactive computations ofrotor flows is presented. The basic methodology for deriving the outer inviscid solution is a fully three-dimensional boundary element method.The inner viscous domain, i.e. the boundary layer, is described by the two-dimensiona...

  2. On the characterization of magnetohydrodynamic triply diffusive convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jyoti, E-mail:; Bala, Renu; Vaid, Kanu


    The present paper mathematically establishes that magnetohydrodynamic triply diffusive convection with one of the components as heat, with diffusivity κ, cannot manifest as oscillatory motions of growing amplitude in an initially bottom heavy configuration if the two concentration Rayleigh numbers R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}, the Lewis numbers τ{sub 1} and τ{sub 2} for the two concentrations with diffusivities κ{sub 1} and κ{sub 2} respectively (with no loss of generality κ{sub 0}>κ{sub 1}>κ{sub 2}) and the Prandtl number σ satisfy the inequality R{sub 1}+R{sub 2}≤(27π{sup 4}/4)((1+((τ{sub 1}+τ{sub 2})/σ))/(1+(τ{sub 1}/τ{sub 2}{sup 2}))). It is further established that this result is uniformly valid for any combination of rigid and/or free perfectly conducting boundaries. - Highlights: • The linear stability theory is used to analyze magnetohydrodynamic triply diffusive convection. • A characterization theorem is derived which disallow the existence of oscillatory motions of growing amplitude in an initially bottom heavy magnetohydrodynamic triply diffusive convection. • The result obtained is uniformly valid for any combination of rigid and/or dynamically free perfectly conducting boundaries.

  3. Drift due to viscous vortex rings (United States)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc


    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  4. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.

  5. Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows (United States)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.


    Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  6. Drop interactions on a viscous film (United States)

    Costalonga, Maxime; Hack, Michiel; Snoeijer, Jacco


    Every morning at their breakfast, cereal eaters can see that floating objects on a liquid bath attracts to form clusters: this is the so-called Cheerios effect. It has been shown recently that droplets on elastic substrates also interact, either attracting or repelling each other depending on the local slope of the substrate where they lie. Here we present an experiment extending these results to the interaction of droplets deposited on a thin viscous film. By measuring independently the velocity of the droplets and the surface topography of the film, we identify non-monotonic interactions that are due to waves appearing on the film. The drag force exerted onto the droplets is also investigated. We show that the thickness of the film below the drop is intrinsically selected by the velocity of the drop, by a mechanism similar to Bretherton's bubble rising in a confining tube.

  7. Finite Element Based Viscous Numerical Wave Flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Qin


    Full Text Available A two-dimensional numerical wave flume (NWF for viscous fluid flows with free surface is developed in this work. It is based on the upwind finite element solutions of Navier-Stokes equations, CLEAR-volume of fluid method for free surface capture, internal wave maker for wave generation, and sponge layer for wave absorbing. The wave generation and absorption by prescribing velocity boundary conditions along inlet and radiation boundary condition along outlet are also incorporated. The numerical model is validated against several benchmarks, including dam-breaking flow, liquid sloshing in baffled tank, linear water wave propagation and reflection from vertical wall, nonlinear solitary wave fission over sharp step, and wave-induced fluid resonance in narrow gap confined by floating structures. The comparisons with available experimental data, numerical results, and theoretical solutions confirm that the present numerical wave flume has good performance in dealing with complex interface flows and water wave interaction with structures.

  8. Viscous drag reduction in boundary layers (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor); Hefner, Jerry N. (Editor)


    The present volume discusses the development status of stability theory for laminar flow control design, applied aspects of laminar-flow technology, transition delays using compliant walls, the application of CFD to skin friction drag-reduction, active-wave control of boundary-layer transitions, and such passive turbulent-drag reduction methods as outer-layer manipulators and complex-curvature concepts. Also treated are such active turbulent drag-reduction technique applications as those pertinent to MHD flow drag reduction, as well as drag reduction in liquid boundary layers by gas injection, drag reduction by means of polymers and surfactants, drag reduction by particle addition, viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection, and interactive wall-turbulence control.

  9. Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alinejad


    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.

  10. Parabolized Navier-Stokes Code for Computing Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flowfields (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B. (Technical Monitor); Tannehill, J. C.


    This report consists of two published papers, 'Computation of Magnetohydrodynamic Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm' and 'Numerical Simulation of Turbulent MHD Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm'.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic-based Laboratories on a Chip for Analysis of Biomolecules Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A laboratory-on-a-chip design based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) microfluidics and integrated microelectrochemical detection is proposed. The proposed device is...

  12. Elastocapillary levelling of thin viscous films on soft substrates (United States)

    Rivetti, Marco; Bertin, Vincent; Salez, Thomas; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Linne, Christine; Arutkin, Maxence; Wu, Haibin; Raphaël, Elie; Bäumchen, Oliver


    A thin liquid film with nonzero curvature at its free surface spontaneously flows to reach a flat configuration, a process driven by Laplace pressure gradients and resisted by the liquid's viscosity. Inspired by recent progresses on the dynamics of liquid droplets on soft substrates, we here study the relaxation of a viscous film supported by an elastic foundation. Experiments involve thin polymer films on elastomeric substrates, where the dynamics of the liquid-air interface is monitored using atomic force microscopy. A theoretical model that describes the coupled evolution of the solid-liquid and the liquid-air interfaces is also provided. In this soft-levelling configuration, Laplace pressure gradients not only drive the flow, but they also induce elastic deformations on the substrate that affect the flow and the shape of the liquid-air interface itself. This process represents an original example of elastocapillarity that is not mediated by the presence of a contact line. We discuss the impact of the elastic contribution on the levelling dynamics and show the departure from the classical self-similarities and power laws observed for capillary levelling on rigid substrates.

  13. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty


    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  14. Thermophoresis and thermal radiation with heat and mass transfer in a magnetohydrodynamic thin-film second-grade fluid of variable properties past a stretching sheet (United States)

    Khan, Noor Saeed; Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Waris


    The influences of thermophoresis and thermal radiation of a magnetohydrodynamic two-dimensional thin-film second-grade fluid with heat and mass transfer flow in the presence of viscous dissipation past a stretching sheet are analyzed. The main focus of the study is to discuss the significant roll of the fluid variable properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity under the variation of the thin film. The thermal conductivity varies directly as a linear function of temperature showing the property that expresses the ability of a material to transfer heat, and the viscosity is assumed to vary inversely as a linear function of temperature showing that viscous forces become weak at increasing temperature. Thermophoresis occurs to discuss the mass deposition at the surface of the stretching sheet while thermal radiation occurs, especially, at high temperature. The basic governing equations for the velocity, temperature and concentration of the fluid flow have been transformed to high nonlinear coupled differential equations with physical conditions by invoking suitable similarity transformations. The solution of the problem has been obtained by using HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method). The heat and mass transfer flow behaviors are affected significantly by the thin film. The physical influences of thin film parameter and all other parameters have been studied graphically and illustrated. The residual graphs and residual error table elucidate the authentication of the present work.

  15. Synergetic Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering and Alternating Injection (United States)

    Jha, B.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.


    We study mixing of two fluids of different viscosity in a microfluidic channel or porous medium. In recent work, we suggested that miscible viscous fingering--a hydrodynamic instability that takes place when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid--can enhance mixing in Darcy flows, such as flows in Hele-Shaw cells or porous media [1]. Enhanced mixing due to viscous fingering emerges from the velocity disorder and the additional interfacial area created between the two fluids as a result of the hydrodynamic instability. Here, we show that the synergetic action of alternating injection and viscous fingering leads to a dramatic increase in mixing efficiency at high Péclet numbers. Based on observations from high-resolution simulations, we develop a theoretical model of mixing efficiency that combines a hyperbolic mixing model of the channelized region ahead, and a mixing-dissipation model of the pseudo-steady region behind. Our macroscopic model quantitatively reproduces the evolution of the average degree of mixing along the flow direction, and can be used as a design tool to optimize mixing from viscous fingering in a microfluidic channel. [1] B. Jha, L. Cueto-Felgueroso and R. Juanes, Fluid mixing from viscous fingering, Physical Review Letters, 106, 194502 (2011).

  16. Extracting highly-viscous oils and natural bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starshov, M.I.; Gazizullim, R.G.; Starshov, I.M.


    Data are given on extracting highly-viscous oils and natural bitumens in a screw extractor using organic solvents and various aqueous solutions. The aromatic and halogenic-hydrocarbon solutions are recovered up to 85% by weight, while the gasoline ''Galosha'' is recovered from highly-viscous oils and natural bitumens up to 78.5% by mass. By boiling various aqueous solutions, it is possible to recover 30-80% of the mass of highly-viscous oils and natural bitumens from the potential concentration in rock.

  17. Singular limits in thermodynamics of viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard


    This book is about singular limits of systems of partial differential equations governing the motion of thermally conducting compressible viscous fluids. "The main aim is to provide mathematically rigorous arguments how to get from the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system several less complex systems of partial differential equations used e.g. in meteorology or astrophysics. However, the book contains also a detailed introduction to the modelling in mechanics and thermodynamics of fluids from the viewpoint of continuum physics. The book is very interesting and important. It can be recommended not only to specialists in the field, but it can also be used for doctoral students and young researches who want to start to work in the mathematical theory of compressible fluids and their asymptotic limits." Milan Pokorný (zbMATH) "This book is of the highest quality from every point of view. It presents, in a unified way, recent research material of fundament al importance. It is self-contained, thanks to Chapt...

  18. Nonlinear waves in bipolar complex viscous astroclouds (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Haloi, A.


    A theoretical evolutionary model to analyze the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in inhomogeneous complex astrophysical viscous clouds on the gravito-electrostatic scales of space and time is procedurally set up. It compositionally consists of warm lighter electrons and ions (Boltzmanian); and cold massive bi-polar dust grains (inertial fluids) alongside vigorous neutral dynamics in quasi-neutral hydrodynamic equilibrium. Application of the Sagdeev pseudo-potential method reduces the inter-coupled structure equations into a pair of intermixed forced Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (f-KdVB) equations. The force-terms are self-consistently sourced by inhomogeneous gravito-electrostatic interplay. A numerical illustrative shape-analysis based on judicious astronomical parametric platform shows the electrostatic waves evolving as compressive dispersive shock-like eigen-modes. A unique transition from quasi-monotonic to non-monotonic oscillatory compressive shock-like patterns is found to exist. In contrast, the self-gravitational and effective perturbations grow purely as non-monotonic compressive oscillatory shock-like structures with no such transitory features. It is seen that the referral frame velocity acts as amplitude-reducing agent (stabilizing source) for the electrostatic fluctuations solely. A comparison in the prognostic light of various earlier satellite-based observations and in-situ measurements is presented. The paper ends up with synoptic highlights on the main implications and non-trivial applications in the interstellar space and cosmic plasma environments leading to bounded structure formation.

  19. Shape and stability of a viscous thread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Senchenko, Sergey


    When a viscous fluid, like oil or syrup, streams from a small orifice and falls freely under gravity, it forms a long slender thread, which can be maintained in a stable, stationary state with lengths up to several meters. We discuss the shape of such liquid threads and their surprising stability....... The stationary shapes are discussed within the long-wavelength approximation and compared to experiments. It turns out that the strong advection of the falling fluid can almost outrun the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The asymptotic shape and stability are independent of viscosity and small perturbations grow...... with time as exp(Ct(1/4)), where the constant is independent of viscosity. The corresponding spatial growth has the form exp[(z/L)(1/8)], where z is the down stream distance and L similar to Q(2)sigma(-2)g and where sigma is the surface tension divided by density, g is the gravity, and Q is the flux. We...

  20. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben


    Viscous fingering—the fluid-mechanical instability that takes place when a low-viscosity fluid displaces a high-viscosity fluid—has traditionally been studied under either fully miscible or fully immiscible fluid systems. Here we study the impact of partial miscibility (a common occurrence in practice) on the fingering dynamics. Through a careful design of the thermodynamic free energy of a binary mixture, we develop a phase-field model of fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell for the general case in which the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility into one another. We show, by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, that partial miscibility exerts a powerful control on the degree of fingering: fluid dissolution hinders fingering while fluid exsolution enhances fingering. We also show that, as a result of the interplay between compositional exchange and the hydrodynamic pattern-forming process, stronger fingering promotes the system to approach thermodynamic equilibrium more quickly.

  1. Spring pendulum with dry and viscous damping (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    Free and forced oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped by viscous and dry friction are investigated analytically and with the help of numerical simulations. A simplified mathematical model is assumed (Coulomb law) which nevertheless can explain many peculiarities in behavior of various oscillatory systems with dry friction. The amplitude of free oscillations diminishes under dry friction linearly, and the motion stops after a final number of cycles. The amplitude of sinusoidally driven pendulum with dry friction grows at resonance without limit if the threshold is exceeded. At strong enough non-resonant sinusoidal forcing dry friction causes transients that typically lead to definite limit cycles - periodic steady-state regimes of symmetric non-sticking forced oscillations which are independent of initial conditions. However, at the subharmonic sinusoidal forcing interesting peculiarities of the steady-state response are revealed such as multiple coexisting regimes of asymmetric oscillations that depend on initial conditions. Under certain conditions simple dry friction pendulum shows complicated stick-slip motions and chaos.

  2. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  3. Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial C.


    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.

  4. Viscous theory of surface noise interaction phenomena (United States)

    Yates, J. E.


    A viscous linear surface noise interaction problem is formulated that includes noise production by an oscillating surface, turbulent or vortical interaction with a surface, and scattering of sound by a surface. The importance of viscosity in establishing uniqueness of solution and partitioning of energy into acoustic and vortical modes is discussed. The results of inviscid two dimensional airfoil theory are used to examine the interactive noise problem in the limit of high reduced frequency and small Helmholtz number. It is shown that in the case of vortex interaction with a surface, the noise produced with the full Kutta condition is 3 dB less than the no Kutta condition result. The results of a study of an airfoil oscillating in a medium at rest are discussed. It is concluded that viscosity can be a controlling factor in analyses and experiments of surface noise interaction phenomena and that the effect of edge bluntness as well as viscosity must be included in the problem formulation to correctly calculate the interactive noise.

  5. Control of viscous fingering by nanoparticles (United States)

    Sabet, Nasser; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Abedi, Jalal


    A substantial viscosity increase by the addition of a low dose of nanoparticles to the base fluids can well influence the dynamics of viscous fingering. There is a lack of detailed theoretical studies that address the effect of the presence of nanoparticles on unstable miscible displacements. In this study, the impact of nonreactive nanoparticle presence on the stability and subsequent mixing of an originally unstable binary system is examined using linear stability analysis (LSA) and pseudospectral-based direct numerical simulations (DNS). We have parametrized the role of both nondepositing and depositing nanoparticles on the stability of miscible displacements using the developed static and dynamic parametric analyses. Our results show that nanoparticles have the potential to weaken the instabilities of an originally unstable system. Our LSA and DNS results also reveal that nondepositing nanoparticles can be used to fully stabilize an originally unstable front while depositing particles may act as temporary stabilizers whose influence diminishes in the course of time. In addition, we explain the existing inconsistencies concerning the effect of the nanoparticle diffusion coefficient on the dynamics of the system. This study provides a basis for further research on the application of nanoparticles for control of viscosity-driven instabilities.

  6. On the Energy Spectrum of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Perez


    Full Text Available The energy spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence attracts interest due to its fundamental importance and its relevance for interpreting astrophysical data. Here we present measurements of the energy spectra from a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence with a strong guide field and for increasing Reynolds number. The presented simulations, with numerical resolutions up to 2048^{3} mesh points and statistics accumulated over 30 to 150 eddy turnover times, constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest statistical sample of steady state magnetohydrodynamics turbulence to date. We study both the balanced case, where the energies associated with Alfvén modes propagating in opposite directions along the guide field, E^{+}(k_{⊥} and E^{-}(k_{⊥}, are equal, and the imbalanced case where the energies are different. In the balanced case, we find that the energy spectrum converges to a power law with exponent -3/2 as the Reynolds number is increased, which is consistent with phenomenological models that include scale-dependent dynamic alignment. For the imbalanced case, with E^{+}>E^{-}, the simulations show that E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2} for all Reynolds numbers considered, while E^{+} has a slightly steeper spectrum at small Re. As the Reynolds number increases, E^{+} flattens. Since E^{±} are pinned at the dissipation scale and anchored at the driving scales, we postulate that at sufficiently high Re the spectra will become parallel in the inertial range and scale as E^{+}∝E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2}. Questions regarding the universality of the spectrum and the value of the “Kolmogorov constant” are discussed.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics and the earth's core selected works by Paul Roberts

    CERN Document Server

    Soward, Andrew M


    Paul Roberts'' research contributions are remarkable in their diversity, depth and international appeal. Papers from the Paul Roberts'' Anniversary meeting at the University of Exeter are presented in this volume. Topics include geomagnetism and dynamos, fluid mechanics and MHD, superfluidity, mixed phase regions, mean field electrodynamics and the Earth''s inner core. An incisive commentary of the papers puts the work of Paul Roberts into historical context. Magnetohydrodynamics and the Earth''s Core provides a valuable source of reference for graduates and researchers working in this area of geoscience.

  8. On the Analytic Solution for a Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Equation (United States)

    Soltanalizadeh, Babak; Ghehsareh, Hadi Roohani; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Abbasbandy, Saeid


    The purpose of this study is to apply the Laplace-Adomian Decomposition Method (LADM) for obtaining the analytical and numerical solutions of a nonlinear differential equation that describes a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow near the forward stagnation point of two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies. By using this method, the similarity solutions of the problem are obtained for some typical values of the model parameters. For getting computational solutions, we combined the obtained series solutions by LADM with the Padé approximation. The method is easy to apply and gives high accurate results. The presented results through tables and figures show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic waves and coronal seismology: an overview of recent results. (United States)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Nakariakov, Valery M


    Recent observations have revealed that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology that have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfvén waves, and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares.

  10. A large eddy lattice Boltzmann simulation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George


    Large eddy simulations (LES) of a lattice Boltzmann magnetohydrodynamic (LB-MHD) model are performed for the unstable magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz jet instability. This algorithm is an extension of Ansumali et al. [1] to MHD in which one performs first an expansion in the filter width on the kinetic equations followed by the usual low Knudsen number expansion. These two perturbation operations do not commute. Closure is achieved by invoking the physical constraint that subgrid effects occur at transport time scales. The simulations are in very good agreement with direct numerical simulations.

  11. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.


    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm`s law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise {Delta}{prime} stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface.

  12. Measuring the equations of state in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Barbano, L. J.; Suen-Lewis, E. M.; Shrock, J. E.; Light, A. D.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.


    We report measurements of the equations of state of a fully relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) laboratory plasma. Parcels of magnetized plasma, called Taylor states, are formed in a coaxial magnetized plasma gun, and are allowed to relax and drift into a closed flux conserving volume. Density, ion temperature, and magnetic field are measured as a function of time as the Taylor states compress and heat. The theoretically predicted MHD and double adiabatic equations of state are compared to experimental measurements. We find that the MHD equation of state is inconsistent with our data.

  13. On the turbulent energy cascade in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, V; Marino, R


    The problem of the occurrence of an energy cascade for Alfv\\'enic turbulence in solar wind plasmas was hystorically addressed by using phenomenological arguments based to the weakness of nonlinear interactions and the anisotropy of the cascade in wave vectors space. Here, this paradox is reviewed through the formal derivation of a Yaglom relation from anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamic equation. The Yaglom relation involves a third-order moment calculated from velocity and magnetic fields and involving both Els\\"asser vector fields, and is particularly useful to be used as far as spacecraft observations of turbulence are concerned.

  14. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  15. Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)


    The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.

  16. Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Methods for Advanced Marine Propeller Applications


    Greve, Martin; Wöckner-Kluwe, Katja; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Rung, Thomas


    The paper reports the development of coupling strategies between an inviscid direct panel method and a viscous RANS method and their application to complex propeller ows. The work is motivated by the prohibitive computational cost associated to unsteady viscous flow simulations using geometrically resolved propellers to analyse the dynamics of ships in seaways. The present effort aims to combine the advantages of the two baseline methods in order to reduce the numerical effort without comprom...

  17. Some Inhomogeneous Magnetized Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models with Varying $\\Lambda$


    Pradhan,Anirudh; Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar; Jotania, Kanti R.


    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous fluid cosmological models with electro-magnetic field are obtained. To get a solution a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. Without assumin g any {\\it ad hoc} law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. The behaviour of the electro-magnetic field tensor together with some p hysical aspects of t...

  18. A truncation error injection approach to viscous-inviscid interaction (United States)

    Goble, B. D.; Fung, K.-Y.


    An approach to viscous-inviscid interaction which is based on truncation error injection is presented in the context of solving flow over an airfoil. A two-dimensional interpolation scheme is used to restrict the fine grid solutions to the global coarse grid. Details on the current implementation of the approach are given, and the boundary conditions being used are discussed. Inviscid results from a NACA0012 airfoil test case and the viscous results are presented.

  19. Viscous Dissipation and Criticality of Subducting Slabs (United States)

    Riedel, Mike; Karato, Shun; Yuen, Dave


    Rheology of subducting lithosphere appears to be complicated. In the shallow part, deformation is largely accomodated by brittle failure, whereas at greater depth, at higher confining pressures, ductile creep is expected to control slab strength. The amount of viscous dissipation ΔQ during subduction at greater depth, as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, can be estimated on the basis of a simple bending moment equation [1,2] 2ɛ˙0(z) ∫ +h/2 2 M (z) = h ṡ -h/2 4μ(y,z)y dy , (1) for a complex multi-phase rheology in the mantle transition zone, including the effects of a metastable phase transition as well as the pressure, temperature, grain-size and stress dependency of the relevant creep mechanisms; μ is here the effective viscosity and ɛ˙0(z) is a (reference) strain rate. Numerical analysis shows that the maximum bending moment, Mcrit, that can be sustained by a slab is of the order of 1019 Nm per m according to Mcrit˜=σp ∗h2/4, where σp is the Peierl's stress limit of slab materials and h is the slab thickness. Near Mcrit, the amount of viscous dissipation grows strongly as a consequence of a lattice instability of mantle minerals (dislocation glide in olivine), suggesting that thermo-mechanical instabilities become prone to occur at places where a critical shear-heating rate is exceeded, see figure. This implies that the lithosphere behaves in such cases like a perfectly plastic solid [3]. Recently available detailed data related to deep seismicity [4,5] seems to provide support to our conclusion. It shows, e.g., that thermal shear instabilities, and not transformational faulting, is likely the dominating mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes at the bottom of the transition zone, in accordance with this suggested "deep criticality" model. These new findings are therefore briefly outlined and possible implications are discussed. References [1] Riedel, M. R., Karato, S., Yuen, D. A. Criticality of Subducting Slabs. University of Minnesota

  20. Field topologies in ideal and near-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics (United States)

    Low, B. C.


    Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near-ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts, clarifying and expanding basic concepts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen field topology derived from magnetic flux conservation as the fundamental property, treating four conceptually related topics: Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of three dimensional (3D) MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics as a fluid system in physical contrast to ideal MHD. A corollary of these developments clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen-in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field-topology breakage centered around the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force-free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, or, equivalently, electric current-sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibility is present in the steady force-thermal balance of a heated radiating fluid subject to an anisotropic thermal flux conducted strictly along its frozen-in magnetic field in the low- β limit. In a weakly resistive fluid the thinning of current sheets by these general incompatibilities inevitably results in sheet dissipation, resistive heating and topological changes in the field notwithstanding the small resistivity. Strong Faraday induction drives but also macroscopically limits this mode of energy dissipation, trapping or storing free energy in self-organized ideal-MHD structures. This property of MHD turbulence captured by the Taylor hypothesis is reviewed in relation to the Sun's corona, calling for a basic quantitative description of the breakdown of flux conservation in the low-resistivity limit

  1. A fully implicit Newton-Krylov-Schwarz method for tokamak magnetohydrodynamics: Jacobian construction and preconditioner formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.


    Single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fluid description of fusion plasmas which is often used to investigate macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks. In MHD modeling of tokamaks, it is often desirable to compute MHD phenomena to resistive time scales or a combination of resistive-Alfvén time scales, which can render explicit time stepping schemes computationally expensive. We present recent advancements in the development of preconditioners for fully nonlinearly implicit simulations of single-fluid resistive tokamak MHD. Our work focuses on simulations using a structured mesh mapped into a toroidal geometry with a shaped poloidal cross-section, and a finite-volume spatial discretization of the partial differential equation model. We discretize the temporal dimension using a fully implicit or the backwards differentiation formula method, and solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic system using a standard inexact Newton-Krylov approach, provided by the sundials library. The focus of this paper is on the construction and performance of various preconditioning approaches for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver algorithms. Effective preconditioners require information about the Jacobian entries; however, analytical formulae for these Jacobian entries may be prohibitive to derive/implement without error. We therefore compute these entries using automatic differentiation with OpenAD. We then investigate a variety of preconditioning formulations inspired by standard solution approaches in modern MHD codes, in order to investigate their utility in a preconditioning context. We first describe the code modifications necessary for the use of the OpenAD tool and sundials solver library. We conclude with numerical results for each of our preconditioning approaches in the context of pellet-injection fueling of tokamak plasmas. Of these, our optimal approach results in a speedup of a factor of 3 compared with non-preconditioned implicit tests, with

  2. The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Wheatley, V.


    The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.

  3. Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Multiphase Flow Phenomena and Interface Fluctuation in Aluminum Electrolytic Cell with Innovative Cathode (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Baokuan; He, Zhu; Feng, Naixiang


    A three-dimensional (3D) transient mathematical model has been developed to understand the effect of innovative cathode on molten cryolite (bath)/molten aluminum (metal) interface fluctuation as well as energy-saving mechanism in aluminum electrolytic cell with innovative cathode. Based on the finite element method, the steady charge conservation law, Ohm's law, and steady-state Maxwell's equations were solved in order to investigate electric current field, magnetic field, and electromagnetic force (EMF) field. Then, an inhomogeneous multiphase flow model of three phases including bath, metal, and gas bubbles, based on the finite volume method, was implemented using the Euler/Euler approach to investigate melt motion and bath/metal interface fluctuation. EMF was incorporated into the momentum equations of bath and metal as a source term. Additionally, the interphase drag force was employed to consider different phase interactions. Thus, present work owns three main features: (1) magnetohydrodynamic multiphase flow are demonstrated in detail both in aluminum electrolytic cell with traditional cathode and innovative cathode; (2) bath/metal interface fluctuation due to different driving forces of gas bubbles, EMF, and the combined effect of the two driving forces is investigated, which is critical to the energy saving; and (3) the effect of innovative cathode on melt flow and motion of gas bubbles. A good agreement between the predicated results and measurement is obtained. The velocity difference leading to the melt oscillation decreases due to more uniform flow field. The average velocity of metal in the cell with innovative cathode decreases by approximately 33.98 pct. The gas bubbles in the cell with innovative cathode releases more quickly under the effect of protrusion on the cathode. The average bubble release frequency increases from 1.1 to 1.98 Hz. Hence, the voltage drop caused by gas bubbles would decrease significantly. In addition, the two large vortices

  4. Development of a magnetohydrodynamic code for axisymmetric, high-. beta. plasmas with complex magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.


    The Topolotron is an axisymmetric, toroidal magnetic fusion concept in which two-dimensional effects are important, as well as all three magnetic field components. The particular MHD model employed is basically the one-fluid, two-temperature model using classical Braginskii transport with viscous effects ignored. The model is augmented by Saha-Boltzmann dissociation and partial ionization physics, a simple radiation loss mechanism, and an additional resistivity due to electron-neutral collisions. While retaining all velocity and magnetic field components, the assumption of axisymmetry is made, and the resulting equations are expanded in cylindrical coordinates. The major approximation technique is then applied: spline collocation, which reduces these equations to a set of ordinary differential equations.

  5. Space-time adaptive ADER-DG schemes for dissipative flows: Compressible Navier-Stokes and resistive MHD equations (United States)

    Fambri, Francesco; Dumbser, Michael; Zanotti, Olindo


    This paper presents an arbitrary high-order accurate ADER Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method on space-time adaptive meshes (AMR) for the solution of two important families of non-linear time dependent partial differential equations for compressible dissipative flows : the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the equations of viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamics in two and three space-dimensions. The work continues a recent series of papers concerning the development and application of a proper a posteriori subcell finite volume limiting procedure suitable for discontinuous Galerkin methods (Dumbser et al., 2014, Zanotti et al., 2015 [40,41]). It is a well known fact that a major weakness of high order DG methods lies in the difficulty of limiting discontinuous solutions, which generate spurious oscillations, namely the so-called 'Gibbs phenomenon'. In the present work, a nonlinear stabilization of the scheme is sequentially and locally introduced only for troubled cells on the basis of a novel a posteriori detection criterion, i.e. the MOOD approach. The main benefits of the MOOD paradigm, i.e. the computational robustness even in the presence of strong shocks, are preserved and the numerical diffusion is considerably reduced also for the limited cells by resorting to a proper sub-grid. In practice the method first produces a so-called candidate solution by using a high order accurate unlimited DG scheme. Then, a set of numerical and physical detection criteria is applied to the candidate solution, namely: positivity of pressure and density, absence of floating point errors and satisfaction of a discrete maximum principle in the sense of polynomials. Furthermore, in those cells where at least one of these criteria is violated the computed candidate solution is detected as troubled and is locally rejected. Subsequently, a more reliable numerical solution is recomputed a posteriori by employing a more robust but still very accurate ADER-WENO finite volume

  6. On deriving flux freezing in magnetohydrodynamics by direct differentiation (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.


    The magnetic flux freezing theorem is a basic principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a commonly used approximation to describe the aspects of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The theorem states that the magnetic flux—the integral of magnetic field penetrating a surface—is conserved in time as that surface is distorted in time by fluid motions. Pedagogues of MHD commonly derive flux freezing without showing how to take the material derivative of a general flux integral and/or assuming a vanishing field divergence from the outset. Here I avoid these shortcomings and derive flux freezing by direct differentiation, explicitly using a Jacobian to transform between the evolving field-penetrating surface at different times. The approach is instructive for its generality and helps elucidate the role of magnetic monopoles in breaking flux freezing. The paucity of appearances of this derivation in standard MHD texts suggests that its pedagogic value is underappreciated.

  7. Extended generalized Lagrangian multipliers for magnetohydrodynamics using adaptive multiresolution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues M. O.


    Full Text Available We present a new adaptive multiresoltion method for the numerical simulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The governing equations, i.e., the compressible Euler equations coupled with the Maxwell equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a two-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Adaptivity in space is obtained via Harten’s cell average multiresolution analysis, which allows the reliable introduction of a locally refined mesh while controlling the error. The explicit time discretization uses a compact Runge–Kutta method for local time stepping and an embedded Runge-Kutta scheme for automatic time step control. An extended generalized Lagrangian multiplier approach with the mixed hyperbolic-parabolic correction type is used to control the incompressibility of the magnetic field. Applications to a two-dimensional problem illustrate the properties of the method. Memory savings and numerical divergences of magnetic field are reported and the accuracy of the adaptive computations is assessed by comparing with the available exact solution.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium of a self-confined elliptical plasma ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H. (CCAST (World Laboratory) P. O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 and Institute of Mechanics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, People' s Republic of China (CN)); Oakes, M.E. (Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (USA))


    A variational principle is applied to the problem of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium of a self-contained elliptical plasma ball, such as elliptical ball lightning. The principle is appropriate for an approximate solution of partial differential equations with arbitrary boundary shape. The method reduces the partial differential equation to a series of ordinary differential equations and is especially valuable for treating boundaries with nonlinear deformations. The calculations conclude that the pressure distribution and the poloidal current are more uniform in an oblate self-confined plasma ball than that of an elongated plasma ball. The ellipticity of the plasma ball is obviously restricted by its internal pressure, magnetic field, and ambient pressure. Qualitative evidence is presented for the absence of sighting of elongated ball lightning.

  9. Wave-driven dynamo action in spherical magnetohydrodynamic systems. (United States)

    Reuter, K; Jenko, F; Tilgner, A; Forest, C B


    Hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical studies of a mechanically forced two-vortex flow inside a sphere are reported. The simulations are performed in the intermediate regime between the laminar flow and developed turbulence, where a hydrodynamic instability is found to generate internal waves with a characteristic m=2 zonal wave number. It is shown that this time-periodic flow acts as a dynamo, although snapshots of the flow as well as the mean flow are not dynamos. The magnetic fields' growth rate exhibits resonance effects depending on the wave frequency. Furthermore, a cyclic self-killing and self-recovering dynamo based on the relative alignment of the velocity and magnetic fields is presented. The phenomena are explained in terms of a mixing of nonorthogonal eigenstates of the time-dependent linear operator of the magnetic induction equation. The potential relevance of this mechanism to dynamo experiments is discussed.

  10. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igochine, Valentin (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    Written and edited by leading plasma physics researchers. Provides a toolkit for scientists and engineers aiming to optimize plasma performance. Comprehensive treatment of different plasma instabilities. During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for ''old hands'' and newcomers alike.

  11. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.


    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field.

  12. Multi-Symplectic Magnetohydrodynamics: II, Addendum and Erratum

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, G M; Zank, G P


    A recent paper arXiv:1312.4890 on multi-symplectic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using Clebsch variables in an Eulerian action principle with constraints is further extended. We relate a class of symplecticity conservation laws to a vorticity conservation law, and provide a corrected form of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan differential form formulation of the system. We also correct some typographical errors (omissions) in arXiv:1312.4890. We show that the vorticity-symplecticity conservation law, that arises as a compatibility condition on the system, expressed in terms of the Clebsch variables is equivalent to taking the curl of the conservation form of the MHD momentum equation. We use the Cartan-Poincar\\'e form to obtain a class of differential forms that represent the system using Cartan's geometric theory of partial differential equations.

  13. Hamiltonian and action formalisms for two-dimensional gyroviscous magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P. J., E-mail:; Lingam, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Acevedo, R., E-mail: [3311 Black Locust Dr., Sugar Land, Texas 77479 (United States)


    A general procedure for constructing action principles for continuum models via a generalization of Hamilton's principle of mechanics is described. Through the procedure, an action principle for a gyroviscous magnetohydrodynamics model is constructed. The model is shown to agree with a reduced version of Braginskii's fluid equations. The construction reveals the origin of the gyromap, a device used to derive previous gyrofluid models. Also, a systematic reduction procedure is presented for obtaining the Hamiltonian structure in terms of the noncanonical Poisson bracket. The construction procedure yields a class of Casimir invariants, which are then used to construct variational principles for equilibrium equations with flow and gyroviscosity. The procedure for obtaining reduced fluid models with gyroviscosity is also described.

  14. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server


    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  15. Chiral Exact Relations for Helicities in Hall Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Supratik


    Besides total energy, three-dimensional incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) possesses two inviscid invariants which are the magnetic helicity and the generalized helicity. New exact relations are derived for homogeneous (non-isotropic) stationary Hall MHD turbulence (and also for its inertialess electron MHD limit) with non-zero helicities and in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers. The universal laws are written only in terms of mixed second-order structure functions, i.e. the scalar product of two different increments. It provides, therefore, a direct measurement of the dissipation rates for the corresponding invariant flux. This study shows that the generalized helicity cascade is strongly linked to the left polarized fluctuations while the magnetic helicity cascade is linked to the right polarized fluctuations.

  16. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, Manasvi; Hudson, Stuart R


    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation, and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects (MRxHMHD), and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the relaxed states.

  17. Concomitant Hamiltonian and topological structures of extended magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, Manasvi; Morrison, Philip J


    The paper describes the unique geometric properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and demonstrates how such features are inherited by extended MHD models, which incorporate two-fluid effects. The helicities and other geometric expressions for these models are presented in a topological context, emphasizing their universal features. Some of the results presented include: the generalized Kelvin circulation theorems, the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, and two concomitant helicities (which can be studied via the Jones polynomial from Chern-Simons theory). The ensuing commonality is traced to the existence of an underlying Hamiltonian structure for all the extended MHD models, exemplified by the presence of a unique noncanonical Poisson bracket, and its associated energy.

  18. A new framework for magnetohydrodynamic simulations with anisotropic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Amano, Takanobu


    We describe a new theoretical and numerical framework of the magnetohydrodynamic simulation incorporated with an anisotropic pressure tensor, which can play an important role in a collisionless plasma. A classical approach to handle the anisotropy is based on the double adiabatic approximation assuming that a pressure tensor is well described only by the components parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This gyrotropic assumption, however, fails around a magnetically neutral region, where the cyclotron period may get comparable to or even longer than a dynamical time in a system, and causes a singularity in the mathematical expression. In this paper, we demonstrate that this singularity can be completely removed away by the combination of direct use of the 2nd-moment of the Vlasov equation and an ingenious gyrotropization model. Numerical tests also verify that the present model properly reduces to the standard MHD or the double adiabatic formulation in an asymptotic manner under an appropria...

  19. Parker's Model for Stellar Wind and Magnetohydrodynamic Extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K


    In this paper, we first revisit Parker's hydrodynamic model for a stellar wind and make further analytic considerations. We show that the visualization of an effective de Laval type nozzle associated with Parker's model is valid only in a superficial sense and not on the dynamical level. We then make an analytic considerations on the Weber-Davis magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) extension of Parker's model with a view to provide a qualitative understanding of the coupling between the magnetic field and the plasma motion in the stellar wind. We find that, *the MHD azimuthal velocity profile actually resembles that for hydrodynamic Lamb-Oseen vortex; *Keplerian-orbit conditions prevail near a strong rotator even in a magnetized situation; *Parker's hydrodynamic scenario \\cite{Par} seems to reappear in the strong magnetization regime.\\end{itemize}

  20. Disk Emission from Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Spinning Black Holes (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.


    We present the results of a new series of global, three-dimensional, relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of thin accretion disks around spinning black holes. The disks have aspect ratios of H/R approx. 0.05 and spin parameters of a/M = 0, 0.5, 0.9, and 0.99. Using the ray-tracing code Pandurata, we generate broadband thermal spectra and polarization signatures from the MHD simulations. We find that the simulated spectra can be well fit with a simple, universal emissivity profile that better reproduces the behavior of the emission from the inner disk, compared to traditional analyses carried out using a Novikov-Thorne thin disk model. Finally, we show how spectropolarization observations can be used to convincingly break the spin-inclination degeneracy well known to the continuum-fitting method of measuring black hole spin.

  1. Forced underwater laminar flows with active magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Urzhumov, Yaroslav


    Theory and practical implementations for wake-free propulsion systems are proposed and proven with computational fluid dynamic modeling. Introduced earlier, the concept of active hydrodynamic metamaterials is advanced by introducing magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials, structures with custom-designed volumetric distribution of Lorentz forces acting on a conducting fluid. Distributions of volume forces leading to wake-free, laminar flows are designed using multivariate optimization. Theoretical indications are presented that such flows can be sustained at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers. Moreover, it is shown that in the limit Re ≫102 , a fixed volume force distribution may lead to a forced laminar flow across a wide range of Re numbers, without the need to reconfigure the force-generating metamaterial. Power requirements for such a device are studied as a function of the fluid conductivity. Implications to the design of distributed propulsion systems underwater and in space are discussed.

  2. Nonlinear Dispersive Instabilities in Kelvin-Helmholtz Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.H.; Seadawy, A.R. [Cairo Univ., Beni-Suef (Egypt). Mathematics Dept.; Callebaut, D.K. [Univ. Antwerpen (Belgium). Dept. Natuurkunde


    In this paper a weakly nonlinear theory of wave propagation in superposed fluids in the presence of magnetic fields is presented. The equations governing the evolution of the amplitude of the progressive waves are reported. The nonlinear evolution of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is examined in 2 + 1 dimensions in the context of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We study the envelope properties of the 2 + 1 dimensional wave packet. We converted the resulting nonlinear equation for the evolution of the wave packets in a 2 + 1 dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation by using the function transformation method into a sine-Gordon equation, which depends only on one function, {zeta}. We obtained rather general classes of solutions of the equation in {zeta} which leads to rather general soliton solutions of the 2 + 1 dimensional NLS equation. This result contains interesting specific solutions such as N multiple solitons, propagational breathers and quadratic solitons.

  3. Linearized analysis of one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gundersen, Roy M


    Magnetohydrodynamics is concerned with the motion of electrically conducting fluids in the presence of electric or magnetic fields. Un­ fortunately, the subject has a rather poorly developed experimental basis and because of the difficulties inherent in carrying out controlled laboratory experiments, the theoretical developments, in large measure, have been concerned with finding solutions to rather idealized problems. This lack of experimental basis need not become, however, a multi­ megohm impedance in the line of progress in the development of a satisfactory scientific theory. While it is true that ultimately a scientific theory must agree with and, in actuality, predict physical phenomena with a reasonable degree of accuracy, such a theory must be sanctioned by its mathematical validity and consistency. Physical phenomena may be expressed precisely and quite comprehensively through the use of differential equations, and the equations formulated by LUNDQUIST and discussed by FRIEDRICHS belong to a class ...

  4. Combined Magnetohydrodynamic and Geometric Optimization of a Hypersonic Inlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamesh Subbarao


    Full Text Available This paper considers the numerical optimization of a double ramp scramjet inlet using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD effects together with inlet ramp angle changes. The parameter being optimized is the mass capture at the throat of the inlet, such that spillage effects for less than design Mach numbers are reduced. The control parameters for the optimization include the MHD effects in conjunction with ramp angle changes. To enhance the MHD effects different ionization scenarios depending upon the alignment of the magnetic field are considered. The flow solution is based on the Advection Upstream Splitting Method (AUSM that accounts for the MHD source terms as well. A numerical Broyden-Flecher-Goldfarb-Shanno- (BFGS- based procedure is utilized to optimize the inlet mass capture. Numerical validation results compared to published results in the literature as well as the outcome of the optimization procedure are summarized to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

  5. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit


    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  6. WOMBAT: A Scalable and High-performance Astrophysical Magnetohydrodynamics Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Radcliffe, N.; Kandalla, K. [Cray Inc., St. Paul, MN 55101 (United States); Porter, D. [Minnesota Supercomputing Institute for Advanced Computational Research, Minneapolis, MN USA (United States); O’Neill, B. J.; Nolting, C.; Donnert, J. M. F.; Jones, T. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Edmon, P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Theory and Computation, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We present a new code for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics specifically designed and optimized for high performance and scaling on modern and future supercomputers. We describe a novel hybrid OpenMP/MPI programming model that emerged from a collaboration between Cray, Inc. and the University of Minnesota. This design utilizes MPI-RMA optimized for thread scaling, which allows the code to run extremely efficiently at very high thread counts ideal for the latest generation of multi-core and many-core architectures. Such performance characteristics are needed in the era of “exascale” computing. We describe and demonstrate our high-performance design in detail with the intent that it may be used as a model for other, future astrophysical codes intended for applications demanding exceptional performance.

  7. Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S C


    Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

  8. Schlieren Technique Applied to Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Plasma Torch (United States)

    Chopra, Nirbhav; Pearcy, Jacob; Jaworski, Michael


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are a promising augmentation to current hydrocarbon based combustion schemes for creating electrical power. In recent years, interest in MHD generators has been revitalized due to advances in a number of technologies such as superconducting magnets, solid-state power electronics and materials science as well as changing economics associated with carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration. We use a multi-wavelength schlieren imaging system to evaluate electron density independently of gas density in a plasma torch under conditions relevant to MHD generators. The sensitivity and resolution of the optical system are evaluated alongside the development of an automated analysis and calibration program in Python. Preliminary analysis shows spatial resolutions less than 1mm and measures an electron density of ne = 1 ×1016 cm-3 in an atmospheric microwave torch. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [TPPD, PINSTECH Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan)


    Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid dynamics action principles and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Gary


    This text focuses on conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics, gasdynamics and hydrodynamics. A grasp of new conservation laws is essential in fusion and space plasmas, as well as in geophysical fluid dynamics; they can be used to test numerical codes, or to reveal new aspects of the underlying physics, e.g., by identifying the time history of the fluid elements as an important key to understanding fluid vorticity or in investigating the stability of steady flows. The ten Galilean Lie point symmetries of the fundamental action discussed in this book give rise to the conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass conservation laws via Noether’s first theorem. The advected invariants are related to fluid relabeling symmetries – so-called diffeomorphisms associated with the Lagrangian map – and are obtained by applying the Euler-Poincare approach to Noether’s second theorem. The book discusses several variants of helicity including kinetic helicity, cross helicity, magnetic helici...

  11. Protostellar jets and magnetised turbulence with smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Tricco, Terrence


    Magnetic fields are an integral component of the formation of stars. During my thesis work, I built new methods to model magnetic fields in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics which enforce the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field and reduce numerical dissipation of the magnetic field. Using these methods, we have performed simulations of isolated protostar formation, studying the production of jets and outflows of material and their effect on transporting angular momentum away from the protostar and reducing the efficiency of star formation. A major code comparison project on the small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification of magnetic fields was performed, using conditions representative of molecular clouds, the formation site of stars. The results were compared against results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and qualitative behaviour. I will outline the numerical methods developed, and present the results from our protostar and molecular cloud simulations.

  12. Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend (United States)

    Harada, Nobuhiro

    As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working medium is proposed. For open cycle MHD, high-efficiency coal fired MHD system with CO2 recovery has been proposed. As inverse process of MHD power generation, MHD accelerators/thrusters are expected as the next generation propulsion system. Heat flux reduction to protect re-entry vehicles is expected by an MHD process for safety return from space missions.

  13. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Shchepetov, S. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)


    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  15. Nonlinear tearing mode study using the almost ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, C.; Callen, J.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The tearing mode is an important resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) mode. It perturbs the initial equilibrium magnetic flux surfaces through magnetic field line reconnection to form new flux surfaces with magnetic islands. In the study of the tearing mode, usually the initial equilibria are one dimensional with two ignorable coordinates and the perturbed equilibria are two dimensional with one ignorable coordinate. The tearing mode can be linearly unstable and its growth saturates at a fine amplitude. The neoclassical tearing mode theory shows that the mode can be nonlinearly driven by the bootstrap current even when it is linearly stable to the classical tearing mode. It is important to study the nonlinear behavior of the tearing mode. As an intrinsically nonlinear approach, the use of the almost ideal MHD constraint is suited to study the nonlinear properties of the tearing mode. In this paper, as a validation of the method, the authors study two characteristics of the tearing mode using the almost ideal MHD constraint: (1) the linear stability condition for the initial one dimensional equilibrium; and (2) the final saturation level for the unstable case. In this work, they only consider the simplest case where no gradient of pressure or current density exists at the mode resonant surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    It has been established that the Sweet–Parker current layer in high Lundquist number reconnection is unstable to the super-Alfvénic plasmoid instability. Past two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that the plasmoid instability leads to a new regime where the Sweet–Parker current layer changes into a chain of plasmoids connected by secondary current sheets, and the averaged reconnection rate becomes nearly independent of the Lundquist number. In this work, a three-dimensional simulation with a guide field shows that the additional degree of freedom allows plasmoid instabilities to grow at oblique angles, which interact and lead to self-generated turbulent reconnection. The averaged reconnection rate in the self-generated turbulent state is of the order of a hundredth of the characteristic Alfvén speed, which is similar to the two-dimensional result but is an order of magnitude lower than the fastest reconnection rate reported in recent studies of externally driven three-dimensional turbulent reconnection. Kinematic and magnetic energy fluctuations both form elongated eddies along the direction of the local magnetic field, which is a signature of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Both energy fluctuations satisfy power-law spectra in the inertial range, where the magnetic energy spectral index is in the range from −2.3 to −2.1, while the kinetic energy spectral index is slightly steeper, in the range from −2.5 to −2.3. The anisotropy of turbulence eddies is found to be nearly scale-independent, in contrast with the prediction of the Goldreich–Sridhar theory for anisotropic turbulence in a homogeneous plasma permeated by a uniform magnetic field.

  17. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.


    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion is...... force leads velocity the control is stable and yields a significant improvement in damping performance compared to the pure viscous damper.......In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...

  18. Violations of conservation laws in viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe


    The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover,......, although particle number conservation applies strictly for any liquid, the solidity of viscous liquids implies that even this conservation law is apparently violated in coarse-grained descriptions of density fluctuations.......The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover...

  19. Miscible viscous fingering involving production of gel by chemical reactions (United States)

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hoshino, Kenichi


    We have experimentally investigated miscible viscous fingering with chemical reactions producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and aluminum ion (Al3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, SPA solution and ferric ion (Fe3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In the case of Al3 +, displacement efficiency was smaller than that in the non-reactive case, whereas in the case of Fe3 +, the displacement efficiency was larger. We consider that the difference in change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We discuss relationship between the VF patterns and the rheological measurement.

  20. Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology (United States)

    Velten, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Fabris, J. C.; Zimdahl, W.


    We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart’s theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.

  1. Viscous relaxation of the Moho under large lunar basins (United States)

    Brown, C. David; Grimm, Robert E.


    Viscously relaxed topography on the Moon is evidence of a period in lunar history of higher internal temperatures and greater surface activity. Previous work has demonstrated the viscous relaxation of the Tranquilitatis basin surface. Profiles of the lunar Moho under nine basins were constructed from an inversion of lunar gravity data. These profiles show a pattern of increasingly subdued relief with age, for which two explanations have been proposed. First, ancient basins may have initially had extreme Moho relief like that of younger basins like Orientale, but, due to higher internal temperatures in early lunar history, this relief viscously relaxed to that observed today. Second, ductile flow in the crust immediately after basin formation resulted in an initially shallow basin and subdued mantle uplift. The intent is to test the first hypothesis.

  2. Viscous heating in E × B type devices (United States)

    Mlodik, Mikhail; Kolmes, Elijah; Ochs, Ian; Fisch, Nathaniel


    In a variety of cylindrical plasma devices with axial magnetic fields, a radial electric field gives rise to plasma rotation. This E x B rotation also heats the plasma through viscous effects. In the recently proposed wave-driven rotating torus (WDRT), this viscous heating is thought to be manageable in creating, in principle, economical fusion power. Here, we explore viscous heating both in the WDRT and, more generally, in devices where the primary dynamics is governed by the E x B rotation of plasma. In particular, we explore which species are primarily heated, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometry. We discuss the dependence of the heating on a variety of parameters, such as collisionality, speed of rotation, temperature and ion mix. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail


    We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.

  4. Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces (United States)

    Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan


    Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.

  5. Numerical solution of boundary layer MHD flow with viscous dissipation. (United States)

    Mishra, S R; Jena, S


    The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper.

  6. Zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of viscous liquids. (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Blanchard, J W; Pustelny, S; Saielli, G; Bagno, A; Ledbetter, M P; Budker, D; Pines, A


    We report zero-field NMR measurements of a viscous organic liquid, ethylene glycol. Zero-field spectra were taken showing resolved scalar spin-spin coupling (J-coupling) for ethylene glycol at different temperatures and water contents. Molecular dynamics strongly affects the resonance linewidth, which closely follows viscosity. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to obtain the relative stability and coupling constants of all ethylene glycol conformers. The results show the potential of zero-field NMR as a probe of molecular structure and dynamics in a wide range of environments, including viscous fluids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward detailed prominence seismology I. Computing accurate 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, J.W.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304849243; Keppens, R.


    Context. Prominence seismology exploits our knowledge of the linear eigenoscillations for representative magnetohydrodynamic models of filaments. To date, highly idealized models for prominences have been used, especially with respect to the overall magnetic configurations. Aims. We initiate a more

  8. Blow-up Criteria of Classical Solutions of Three-Dimensional Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Equations (United States)

    Liu, Xin


    In this paper we consider the isentropic compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in three space dimensions, and establish a blow-up criterion of classical solutions, which depends on the gradient of the velocity and magnetic field.

  9. Terminal velocity formula for spheres in a viscous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, R.E.


    Various attempts have been made to develop a general expression for the terminal velocity of spheres in a viscous fluid (Stokes, Prandtl, Oseen, Rubey, etc.: see Bogardi, 1974 and Vanoni, 1975). All of these formulae show a lack of accuracy and/or are restrict ed to a relatively small range of

  10. Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in close...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....

  11. Axially Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Bulk-Viscous Cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic axially symmetric Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time variable cosmological term in the presence of bulk viscous fluid. The Einstein's field equations are solved explicitly by time varying decel- eration parameter q. Consequences of the ...

  12. Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fluid with magnetic field whereas, it expands with marginal inflation in the presence of viscous fluid without magnetic field. .... of the three directions x-, y- or z-axes. Let us choose the string direction along x-axis, .... Let us consider the various important physical quantities such as expansion scalar θ, anisotropy parameter and ...

  13. Plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    not possible in a non-viscous liquid. References. Achenbach J D 1973 Wave propagation in elastic solids (Amsterdam: North-Holland, Elsevier). Bath M 1968 Mathematical aspects of seismology (Amsterdam: Elsevier). Bullen K E 1963 An introduction to the theory of seismology. (London: Cambridge University Press).

  14. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...

  15. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube ... Dates. Manuscript received: 7 February 2016; Manuscript revised: 20 July 2016; Accepted: 5 October 2016; Early published: Unedited version published online: Final version published online: 16 February 2017 ...

  16. Topological Fluid Dynamics For Free and Viscous Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan

    In an incompressible fluid flow, streamline patterns and their bifurcations are investigated close to wall for two-dimensional system and close to free and viscous surfaces in three-dimensional system. Expanding the velocity field in a Taylor series, we conduct a local analysis at the given expan...

  17. Axially Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Bulk-Viscous Cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 34; Issue 3. Axially Symmetric Bianchi ... The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic axially symmetric Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time variable cosmological term in the presence of bulk viscous fluid. The Einstein's field ...

  18. A simple interaction law for viscous-inviscid interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur E. P.


    The viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) philosophy for modelling aerodynamic boundary layers is discussed. 'Traditionally' the shear-layer equations are solved with pressure prescribed by the inviscid flow, but then the solution breaks down in a singularity related to flow separation. In the

  19. Efficiency and tuning of viscous dampers on discrete systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Joseph A.; Krenk, Steen


    An approximate solution is developed to the complex eigenproblem associated with free vibrations of a discrete system with several viscous dampers, in order to facilitate optimal placement and sizing of added dampers in structures. The approximate solution is obtained as an interpolation between ...

  20. Dynamics of viscous drops confined in a rough medium (United States)

    Keiser, Ludovic; Gas, Armelle; Jaafar, Khalil; Bico, Jose; Reyssat, Etienne


    We focus on the dynamics of viscous and non-wetting ``pancake'' droplets of oil conned in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell filled with a less viscous surfactant solution. These dense drops settle at constant velocity driven by gravity. The surfactant solution completely wets the walls, and a thin lubrication film separates the drops from the walls. With smooth walls, two main dynamical regimes are characterized as the gap between the walls is varied. Viscous dissipation is found to dominate either in the droplet or in the lubrication film, depending on the ratio of viscosities and length scales. A sharp transition between both regimes is observed and successfully captured by asymptotic models. With rough walls, that transition is dramatically altered. Drops are generally much slower in a rough Hele-Shaw cell, in comparison with a similar smooth cell. Building up on the seminal works of Seiwert et al. (J.F.M. 2011) on film deposition by dip coating on a rough surface, we shed light on the non-trivial friction processes resulting from the interplay of viscous dissipation at the front of the drop, in the lubrication film and in the bulk of the drop. We acknowledge funding from Total S.A.

  1. Theory of viscous flow in curved shallow channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.


    The axisymmetrical, viscous flow in curved channels is considered in the case where the hydraulic radius of the cross-section is small with respect to the average radius of curvature of the bend. First Ananyan's theory on this subject is reconsidered, using a regular perturbation method. The results

  2. Relativistic shocks and mach cones in viscous gluon matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouras, Ioannis; Xu, Zhe; El, Andrej; Fochler, Oliver; Lauciello, Francesco; Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molnar, Etele; Niemi, Harri [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, Dirk [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in a viscous and heat conducting gluon matter employing a microscopic parton cascade and compare it to the relativistic causal dissipative fluid dynamical model of Israel and Stewart. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shocks by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio {eta}/s from zero to infinity and compare different dissipative quantities. We show the behaviour and the break down of viscous hydrodynamics for an out of equilibrium state using the local Knudsen number. Employing the microscopic parton cascade we investigate the evolution of mach cones in a viscous gluonic matter. We see that for {eta}/s=1/4{pi} a collective behaviour of the medium is observed, resulting in cone structure and diffusion wake of the energy density profile. The mach cone vanish very fast when increasing the shear viscosity in the medium. As comparison to experiments two-particle correlations are shown. We have derived third-order corrections to the Israel-Stewart theory using the entropy principle. This new equation is solved for one-dimensional Bjorken boost-invariant expansion. The scaling solutions for various values of {eta}/s are shown to be in very good agreement with those obtained from kinetic transport calculations.

  3. Existence of a secondary flow for a temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We model a viscous fluid flowing between parallel plates. The viscosity depends on temperature. We investigate the properties of the velocity and we show that the temperature and velocity fields have two solutions. The existence of two velocity solutions is new. This means that there exist secondary flows. Journal of the ...

  4. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  5. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and ...

  6. Viscous effect at an orthotropic micropolar boundary surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steady state responses at viscous fluid/ orthotropic micropolar solid interfaces to moving point loads have been studied. An eigenvalue approach using the Fourier transform has been employed to solve the problem. The displacement, microrotation and stress components for the orthotropic micropolar solids so obtained in ...

  7. A finite element analysis of the distribution velocity in viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we use the finite element method to analyze the distribution of velocity in a viscous incompressible fluid flow using Lagrange interpolation function. The results obtained are highly accurate and converge fast to the exact solution as the number of elements increase.

  8. Accounting For Compressibility In Viscous Flow In Pipes (United States)

    Steinle, Frank W.; Gee, Ken; Murthy, Sreedhara V.


    Method developed to account for effects of compressibility in viscous flows through long, circular pipes of uniform diameter. Based on approximation of variations in density and velocity across pipe cross section by profile equations developed for boundary-layer flow between flat plates.

  9. Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...

  10. Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Method for Wing Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Edith G.M.; Veldman, Arthur E.P.; Patrianakos, George


    A quasi-simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling method is developed for the calculation of three-dimensional steady incompressible flow over transport wing configurations. The external inviscid flow is computed with a constant-potential (Dirichlet) panel method, constructed from a constant source and

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Viscous Electro-Active Polymers. (United States)

    Vogel, Franziska; Göktepe, Serdar; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen


    Electro-active materials are capable of undergoing large deformation when stimulated by an electric field. They can be divided into electronic and ionic electro-active polymers (EAPs) depending on their actuation mechanism based on their composition. We consider electronic EAPs, for which attractive Coulomb forces or local re-orientation of polar groups cause a bulk deformation. Many of these materials exhibit pronounced visco-elastic behavior. Here we show the development and implementation of a constitutive model, which captures the influence of the electric field on the visco-elastic response within a geometrically non-linear finite element framework. The electric field affects not only the equilibrium part of the strain energy function, but also the viscous part. To adopt the familiar additive split of the strain from the small strain setting, we formulate the governing equations in the logarithmic strain space and additively decompose the logarithmic strain into elastic and viscous parts. We show that the incorporation of the electric field in the viscous response significantly alters the relaxation and hysteresis behavior of the model. Our parametric study demonstrates that the model is sensitive to the choice of the electro-viscous coupling parameters. We simulate several actuator structures to illustrate the performance of the method in typical relaxation and creep scenarios. Our model could serve as a design tool for micro-electro-mechanical systems, microfluidic devices, and stimuli-responsive gels such as artificial skin, tactile displays, or artificial muscle.

  12. An update on projection methods for transient incompressible viscous flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresho, P.M.; Chan, S.T.


    Introduced in 1990 was the biharmonic equation (for the pressure) and the concomitant biharmonic miracle when transient incompressible viscous flow is solved approximately by a projection method. Herein is introduced the biharmonic catastrophe that sometimes occurs with these same projection methods.

  13. Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation on the one-dimensional torus. By using a moving distributed control, we obtain that the system is null controllable for a given data with certain regularity. Author Affiliations. Peng Gao1. School of Mathematics and Statistics, and Center for ...

  14. Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic solutions for the steady velocity, temperature and concentration. The parameters ...

  15. Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 126, No. 1, February 2016, pp. 99–108. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with moving control. PENG GAO. School of Mathematics and Statistics, and Center for Mathematics and. Interdisciplinary Sciences, Northeast Normal University ...

  16. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence (United States)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey


    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Fluidic Channels Produced by Electro Hydrodynamic Viscous Fingering (United States)

    Behler, Kristopher; Wetzel, Eric


    Viscous fingering is a term describing fingerlike extensions of liquid from a column of low viscosity liquid that has been injected into a more viscous liquid. The modification of viscous fingering, known as electro hydrodynamic viscous fingering (EHVF), utilizes large electrical potentials of 10-60 kV. The fingers see a reduction in size and increase in branching behavior due to the potential applied to the system. The resulting finely structured patterns are analogous to biological systems such as blood vessels and the lymphatic system. In this study silicone oils and water were studied in thin channel Hele-Shaw cells. The interfacial tension was optimized by altering the surfactant concentration in the silicone oils. EHVF of liquid filled packed beds consisting of beads and silicone oils showed retardation of the relaxation of the fingers after the voltage was turned off. Decreased relaxation provides a means to solidify patterns into a curable material, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the water is evacuated from the fingers, the cured materials then possess hollow channels that can be refilled and emptied, thus creating an artificial circulatory system.

  18. Simulations of the Yawed MEXICO Rotor Using a Viscous-Inviscid Panel Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong


    In the present work the viscous-inviscid interactive model MIRAS is used to simulate flows past the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions. The solver is based on an unsteady three-dimensional free wake panel method which uses a strong viscous-inviscid interaction technique to account for the viscous...

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cébron

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models. (United States)

    Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  1. Hybrid DG/FV schemes for magnetohydrodynamics and relativistic hydrodynamics (United States)

    Núñez-de la Rosa, Jonatan; Munz, Claus-Dieter


    This paper presents a high order hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/finite volume scheme for solving the equations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and of the relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) on quadrilateral meshes. In this approach, for the spatial discretization, an arbitrary high order discontinuous Galerkin spectral element (DG) method is combined with a finite volume (FV) scheme in order to simulate complex flow problems involving strong shocks. Regarding the time discretization, a fourth order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method is used. In the proposed hybrid scheme, a shock indicator is computed at the beginning of each Runge-Kutta stage in order to flag those elements containing shock waves or discontinuities. Subsequently, the DG solution in these troubled elements and in the current time step is projected onto a subdomain composed of finite volume subcells. Right after, the DG operator is applied to those unflagged elements, which, in principle, are oscillation-free, meanwhile the troubled elements are evolved with a robust second/third order FV operator. With this approach we are able to numerically simulate very challenging problems in the context of MHD and SRHD in one, and two space dimensions and with very high order polynomials. We make convergence tests and show a comprehensive one- and two dimensional testbench for both equation systems, focusing in problems with strong shocks. The presented hybrid approach shows that numerical schemes of very high order of accuracy are able to simulate these complex flow problems in an efficient and robust manner.

  2. Using Faraday Rotation to Probe Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities in Intracluster Media (United States)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Massey, Richard


    It has recently been suggested that conduction-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities may operate at all radii within an intracluster medium (ICM) and profoundly affect the structure of a cluster's magnetic field. Where MHD instabilities dominate the dynamics of an ICM, they will re-orient magnetic field lines perpendicular to the temperature gradient inside a cooling core or parallel to the temperature gradient outside it. This characteristic structure of magnetic field could be probed by measurements of polarized radio emission from background sources. Motivated by this possibility we have constructed three-dimensional models of a magnetized cooling-core cluster and calculated Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps in the plane of the sky under realistic observing conditions. We compare a scenario in which magnetic field geometry is characterized by conduction-driven MHD instabilities to that where it is determined by isotropic turbulent motions. We find that future high-sensitivity spectropolarimetric measurements of RM, such as will be enabled by the Expanded Very Large Array and Square Kilometer Array, can distinguish between these two cases with plausible exposure times. Such observations will test the existence of conduction-driven MHD instabilities in dynamically relaxed cooling-core clusters. More generally, our findings imply that observations of Faraday RM should be able to discern physical mechanisms that result in qualitatively different magnetic field topologies, without a priori knowledge about the nature of the processes.

  3. Variational-moment method for computing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, L.L.


    A fast yet accurate method to compute magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is provided by the variational-moment method, which is similar to the classical Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin approximation. The equilibrium solution sought is decomposed into a spectral representation. The partial differential equations describing the equilibrium are then recast into their equivalent variational form and systematically reduced to an optimum finite set of coupled ordinary differential equations. An appropriate spectral decomposition can make the series representing the solution coverge rapidly and hence substantially reduces the amount of computational time involved. The moment method was developed first to compute fixed-boundary inverse equilibria in axisymmetric toroidal geometry, and was demonstrated to be both efficient and accurate. The method since has been generalized to calculate free-boundary axisymmetric equilibria, to include toroidal plasma rotation and pressure anisotropy, and to treat three-dimensional toroidal geometry. In all these formulations, the flux surfaces are assumed to be smooth and nested so that the solutions can be decomposed in Fourier series in inverse coordinates. These recent developments and the advantages and limitations of the moment method are reviewed. The use of alternate coordinates for decomposition is discussed.

  4. The sensitivity of tokamak magnetohydrodynamics stability on the edge equilibrium (United States)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.


    Due to the X-point singularity, the safety factor tends to infinity as approaching to the last closed flux surface. The numerical treatments of the near X-point behavior become challenging both for equilibrium and stability. The usual solution is to cut off a small fraction of edge region for system stability evaluation or simply use an up-down symmetric equilibrium without X-point as an approximation. In this work, we assess the sensitivity of this type of equilibrium treatments on the stability calculation. It is found that the system stability can depend strongly on the safety factor value (qa) at the edge after the cutting-off. When the edge safety factor value falls in the vicinity of a rational mode number (referred to as the resonant gap), the system becomes quite unstable due to the excitation of the peeling type modes. Instead, when the edge safety factor is outside the resonant gaps, the system is much more stable and the predominant modes become the usual external kink (or ballooning and infernal) type. It is also found that the resonant gaps become smaller and smaller as qa increases. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic peeling ballooning stability diagram is widely used to explain the experimental observations, and the current results indicate that the conventional peeling ballooning stability diagram based on the simplified equilibrium needs to be reexamined.

  5. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.


    Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

  6. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines (United States)

    Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Bityurin, V. A.; Lineberry, J. T.


    The prospects for realizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) bypass hypersonic airbreathing engine are examined from the standpoint of fundamental thermodynamic feasibility. The MHD-bypass engine, first proposed as part of the Russian AJAX vehicle concept, is based on the idea of redistributing energy between various stages of the propulsion system flow train. The system uses an MHD generator to extract a portion of the aerodynamic heating energy from the inlet and an MHD accelerator to reintroduce this power as kinetic energy in the exhaust stream. In this way, the combustor entrance Mach number can be limited to a specified value even as the flight Mach number increases. Thus, the fuel and air can be efficiently mixed and burned within a practical combustor length, and the flight Mach number operating envelope can be extended. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass engines using a simplified thermodynamic analysis. This cycle analysis, based on a thermally and calorically perfect gas, incorporates a coupled MHD generator-accelerator system and accounts for aerodynamic losses and thermodynamic process efficiencies in the various engin components. It is found that the flight Mach number range can be significantly extended; however, overall performance is hampered by non-isentropic losses in the MHD devices.

  7. The stochastic tetrad magneto-hydrodynamics via functional formalism (United States)

    Materassi, Massimo; Consolini, Giuseppe


    > In this work we discuss an application of the Tetrad Dynamics approach, a stochastic dynamical theory already introduced in hydrodynamic turbulence, to incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics. This theoretical framework is capable of taking into account some crucial aspects of turbulent plasmas, namely, (i) its material nature, which is stressed through the adoption of Lagrangian variables, (ii) its probabilistic dynamics, which is fundamental to understand the intermittency and highly irregular nature of turbulence, and (iii) the multi-scale character of interactions, which is approached by promoting the space size of parcels to the role of a dynamical variable. In particular, here, we construct the probabilistic equations of motion for quantities describing the evolution of a turbulent plasma (a matrix describing the parcel's shape, the plasma velocity and magnetic field coarse-grained gradient tensors, and ), resorting the functional formalism of classical statistical dynamics. Through the introduction of a stochastic action and using a path integral approach, the statistical properties of can be derived from those of noises appearing in their equations of motion, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium.

  8. The effect of magnetohydrodynamic nano fluid flow through porous cylinder (United States)

    Widodo, Basuki; Arif, Didik Khusnul; Aryany, Deviana; Asiyah, Nur; Widjajati, Farida Agustini; Kamiran


    This paper concerns about the analysis of the effect of magnetohydrodynamic nano fluid flow through horizontal porous cylinder on steady and incompressible condition. Fluid flow is assumed opposite gravity and induced by magnet field. Porous cylinder is assumed had the same depth of porous and was not absorptive. The First thing to do in this research is to build the model of fluid flow to obtain dimentional governing equations. The dimentional governing equations are consist of continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation. Furthermore, the dimensional governing equations are converted to non-dimensional governing equation by using non-dimensional parameters and variables. Then, the non-dimensional governing equations are transformed into similarity equations using stream function and solved using Keller-Box method. The result of numerical solution further is obtained by taking variation of magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, porosity parameter, and volume fraction. The numerical results show that velocity profiles increase and temperature profiles decrease when both of the magnetic and the porosity parameter increase. However, the velocity profiles decrease and the temperature profiles increase when both of the magnetic and the porosity parameter increase.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, V.; Alexakis, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, École Normale Supérieure, Université Pierre et Marié Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)


    We demonstrate that the initial correlation between velocity and current density fluctuations can lead to the formation of enormous current sheets in freely evolving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. These coherent structures are observed at the peak of the energy dissipation rate and are the carriers of long-range correlations despite all of the nonlinear interactions during the formation of turbulence. The size of these structures spans our computational domain, dominating the scaling of the energy spectrum, which follows a E∝k {sup –2} power law. As the Reynolds number increases, the curling of the current sheets due to Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instabilities and reconnection modifies the scaling of the energy spectrum from k {sup –2} toward k {sup –5/3}. This transition occurs due to the decorrelation of the velocity and the current density which is proportional to Re{sub λ}{sup −3/2}. Finite Reynolds number behavior is observed without reaching a finite asymptote for the energy dissipation rate even for a simulation of Re{sub λ} ≅ 440 with 2048{sup 3} grid points. This behavior demonstrates that even state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the highest Reynolds numbers can be influenced by the choice of initial conditions and consequently they are inadequate to deduce unequivocally the fate of universality in MHD turbulence. Implications for astrophysical observations are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Guo, X. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)


    This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic motion of a two-fluid plasma (United States)

    Burby, J. W.


    The two-fluid Maxwell system couples frictionless electrons and ion fluids via Maxwell's equations. When the frequencies of light waves, Langmuir waves, and single-particle cyclotron motion are scaled to be asymptotically large, the two-fluid Maxwell system becomes a fast-slow dynamical system. This fast-slow system admits a formally exact single-fluid closure that may be computed systematically with any desired order of accuracy through the use of a functional partial differential equation. In the leading order approximation, the closure reproduces magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Higher order truncations of the closure give an infinite hierarchy of extended MHD models that allow for arbitrary mass ratio, as well as perturbative deviations from charge neutrality. The closure is interpreted geometrically as an invariant slow manifold in the infinite-dimensional two-fluid phase space, on which two-fluid motions are free of high-frequency oscillations. This perspective shows that the full closure inherits a Hamiltonian structure from the two-fluid theory. By employing infinite-dimensional Lie transforms, the Poisson bracket for the all-order closure may be obtained in the closed form. Thus, conservative truncations of the single-fluid closure may be obtained by simply truncating the single-fluid Hamiltonian. Moreover, the closed-form expression for the all-order bracket gives explicit expressions for a number of the full closure's conservation laws. Notably, the full closure, as well as any of its Hamiltonian truncations, admits a pair of independent circulation invariants.

  12. Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic modes in the thin magnetically twisted flux tube (United States)

    Cheremnykh, O. K.; Fedun, V.; Kryshtal, A. N.; Verth, G.


    Context. Observations have shown that twisted magnetic fields naturally occur, and indeed are omnipresent in the Sun's atmosphere. It is therefore of great theoretical interest in solar atmospheric waves research to investigate the types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes that can propagate along twisted magnetic flux tubes. Aims: Within the framework of ideal MHD, the main aim of this work is to investigate small amplitude incompressible wave modes of twisted magnetic flux tubes with m ≥ 1. The axial magnetic field strength inside and outside the tube will be allowed to vary, to ensure the results will not be restricted to only cold plasma equilibria conditions. Methods: The dispersion equation for these incompressible linear MHD wave modes was derived analytically by implementing the long wavelength approximation. Results: It is shown, in the long wavelength limit, that both the frequency and radial velocity profile of the m = 1 kink mode are completely unaffected by the choice of internal background magnetic twist. However, fluting modes with m ≥ 2 are sensitive to the particular radial profile of magnetic twist chosen. Furthermore, due to background twist, a low frequency cut-off is introduced for fluting modes that is not present for kink modes. From an observational point of view, although magnetic twist does not affect the propagation of long wavelength kink modes, for fluting modes it will either work for or against the propagation, depending on the direction of wave travel relative to the sign of the background twist.

  13. Characterization of magnetohydrodynamic transport in a Field Reversed Configuration (United States)

    Onofri, Marco; Yushmanov, Peter; Dettrick, Sean; Barnes, Daniel; Hubbard, Kevin; Tajima, Toshi; TAE Team


    Transport in a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is studied by using the two-dimensional code Q2D, which couples a magnetohydrodynamic code with a Monte Carlo code for the beam component. The simulation by Q2D of the parallel transport in the simple open θ-pinch fields and its associated outflow shows an excellent agreement with one of the existing theories, providing a benchmark for Q2D and simultaneously deepening the theoretical understanding of this fundamental process. We find a sharp distinction between the evolved radial density profiles of the FRC and mirror plasmas as a result of the transport processes, showing that the closed flux surfaces of an FRC enhance the confinement over that of a mirror. We characterize the scrape-off layer (SOL) transport by including the mirror trapping effects and we find a relation between the confinement time in the SOL and the ion collisional time. The Q2D code is also used to study the formation of the electrostatic potential in the divertor.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic transport characterization of a field reversed configuration (United States)

    Onofri, M.; Yushmanov, P.; Dettrick, S.; Barnes, D.; Hubbard, K.; Tajima, T.


    The transport phenomenon of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is studied using the newly developed two-dimensional code Q2D, which couples a magnetohydrodynamic code with a Monte Carlo code for the beam component. The simulation by Q2D of the transport parallel to the simple open θ-pinch fields and its associated outflow phenomenon shows an excellent agreement with one of the leading theories, elevating the Q2D validity and simultaneously deepening the theoretical understanding of this fundamental process. We find a sharp distinction between the evolved radial density profiles of the FRC and mirror plasmas as a result of the transport processes, underpinning the crucial role of the closed flux surfaces of the FRC to enhance the confinement over that of the mirror. We characterize the scrap-off layer (SOL) transport by including the mirror trapping effects, and we find a relationship between the confinement time in the SOL and the ion collisional time. The Q2D code further illuminates the basic transport properties of the divertor region and the formation of an electrostatic potential in the divertor.

  15. Magnetic field correlations in kinematic two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, J; Schumacher, Joerg; Eckhardt, Bruno


    The scaling properties of the second order magnetic structure function $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ and the corresponding magnetic correlation function $C_2^{(B)}(r)$ are derived for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the kinematic regime where the ratio of kinetic energy to magnetic energy is much larger than one. In this regime the magnetic flux function $\\psi$ can be treated as a passive scalar advected in a two-dimensional turbulent flow. Its structure function $D_2^{(\\psi)}(r)$ and the one for the magnetic field $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ are connected by an exact relation. We calculate $D_2^{(\\psi)}(r)$ and thus $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ within geometric measure theory over a wide range of scales $r$ and magnetic Prandtl numbers $Pr_m$. The magnetic field correlations follow a $r^{-4/3}$--scaling law and show an anticorrelation at the beginning of the Batchelor regime indicative of the formation of strongly filamented current sheets. Differences to the full dynamic regime, where the ratio of kinetic to magnetic energies is s...

  16. Landau damping of sound waves in kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Ramos, Jesus J.


    The Landau damping of slow sound waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field in a homogeneous, collisionless and quasineutral plasma is investigated using the kinetic magnetohydrodynamics formulation of Ref.. In this approach, the electric field is eliminated from a closed, hybrid fluid-kinetic system that ensures automatically the fulfillment of the quasineutrality condition. Considering the time evolution of a parallel-propagating sound wave spatial Fourier mode, this can be cast as a standard, second-order self-adjoint problem, with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. Therefore, a standard resolution of the identity with a single continuum basis of singular normal modes is guaranteed, which simplifies significantly a Van Kampen-like treatment of the Landau damping. The explicit form of such singular normal modes is obtained and they are used to derive the damped time evolution of the fluid moments of a wave packet of distribution functions in an initial value problem. As mentioned, the electric field is not used in the treatment of this problem, but it is calculated from its solution after it has been obtained.

  17. Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inghirami, Gabriele [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany); Del Zanna, Luca [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Becattini, Francesco [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany)


    We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3 + 1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result. (orig.)

  18. Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.


    Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the

  19. Viscous dynamics of Lyme disease and syphilis spirochetes reveal flagellar torque and drag. (United States)

    Harman, Michael; Vig, Dhruv K; Radolf, Justin D; Wolgemuth, Charles W


    The spirochetes that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and syphilis (Treponema pallidum) swim through viscous fluids, such as blood and interstitial fluid, by undulating their bodies as traveling, planar waves. These undulations are driven by rotation of the flagella within the periplasmic space, the narrow (∼20-40 nm in width) compartment between the inner and outer membranes. We show here that the swimming speeds of B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum decrease with increases in viscosity of the external aqueous milieu, even though the flagella are entirely intracellular. We then use mathematical modeling to show that the measured changes in speed are consistent with the exertion of constant torque by the spirochetal flagellar motors. Comparison of simulations, experiments, and a simple model for power dissipation allows us to estimate the torque and resistive drag that act on the flagella of these major spirochetal pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.


    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede's dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite's history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40-50 mW m-2 can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived ;heat pulses; with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2 and timescales of 10-100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2 are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede's middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event caused both Ganymede's tectonic deformation and

  1. Hydroelastic response and stability of a hydrofoil in viscous flow (United States)

    Ducoin, Antoine; Young, Yin L.


    The objective of this research is to investigate the hydroelastic response and stability of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow. The focus is on viscous effects, such as laminar to turbulent transition and stall, on the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) response and hydroelastic stability of flexible hydrofoils. The numerical approach is based on the coupling between a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver, CFX, and a simple two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) system that simulates the tip section bend and twist deformations of a cantelivered, rectangular hydrofoil. The hydrodynamic loading is assumed to be uniform in the spanwise direction, and the hydrofoil is assumed to undergo bend and twist deformation along the spanwise direction only. The CFD solver is first validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of the lift, drag, and moment coefficients of a rigid NACA0012 hydrofoil over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The coupled viscous FSI solver is then validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of (i) the lift coefficient of a rigid (stainless steel) NACA66 hydrofoil and (ii) the tip section displacement of a flexible (POM Polyacetate) NACA66 hydrofoil with the same initial (un-deformed) geometry. The hydrodynamic responses of the rigid and flexible NACA66 hydrodfoils are compared to identify FSI effects in viscous flow, including transition, stall, and static divergence. The results show that the flexible hydrofoil undergoes a clockwise twist deformation because the center of pressure is to the left of the elastic axis (center of twist), which increases the effective angle of attack and moves the center of pressure toward the leading edge; the resultant increase in lift and moment will further increase the effective angle of attack until the twist capacity is exceeded, i.e. static divergence or material failure occurs. The results show that viscous effects tend to

  2. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux (United States)

    Bland, Michael; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.


    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event

  3. Numerical analysis for magnetohydrodynamic chemically reacting and radiating fluid past a non-isothermal uniformly moving vertical surface adjacent to a porous regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed


    Full Text Available A mathematical model is conducted for the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic viscous, incompressible free convective flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid over an impulsively-started semi-infinite vertical plate adjacent to saturated porous medium in the presence of appreciable thermal radiation heat transfer and chemical reaction of first order taking transverse magnetic field into account. The fluid is assumed optically thin gray gas, absorbing-emitting radiation, but a non-scattering medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and are solved by an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank–Nicholson type. It is found that, increasing magnetic parameter serves to decelerate the flow, but increased temperatures and concentration values. An increase in the porosity parameter (K is found to escalate the local skin friction (τx, Nusselt number (Nux and the Sherwood number (Shx. Applications of the model include fundamental magneto-fluid dynamics, MHD energy systems and magneto-metallurgical processing for aircraft materials.

  4. Sub-grid-scale description of turbulent magnetic reconnection in magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, F., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Büchner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Yokoi, N. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could transport energy from large to small scales where binary particle collisions are rare. We have investigated the influence of small scale magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a compressible MHD approach including sub-grid-scale (SGS) turbulence. For this sake, we considered Harris-type and force-free current sheets with finite guide magnetic fields directed out of the reconnection plane. The goal is to find out whether unresolved by conventional simulations MHD turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high-Reynolds-number astrophysical plasmas. Together with the MHD equations, we solve evolution equations for the SGS energy and cross-helicity due to turbulence according to a Reynolds-averaged turbulence model. The SGS turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. By this way, the feedback of the unresolved turbulence into the MHD reconnection process is taken into account. It is shown that the turbulence controls the regimes of reconnection by its characteristic timescale τ{sub t}. The dependence on resistivity was investigated for large-Reynolds-number plasmas for Harris-type as well as force-free current sheets with guide field. We found that magnetic reconnection depends on the relation between the molecular and apparent effective turbulent resistivity. We found that the turbulence timescale τ{sub t} decides whether fast reconnection takes place or whether the stored energy is just diffused away to small scale turbulence. If the amount of energy transferred from large to small scales is enhanced, fast reconnection can take place. Energy spectra allowed us to characterize the different regimes of reconnection. It was found that reconnection is even faster for larger Reynolds numbers controlled by the molecular

  5. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.


    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...... force leads velocity the control is stable and yields a significant improvement in damping performance compared to the pure viscous damper....

  6. Vibrations of a Shallow Cable with a Viscous Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    The optimal tuning and effect in terms of modal damping of a viscous damper mounted near the end of a shallow cable are investigated. The damping properties of free vibrations are extracted from the complex wavenumber. The full solution for the lower modes is evaluated numerically, and an explicit...... and rather accurate analytical approximation is obtained, generalizing recent results for a taut cable. It is found that the effect of the damper on the nearly antisymmetric modes is independent of the sag and the stiffness parameter. In contrast, the nearly symmetric modes develop regions of reduced motion...... near the ends, with increasing cable stiffness, and this reduces the effect of the viscous damper. Explicit results are obtained for the modal damping radio and for optimal tuning of the damper....

  7. Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory. (United States)

    Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard


    In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.

  8. IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials

    CERN Document Server


    The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...

  9. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok


    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright


    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  11. Experimental identification of viscous damping in linear vibration (United States)

    Srikantha Phani, A.; Woodhouse, J.


    This paper is concerned with the experimental evaluation of the performance of viscous damping identification methods in linear vibration theory. Both existing and some new methods proposed by the present authors [A.S. Phani, J. Woodhouse, Viscous damping identification in linear vibration, Journal of Sound and Vibration 303 (3-5) (2007) 475-500] are applied to experimental data measured on two test structures: a coupled three cantilever beam with moderate modal overlap and a free-free beam with low modal overlap. The performance of each method is quantified and compared based on three norms and the best methods are identified. The role of complex modes in damping identification from vibration measurements is critically assessed.

  12. Nonlinear behaviour of self-excited microcantilevers in viscous fluids (United States)

    Mouro, J.; Tiribilli, B.; Paoletti, P.


    Microcantilevers are increasingly being used to create sensitive sensors for rheology and mass sensing at the micro- and nano-scale. When operating in viscous liquids, the low quality factor of such resonant structures, translating to poor signal-to-noise ratio, is often manipulated by exploiting feedback strategies. However, the presence of feedback introduces poorly-understood dynamical behaviours that may severely degrade the sensor performance and reliability. In this paper, the dynamical behaviour of self-excited microcantilevers vibrating in viscous fluids is characterized experimentally and two complementary modelling approaches are proposed to explain and predict the behaviour of the closed-loop system. In particular, the delay introduced in the feedback loop is shown to cause surprising non-linear phenomena consisting of shifts and sudden-jumps of the oscillation frequency. The proposed dynamical models also suggest strategies for controlling such undesired phenomena.

  13. Compartmental analysis approach to fluorescence anisotropy: Perylene in viscous solvents


    Piston, DW; Bilash, T; Gratton, E


    The fluorescence and polarization anisotropy decays of perylene in viscous solvents are investigated at several temperatures between -20 and 35 °C by using the technique of multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry. The anisotropy decay data are globally analyzed over all temperatures studied and fit directly to physical quantities by using a compartmental model. We present a generalized compartmental model that can be used to calculate anisotropy decay arising from any type of intercon...

  14. Equivalent Viscous Damping Models in Displacement Based Seismic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zaharia


    Full Text Available The paper reviews some equivalent viscous damping models used in the displacement based seismic design considering the equivalent linearization. The limits of application of the models are highlighted, based on comparison existing in the literature. The study is part of research developed by author, aimed to determine the equivalent linear parameters in order to predict the maximum displacement response for earthquakes compatible with given response spectra.

  15. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild


    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  16. Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid (United States)

    Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.


    A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.

  17. Minimal model for beta relaxation in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye


    Contrasts between beta relaxation in equilibrium viscous liquids and glasses are rationalized in terms of a double-well potential model with structure-dependent asymmetry, assuming structure is described by a single order parameter. The model is tested for tripropylene glycol where it accounts...... for the hysteresis of the dielectric beta loss peak frequency and magnitude during cooling and reheating through the glass transition....

  18. Viscous damping of gravity waves over a permeable bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Puri


    Full Text Available The damping of gravity waves over the surface of a layer of viscous fluid which overlies a porous bed saturated with the same fluid is studied. It is shown that viscosity may not be the dominant influence in the damping mechanism; the damping effects due to percolation in the fixed bed may be of the same or even higher order than those due to viscosity.

  19. Liquid Crystals Viscous and Elastic Properties in Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Sergey V; Shmeliova, Dina V


    Covering numerous practical applications as yet not covered in any single source of information, this monograph discusses the importance of viscous and elastic properties for applications in both display and non-display technologies. The very well-known authors are major players in this field of research and pay special attention here to the use of liquid crystals in fiber optic devices as applied in telecommunication circuits.

  20. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floerchinger Stefan


    Full Text Available Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.

  1. Viscous Regularization of the Euler Equations and Entropy Principles

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc


    This paper investigates a general class of viscous regularizations of the compressible Euler equations. A unique regularization is identified that is compatible with all the generalized entropies, à la [Harten et al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 35 (1998), pp. 2117-2127], and satisfies the minimum entropy principle. A connection with a recently proposed phenomenological model by [H. Brenner, Phys. A, 370 (2006), pp. 190-224] is made. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, S.; Tetradis, N.; Wiedemann, U.A.


    Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.

  3. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas


    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  4. Three dimensional simulations of viscous folding in diverging microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bingrui; Shin, Seungwon; Juric, Damir


    Three dimensional simulations on the viscous folding in diverging microchannels reported by Cubaud and Mason are performed using the parallel code BLUE for multi-phase flows. The more viscous liquid L_1 is injected into the channel from the center inlet, and the less viscous liquid L_2 from two side inlets. Liquid L_1 takes the form of a thin filament due to hydrodynamic focusing in the long channel that leads to the diverging region. The thread then becomes unstable to a folding instability, due to the longitudinal compressive stress applied to it by the diverging flow of liquid L_2. Given the long computation time, we were limited to a parameter study comprising five simulations in which the flow rate ratio, the viscosity ratio, the Reynolds number, and the shape of the channel were varied relative to a reference model. In our simulations, the cross section of the thread produced by focusing is elliptical rather than circular. The initial folding axis can be either parallel or perpendicular to the narrow di...

  5. The viscous slip coefficient for a binary gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knackfuss, Rosenei F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas. Dept. de Matematica], e-mail:


    For a moderately small rarefaction, the Navier-Stokes equations are associated with of the slip boundary condition, i e the velocity of the gas on the surface is different from zero at the surface, but its tangential component, depends on the profile distribution of velocity and temperature near the surface. The slip for the velocity profile near the surface is determined by the viscous slip coefficient. The viscous slip coefficient can be determined solving the equation of the Boltzmann or the kinetic equations which are simplified forms of Boltzmann equation with respect to the operator of collision. For this reason, in this work is presented the derivation of the solution of the viscous-slip problem for the mixtures of two noble gases, based on the McCormack model that is developed in terms of an analytical version of the discrete ordinates method has been applied with excellent results, to derive solutions to several problems in rarefied gas dynamics. To complete the problem, include the gas-surface interaction, based on the model of Cercignani-Lampis, which, unlike the model of Maxwell, has two accommodation coefficients: the coefficient of accommodation of tangential moment and the energy accommodation coefficient kinetics due to normal component of velocity. (author)

  6. Long waves over a bi-viscous seabed: transverse patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Becker


    Full Text Available The coupled interaction of long standing hydrodynamic waves with a deformable non-Newtonian seabed is examined using a two-layer model for which the upper layer fluid is inviscid and the lower layer is bi-viscous. The two-dimensional response of the system to forcing by a predominantly longitudinal (cross-shore standing wave perturbed by a small transverse (along-shore component is determined. With a constant yield stress in the bi-viscous lower layer, there is little amplification of these transverse per-turbations and the model response typically remains quasi-one-dimensional. However, for a bi-viscous layer with a pressure-dependent yield stress (which represents the effect that the seabed deforms less readily under compression and hence renders the rheology history dependent, the initially small transverse motions are amplified in some parameter regimes and two-dimensional, permanent bedforms are formed in the lower layer. This simple dynamical model is, therefore, able to explain the formation of permanent bedforms with significant cross- and along-shore features by predominantly cross-shore standing wave forcing.

  7. Magneto-hydro-dynamic limits in spherical tokamaks (United States)

    Hender, T. C.; Allfrey, S. J.; Akers, R.; Appel, L. C.; Bevir, M. K.; Buttery, R. J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Jenkins, I.; Kwon, O. J.; McClements, K. G.; Martin, R.; Medvedev, S.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Ribeiro, C.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, D. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Sykes, A.; Villard, L.; Walsh, M. J.


    The operational limits observed in spherical tokamaks, notably the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START) device [A. Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 32, 694 (1992)], are consistent with those found in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. In particular the highest β achieved (˜40%) is consistent with an ideal magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) Troyon type limit, the upper limit on density is well described by the Greenwald density (πa2n¯e/Ip˜1) and the normalized current (Ip/aBt) is limited such that q95≳2. Stability calculations indicate scope for increasing both normalized β and normalized current beyond the values so far achieved, although wall stabilization is generally needed for low-n modes. In double null configurations current terminating disruptions occur at each of the operational boundaries, though the current quench tends to be slow at the density limit and disruptions at high β may be due to the low q. In early limiter START discharges, before the divertor coils were installed, disruptions rarely occurred. Instead internal reconnection events which have all the characteristics of a disruption except the current quench occurred. These various disruptive behaviors are explained in terms of a model in which helicity is conserved during the disruption. Due to the low toroidal field beam ions in START, and α particles in a ST power plant, are super-Alfvénic. This gives the possibility for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) to occur and such modes are frequently observed in START neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges, but seem to be benign. The features of these observed TAEs are shown to be in agreement with MHD calculations.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulations of broadband fluctuations near interplanetary shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agim, Y.Z.; Vinas, A.F.; Goldstein, M.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    We present results of a theoretical study of evolution of a spectrum of finite amplitude right-hand elliptically polarized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The analysis includes use of one-and-a-half-dimensional solutions of the equations that describe compressible MHD together with one-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulation of the phenomenon. The motivation of the study is to understand the origin and properties of finite amplitude waves often observed in the vicinity of collisionless shocks in the heliosphere. The solutions of the MHD equations are compared with both the results of the hybrid simulations and observations previously reported by Vinas et al. in the vicinity of a quasi-parallel interplanetary shock. The initial conditions of the MHD solutions were constructed to model the observed spectrum of magnetic and velocity fluctuations; plasma parameters were also chosen to replicate the observed parameters. For the typical parameters of {beta} = 0.5, {sigma}B/B{sub 0} = 0.25 and a spectrum of parallel propagating, circularly polarized dispersive waves, initially the density and magnetic energy density correlations grow due to the (nonlinear) ponderomotive effect. The spectral features below the ion cyclotron frequency are established quickly on the Alfvenic timescale but then persist and match closely the observed fluctuations. The parametric decay instabilities that subsequently appear further enhance the density fluctuations and produce a high-frequency magnetic power spectrum consistent with the spacecraft observation. The MHD and hybrid simulations extend the previous picture of wave generation by a beam-driven ion cyclotron instability to the fully nonlinear stage. 64 refs., 24 figs.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar eruption on 2010 April 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, B. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Su, Y. N.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    The structure of the coronal magnetic field prior to eruptive processes and the conditions for the onset of eruption are important issues that can be addressed through studying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and evolution of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models. This paper uses data-constrained NLFFF models of a solar active region (AR) that erupted on 2010 April 8 as initial conditions in MHD simulations. These models, constructed with the techniques of flux rope insertion and magnetofrictional relaxation (MFR), include a stable, an approximately marginally stable, and an unstable configuration. The simulations confirm previous related results of MFR runs, particularly that stable flux rope equilibria represent key features of the observed pre-eruption coronal structure very well, and that there is a limiting value of the axial flux in the rope for the existence of stable NLFFF equilibria. The specific limiting value is located within a tighter range, due to the sharper discrimination between stability and instability by the MHD description. The MHD treatment of the eruptive configuration yields a very good agreement with a number of observed features, like the strongly inclined initial rise path and the close temporal association between the coronal mass ejection and the onset of flare reconnection. Minor differences occur in the velocity of flare ribbon expansion and in the further evolution of the inclination; these can be eliminated through refined simulations. We suggest that the slingshot effect of horizontally bent flux in the source region of eruptions can contribute significantly to the inclination of the rise direction. Finally, we demonstrate that the onset criterion, formulated in terms of a threshold value for the axial flux in the rope, corresponds very well to the threshold of the torus instability in the considered AR.

  10. Dissipation of Molecular Cloud Turbulence by Magnetohydrodynamic Shockwaves (United States)

    Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark


    The character of star formation is intimately related to the supersonic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent dynamics of the giant molecular clouds in which stars form. A significant amount of the turbulent energy dissipates in low velocity shock waves. These shocks cause molecular line cooling of the compressed and heated gas, and so their radiative signatures probe the nature of the turbulence. In MHD fluids the three distinct families of shocks—fast, intermediate and slow—differ in how they compress and heat the molecular gas, and so observational differences between them may also distinguish driving modes of turbulent regions.Here we use a two-fluid model to compare the characteristics of one-dimensional fast and slow MHD shocks. Fast MHD shocks are magnetically driven, forcing ion species to stream through the neutral gas ahead of the shock front. This magnetic precursor heats the gas sufficiently to create a large, warm transition zone where all the fluid variables only weakly change in the shock front. In contrast, slow MHD shocks are driven by gas pressure where neutral species collide with ion species in a thin hot slab that closely resembles an ordinary gas dynamic shock.We computed observational diagnostics for fast and slow shocks at velocities vs = 2-4 km/s and preshock Hydrogen nuclei densities n(H) = 102-4 cm-3. We followed the abundances of molecules relevant for a simple oxygen chemistry and include cooling by CO, H2 and H2O. Estimates of intensities of CO rotational lines show that high-J lines, above J = 6→5, are more strongly excited in slow MHD shocks. We discuss how these shocks could help interpret recently observed anomalously strong mid- and high-J CO lines emitted by warm gas in the Milky Way and external galaxies, and implications for simulations of MHD turbulence.

  11. Influence of Magnetic Field on the Peristaltic Flow of a Viscous Fluid through a Finite-Length Cylindrical Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical investigation of the peristaltic transport of a viscous fluid under the influence of a magnetic field through a tube of finite length in a dimensionless form. The expressions of pressure gradient, volume flow rate, average volume flow rate and local wall shear stress have been obtained. The effects of the transverse magnetic field and electrical conductivity (i.e. the Hartmann number on the mechanical efficiency of a peristaltic pump have also been studied. The reflux phenomenon is also investigated. It is concluded, on the basis of the pressure distribution along the tubular length and pumping efficiency, that if the transverse magnetic field and the electric conductivity increase, the pumping machinery exerts more pressure for pushing the fluid forward. There is a linear relation between the averaged flow rate and the pressure applied across one wavelength that can restrain the flow due to peristalsis. It is found that there is a particular value of the averaged flow rate corresponding to a particular pressure that does not depend on the Hartmann number. Naming these values ‘critical values’, it is concluded that the pressure required for checking the flow increases with the Hartmann number above the critical value and decreases with it below the critical value. It is also inferred that magneto-hydrodynamic parameters make the fluid more prone to flow reversal. The conclusion applied to oesophageal swallowing reveals that normal water is easier to swallow than saline water. The latter is more prone to flow reversal. A significant difference between the propagation of the integral and non-integral number of waves along the tube is that pressure peaks are identical in the former and different in the latter cases.

  12. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani


    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  13. Derivation of Inviscid Quasi-geostrophic Equation from Rotational Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Flows (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Sam; Lin, Ying-Chieh; Su, Cheng-Fang


    In this paper, we consider the compressible models of magnetohydrodynamic flows giving rise to a variety of mathematical problems in many areas. We derive a rigorous quasi-geostrophic equation governed by magnetic field from the rotational compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows with the well-prepared initial data. It is a first derivation of quasi-geostrophic equation governed by the magnetic field, and the tool is based on the relative entropy method. This paper covers two results: the existence of the unique local strong solution of quasi-geostrophic equation with the good regularity and the derivation of a quasi-geostrophic equation.

  14. Differential-geometrical approach to the dynamics of dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics: II. Geodesic formulation and Riemannian curvature analysis of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Keisuke


    In this study, the dynamics of a dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) medium are formulated as geodesics on a direct product of two volume-preserving diffeomorphism groups. Examinations of the stabilities of the hydrodynamic (HD, $\\alpha=0$) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, $\\alpha\\to0$) motions and the $O(\\alpha)$ Hall-term effect in terms of the Jacobi equation and the Riemannian sectional curvature tensor are presented, where {\\alpha} represents the Hall-term strength parameter. Formulations are given for the geodesic and Jacobi equations based on a linear connection with physically desirable properties, which agrees with the Levi-Civita connection. Derivations of the explicit normal-mode expressions for the Riemannian metric, Levi-Civita connection, and related formulae and equations are also provided using the generalized Els\\"asser variables (GEVs). It is very interesting that the sectional curvatures of the MHD and HMHD systems between two GEV modes were found to take both the po...

  15. Characterizing momentum change and viscous loss of a hemodynamic endpoint in assessment of coronary lesions. (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Back, Lloyd H; Back, Martin R; Khoury, Saeb F; Millard, Ronald W


    Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR(myo)) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), measured with guidewire, and quantitative angiography (QA) are widely used in combination to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic coronary stenoses. Recent studies have shown that simultaneous measurements of FFR(myo) and CFR are recommended to dissociate conduit epicardial coronary stenoses from distal resistance microvascular disease. In this study, a more comprehensive diagnostic parameter, named as lesion flow coefficient, c, is proposed. The coefficient, c, which accounts for mean pressure drop, Delta p, mean coronary flow, Q, and percentage area stenosis, can be used to assess the hemodynamic severity of a coronary artery stenoses. Importantly, the contribution of viscous loss and loss due to momentum change for several lesion sizes can be distinguished using c. FFR(myo), CFR and c were calculated for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty epicardial lesions, without microvascular disease. While hyperemic c decreased from 0.65 for pre-angioplasty to 0.48 for post-angioplasty lesion with guidewire of size 0.35 mm, FFR(myo) increased from 0.52 to 0.87, and CFR increased from 1.72 to 3.45, respectively. Thus, reduced loss produced by momentum change due to lower percentage area stenosis decreased c. For post-angioplasty lesion, c decreased from 0.55 to 0.48 with the insertion of guidewire. Hence, increased viscous loss due to the presence of guidewire decreased c compared with a lesion without guidewire. Further, c showed a linear relationship with FFR(myo), CFR and percentage area stenosis for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty lesion. These baseline values of c were developed from fluid dynamics fundamentals for focal lesions, and provided a single hemodynamic endpoint to evaluate coronary stenosis severity.

  16. Impact of convection and resistivity on angular momentum transport in dwarf novae (United States)

    Scepi, N.; Lesur, G.; Dubus, G.; Flock, M.


    The eruptive cycles of dwarf novae are thought to be due to a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disk surrounding the white dwarf. This model has long been known to imply enhanced angular momentum transport in the accretion disk during outburst. This is measured by the stress to pressure ratio α, with α ≈ 0.1 required in outburst compared to α ≈ 0.01 in quiescence. Such an enhancement in α has recently been observed in simulations of turbulent transport driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) when convection is present, without requiring a net magnetic flux. We independently recover this result by carrying out PLUTO magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of vertically stratified, radiative, shearing boxes with the thermodynamics and opacities appropriate to dwarf novae. The results are robust against the choice of vertical boundary conditions. The thermal equilibrium solutions found by the simulations trace the well-known S-curve in the density-temperature plane that constitutes the core of the disk thermal-viscous instability model. We confirm that the high values of α ≈ 0.1 occur near the tip of the hot branch of the S-curve, where convection is active. However, we also present thermally stable simulations at lower temperatures that have standard values of α ≈ 0.03 despite the presence of vigorous convection. We find no simple relationship between α and the strength of the convection, as measured by the ratio of convective to radiative flux. The cold branch is only very weakly ionized so, in the second part of this work, we studied the impact of non-ideal MHD effects on transport. Ohmic dissipation is the dominant effect in the conditions of quiescent dwarf novae. We include resistivity in the simulations and find that the MRI-driven transport is quenched (α ≈ 0) below the critical density at which the magnetic Reynolds number Rm ≤ 104. This is problematic because the X-ray emission observed in quiescent systems requires

  17. N-body Survey of Viscous Overstability in Saturn's Rings (United States)

    Salo, Heikki J.; Schmidt, J.; Sremcevic, M.; Sremcevic, M.; Spahn, F.


    The viscous overstability of dense collisional rings offers a promising explanation for the small scale radial density variations in the B and the inner A ring of Saturn. Viscous overstability, in the form of spontaneous growth of axisymmetric oscillations, was first directly demonstrated in the selfgravitating N-body simulations (Salo etal. 2001). In contrast to previous isothermal hydrodynamical analysis (Schmit & Tscharnuter 1995), which suggested that practically any dense ring should be overstable, our N-body simulations indicated that a steep rise of viscosity with optical depth was required. In particular, a selfgravitating system of identical particles following the Bridges etal. (1984) elasticity formula was found to become overstable for optical depths τ > 1., forming oscillations in about 100 meter scale. In these simulations the axisymmetric oscillations were found to coexist with the inclined selfgravity wake structures. In addition, a basically similar overstability was seen in nongravitating simulations, but shifted to very high optical depths, or in simulations were just the vertical selfgravity was included, leading to an enhanced impact frequency and viscosity. Although an improved non-isothermal hydrodynamical analysis (Spahn et al. 2000, Schmidt et al. 2001) was able to describe quantitatively these non-selfgravitating cases, even in the weakly nonlinear regime (Schmidt & Salo, 2003), a reliable study of realistic selfgravitating rings must rely on numerical experiments. We report the results of a new N-body survey of viscous overstability. For example, we study the optical depth and gravity strength regimes which lead to the excitation of overstability, co-existence of overstabilities and gravity wakes, or to the suppression of overstability in the case of very strong wakes. Also the effects of various factors (particle elasticity, surface friction and adhesion, size distribution) on the threshold density required for the triggering of

  18. Photometric modeling of viscous overstability in Saturn's rings (United States)

    Salo, H.


    The viscous overstability of dense planetary rings offers a plausible mechanism for the generation of observed ˜ 150 m radial density variations in the B and the inner A ring of Saturn (Colwell et al. 2007, Thomson et al. 2007). Viscous overstability, in the form of spontaneous growth of axisymmetric oscillations, arises naturally in N-body simulations, in the limit of high impact frequency and moderately weak selfgravity (Salo et al. 2001, Schmidt et al. 2001; see also Schmidt et al. 2009). For example, a selfgravitating system of identical particles with internal density ˜ half of solid ice, and following the Bridges et al. (1984) elasticity formula, becomes overstable for optical depths ? > 1, forming oscillations in about 100 meter scale. Like self-gravity wakes, with their typical ˜ 20° trailing pitch angle, overstable oscillations lead to a longitude-dependent brightness of the rings. Due to their axisymmetric nature, the expected longitude of minimum brightness is shifted to ring ansae. However, according to simulations, the axisymmetric oscillations may coexist with the inclined selfgravity wake structures, which can lead to complicated photometric behavior, depending on properties of the simulated system. The overstable systems may also exhibit amplitude modulations (in km-scales), arising from the mutual beating patterns of the basics overstable oscillations. New results of photometric modeling of viscously overstable dynamical simulations systems are reported, related to the above mentioned topics. The Monte Carlo method of Salo and Karjalainen (2003) is used, previously applied to modeling of photometric signatures of selfgravity wakes (Salo et al. 2004, French et al. 2007), scattering properties of propeller stuctures (Sremcevic et al., 2007), and to the intepretation of elevation-angle dependent opposition effect seen in HST data (Salo and French 2010). For example, the possible observable signatures of amplitude modulations are explored.

  19. Parallel discrete vortex methods for viscous flow simulation (United States)

    Takeda, Kenji

    In this thesis a parallel discrete vortex method is developed in order to investigate the long-time behaviour of bluff body wakes. The method is based on inviscid theory, and its extension to include viscous effects is a far from trivial problem. In this work four grid-free viscous models are directly compared to assess their accuracy and efficiency. The random walk, diffusion velocity, corrected core-spreading and vorticity redistribution methods are compared for simulating unbounded fluid flows, and for flows past an impulsively started cylinder at Reynolds numbers between 550 and 9500. The code uses a common core, so that the only free parameters are those directly related to the viscous models. The vorticity redistribution method encompasses all of the advantages of a purely Lagrangian method and incorporates a dynamic regridding scheme to maintain accurate discretisation of the vorticity field. This is used to simulate long-time flow past an impulsively started cylinder for Reynolds numbers 100, 150 and 1000. The code is fully parallel and achieves good speedup on both commodity and proprietary supercomputer systems. At Reynolds numbers below 150 the breakdown of the primary vortex street has been simulated. Results reveal a merging process, causing relaxation to a parallel shear flow. This itself sheds vortices, creating a secondary wake of increased wavelength. At Reynolds number 1000 the cylinder wake becomes chaotic, forming distinct vortex couples. These couples self-convect and can travel upstream. This has a destabilising effect on the vortex street, inducing merging, formation of tripolar and quadrupolar structures and, ultimately, spontaneous ejection of vortex couples upstream of the initial disturbance.

  20. Angular dynamics of small crystals in viscous flow (United States)

    Fries, J.; Einarsson, J.; Mehlig, B.


    The angular dynamics of a very small ellipsoidal particle in a viscous flow decouples from its translational dynamics and the particle angular velocity is given by Jeffery's theory. It is known that cuboid particles share these properties. In the literature a special case is most frequently discussed, namely that of axisymmetric particles with a continuous rotation symmetry. Here we compute the angular dynamics of crystals that possess a discrete rotation symmetry and certain mirror symmetries but do not have a continuous rotation symmetry. We give examples of such particles that nevertheless obey Jeffery's theory. However, there are other examples where the angular dynamics is determined by a more general equation of motion.

  1. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristroph, Leif [UT-AUSTIN; Thrasher, Matthew [UT-AUSTIN; Swinney, Harry [UT-AUSTIN


    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  2. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav


    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  3. Viscous Dissipation in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids (United States)

    Matveev, K. A.; Pustilnik, M.


    We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zero-temperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. Our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean-invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength.

  4. Spatiotemporal resonances in mixing of open viscous fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Tabeling, Patrick


    In this Letter, we reveal a new dynamical phenomenon, called "spatiotemporal resonance," which is expected to take place in a broad range of viscous, periodically forced, open systems. The observation originates from a numerical and theoretical analysis of a micromixer, and is supported...... by preliminary experimental observations. The theoretical model nicely matches the numerical results, which again is supported by the experiment. Because of the general nature of the phenomenon, this phenomenon is not limited to microsystems. Because of the resonances, a slight tuning of the control parameters...

  5. On the viscous Burgers equation in unbounded domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Limaco


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence and uniqueness of global solutions, and a rate stability for the energy related with a Cauchy problem to the viscous Burgers equation in unbounded domain $\\mathbb{R}\\times(0,\\infty$. Some aspects associated with a Cauchy problem are presented in order to employ the approximations of Faedo-Galerkin in whole real line $\\mathbb{R}$. This becomes possible due to the introduction of weight Sobolev spaces which allow us to use arguments of compactness in the Sobolev spaces.

  6. Viscous flow and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Remus-Daniel


    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the flow and heat transfer of a horizontal sheet in a viscous fluid. The stretching rate and temperature of the sheet vary with time. The governing equations for momentum and thermal energy are reduced to ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. These equations are solved approximately by means of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM which provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation solutions and adjust convergence rigorously when necessary. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.

  7. Viscous hydrodynamics relaxation time from AdS/CFT correspondence (United States)

    Heller, Michał P.; Janik, Romuald A.


    We consider an expanding boost-invariant plasma at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence for N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We determine the relaxation time in second order viscous hydrodynamics and find that it is around 30 times shorter than weak coupling expectations. We find that the nonsingularity of the dual geometry in the string frame necessitates turning on the dilaton which leads to a nonvanishing expectation value for trF2 behaving like τ-10/3.

  8. Diffusion and viscous flow in bulk glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A.; Zoellmer, V.; Raetzke, K. [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Meyer, A. [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Faupel, F., E-mail: [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany)


    Research highlights: > We measured radiotracer diffusivities of all components in a Pd{sub 43}Cu{sub 27}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} melt. > We see a vast decoupling between the diffusivity of Pd and of the smaller components at T{sub g}. > We see no decoupling between Pd diffusion and viscous flow. > The Stokes-Einstein equations holds for Pd in the hole supercooled range. > Pd forms a slow subsystem. - Abstract: We review radiotracer diffusion and isotope measurements in bulk glass forming alloys from the glassy state to the equilibrium melt and compare diffusion and viscous flow. In the glassy as well as in the deeply supercooled state below the critical temperature T{sub c}, where the mode coupling theory predicts a freezing-in of liquid-like motion, very small isotope effects indicate a highly collective hopping mechanism. Not only in the glassy state but also in the supercooled state below T{sub c} the temperature dependence of diffusion is Arrhenius-like with an effective activation enthalpy. A clear decoupling takes place between the diffusivities of the individual components of the alloys and between time scales related to diffusive transport and viscous flow. While the component decoupling is small for the smaller components a vast decoupling of more than 4 orders of magnitude is observed in Pd-Cu-Ni-P alloys between the diffusivity of the large majority component Pd and of the smaller components at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The diffusivities of all components merge close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of mode coupling theory. Above T{sub c}, the onset of liquid-like motion is directly evidenced by a gradual drop of the effective activation energy. This strongly supports the mode coupling scenario. The isotope effect measurements show atomic transport up to the equilibrium melt to be far away from the regime of uncorrelated binary collisions. For Pd, in contrast to the behavior of single component molecular glass formers, the Stokes

  9. ΛCDM model with dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter (United States)

    Gimenes, H. S.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Silva, R.


    Many models in cosmology typically assume the standard bulk viscosity. We study an alternative interpretation for the origin of the bulk viscosity. Using nonadditive statistics proposed by Tsallis, we propose a bulk viscosity component that can only exist by a nonextensive effect through the nonextensive/dissipative correspondence (NexDC). In this paper, we consider a ΛCDM model for a flat universe with a dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter component, following the Eckart theory of bulk viscosity, without any perturbative approach. In order to analyze cosmological constraints, we use one of the most recent observations of Type Ia Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background data.

  10. A data parallel pseudo-spectral semi-implicit magnetohydrodynamics code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.; Meijer, P. M.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Hertzberger, B.; Sloot, P.


    The set of eight nonlinear partial differential equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used for time dependent simulations of three-dimensional (3D) fluid flow in a magnetic field. A data parallel code is presented, which integrates the MHD equations in cylindrical geometry, combining a

  11. The Hunt for Red October II: A Magnetohydrodynamic Boat Demonstration for Introductory Physics (United States)

    Overduin, James; Polyak, Viktor; Rutah, Anjalee; Sebastian, Thomas; Selway, Jim; Zile, Daniel


    The 1990 film "The Hunt for Red October" (based on Tom Clancy's 1984 debut novel of the same name) featured actors like Sean Connery and Alec Baldwin, but the star of the movie for physicists was a revolutionary new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) marine propulsion system. The so-called "caterpillar drive" worked with no moving…

  12. Closure of the single fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations in presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Pratt, J.


    In the presence of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the Ohm's law of single fluid magnetohydrodynamics is modified as E + v × B = η(J – J EC). This paper presents a new closure relation for the EC driven current density appearing in this modified Ohm's law. The new relation

  13. Studies of cycles for liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic generation of power (United States)

    Lee, K.; Petrick, M.


    Studies of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles indicate that the overall efficiency of a binary cycle, employing a liquid-metal topping cycle and a bottoming steam cycle, may reach 60 percent. Details of analyses and data on cycles are presented, and the commercial potential of the binary cycle is discussed.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts. Full numerical simulation; Magnetohydrodynamik in Rechteckgeometrien; Volle numerische Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, L.


    Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)

  15. Impact of viscous fingering and permeability heterogeneity on fluid mixing in porous media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolaides, Christos; Jha, Birendra; Cueto‐Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben


    .... Recent developments have explored the effect of viscosity contrast on mixing, suggesting that the unstable displacement of fluids with different viscosities, or viscous fingering, provides a powerful...

  16. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...

  17. Dynamical evolution of viscous disks around be stars. II. Polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubois, X. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Mota, B. C.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bednarski, D. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Draper, Z. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wisniewski, J. P. [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks St Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Rivinius, Th., E-mail: [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)


    Be stars exhibit variability for a great number of observables. Putting the pieces of the disk dynamics together is not an easy task and requires arduous modeling before achieving a good fit to the observational data. In order to guide the modeling process and make it more efficient, it is very instructive to investigate reference dynamical cases. This paper focuses on continuum polarimetric quantities and is the second of a series that aims to demonstrate the capacity of deriving the dynamical history and fundamental parameters of a classical Be star through follow-up of various observables. After a detailed study of the different opacities at play in the formation of polarized spectra, we investigate predictions of polarimetric observables in the continuum for different dynamical scenarios. Our models are based on a coupling of a hydrodynamic viscous decretion simulations in a disk and a three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer code. Through introduction of the polarization color diagram (PCD), we show that certain combinations of polarimetric observables exhibit features that are characteristic of a mass-loss history. This diagram also enables estimates of fundamental parameters such as the inclination angle, disk density scale, and the α viscous diffusion parameter. We present the PCD as a powerful diagnosis tool to track the dynamical phases of a Be star, such as disk build-up, dissipation, periodic, and episodic outbursts. Finally, we confront our models with observations of four Be stars that exhibited long-term polarimetric activity.

  18. Effect of external viscous load on head movement (United States)

    Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.


    Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.

  19. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian


    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  20. Viscous Effect of Drop Impacting on Liquid Film (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K.; Sun, Chao


    Drop impacting a liquid film is commonly observed in many processes including inkjet printing and thermal sprays. The accumulation and growth of the film depend on the outcome of subsequent drop impact on the initially formed film. In our recent study (Tang, et al. Soft Matter 2016), we have proposed a regime diagram based on the Weber number We (ratio of impact inertia and surface tension) and the film thickness, characterizing non-monotonic transitions between the bouncing and merging outcomes and providing scaling analysis for the boundaries for a single liquid (n-tetradecane). Since liquid viscosity fundamentally affects the impact outcome, through its influence on the flow field and dissipation of the kinetic energy, here we extend the study for a number of alkanes and silicone oils, covering a wide range of viscosity, to evaluate its effect on the regime diagram. We will show that while the regime diagram maintains its general structure, the merging regime becomes smaller for more viscous liquids and eventually the non-monotonicity disappears. We will model the viscous effects and present a modified scaling. This new scaling attempts to unify all liquids and provides a useful tool to manipulate the outcome of drop impact on liquid film. The work at Princeton University is supported by the Army Research Office and the Xerox Corporation.

  1. Shear-Induced Membrane Fusion in Viscous Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim


    Large unilamellar lipid vesicles do not normally fuse under fluid shear stress. They might deform and open pores to relax the tension to which they are exposed, but membrane fusion occurring solely due to shear stress has not yet been reported. We present evidence that shear forces in a viscous solution can induce lipid bilayer fusion. The fusion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes is observed in Couette flow with shear rates above 3000 s-1 provided that the medium is viscous enough. Liposome samples, prepared at different viscosities using a 0-50 wt % range of sucrose concentration, were studied by dynamic light scattering, lipid fusion assays using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Liposomes in solutions with 40 wt % (or more) sucrose showed lipid fusion under shear forces. These results support the hypothesis that under suitable conditions lipid membranes may fuse in response to mechanical-force- induced stress. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Lift Force Acting on Bodies in Viscous Liquid Under Vibration (United States)

    Schipitsyn, Vitaliy; Ivanova, Alevtina; Vlasova, Olga; Kozlov, Victor


    The averaged lift force acting on a rigid body located near the wall of the cavity with a viscous liquid under high-frequency oscillations of various types is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments are conducted with cylindrical and rectangular solids. Amplitude and frequency of vibration, viscosity and density of fluid, specific solid size, its density and shape vary. Lift force was measured by the dynamic hanging of the body in the gravity when the body oscillates without touching the cavity walls. The vibrations generate a repulsive force, holding a heavy body above the bottom of the cavity, and the light one at some distance from the ceiling. Lift force changes qualitatively in case of combined translational and rotational oscillations of the cavity containing fluid and solid; it is much greater than at the translational vibrations and appears throughout the entire volume of the liquid. The work contains a theoretical description of the mechanism of lift force generation and the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results. The agreement of the results is found in the limit of high dimensionless frequencies. The considered effects could be interesting for vibrational control of solid inclusions in viscous liquids. Work was done in the framework of the Program of strategic development of PSHPU (project 030-F) and supported by Ministry of Education of Perm Region (project C26/625) and grant 4022.2014.1 (Leading Scientific School).

  3. Divergence-Free SPH for Incompressible and Viscous Fluids. (United States)

    Bender, Jan; Koschier, Dan


    In this paper we present a novel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the efficient and stable simulation of incompressible fluids. The most efficient SPH-based approaches enforce incompressibility either on position or velocity level. However, the continuity equation for incompressible flow demands to maintain a constant density and a divergence-free velocity field. We propose a combination of two novel implicit pressure solvers enforcing both a low volume compression as well as a divergence-free velocity field. While a compression-free fluid is essential for realistic physical behavior, a divergence-free velocity field drastically reduces the number of required solver iterations and increases the stability of the simulation significantly. Thanks to the improved stability, our method can handle larger time steps than previous approaches. This results in a substantial performance gain since the computationally expensive neighborhood search has to be performed less frequently. Moreover, we introduce a third optional implicit solver to simulate highly viscous fluids which seamlessly integrates into our solver framework. Our implicit viscosity solver produces realistic results while introducing almost no numerical damping. We demonstrate the efficiency, robustness and scalability of our method in a variety of complex simulations including scenarios with millions of turbulent particles or highly viscous materials.

  4. Superballistic flow of viscous electron fluid through graphene constrictions (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, R.; Bandurin, D. A.; Pellegrino, F. M. D.; Cao, Y.; Principi, A.; Guo, H.; Auton, G. H.; Ben Shalom, M.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Falkovich, G.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Levitov, L. S.; Polini, M.; Geim, A. K.


    Electron-electron (e-e) collisions can impact transport in a variety of surprising and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Despite strong interest, experiments on the subject proved challenging because of the simultaneous presence of different scattering mechanisms that suppress or obscure consequences of e-e scattering. Only recently, sufficiently clean electron systems with transport dominated by e-e collisions have become available, showing behaviour characteristic of highly viscous fluids. Here we study electron transport through graphene constrictions and show that their conductance below 150 K increases with increasing temperature, in stark contrast to the metallic character of doped graphene. Notably, the measured conductance exceeds the maximum conductance possible for free electrons. This anomalous behaviour is attributed to collective movement of interacting electrons, which `shields' individual carriers from momentum loss at sample boundaries. The measurements allow us to identify the conductance contribution arising due to electron viscosity and determine its temperature dependence. Besides fundamental interest, our work shows that viscous effects can facilitate high-mobility transport at elevated temperatures, a potentially useful behaviour for designing graphene-based devices.

  5. Self-focused acoustic ejectors for viscous liquids. (United States)

    Hon, S F; Kwok, K W; Li, H L; Ng, H Y


    Self-focused acoustic ejectors using the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) have been developed for ejecting viscous liquids, without nozzle, in the drop-on-demand mode. The FZP is composed of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric plate patterned with a series of annular electrodes, with the unelectroded region of the plate removed. Our results show that the acoustic waves are effectively self-focused by constructive interference in glycerin (with a viscosity of 1400 mPa s), giving small focal points with a high pressure. Due to the high attenuation, the wave pressure decreases significantly with the distance from the FZP. Nevertheless, the pressure at the focal points 2.5 and 6.5 mm from the FZP is high enough to eject glycerin droplets in the drop-on-demand mode. Driven by a simple wave train comprising a series of sinusoidal voltages with an amplitude of 35 V, a frequency of 4.28 MHz, and a duration of 2 ms, the ejector can eject fine glycerin droplets with a diameter of 0.4 mm at a repetition frequency of 120 Hz in a downward direction. Droplets of other viscous liquids, such as the prepolymer of an epoxy with a viscosity of 2000 mPa s, can also be ejected in the drop-on-demand mode under similar conditions.

  6. Fingering induced by a solid sphere impact to viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuragi Hiroaki


    Full Text Available The number of splashed fingers generated by a solid projectile’s impact onto a viscous liquid layer is experimentally studied. A steel sphere is dropped onto a viscous liquid pool. Then, a fingering instability occurs around the crater’s rim, depending on the experimental conditions such as projectile’s inertia and the viscosity of the target liquid. When the impact inertia is not sufficient, any fingering structure cannot be observed. Contrastively, if the impact inertia is too much, the random splashing is induced and the counting of fingers becomes difficult. The clear fingering instability is observable in between these two regimes. The number of fingers N is counted by using high-speed video data. The scaling of N is discussed on the basis of dimensionless numbers. By assuming Rayleigh-Taylor instability, scaling laws for N can be derived using Reynolds number Re, Weber number We, and Froude number Fr. Particularly, the scaling N = (ρrFr1/4We1/2/33/4 is obtained for the gravity-dominant cratering regime, where ρr is the density ratio between a projectile and a target. Although the experimental data considerably scatters, the scaling law is consistent with the global trend of the data behavior. Using one of the scaling laws, planetary nano crater’s rim structure is also evaluated.

  7. Viscous oil dynamics evaluation for better fluid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, J.A.; Low, S.; Adur, N.; Teixeira, V. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)


    The benefits that heavy oil producers can gain by sampling formation fluid early in the life of a well were discussed. Sampling provides the necessary information for reservoir completion planning and decision making, which is important in areas where flow assurance is a key concern. Most sampling problems are attributed to a sudden pressure change and the associated surge of fluids. The increased flow rate mobilizes sand grains and fines, which can plug flow lines, cause erosion of drilling parts and prevent proper operation of mechanical components in tools. In addition to the extremely low flow rates that are generally required for sampling highly viscous oils in unconsolidated sands, other factors should also be considered for optimum sampling, such as reservoir permeability, anisotropy, nearby upper and lower impermeable barriers, and location of the wireline formation tester (WFT) or modular formation tester (MDT) relative to the formation being samples. This paper presented the results of a study of near wellbore fluid flow during cleanup prior to sampling with a large diameter probe, a new extra large diameter probe, dual packer formation testers with customized gravel pack screens, an extra high-pressure displacement unit pump for low flow rates, advanced downhole flow analysis monitoring and special sampling methods. The intent of the study was to predict cleanup time with respect to viscous oils and the variables which make sampling feasible with respect to quality, operational time and reduction of associated risks. 11 refs., 32 figs.

  8. Viscous self interacting dark matter and cosmic acceleration (United States)

    Atreya, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Arvind


    Self interacting dark matter (SIDM) provides us with a consistent solution to certain astrophysical observations in conflict with collision-less cold DM paradigm. In this work we estimate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) of SIDM, within kinetic theory formalism, for galactic and cluster size SIDM halos. To that extent we make use of the recent constraints on SIDM cross-section for the dwarf galaxies, LSB galaxies and clusters. We also estimate the change in solution of Einstein's equation due to these viscous effects and find that σ/m constraints on SIDM from astrophysical data provide us with sufficient viscosity to account for the observed cosmic acceleration at present epoch, without the need of any additional dark energy component. Using the estimates of dark matter density for galactic and cluster size halo we find that the mean free path of dark matter ~ few Mpc. Thus the smallest scale at which the viscous effect start playing the role is cluster scale. Astrophysical data for dwarf, LSB galaxies and clusters also seems to suggest the same. The entire analysis is independent of any specific particle physics motivated model for SIDM.

  9. Reconnection and particle acceleration in interacting flux ropes - I. Magnetohydrodynamics and test particles in 2.5D (United States)

    Ripperda, B.; Porth, O.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.


    Magnetic reconnection and non-thermal particle distributions associated with current-driven instabilities are investigated by means of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations combined with relativistic test particle methods. We propose a system with two parallel, repelling current channels in an initially force-free equilibrium, as a simplified representation of flux ropes in a stellar magnetosphere. The current channels undergo a rotation and separation on Alfvénic time-scales, forming secondary islands and (up to tearing unstable) current sheets in which non-thermal energy distributions are expected to develop. Using the recently developed particle module of our open-source grid-adaptive mpi-amrvac software, we simulate MHD evolution combined with test particle treatments in MHD snapshots. We explore under which plasma-β conditions the fastest reconnection occurs in 2.5D scenarios, and in these settings, test particles are evolved. We quantify energy distributions, acceleration mechanisms, relativistic corrections to the particle equations of motion and effects of resistivity in magnetically dominated proton-electron plasmas. Due to large resistive electric fields and indefinite acceleration of particles in the infinitely long current channels, hard energy spectra are found in 2.5D configurations. Solutions to these numerical artefacts are proposed for both 2.5D setups and future 3D work. We discuss the MHD of an additional kink instability in 3D setups and the expected effects on energy distributions. The obtained results hold as a proof-of-principle for test particle approaches in MHD simulations, relevant to explore less idealized scenarios like solar flares and more exotic astrophysical phenomena, like black hole flares, magnetar magnetospheres and pulsar wind nebulae.

  10. The Theory of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Homogeneous Description (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Avinash, K.


    The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, particularly the relationship of density fluctuations to incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Of interest was the identification of distinct leading-order incompressible descriptions for plasma beta β ≫ 1 and β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 environments. In the first case, the “dimensionality” of the MHD description is 3D whereas for the latter two, there is a collapse of dimensionality in that the leading-order incompressible MHD description is 2D in a plane orthogonal to the large-scale or mean magnetic field. Despite the success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in a low-frequency plasma environment such as the solar wind, a basic turbulence description has not been developed. Here, we rewrite the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. We discuss the distinction that emerges between the three cases. However, we focus on the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 regimes since these are appropriate to the solar wind and solar corona. In both cases, the leading-order turbulence model describes 2D turbulence and the higher-order description corresponds to slab turbulence, which forms a minority component. The Elsäasser β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 formulation exhibits the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components very clearly, and shows that slab fluctuations respond in a passive scalar sense to the turbulently evolving majority 2D component fluctuations. The coupling of 2D and slab fluctuations through the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 NI MHD description leads to a very natural emergence of the “Goldreich-Sridhar” critical balance scaling parameter, although now with a different interpretation. Specifically, the critical balance parameter shows that the energy flux in wave number space is a consequence of the intensity of Alfvén wave sweeping versus passive scalar

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Radial Velocity Generation for Extending Bandwidth of Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor at Low Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ji


    Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth.

  12. On the Use of Space-Environmental Satellite Data for Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations. Time-Scale Initialisation Approach (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maibys Sierra; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Mecías, Angela León; Menconi, Varlei Everton; Mendes, Odim


    A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model describes the solar-terrestrial system and the physical processes that live in it. Information obtained from satellites provides input to MHD model to compose a more realistic initial state for the equations and, therefore, more accurate simulations. However, the use of high resolution in time data can produce numerical instabilities that quickly interrupt the simulations. Moreover, satellite time series may have gaps which could be a problem in this context. In order to contribute to the overcoming of such challenges, we propose in this work a methodology based on a variant of the continuous wavelet transform to introduce environmental satellite data on the global resistive MHD model originally developed by Prof. Ogino at the University of Nagoya. Our methodology uses a simplified time-scale version of the original data that preserves the most important spectral features of the phenomena of interest. Then, we can do a long-term integration using this MHD model without any computational instability, while preserving the main time-scale features of the original data set and even overcome possible occurrence of gaps on the satellite data. This methodology also contributes to keeping more realistic physical results.

  13. Numerical simulation of four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics in dynamically adaptive curvilinear coordinates via Newton-Krylov-Schwarz

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Xuefei


    Numerical simulations of the four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with hyper-resistivity terms present a difficult challenge because of demanding spatial resolution requirements. A time-dependent sequence of . r-refinement adaptive grids obtained from solving a single Monge-Ampère (MA) equation addresses the high-resolution requirements near the . x-point for numerical simulation of the magnetic reconnection problem. The MHD equations are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to solution-defined curvilinear coordinates. After the application of an implicit scheme to the time-dependent problem, the parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) algorithm is used to solve the system at each time step. Convergence and accuracy studies show that the curvilinear solution requires less computational effort than a pure Cartesian treatment. This is due both to the more optimal placement of the grid points and to the improved convergence of the implicit solver, nonlinearly and linearly. The latter effect, which is significant (more than an order of magnitude in number of inner linear iterations for equivalent accuracy), does not yet seem to be widely appreciated. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. On the closure of circular holes in nonlinear viscous media. (United States)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel


    Many rocks exhibit viscous behaviors which have to be taken into account in applications ranging from wellbores creeping during drilling to salt caves or hard rock mine tunnels shrinking with time. We address all these different cases using a unified configuration. We consider a 2D plane strain problem where a circular hole, representing the wellbore, the cave or the mine tunnel depending on the application, is embedded in an infinite incompressible non-linear viscous material. The problem is purely mechanical. Not only the rheological model used here is well suited for real formations but it can also represent many different sorts of rocks like salts, shales, quartzite and even ice. The major difference between the applications concerns the relevant time scales and they must therefore be separated according to that. For short timescale applications like wellbore creep during drilling it is first necessary to determine whether an elastic component must or must not be taken into account. This analysis is carried out using a non-linear viscoelastic Maxwell model. If it is acknowledged that a purely viscous rheology is enough, as can be the case for salts, then we can proceed with our unified configuration. We start by considering the case where the medium is isotropic and where pressure boundary conditions are prescribed both at the hole rim and at infinity. This problem is 1D due to axial symmetry. Analytical solutions to very similar problems have already been provided and we compare the solution we have derived to the existing ones. We show that our solution is consistent and that we recover similar results to the ones derived for comparable rheologies. Using MILAMIN, a fast finite element code, we investigate further two cases which lead to angular dependency and stress concentrations around the hole. In the first case we add a deviatoric stress at infinity and we study the impact of this extra stress on the solution. It is important to understand this parameter

  15. Continental collision slowing due to viscous mantle lithosphere rather than topography. (United States)

    Clark, Marin Kristen


    Because the inertia of tectonic plates is negligible, plate velocities result from the balance of forces acting at plate margins and along their base. Observations of past plate motion derived from marine magnetic anomalies provide evidence of how continental deformation may contribute to plate driving forces. A decrease in convergence rate at the inception of continental collision is expected because of the greater buoyancy of continental than oceanic lithosphere, but post-collisional rates are less well understood. Slowing of convergence has generally been attributed to the development of high topography that further resists convergent motion; however, the role of deforming continental mantle lithosphere on plate motions has not previously been considered. Here I show that the rate of India's penetration into Eurasia has decreased exponentially since their collision. The exponential decrease in convergence rate suggests that contractional strain across Tibet has been constant throughout the collision at a rate of 7.03 × 10(-16) s(-1), which matches the current rate. A constant bulk strain rate of the orogen suggests that convergent motion is resisted by constant average stress (constant force) applied to a relatively uniform layer or interface at depth. This finding follows new evidence that the mantle lithosphere beneath Tibet is intact, which supports the interpretation that the long-term strain history of Tibet reflects deformation of the mantle lithosphere. Under conditions of constant stress and strength, the deforming continental lithosphere creates a type of viscous resistance that affects plate motion irrespective of how topography evolved.

  16. Global existence of solutions for a viscous Cahn–Hilliard equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Global Existence of Solutions for a Viscous Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Gradient Dependent Potentials and Sources. Chengyuan Qu Yang Cao ... Keywords. Global solution; viscous Cahn–Hilliard equation; initial boundary value problem ...

  17. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We simulate viscous fingering generated by separating two plates with a constant force, in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell. Variation in the patterns for different fluid viscosity and lifting force is studied. Viscous fingering is strongly affected by anisotropy. We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or ...

  18. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or square grooves are etched on to the lower plate. Results are compared with experiments. Keywords. Viscous fingering; Hele-Shaw cell; simulation. PACS Nos; 47.20.Gv; 07.05.Tp. 1. Introduction. Viscous fingering in the lifting Hele-Shaw ...

  19. Bounds on the phase velocity in the linear instability of viscous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    parallel shear flow problem are extended to the problem of viscous parallel, shear flow problem in the beta plane and a sufficient condition for stability has also been derived. Keywords. Viscous shear flows; linear stability. 1. Introduction. Parallel shear flows problem is a classical hydrodynamic instability problem and contin ...

  20. Global existence of solutions for a viscous Cahn–Hilliard equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a class of nonlinear viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with gradient dependent potentials and sources. By a Galerkin approximation scheme combined with the potential well method, we prove the global existence of weak solutions. Keywords. Global solution; viscous Cahn–Hilliard equation; initial boundary ...

  1. Explicit discontinuous spectral element method with entropy generation based artificial viscosity for shocked viscous flows (United States)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Jacobs, G. B.; Don, W. S.; Abbassi, H.; Mashayek, F.


    A spatio-temporal adaptive artificial viscosity (AV) based shock-capturing scheme is proposed for the solution of both inviscid and viscous compressible flows using a high-order parallel Discontinuous Spectral Element Method (DSEM). The artificial viscosity and artificial thermal conduction coefficients are proportional to the viscous and thermal entropy generating terms, respectively, in the viscous entropy conservation law. The magnitude of AV is limited based on the explicit stable CFL criterion, so that the stable artificial viscous time step size is greater than the convective stable time step size. To further ensure the stability of this explicit approach, an adaptive variable order exponential filter is applied, if necessary, in elements where the AV has been limited. In viscous flow computations a modified Jameson's sensor (Ducros et al., 1999 [61]) limits the AV to small values in viscous shear regions, so as to maintain a high-order resolution in smooth regions and an essentially non-oscillatory behavior near sharp gradients/shocks regions. We have performed a systematic and extensive validation of the algorithm with one-dimensional problems (inviscid moving shock and viscous shock-structure interaction), two-dimensional problems (inviscid steady and unsteady shocked flows and viscous shock-boundary layer interaction), and a three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow over a ramped cavity. These examples demonstrate that the explicit DSEM scheme with adaptive artificial viscosity terms is stable, accurate and efficient.

  2. Viscous-inviscid interaction using the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A numerical model for the calculation of incompressible viscous flows past airfoils andwings has been developed. The approach is based on a strong viscous-inviscid coupling of aboundary element method with the Navier-Stokesequations in vorticity-streamfunction formulation.A semi-adaptive or fully...

  3. Quasi-Simultaneous Viscous-Inviscid Interaction for Transonic Airfoil Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur E.P.


    Following Prandtl, a viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) method is presented, where the flow field is divided into a viscous shear layer and an inviscid outer region. Their coupling is performed with the quasi-simultaneous approach, making use of an appropriately chosen interaction law. Firstly, an

  4. Study of the Motion of a Vertically Falling Sphere in a Viscous Fluid (United States)

    Soares, A. A.; Caramelo, L.; Andrade, M. A. P. M.


    This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the motion of spherical particles in viscous fluids. The classical problem of spheres falling through viscous fluids for small Reynolds numbers was solved taking into account the effects of added mass. The analytical solution for the motion of a falling sphere, from the beginning to the…

  5. Nonlinear simulation of resistive ballooning modes in Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Hideaki; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya


    Nonlinear simulations of a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) plasma in full three-dimensional geometry of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are conducted to study nonlinear evolution of pressure-driven instabilities. A series of simulations for a resistive plasma shows growth of resistive ballooning instability. The growth rate of the most unstable resistive ballooning mode is shown to be proportional to the one-third power of the resistivity. Nonlinear saturation of the instability and its slow decay are observed. After the nonlinear saturation, the pressure takes a profile similar to so-called pedestal. A possible scenario of nonlinear relaxation of a plasma toward a new equilibrated state is discussed. (author)

  6. Viscous propulsion in active transversely-isotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Cupples, Gemma; Smith, David J


    Taylor's swimming sheet is a classical model of microscale propulsion and pumping. Many biological fluids and substances are fibrous, having a preferred direction in their microstructure; for example cervical mucus is formed of polymer molecules which create an oriented fibrous network. Moreover, suspensions of elongated motile cells produce a form of active oriented matter. To understand how these effects modify viscous propulsion, we extend Taylor's classical model of small-amplitude zero-Reynolds-number propulsion of a 'swimming sheet' via the transversely-isotropic fluid model of Ericksen, which is linear in strain rate and possesses a distinguished direction. The energetic costs of swimming are significantly altered by all rheological parameters and the initial fibre angle. Propulsion in a passive transversely-isotropic fluid produces an enhanced mean rate of working, independent of the initial fibre orientation, with an approximately linear dependence of energetic cost on the extensional and shear enhan...

  7. Stability analysis of bulk viscous anisotropic universe model (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia


    This paper is devoted to study the phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking three different cases for bulk viscosity coefficient. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. In the case of bulk viscous matter and radiation, the parameters η=η0 and m≥0.8 show realistic evolution of the universe (prior radiation dominated era, conventional decelerated matter dominated state and ultimately accelerated expansion). We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of bulk viscosity with different choices of parameter m.

  8. Mathematical theory of compressible viscous fluids analysis and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard; Pokorný, Milan


    This book offers an essential introduction to the mathematical theory of compressible viscous fluids. The main goal is to present analytical methods from the perspective of their numerical applications. Accordingly, we introduce the principal theoretical tools needed to handle well-posedness of the underlying Navier-Stokes system, study the problems of sequential stability, and, lastly, construct solutions by means of an implicit numerical scheme. Offering a unique contribution – by exploring in detail the “synergy” of analytical and numerical methods – the book offers a valuable resource for graduate students in mathematics and researchers working in mathematical fluid mechanics. Mathematical fluid mechanics concerns problems that are closely connected to real-world applications and is also an important part of the theory of partial differential equations and numerical analysis in general. This book highlights the fact that numerical and mathematical analysis are not two separate fields of mathematic...

  9. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry (United States)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.


    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].

  10. Evolution of a universe filled with a causal viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P


    The behaviour of solutions to the Einstein equations with a causal viscous fluid source is investigated. In this model we consider a spatially flat Robertson-Walker metric, the bulk viscosity coefficient is related to the energy density as $\\zeta = \\alpha \\rho^{m}$, and the relaxation time is given by $\\zeta/\\rho$. In the case $m = 1/2$ we find the exact solutions and we verify whether they satisfy the energy conditions. Besides, we study analytically the asymptotic stability of several families of solutions for arbitrary $m$. We find that the qualitative asymptotic behaviour in the far future is not altered by relaxation processes, but they change the behaviour in the past, introducing singular instead of deflationary evolutions or making the Universe bounce due to the violation of the energy conditions.

  11. Thermal stability for a reactive viscous flow in a slab

    CERN Document Server

    Okoya, S S


    The paper deals with the effect of dimensionless non - Newtonian coefficient on the thermal stability of a reactive viscous liquid in steady flow between parallel heated plates. It is assumed that the liquid is symmetrically heated and the flow fully developed. Approximate analytical solution is obtained for the velocity of the flow and the criterion for which this solution is valid is determined. After the velocity distribution is known, the temperature distribution may be calculated. Criticality and disappearance of criticality (transition values) are obtained in the following cases: (i) Bimolecular (ii) Arrhenius and (iii) Sensitized temperature dependence. We have observed that nonlinear effect from velocity and temperature fields introduced decaying for the transitional values of the dimensionless central temperature. Other effects of this nonlinearity are reported. We also give results for the plane - Couette flow problem. The results help to enhance understanding of the interplay between Newtonian and ...

  12. Destabilization of highly viscous fluid threads in complex microgeometries (United States)

    Cubaud, Thomas


    High-viscosity multiphase flows in microchannels encompass a broad range of fluid phenomena, including self-lubrication and viscous buckling instabilities. Here, a series of experiments is conducted to study the dynamic response of miscible fluid threads to a change in carrier flow velocity due to varying microgeometries. The structural stability of core-annular flows is systematically investigated in simple and complex microchannels, such as square, bifurcating, and corrugated channels, from low to high flow rates of injection and for a variety of fluid viscosities. Focus is on flow regimes of practical interest for the improvement of mixing and separation processes between fluids having large viscosity contrasts at the small scale. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).

  13. Slow viscous flow of two particles in a cylindrical tube (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Wong, Teck Neng; Marcos, -


    The slow viscous flow around two particles in a cylindrical tube is obtained theoretically. We employ the Lamb's general solution based on spherical harmonics and cylindrical harmonics to solve the flow field around the particles and the flow within the tube, respectively. We compute the drag and torque coefficients of the particles which are dependent on the distance among the cylinder wall and the two particles. The hydrodynamic forces are also a function of particle velocities and background velocity. Our results are in agreement with the existing theory of a single particle traveling in the tube when the distance between the two particles increases. We found that particle-particle interactions can be neglected when the separation distance is three times larger than the sum of particles radii. Furthermore, such analysis can give us insights to understand the mechanisms of collision and aggregation of particles.

  14. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids. (United States)

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten


    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this "thermal noise method" is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities.

  15. Viscous and Gravitational Fingering in Multiphase Compositional and Compressible Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Moortgat, Joachim


    Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for 1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and 2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, w...

  16. Passive Control of Viscous Flow via Elastic Snap-Through (United States)

    Gomez, Michael; Moulton, Derek E.; Vella, Dominic


    We demonstrate the passive control of viscous flow in a channel by using an elastic arch embedded in the flow. Depending on the fluid flux, the arch may "snap" between two states—constricting and unconstricting—that differ in hydraulic conductivity by up to an order of magnitude. We use a combination of experiments at a macroscopic scale and theory to study the constricting and unconstricting states, and determine the critical flux required to transition between them. We show that such a device may be precisely tuned for use in a range of applications, and, in particular, has potential as a passive microfluidic fuse to prevent excessive fluxes in rigid-walled channels.

  17. Bulk Viscous Matter-dominated Universes: Asymptotic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, Arturo; Gonzalez, Tame; Nucamendi, Ulises; Quiros, Israel


    By means of a combined study of the type Ia supernovae test,together with a study of the asymptotic properties in the equivalent phase space -- through the use of the dynamical systems tools -- we demonstrate that the bulk viscous matter-dominated scenario is not a good model to explain the accepted cosmological paradigm, at least, under the parametrization of bulk viscosity considered in this paper. The main objection against such scenarios is the absence of conventional radiation and matter-dominated critical points in the phase space of the model. This entails that radiation and matter dominance are not generic solutions of the cosmological equations, so that these stages can be implemented only by means of very particular solutions. Such a behavior is in marked contradiction with the accepted cosmological paradigm which requires of an earlier stage dominated by relativistic species, followed by a period of conventional non-relativistic matter domination, during which the cosmic structure we see was formed...

  18. Constraining viscous dark energy models with the latest cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)


    Based on the assumption that the dark energy possessing bulk viscosity is homogeneously and isotropically permeated in the universe, we propose three new viscous dark energy (VDE) models to characterize the accelerating universe. By constraining these three models with the latest cosmological observations, we find that they just deviate very slightly from the standard cosmological model and can alleviate effectively the current H{sub 0} tension between the local observation by the Hubble Space Telescope and the global measurement by the Planck Satellite. Interestingly, we conclude that a spatially flat universe in our VDE model with cosmic curvature is still supported by current data, and the scale invariant primordial power spectrum is strongly excluded at least at the 5.5σ confidence level in the three VDE models as the Planck result. We also give the 95% upper limits of the typical bulk viscosity parameter η in the three VDE scenarios. (orig.)

  19. Lectures on Mathematical Foundation of Turbulent Viscous Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Miyakawa, Tetsuro


    Five leading specialists reflect on different and complementary approaches to fundamental questions in the study of the Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics equations. Constantin presents the Euler equations of ideal incompressible fluids and discusses the blow-up problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous fluids, describing some of the major mathematical questions of turbulence theory. These questions are connected to the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg theory of singularities for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is explained in Gallavotti's lectures. Kazhikhov introduces the theory of strong approximation of weak limits via the method of averaging, applied to Navier-Stokes equations. Y. Meyer focuses on several nonlinear evolution equations - in particular Navier-Stokes - and some related unexpected cancellation properties, either imposed on the initial condition, or satisfied by the solution itself, whenever it is localized in space or in time variable. Ukai presents the asymptotic analysis th...

  20. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid. (United States)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan


    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  1. Numerical analysis of fractional MHD Maxwell fluid with the effects of convection heat transfer condition and viscous dissipation (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Jiang, Yuehua; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Yan


    This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.

  2. Fingering dynamics on the adsorbed solute with influence of less viscous and strong sample solvent. (United States)

    Rana, Chinar; Mishra, Manoranjan


    Viscous fingering is a hydrodynamic instability that sets in when a low viscous fluid displaces a high viscous fluid and creates complex patterns in porous media flows. Fundamental facets of the displacement process, such as the solute concentration distribution, spreading length, and the solute mixing, depend strongly on the type of pattern created by the unstable interface of the underlying fluids. In the present study, the frontal interface of the sample shows viscous fingering and the strong solvent causes the retention of the solute to depend on the solvent concentration. This work presents a computational investigation to explore the effect of the underlying physico-chemical phenomena, (i.e., the combined effects of solvent strength, retention, and viscous fingering) on the dynamics of the adsorbed solute. A linear adsorption isotherm has been assumed between the mobile and stationary phases of the solute. We carried out the numerical simulations by considering a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell as an analog to 2D-porous media containing a three component system (displacing fluid, sample solvent, solute) to map out the evolution of the solute concentration. We observed that viscous fingering at the frontal interface of the strong sample solvent intensifies the band broadening of the solute zone. Also notable increase in the spreading dynamics of the solute has been observed for less viscous and strong sample solvent as compared to the high viscous sample slices or in the pure dispersive case. On the contrary, the solute gets intensively mixed at early times for more viscous sample in comparison to less viscous one. The results of the simulations are in qualitative agreement with the behavior observed in the liquid chromatography column experiments.

  3. Computational analysis of magnetohydrodynamic Casson and Maxwell flows over a stretching sheet with cross diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kumaran

    Full Text Available This paper reports the magnetohydrodynamic chemically reacting Casson and Maxwell fluids past a stretching sheet with cross diffusion, non-uniform heat source/sink, thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Numerical results are obtained by employing the R-K based shooting method. Effects of pertinent parameters on flow, thermal and concentration fields are discussed with graphical illustrations. We presented the tabular results to discuss the nature of the skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Dual nature is observed in the solution of Casson and Maxwell fluids. It is also observed a significant increase in heat and mass transfer rate of Maxwell fluid when compared with the Casson fluid. Keywords: Chemical reaction, Casson fluid, Maxwell fluid, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, Stretching sheet, Soret and Dufour effect

  4. Effects of seed magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic implosion structure and dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.


    The effects of various seed magnetic fields on the dynamics of cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Here, we present a fundamental investigation of this problem utilizing cylindrical and spherical Riemann problems under three seed field configurations to initialize the implosions. The resulting flows are simulated numerically, revealing rich flow structures, including multiple families of magnetohydrodynamic shocks and rarefactions that interact non-linearly. We fully characterize these flow structures, examine their axi- and spherisymmetry-breaking behaviour, and provide data on asymmetry evolution for different field strengths and driving pressures for each seed field configuration. We find that out of the configurations investigated, a seed field for which the implosion centre is a saddle point in at least one plane exhibits the least degree of asymmetry during implosion.

  5. Fast magnetohydrodynamic cnoidal waves and solitons in electron-positron plasma (United States)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Kaladze, T.; Hussain, S.


    Linear and nonlinear propagation of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves (or magnetoacoustic waves) are studied in homogeneous, magnetized and warm collisionless electron-positron (e-p) plasma by using two fluid magnetohydrodynamic model. In the linear limit, the wave dispersion relation is obtained and wave dispersion effect which appears through inertial length in e-p plasma system is also discussed. Using reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for small but finite wave amplitude of magnetoacoustic waves is derived with appropriate boundary conditions. The cnoidal wave and soliton solutions are obtained using well known Sagdeev potential approach for magnetoacoustic waves in e-p plasmas propagating in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The phase portrait analysis and numerical illustration of magnetoacoustic cnoidal waves and solitons is also presented by using the parameters such as magnetic field intensity, plasma density and temperature of electron and positron fluids for astrophysical plasma situations exist in the literature.

  6. Adiabatically reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations for a cylindrical plasma with an anisotropic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebogatov, V. A.; Pastukhov, V. P., E-mail: [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)


    A closed set of reduced equations describing low-frequency nonlinear flute magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection and the resulting nondiffusive processes of particle and energy transport in a weakly collisional cylindrical plasma with an anisotropic pressure is derived. The Chew-Goldberger-Low anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is used as the basic dynamic model, because this model is applicable to describing flute convection in a cylindrical plasma column even in the low-frequency limit. The reduced set of equations was derived using the method of adiabatic separation of fast and slow motions. It is shown that the structure of the adiabatic transformation and the corresponding velocity field are identical to those obtained earlier in the isotropic MHD model. However, the derived heat transfer equations differ drastically from the isotropic pressure model. In particular, they indicate a tendency toward maintaining different radial profiles of the longitudinal and transverse pressures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Alyshev


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for identification of axial moment of inertia of the mechanical system called reaction wheel pendulum with a viscous friction in the bearings of the suspension. The method is based on the reversible symmetric motions. Pendulum system motion includes a free measured motion and reverse symmetrical motion at the same angular interval. The pendulum includes a rod with a low-power DC motor with a flywheel attached to the end of the rod. The angle of rotation and velocity of the rod and the flywheel are measured by encoders. The paper introduces a new method,presents a design formula,a mathematical model of the pendulum system and a robust motor control law for it. The method is based on energy algorithm and control residing in electric motor operational changes by means of a flywheel. The mechanical system moves symmetrically that is provided by nonuniform controlled flywheel rotation. As a result, the influence of dissipative factors on identification results is eliminated. Dynamic modeling is carried out for the pendulum system and proves high accuracy of the method. The research results can be used for identification of complex mechanical systems under the action of resistance, dissipative and other forces.

  8. The swimming behavior of flagellated bacteria in viscous and viscoelastic media (United States)

    Qu, Zijie; Henderikx, Rene; Breuer, Kenneth


    The motility of bacteria E.coli in viscous and viscoelastic fluids has been widely studied although full understanding remains elusive. The swimming mode of wild-type E.coli is well-described by a run-and-tumble sequence in which periods of straight swimming at a constant speed are randomly interrupted by a tumble, defined as a sudden change of direction with a very low speed. Using a tracking microscope, we follow cells for extended periods of time and find that the swimming behavior can be more complex, and can include a wider variety of behaviors including a "slow random walk" in which the cells move at relatively low speed without the characteristic run. Significant variation between individual cells is observed, and furthermore, a single cell can change its motility during the course of a tracking event. Changing the viscosity and viscoelasticy of the swimming media also has profound effects on the average swimming speed and run-tumble nature of the cell motility, including changing the distribution, duration of tumbling and slow random walk events. The reasons for these changes are explained using a Purcell-style resistive force model for the cell and flagellar behavior as well as model for the changes in flagellar bundling in different fluid viscosities. National Science Foundation.

  9. Variational Iteration Method for the Magnetohydrodynamic Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xu


    Full Text Available The variational iteration method (VIM is applied to solve the boundary layer problem of magnetohydrodynamic flow over a nonlinear stretching sheet. The combination of the VIM and the Padé approximants is shown to be a powerful method for solving two-point boundary value problems consisting of systems of nonlinear differential equations. And the comparison of the obtained results with other available results shows that the method is very effective and convenient for solving boundary layer problems.

  10. Global existence of a weak solution for a model in radiation magnetohydrodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Kobera, M.; Nečasová, Šárka


    Roč. 150, č. 1 (2017), s. 43-65 ISSN 0167-8019 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : radiation magnetohydrodynamics * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * weak solutio Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2016

  11. Numerical magnetohydrodynamic analysis of Large Helical Device plasmas with magnetic axis swing (United States)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Carreras, B. A.


    A partial collapse observed in magnetic axis swing experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is analyzed with a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. Real time control of the background field in the operation is incorporated by means of a multi-scale numerical scheme in the simulation. The simulation result indicates that the changing background field accelerates the growth of an infernal-like mode and causes the partial collapse.

  12. Methodology to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Tesche, F.M.


    This paper summarizes a method to evaluate the possible effects of magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems. This method is based on the approach adapted to study the impact of geomagnetic storms on power systems. The paper highlights the similarities and differences between the two phenomena. Also presented are areas of concern which are anticipated from MHD-EMP on the overall system operation. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) (United States)


    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  14. Exact solutions for helical magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. II. Nonstatic and nonbarotropic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villata, M. (Istituto di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)); Ferrari, A. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy))


    In the framework of the analytical study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria with flow and nonuniform density, a general family of well-behaved exact solutions of the generalized Grad--Shafranov equation and of the whole set of time-independent MHD equations completed by the nonbarotropic ideal gas equation of state is obtained, both in helical and axial symmetry. The helical equilibrium solutions are suggested to be relevant to describe the helical morphology of some astrophysical jets.

  15. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics micropolar fluid in boundary layer flow past a sphere influenced by magnetic fluid (United States)

    Pratomo, Rizky Verdyanto; Widodo, Basuki; Adzkiya, Dieky


    Research about fluid flow was very interesting because have a lot of advantages and it can be applied in many aspects of life. The study on fluid flow which is now widely studied is on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). Magnetohydrodynamic is a conductive and electrical in a magnetic field. This paper considers the effect of unsteady magnetic fields on the flow of magneto-hydrodynamic fluid on the boundary layer that flows past a sphere in micropolar fluid influenced by magnetic field. Our approach is as follows. First, we construct a mathematical model and then the system of equations obtained will be solved numerically using the Keller-Box scheme. Then the system is simulated to assess its effect on the fluid flow velocity profile and the profile of microrotation particles. The result of this research indicates, that when the magnetic parameters increase, then velocity profile increases. If material parameters increase, then velocity profile decreases and magnetic parameters increase for n = 0. For n = 0.5, if magnetic parameters increase, then microrotation profile decreases.

  16. Experimental evaluation of mechanical heart support system based on viscous friction disc pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy


    Full Text Available Aim. Experimental evaluation of the viscous friction disk pump efficiency, studying the relationship between inter-disk clearance and sizes of input and output ports and pump performance parameters.Materials and methods. To assess the characteristics and to optimize the disk friction pump design the pump model and experimental stand were created. Pump dimensions were set on the basis of medical and biological requirements for mechanical heart support systems and with due consideration of the experimental studies of our colleagues from Pennsylvania. Flow volume of the working fluid was measured by float rotameter Krohne VA-40 with measurement error of not more than 1%. The pressure values in the hydrodynamic circuit were measured using a monitor manufactured by Biosoft-M. Expansion device allowed changing the flow resistance of the system simulating the total peripheral resistance of the circulatory system.Results. Linear direct correlation between the pump performance and the pressure drop of liquid being created at the inlet and outlet of the pump was obtained. The required flow rate (5–7 l/min and pressure (90–100 mmHg were reached when the rotor speed was in the range of 2500–3000 rev/min. It has been shown that the increase of the inlet diameter to 15 mm has not resulted in a significant increase in the pump performance, and that the highest efficiency values can be obtained for the magnitude of inter-disk gap of 0.4–0.5 mm.Conclusion. Designed and manufactured experimental disc pump model for pumping fluid has showed the fundamental possibility to use this model as a system for mechanical support of the heart.

  17. Are your patients with risk of CVD getting the viscous soluble fiber they need? (United States)

    Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Jacobs, David R; Raatz, Susan K; Nordstrom, David L; Keenan, Joseph M


    A diet that includes 5 to 10 g/d of viscous soluble fiber reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and death independent of baseline risk. Consuming foods rich in viscous soluble fiber reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) blood levels 10% to 15% with expected reduction in CVD events by 10% to 15%. Routinely counsel adults at risk of CVD to promote a healthy diet: assess dietary fiber consumption; recommend specific foods rich in viscous soluble fiber; monitor LDL-C levels and encourage increased dietary fiber intake at follow-up visits; motivate patients to comply with recommendations.

  18. Time-dependent cavitation in a viscous fluid (United States)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.


    Kinetics of nucleation and growth of empty bubbles in a nonvolatile incompressible fluid under negative pressure is considered within the generalized Zeldovich framework. The transient matched asymptotic solution obtained earlier for predominantly viscous nucleation is used to evaluate the distribution of growing cavities over sizes. Inertial effects described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation are further included. The distributions are used to estimate the volume occupied by cavities, which leads to increase of pressure and eventual self-quenching of nucleation. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytics. Due to rapid expansion of cavities the conventional separation of the nucleation and the growth time scales can be less distinct, which increases the role of transient effects. In particular, in the case of dominant viscosity a typical power-law tail of the quasistationary distribution is replaced by a time-dependent exponential tail. For fluids of the glycerin type such distributions can extend into the micrometer region, while in low-viscosity liquids (water, mercury) exponential distributions are short lived and are restricted to nanometer scales due to inertial effects.

  19. On The Dynamics of a Closed Viscous Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh


    We use a dynamical systems approach based on the method of orthonormal frames to study the dynamics of a non-tilted Bianchi Type IX cosmological model with a bulk and shear viscous fluid source. We begin by completing a detailed fix-point analysis which give the local sinks, sources and saddles of the dynamical system. We then analyze the global dynamics by finding the $\\alpha$-and $\\omega$-limit sets which give an idea of the past and future asymptotic behavior of the system. The fixed points were found to be a flat Friedmann-LeMa\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solution, Bianchi Type $II$ solution, Kasner circle, Jacobs disc, Bianchi Type $VII_{0}$ solutions, and several closed FLRW solutions in addition to the Einstein static universe solution. Each equilibrium point was described in both its expanding and contracting epochs. We conclude the paper with some numerical experiments that shed light on the global dynamics of the system along with its heteroclinic orbits. With respect to past asymptotic states, ...

  20. Canonical Nonlinear Viscous Core Solution in pipe and elliptical geometry (United States)

    Ozcakir, Ozge


    In an earlier paper (Ozcakir et al. (2016)), two new nonlinear traveling wave solutions were found with collapsing structure towards the center of the pipe as Reynolds number R -> ∞ , which were called Nonlinear Viscous Core (NVC) states. Asymptotic scaling arguments suggested that the NVC state collapse rate scales as R - 1 / 4 where axial, radial and azimuthal velocity perturbations from Hagen-Poiseuille flow scale as R - 1 / 2, R - 3 / 4 and R - 3 / 4 respectively, while (1 - c) = O (R - 1 / 2) where c is the traveling wave speed. The theoretical scaling results were roughly consistent with full Navier-Stokes numerical computations in the range 105 differential equations derived in Ozcakir et al. (2016) indeed has solution that satisfies requisite far-field conditions. We also show that these are in good agreement with full Navier-Stokes calculations in a larger R range than previously calculated (R upto 106). Further, we extend our study to NVC states for pipes with elliptical cross-section and identify similar canonical structure in these cases. National Science Foundation NSF-DMS-1515755, EPSRC Grant EP/1037948/1.

  1. Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows (United States)

    Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.


    The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.

  2. Motion of a hot particle in viscous fluids (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Navardi, Shahin; Stone, Howard A.


    We study the motion of a hot particle in a viscous liquid at low Reynolds numbers, which is inspired by recent experiments with Brownian particles heated by a laser. The difference in temperature between a particle and the ambient fluid causes a spatial variation of the viscosity in the vicinity of the solid body. We derive a general analytical expression determining the force and the torque on a particle for low Péclet numbers by exploiting the Lorentz reciprocal theorem. For small temperature and viscosity variations, a perturbation analysis is implemented to evaluate the leading-order correction to the hydrodynamic force and torque on the particle. The results are applied to describe dynamics of a uniformly hot spherical particle and to spherical particles with a nonuniform surface temperature described by dipole and quadrupole moments. Among other results, we find for dipolar thermal fields that there is coupling of the translational and rotational motions when there are local viscosity variations; such coupling is absent in an isothermal fluid.

  3. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri


    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  4. Evolutionary pulsational mode dynamics in nonthermal turbulent viscous astrofluids (United States)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Dutta, Pranamika


    The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in a partially ionized self-gravitating inhomogeneous viscous nonthermal nonextensive astrofluid in the presence of turbulence pressure is illustratively analyzed. The constitutive thermal species, lighter electrons and ions, are thermostatistically treated with the nonthermal κ-distribution laws. The inertial species, such as identical heavier neutral and charged dust microspheres, are modelled in the turbulent fluid framework. All the possible linear processes responsible for dust-dust collisions are accounted. The Larson logatropic equations of state relating the dust thermal (linear) and turbulence (nonlinear) pressures with dust densities are included. A regular linear normal perturbation analysis (local) over the complex astrocloud ensues in a generalized quartic dispersion relation with unique nature of plasma-dependent multi-parametric coefficients. A numerical standpoint is provided to showcase the basic mode features in a judicious astronomical paradigm. It is shown that both the kinematic viscosity of the dust fluids and nonthermality parameter (kappa, the power-law tail index) of the thermal species act as stabilizing (damping) agent against the gravity; and so forth. The underlying evolutionary microphysics is explored. The significance of redistributing astrofluid material via waveinduced accretion in dynamic nonhomologic structureless cloud collapse leading to hierarchical astrostructure formation is actualized.

  5. Theoretical Investigation of the Viscous Damping Coefficient of Hydraulic Actuators (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Hui; Pan, Qing; Li, Yi-Bo; Ma, Peng-Da; Ma, Jun


    The viscous damping coefficient (VDC) of hydraulic actuators is crucial for system modeling, control and dynamic characteristic analysis. Currently, the researches on hydraulic actuators focus on behavior assessment, promotion of control performance and efficiency. However, the estimation of the VDC is difficult due to a lack of study. Firstly, using two types of hydraulic cylinders, behaviors of the VDC are experimentally examined with velocities and pressure variations. For the tested plunger type hydraulic cylinder, the exponential model B = α υ^{ - β } ,(α > 0,β > 0) or B = α1 e^{{ - β1 υ }} + α2 e^{{ - β2 υ }} (α1 ,α2 > 0,β1 ,β2 > 0), fits the relation between the VDC and velocities for a given pressure of chamber with high precision. The magnitude of the VDC decreases almost linearly under certain velocities when increasing the chamber pressure from 0.6 MPa to 6.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effects of the chamber pressures on the VDC of piston and plunge type hydraulic cylinders are different due to different sealing types. In order to investigate the VDC of a plunger type hydraulic actuator drastically, a steady-state numerical model has been developed to describe the mechanism incorporating tandem seal lubrication, back-up ring related friction behaviors and shear stress of fluid. It is shown that the simulated results of VDC agree with the measured results with a good accuracy. The proposed method provides an instruction to predict the VDC in system modeling and analysis.

  6. A realistic 3+1D Viscous Hydro Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, Paul [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    DoE funds were used as bridge funds for the faculty position for the PI at the University of Colorado. The total funds for the Years 3-5 of the JET Topical Collaboration amounted to about 50 percent of the academic year salary of the PI.The PI contributed to the JET Topical Collaboration by developing, testing and applying algorithms for a realistic simulation of the bulk medium created in relativistic ion collisions.Specifically, two approaches were studied, one based on a new Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) framework, and one on a more traditional viscous hydro-dynamics framework. Both approaches were found to be viable in principle, with the LB approach being more elegant but needing still more time to develop.The traditional approach led to the super-hybrid model of ion collisions dubbed 'superSONIC', and has been successfully used for phenomenology of relativistic heavy-ion and light-on-heavy-ion collisions.In the time-frame of the JET Topical Collaboration, the Colorado group has published 15 articles in peer-reviewed journals, three of which were published in Physical Review Letters. The group graduated one Master student during this time-frame and two more PhD students are expected to graduate in the next few years. The PI has given more than 28 talks and presentations during this period.

  7. Bulk viscous matter-dominated Universes: asymptotic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Arturo [Departamento de Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); García-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Legaria del IPN, México D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, División de Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Nucamendi, Ulises [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Quiros, Israel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Matemáticas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías (CUCEI), Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)


    By means of a combined use of the type Ia supernovae and H(z) data tests, together with the study of the asymptotic properties in the equivalent phase space — through the use of the dynamical systems tools — we demonstrate that the bulk viscous matter-dominated scenario is not a good model to explain the accepted cosmological paradigm, at least, under the parametrization of bulk viscosity considered in this paper. The main objection against such scenarios is the absence of conventional radiation and matter-dominated critical points in the phase space of the model. This entails that radiation and matter dominance are not generic solutions of the cosmological equations, so that these stages can be implemented only by means of unique and very specific initial conditions, i. e., of very unstable particular solutions. Such a behavior is in marked contradiction with the accepted cosmological paradigm which requires of an earlier stage dominated by relativistic species, followed by a period of conventional non-relativistic matter domination, during which the cosmic structure we see was formed. Also, we found that the bulk viscosity is positive just until very late times in the cosmic evolution, around z < 1. For earlier epochs it is negative, been in tension with the local second law of thermodynamics.

  8. Shear Viscous Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films (United States)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra


    Fluids that exhibit Newtonian response at the macroscale can display interesting deviations at the nanoscale caused by internal fluid microstructure or conformational entropy reduction near an adjacent solid boundary. Such deviations signal the breakdown of the continuum and isotropic fluid approximations at molecular length scales. These effects are particularly pronounced near the interface separating a liquid film from a supporting solid substrate where molecular layering in the fluid can result in inhomogeneity in the shear viscosity. Here we describe ellipsometric measurements of the surface deformation of non-volatile liquid nanofilms subject to a constant interfacial shear stress. For simple Newtonian response, the slope of the deformation can be used to extract the value of the shear viscosity in ultrathin films, which in our experiments range from 2 - 200 nm in thickness. For complex films, we observe deviations from linear deformation which require augmentation of the analytic model normally used to describe the viscous response. These findings may be helpful for improved parametrization of the shear response of supported free surface films as well as course grained models for nanofluidic applications. Support from the Fred and Jean Felberg and Winifred and Robert Gardner Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Plasmoid Instabilities Mediated Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulent Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-min [Princeton University; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    After some introductory remarks on fast reconnection in resistive MHD due to plasmoid instability, oblique tearing modes in 3D, and previous studies on 3D turbulent reconnection, the subject is presented under the following topics: 3D simulation setup, time evolution of the 3D simulation, comparison with Sweet-Parker and 2D plasmoid reconnection, and diagnostics of the turbulent state (decomposition of mean fields and fluctuations, power spectra of energy fluctuations, structure function and eddy anisotropy with respect to local magnetic field). Three primary conclusions were reached: (1) The results suggest that 3D plasmoid instabilities can lead to self-generated turbulent reconnection (evidence of energy cascade and development of inertial range, energy fluctuations preferentially align with the local magnetic field, which is one of the characteristics of MHD turbulence); (2) The turbulence is highly inhomogeneous, due to the presence of magnetic shear and outflow jets (conventional MHD turbulence theories or phenomenologies may not be applicable – e.g. scale-dependent anisotropy as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar is not found); (3) 3D turbulent reconnection is different from 2D plasmoid-dominated reconnection in many aspects. However, in fully developed state, reconnection rates in 2D and 3D are comparable — this result needs to be further checked in higher S.

  10. Response Modification Factors for Reinforced Concrete Structures Equipped with Viscous Damper Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heshmatollah Abdi; Farzad Hejazi; Mohd Saleh Jaafar; Izian Binti Abd Karim


    ...s. Most seismic design codes lead to reduced loads. Nevertheless, an extensive review of related literature indicates that the effect of viscous dampers on the response modification factor is no longer considered...

  11. Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Viscous Behaviour of All-Oil Drilling Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hermoso, J; Martínez-Boza, F; Gallegos, C


    .... Drilling fluid viscous flow characterization was performed with a controlled-stress rheometer, using both conventional coaxial cylinder and non-conventional geometries for High Pressure/High Temperature (HPHT) measurements...

  12. Analysis of the Thermo-Viscous Effect on Friction and Energy Dissipation in Oil Lubricated Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.


    on an asymptotic approximation of the laminar lubrication thermal field at low reduced Peclet and Brinkman number, where viscosity is included as a function of temperature. The asymptotic series is truncated at first order and used to derive an expression of the viscous friction on a sliding surface. This reveal...... an influence from the surface temperature gradient on the viscous friction, which id not revealed when applying classical isothermal analysis. The significance of the thermo-viscous effect on friction and energy dissipation is analyzed analytically in order to provide a qualitative insight to the relation...... investigations, due to computational effort, whereby analytical research in loss mechanisms still have certain advantages. In this paper, the thermo-viscous effect of a lubricant is included in an analytical study of the friction and energy dissipation of oil hydraulic thin-films. This analytical study is based...

  13. On the global regularity of three dimensional density patch for inhomogeneous incompressible viscous flow


    Liao, Xian; Liu, Yanlin


    The present work is devoted to proving that the boundary regularity of the three dimensional density patch persists by time evolution for inhomogeneous incompressible viscous flow, with some smallness condition on the initial velocity.

  14. Effects of gel properties produced by chemical reactions on viscous fingering (United States)

    Ujiie, Tomohiro; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Ban, Mitsumasa; Iwata, Shuichi; Kato, Yoshihito; Tada, Yutaka


    We have experimentally investigated viscous fingering with chemical reaction producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, xthantan gum (XG) solution and the ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. For high concentration of ferric ion, viscous fingering pattern was changed into spiral pattern in the former system, whereas into fracture pattern in the latter system. We consider that the difference in the change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We have found that the gel in the former case is more elastic. Furthermore, we have discussed the relationship between the measured rheological properties and the observed spiral or fracturing patterns.

  15. Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...

  16. Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Siddhartha


    It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re<<1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this letter, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such "viscous liquid" state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand an external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions.

  17. A Boundary Control Problem for the Viscous Cahn–Hilliard Equation with Dynamic Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colli, Pierluigi, E-mail:; Gilardi, Gianni, E-mail: [Universitá di Pavia and Research Associate at the IMATI – C.N.R. PAVIA, Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Casorati” (Italy); Sprekels, Jürgen, E-mail: [Weierstrass Institute (Germany)


    A boundary control problem for the viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with possibly singular potentials and dynamic boundary conditions is studied and first order necessary conditions for optimality are proved.

  18. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed by ResearchSouth are: 1) a robust method to automatically insert high quality anisotropic prismatic (viscous boundary layer) cells into any...

  19. RotCFD: A Viscous Design Tool for Advanced Configurations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The incorporation of viscous analysis in design is vital for a complete understanding of aerodynamic problems. This proposal offers to develop and integrate with...

  20. Thermal convection in Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid in porous medium in hydromagnetics (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Kango, S. K.


    The thermal instability of a layer of Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid in porous medium acted on by a uniform magnetic field is considered. For stationary convection, Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The magnetic field is found to have stabilizing effect whereas medium permeability has destabilizing effect. The magnetic field introduces oscillatory modes in the system, A sufficient condition for the non-existence of overstability is also obtained.

  1. Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Fluids in Hydromagnetics (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Kumar, P.


    The thermal instability of a layer of Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid acted on by a uniform vertical magnetic field is considered. For stationary convection, a Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The magnetic field has a stabilizing effect. It is found that the presence of a magnetic field introduces oscillatory modes which were non-existent in its absence. The sufficient condition for the non-existence of overstability is also obtained.

  2. Effect of Rotation on Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Fluid (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Kumar, P.


    The thermal instability of a layer of Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid acted on by a uniform rotation is considered. For stationary convection, a Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. It is found that rotation has a stabilizing effect and introduces oscillatory modes in the system. The visco-elasticity also introduces oscillatory modes in the system. A suffi-cient condition for the non-existence of overstability is also obtained.

  3. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint


    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Denoix; Serteyn, Didier


    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experiment...

  4. [Hemorheology and acute in vivo changes in non-viscous serum factors]. (United States)

    Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Sciacca, V; Caravaggio, V


    During research into a real model permitting study of the rheological effect of serum constituents without viscous power, the viscous features of blood and plasma and erythrocyte deformability and aggregability were evaluated before and after dialysis in relation to variables acutely modified by therapy. Interdependence with certain serum factors often considered responsible for rheological changes in various pathologies after maximum alteration and, in the short term in the same subject, under normal conditions were controlled.

  5. Some Inhomogeneous Magnetized Viscous-Fluid Cosmological Models with Varying Λ (United States)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar; Jotania, Kanti R.


    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous-fluid cosmological models with electromagnetic field are obtained. To get a solution a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. Without assuming any ad hoc law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. The behaviour of the electromagnetic field tensor together with some physical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  6. Fully developed magnetohydrodynamic flows in rectangular ducts with insulating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molokov, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF)]|[Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Projekt Kernfusion; Shishko, A. [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (Latvia). Inst. Fiziki


    In the first part the effect of magnetic field inclination on the flow structure and the pressure drop is considered. The duct walls are insulating. An asymptotic solution to the problem at high Hartmann numbers is obtained. The results show that for a square duct the increase of the pressure gradient due to the field inclination is negligible (less than 10% for any angle). For blanket relevant values of inclination of up to 10 the deviation of the velocity profile from the slug profile is insignificant. The second part studies the flow in a duct with insulating walls parallel to the magnetic field, while the Hartmann walls are covered by an insulating coating. A new type of the boundary condition is derived, which takes into account finite coating resistance. The effect of the latter on the flow characteristics is studied. An exact solution to the problem is obtained and several approximate formulas for the pressure drop at high Hartmann numbers are presented. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] In ersten Teil wird der Einfluss der Magnetfeldneigung auf die Stroemungsform und den Druckverlust betrachtet. Die Kanalwaende sind isoliert. Fuer grosse Hartmann-Zahlen wird eine asymptotische Loesung des Problems hergeleitet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass fuer einen quadratischen Kanal die Erhoehung des Druckverlusts aufgrund der Magnetfeldneigung vernachlaessigbar ist (weniger als 10% fuer beliebige Winkel). Fuer blanket-relevante Neigungen bis 10 ist die Abweichung des Geschwindigkeitsprofils vom kolbenfoermigen Profil nur unbedeutend. Im zweiten Teil wird eine Stroemung in einem Kanal untersucht, dessen Waende parallel zum Magnetfeld isoliert sind, waehrend die Hartmann-Waende mit einer Isolationsschicht ueberzogen sind. Es wird eine neue Randbedingung hergeleitet, die einen endlichen Widerstand der Beschichtung beruecksichtigt. Ihr Einfluss auf die Stroemungsformen wird untersucht. Es wird eine exakte Loesung des Problems entwickelt. Fuer grosse Hartmann-Zahlen werden mehrere

  7. Viscous heating in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: implications for magma flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available Viscous heating plays an important role in the dynamics of fluids with strongly temperature-dependent viscosity because of the coupling between the energy and momentum equations. The heat generated by viscous friction produces a local temperature increase near the tube walls with a consequent decrease of the viscosity which may dramatically change the temperature and velocity profiles. These processes are mainly controlled by the Peclét number, the Nahme number, the flow rate and the thermal boundary conditions. The problem of viscous heating in fluids was investigated in the past for its practical interest in the polymer industry, and was invoked to explain some rheological behaviours of silicate melts, but was not completely applied to study magma flows. In this paper we focus on the thermal and mechanical effects caused by viscous heating in tubes of finite lengths. We find that in magma flows at high Nahme number and typical flow rates, viscous heating is responsible for the evolution from Poiseuille flow, with a uniform temperature distribution at the inlet, to a plug flow with a hotter layer near the walls. When the temperature gradients  induced by viscous heating are very pronounced, local instabilities may occur and the triggering of secondary flows is possible. For completeness, this paper also describes magma flow in infinitely long tubes both at steady state and in transient phase.

  8. Viscous drops bounce faster: prompt tumbling-rebound from a sublimating slope (United States)

    Antonini, Carlo; Jung, Stefan; Wetzel, Andreas; Heer, Emmanuel; Schoch, Philippe; Mazloomi, M. Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya; Marengo, Marco; Poulikakos, Dimos


    We discovered a new drop rebound regime, characteristic of highly viscous liquids impacting onto tilted sublimating surfaces. By focusing on non-axisymmetric impact conditions at increasing viscosity, we demonstrate that low viscous drops show a ``slide, spread, recoil and rebound'' behavior, whereas viscous drops exhibit a ``prompt tumbling-rebound'' behavior. As such, viscous glycerol drops surprisingly rebound faster than three orders of magnitude less viscous water drops. This is made possible by a small conversion of translational to rotational kinetic energy, at non-axisymmetric impact conditions, as also confirmed by additional Lattice Boltzmann simulations: a rapid transition of the internal angular velocity prior to rebound to a constant value, as in a tumbling solid body, promotes a rapid rebound of more viscous drops, which are capable to rebound without recoiling. By studying drop impact dynamics, we explore the drop behavior in contactless and frictionless conditions, and identify the Ohnesorge number as the primary parameter to predict the transition between different impact regimes on tilted sublimating slopes, with tumbling observed for Ohnesorge numbers higher than unity.

  9. Influence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on MHD bio-convection flow over a porous wedge in the presence of nanoparticles and gyrotactic microorganisms. (United States)

    Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef


    The flow over a porous wedge, in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating, has been investigated. The wedge is assumed to be saturated with nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganisms. For the flow, magneto-hydrodynamic effects are also taken into consideration. The problem is formulated by using the passive control model. The partial differential equations, governing the flow, are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing some suitable similarity transformations. A numerical scheme, called Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, has been used to obtain the local similarity solutions for the system. Variations in the velocity, temperature, concentration and motile micro-organisms density profiles are highlighted with the help of graphs. The expressions for skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number and motile micro-organisms density number are obtained and plotted accordingly. For the validity of the obtained results, a comparison with already existing results (special cases) is also presented. The magnetic field increases the velocity of the fluid. Injection at the walls can be used to reduce the velocity boundary layer thickness. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be reduced by using the magnetic field and the suction at the wall. The motile microorganisms density profile is an increasing function of the bioconvection Pecket number and bioconvection constant. The same is a decreasing function of m, M and Le. The skin friction coefficient increases with increasing m and [Formula: see text]. Nusselt number and the density number of motile microorganisms are higher for the case of suction as compared to the injection case. The density number of motile microorganisms is an increasing function for all the involved parameters.

  10. Calculation of Viscous Effects on Ship Wave Resistance Using Axisymmetric Boundary Layer Approaches (United States)


    the pressure coefficient and po is the ambient pressure far from the where Cp = ip-po)/ body. There are well-known numerical procedures, such as the...Partir de la de Cuerpos de Revolucion Equivalentes," Ingenieria Naval, Vol. 44, No. 489, pp. 147-161, March 1976. 39. Joubert, P.N. and Matheson, N

  11. Viscous free-surface flows on rotating elliptical cylinders (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish


    The flow of liquid films on rotating discrete objects having complicated cross sections is encountered in coating processes for a broad variety of products. To advance fundamental understanding of this problem, we study viscous free-surface flows on rotating elliptical cylinders by solving the governing equations in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method. Results of our simulations agree well with Hunt's maximum-load condition [Hunt, Numer. Methods Partial Differ. Eqs. 24, 1094 (2008), 10.1002/num.20307], which was obtained in the absence of surface tension and inertia. The simulations are also used to track the transient behavior of the free surface. For O (1 ) cylinder aspect ratios, cylinder rotation results in a droplike liquid bulge hanging on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. This bulge shrinks in size due to surface tension provided that the liquid load is smaller than a critical value, leaving a relatively smooth coating on the cylinder. A decrease in cylinder aspect ratio leads to larger gradients in film thickness, but enhances the rate of bulge shrinkage and thus shortens the time required to obtain a smooth coating. Moreover, with a suitably chosen time-dependent rotation rate, more liquid can be supported by the cylinder relative to the constant-rotation-rate case. For cylinders with even smaller aspect ratios, film rupture and liquid shedding may occur over the cylinder tips, so simultaneous drying and rotation along with the introduction of Marangoni stresses will likely be especially important for obtaining a smooth coating.

  12. Wrinkling instability of an inhomogeneously stretched viscous sheet (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.


    Motivated by the redrawing of hot glass into thin sheets, we investigate the shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet that is inhomogeneously stretched in an imposed nonuniform temperature field. We first determine the associated base flow by solving the long-time-scale stretching flow of a flat sheet as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the normalized stretching velocity α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β . This allows us to determine the conditions for the onset of an out-of-plane wrinkling instability stated in terms of an eigenvalue problem for a linear partial differential equation governing the displacement of the midsurface of the sheet. We show that the sheet can become unstable in two regions that are upstream and downstream of the heating zone where the minimum in-plane stress is negative. This yields the shape and growth rates of the most unstable buckling mode in both regions for various values of the stretching velocity and heating zone width. A transition from stationary to oscillatory unstable modes is found in the upstream region with increasing β , while the downstream region is always stationary. We show that the wrinkling instability can be entirely suppressed when the surface tension is large enough relative to the magnitude of the in-plane stress. Finally, we present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that result in a required outlet sheet thickness upon stretching while simultaneously minimizing or suppressing the out-of-plane buckling, a result that is relevant for the glass redraw method used to create ultrathin glass sheets.

  13. Dust-driven viscous ring-instability in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Dullemond, C. P.; Penzlin, A. B. T.


    Protoplanetary disks often appear as multiple concentric rings in dust continuum emission maps and scattered light images. These features are often associated with possible young planets in these disks. Many non-planetary explanations have also been suggested, including snow lines, dead zones and secular gravitational instabilities in the dust. In this paper we suggest another potential origin. The presence of copious amounts of dust tends to strongly reduce the conductivity of the gas, thereby inhibiting the magneto-rotational instability, and thus reducing the turbulence in the disk. From viscous disk theory it is known that a disk tends to increase its surface density in regions where the viscosity (i.e. turbulence) is low. Local maxima in the gas pressure tend to attract dust through radial drift, increasing the dust content even more. We have investigated mathematically if this could potentially lead to a feedback loop in which a perturbation in the dust surface density could perturb the gas surface density, leading to increased dust drift and thus amplification of the dust perturbation and, as a consequence, the gas perturbation. We find that this is indeed possible, even for moderately small dust grain sizes, which drift less efficiently, but which are more likely to affect the gas ionization degree. We speculate that this instability could be triggered by the small dust population initially, and when the local pressure maxima are strong enough, the larger dust grains get trapped and lead to the familiar ring-like shapes. We also discuss the many uncertainties and limitations of this model.

  14. Feedbacks between microphysics and photochemical aging in viscous aerosol (United States)

    Dou, Jing; Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Alpert, Peter A.; Ammann, Markus; Peter, Thomas; Krieger, Ulrich K.


    Fe(III)-citrate complex photochemistry, which plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in lower troposphere, has been widely recognized in both solution and solid states. It can get excited by light below about 500 nm, inducing the oxidation of carboxylate ligands and the production of peroxides (e.g., OH•, HO2•), which have a significant impact on the climate, air quality and health. Recently, there is literature reporting that aqueous aerosol particles may attain highly viscous, semi-solid or even glassy physical states under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. However, systematic studies on the effect of high viscosity on photochemical processes are scarce. In this research, mass and size changes of a single, aqueous Fe(III)-citrate/citric acid particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) are tracked during photochemical processing. We observe an overall mass loss during photochemical processing due to evaporation of volatile (e.g., CO2) and semi-volatile (e.g., ketones) compounds. It is known that relative humidity and temperature strongly effects the viscosity of citric acid. Hence, under light intensities large enough not limiting photochemical processing (at a wavelength of either 375 nm or 473 nm), the quasi-steady state evaporation rate in our experiments depends on relative humidity and temperature. The same holds true for the characteristic time scale for reaching thermodynamic equilibrium after switching off the light source. We are focusing on the high viscosity case (i.e., reduced molecular mobility and low water content), which slows down the transport of products but can also affect chemical reaction rates (e.g., initial absorption process, charge and energy transfer). Data are compared to kinetic modeling and diffusivities for semi-volatile compounds are estimated aiming at a more detailed understanding of the feedbacks between microphysics and photochemical aging.

  15. Local study of helical magnetorotational instability in viscous Keplerian disks (United States)

    MahdaviGharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.


    In this paper, regarding the recent detection of significant azimuthal magnetic field in some accretion disks such as protostellar (Donati et al. in Nature 438:466, 2005), the multi-fluid model has been employed to analysis the stability of Keplerian rotational viscous dusty plasma system in a current-free helical magnetic field structure. Using the fluid-Maxwell equations, the general dispersion relation of the excited modes in the system has been obtained by applying the local approximation method in the linear perturbation theory. The typical numerical analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the high-frequency regime shows that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component in Keplerian flow has a considerable role in the stability conditions of the system. It also shows that the magnetic field helicity has a stabilization role against the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the system due to contraction of the unstable wavelength region and decreasing the maximum growth rate of the instability. In this sense, the stabilization role of the viscosity term is more considerable for HMRI (instability in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component) than the corresponding MRI (instability in the absence of azimuthal magnetic field component). Moreover, considering the discovered azimuthal magnetic field in these systems, the MRI can be arisen in the over-all range of dust grains construction values in contract with traditional MRI. This investigation can greatly contribute to better understanding the physics of some astrophysical phenomena, such as the main source of turbulence and angular momentum transport in protostellar and the other sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks, where the azimuthal magnetic field component in these systems can play a significant role.

  16. Dynamics of multicomponent vesicles in a viscous fluid (United States)

    Sohn, Jin Sun; Tseng, Yu-Hau; Li, Shuwang; Voigt, Axel; Lowengrub, John S.


    We develop and investigate numerically a thermodynamically consistent model of two-dimensional multicomponent vesicles in an incompressible viscous fluid. The model is derived using an energy variation approach that accounts for different lipid surface phases, the excess energy (line energy) associated with surface phase domain boundaries, bending energy, spontaneous curvature, local inextensibility and fluid flow via the Stokes equations. The equations are high-order (fourth order) nonlinear and nonlocal due to incompressibil-ity of the fluid and the local inextensibility of the vesicle membrane. To solve the equations numerically, we develop a nonstiff, pseudo-spectral boundary integral method that relies on an analysis of the equations at small scales. The algorithm is closely related to that developed very recently by Veerapaneni et al. [81] for homogeneous vesicles although we use a different and more efficient time stepping algorithm and a reformulation of the inextensibility equation. We present simulations of multicomponent vesicles in an initially quiescent fluid and investigate the effect of varying the average surface concentration of an initially unstable mixture of lipid phases. The phases then redistribute and alter the morphology of the vesicle and its dynamics. When an applied shear is introduced, an initially elliptical vesicle tank-treads and attains a steady shape and surface phase distribution. A sufficiently elongated vesicle tumbles and the presence of different surface phases with different bending stiffnesses and spontaneous curvatures yields a complex evolution of the vesicle morphology as the vesicle bends in regions where the bending stiffness and spontaneous curvature are small. PMID:20808718


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Departamento de Geofísica, Rua do Matão, 1226-Cidade Universitária São Paulo-SP 05508-090 (Brazil)


    The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (∼11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from –35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.

  18. Magnetic field variation caused by rotational speed change in a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. (United States)

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Hamano, Yozo


    We have performed numerical magnetohydrodynamic dynamo simulations in a spherical shell with rotational speed or length-of-day (LOD) variation, which is motivated by correlations between geomagnetic field and climatic variations with ice and non-ice ages. The results show that LOD variation leads to magnetic field variation whose amplitude is considerably larger than that of LOD variation. The heat flux at the outer sphere and the zonal flow also change. The mechanism of the magnetic field variation due to LOD variation is also found. The keys are changes of dynamo activity and Joule heating.

  19. Analytical Investigation of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow over a Nonlinear Porous Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle Mabood


    Full Text Available We investigated the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow over a nonlinear porous stretching sheet with the help of semianalytical method known as optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM. The effects of different parameters on fluid flow are investigated and discussed. The obtained results are compared with numerical Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth-order method. It is found that the OHAM solution agrees well with numerical as well as published data for different assigned values of parameters; this thus indicates the feasibility of the proposed method (OHAM.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic perturbations arising in metallic conductors under the action of the discharge current (United States)

    Surkaev, A. L.


    The presence of radial and axial mechanical perturbations in metallic conductors (cylinders and flat plates) arising under the action of a nanosecond discharge current are proved experimentally. The amplitude of the mechanical perturbations in solid-state conductors oscillates. The radial component of the mechanical perturbation should be considered as a reason for a magnetohydrodynamic instability with mode m = 0 and, accordingly, for the formation of strata at the electrical explosion of the conductor. Data for the electrical explosion of the metallic cylindrical conductor and flat metal sheet (foil) are presented.