The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)
1996-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Langlois, William E
2014-01-01
Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." - from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Majidi
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The flow field in volute and circular casings interacting with a centrifugal impeller is obtained by numerical analysis. In the present study, effects of the volute and circular casings on the flow pattern have been investigated by successively combining a volute casing and a circular casing with a single centrifugal impeller. The numerical calculations are carried out with a multiple frame of reference to predict the flow field inside the entire impeller and casings. The impeller flow field is solved in a rotating frame and the flow field in the casings in a stationary frame. The static pressure and velocity in the casing and impeller, and the static pressures and secondary velocity vectors at several cross-sectional planes of the casings are calculated. The calculations show that the curvature of the casings creates pressure gradients that cause vortices at cross-sectional planes of the casings.
Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows
Kwak, Dochan
2011-01-01
This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...
Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Method for Wing Calculations
Coenen, Edith G.M.; Veldman, Arthur E.P.; Patrianakos, George
2000-01-01
A quasi-simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling method is developed for the calculation of three-dimensional steady incompressible flow over transport wing configurations. The external inviscid flow is computed with a constant-potential (Dirichlet) panel method, constructed from a constant source and
Crowell, Peter G.
1990-07-01
A 3D Computer code (TRIMIX) was developed to predict the influence of axial vorticity and diffusional velocity model on the rate of mixing between a primary flow and an injected secondary flow. Computational results are presented for the gain and iodine dissociation in an oxygen/iodine laser and compared with results obtained using the 1D premixed approximation. The premixed model significantly underpredicts laser performance; and the binary diffusion model and the zero vorticity approximation both lead to large error in the predicted gain.
The application of preconditioning in viscous flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Y.H. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)); Merkle, C.L. (The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))
1993-04-01
A time-derivative preconditioning algorithm that is effective over a wide range of flow conditions from inviscid to very diffusive flows and from low speed to supersonic flows has been developed. The algorithm uses a preconditioning matrix that introduces well-conditioned eigen values while simultaneously avoiding nonphysical time reversals for viscous flows. The resulting algorithm also provides a mechanism for controlling the inviscid and viscous time step parameters at very diffusive flows, thereby ensuring rapid convergence for very viscous flows as well as for inviscid flows. Computational capabilities are demonstrated through computation of a wide variety of problems. Convergence rates are shown to be accelerated by as much as two orders of magnitudes, while providing solutions that are identical to those obtained without preconditioning method. 26 refs., 21 figs.
Paramecia swimming in viscous flow
Zhang, P.; Jana, S.; Giarra, M.; Vlachos, P. P.; Jung, S.
2015-12-01
Ciliates like Paramecia exhibit fore-aft asymmetry in their body shapes, and preferentially swim in the direction of the slender anterior rather than the wider posterior. However, the physical reasons for this preference are not well understood. In this work, we propose that specific features of the fluid flow around swimming Paramecia confer some energetic advantage to the preferred swimming direction. Therefore, we seek to understand the effects of body asymmetry and swimming direction on the efficiency of swimming and the flux of fluid into the cilia layer (and thus of food into the oral groove), which we assumed to be primary factors in the energy budgets of these organisms. To this end, we combined numerical techniques (the boundary element method) and laboratory experiments (micro particle image velocimetry) to develop a quantitative model of the flow around a Paramecium and investigate the effect of the body shape on the velocity fields, as well as on the swimming and feeding behaviors. Both simulation and experimental results show that velocity fields exhibit fore-aft asymmetry. Moreover, the shape asymmetry revealed an increase of the fluid flux into the cilia layer compared to symmetric body shapes. Under the assumption that cilia fluid intake and feeding efficiency are primary factors in the energy budgets of Paramecia, our model predicts that the anterior swimming direction is energetically favorable to the posterior swimming direction.
Viscous flows the practical use of theory
Brenner, Howard
1988-01-01
Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.
Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare
2017-01-01
Fluid-structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The se...
Calculation of a Helicopter Rotor in Hover by Viscous-Inviscid Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1995-01-01
A viscous inviscid interaction model has been developed for the calculation of steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows. The model is validfor two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows alike. We use a fully three-dimensional boundary element method as inviscid flow model, and a two-dimensional or ...
Dragging cylinders in slow viscous flows
Luca, Elena; Crowdy, Darren
2015-11-01
The so-called ``dragging problem'' in slow viscous fluids is an important basic flow with many applications. In two dimensions, the Stokes paradox means there is no solution to the dragging problem for a cylinder in free space. The presence of walls changes this; the solutions exist, but are not easy to find without purely numerical methods. This talk describes new ``transform methods'' that produce convenient, semi-analytical solutions to dragging problems for cylinders in various geometries. We apply the techniques to low-Reynolds-number swimming where dragging problem solutions can be combined with the reciprocal theorem to compute swimmer dynamics in confined domains.
Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.
Thermal stability for a reactive viscous flow in a slab
Okoya, S S
2002-01-01
The paper deals with the effect of dimensionless non - Newtonian coefficient on the thermal stability of a reactive viscous liquid in steady flow between parallel heated plates. It is assumed that the liquid is symmetrically heated and the flow fully developed. Approximate analytical solution is obtained for the velocity of the flow and the criterion for which this solution is valid is determined. After the velocity distribution is known, the temperature distribution may be calculated. Criticality and disappearance of criticality (transition values) are obtained in the following cases: (i) Bimolecular (ii) Arrhenius and (iii) Sensitized temperature dependence. We have observed that nonlinear effect from velocity and temperature fields introduced decaying for the transitional values of the dimensionless central temperature. Other effects of this nonlinearity are reported. We also give results for the plane - Couette flow problem. The results help to enhance understanding of the interplay between Newtonian and ...
Capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows
Moore, M. R.
2014-02-21
Inspired by recent calculations by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, p.Â 264506) relating to droplet impact, this paper presents an analysis of the perturbations to the free surface caused by small surface tension and viscosity in steady Helmholtz flows. In particular, we identify the regimes in which appreciable vorticity can be shed from the boundary layer to the bulk flow. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R.
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
Role of viscous dissipation in the dynamics of lava flows with power-law rheology
Piombo, A.; Dragoni, M.
2011-09-01
We model a lava flow as a one-dimensional flow of a pseudoplastic fluid with viscous dissipation. The flow is horizontally unbounded and is driven downslope by the gravity force. We consider a power-law constitutive equation and we take into account the temperature dependence of the rheological parameters. Given an effusion rate and an initial temperature at the eruption vent, the flow is assumed to cool down by heat radiation. We calculate the heat produced by viscous dissipation as a function of lava temperature and effusion rate. The cooling rate is calculated as a function of the surface temperature and flow rate. Viscous dissipation reduces the cooling rate by an amount which is independent of flow rate. We evaluate the effect of viscous dissipation on the flow thickness and velocity. The effect of dissipation is to decrease the flow thickness and to increase the flow velocity. The effect on flow thickness is greater for smaller flow rates, while the effect on velocity is greater for larger effusion rates. In principle, the model provides a method for estimating the flow rate from in-field measurements of distances and temperatures.
Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...
Existence of a secondary flow for a temperature dependent viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We model a viscous fluid flowing between parallel plates. The viscosity depends on temperature. We investigate the properties of the velocity and we show that the temperature and velocity fields have two solutions. The existence of two velocity solutions is new. This means that there exist secondary flows. Journal of the ...
Accounting For Compressibility In Viscous Flow In Pipes
Steinle, Frank W.; Gee, Ken; Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1991-01-01
Method developed to account for effects of compressibility in viscous flows through long, circular pipes of uniform diameter. Based on approximation of variations in density and velocity across pipe cross section by profile equations developed for boundary-layer flow between flat plates.
Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Alinejad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.
Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces
Mehmood, Ahmer
2017-01-01
This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.
Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in close...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....
Theory of viscous flow in curved shallow channels
De Vriend, H.J.
1972-01-01
The axisymmetrical, viscous flow in curved channels is considered in the case where the hydraulic radius of the cross-section is small with respect to the average radius of curvature of the bend. First Ananyan's theory on this subject is reconsidered, using a regular perturbation method. The results
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
An update on projection methods for transient incompressible viscous flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gresho, P.M.; Chan, S.T.
1995-07-01
Introduced in 1990 was the biharmonic equation (for the pressure) and the concomitant biharmonic miracle when transient incompressible viscous flow is solved approximately by a projection method. Herein is introduced the biharmonic catastrophe that sometimes occurs with these same projection methods.
Numerical solution of boundary layer MHD flow with viscous dissipation.
Mishra, S R; Jena, S
2014-01-01
The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper.
Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild
1998-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....
Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid
Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.
2013-09-01
A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.
Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles
Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.
2017-04-01
Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VISCOUS FLOW AROUND A TANKER MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Farkas
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, numerical simulation of the viscous flow around a tanker model was carried out utilizing software package STAR-CCM+. A mathematical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid method for describing the motion of two-phase media are given. Necessary boundary conditions for the mathematical model and the method of discretization are described as well. The influence of the grid density on the numerical results for the total resistance of tanker model was investigated using three different grid densities. Two different types of k-ε turbulence model are implemented and the deviations in numerical results are highlighted. Results for total resistance of tanker model, obtained by numerical simulations, were validated against experimental results. Experiments were performed in the towing tank of Brodarski Institut in Zagreb for wide range of Froude numbers. It has been shown that for all three grid densities and both types of k-ε turbulence model satisfactory agreement with experimental results can be achieved for whole range of Froude numbers. The scale effects are investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics study for the same tanker model in three different scales. Numerically calculated scale effects on the wave resistance are reviewed.
European Research Program on Viscous Flows
1980-11-01
Marseille (item 1.11) or from Alziary de Roquefort and Bonnet, LDF, Poitiers, (items 1.15 and 1.42). No response for the second year was received from...flows, is the continuing investigation of Roquefort and Bonnet, CEAT, Poitiers (item 7.16). It is reported that: "Space-time correlation are made with...corps de revolution profile. Breve information la Recherche Aerospatiale No.1980-3 7.16a Th.A. de Roquefort Caracterisation des structure dans un
Flow of an elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of slowly varying curvature.
Sarin, V B
1993-03-01
Curvature forms an important feature of thoracic aorta and this paper deals with the flow of an idealized elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of circular cross-section and slowly varying curvature, under a pressure gradient. The flow is assumed to be steady and at low Reynolds numbers. By using the series expansion method of Dean (Phil Mag 4 (1927) 208-223; Phil Mag 5 (1928) 673-693) in powers of a parameter L, which can be considered as the square of ratio of the centrifugal force induced by the circular motion of the fluid to the viscous force, it is shown that in a tube of increasing curvature, there will be delay in setting up of the secondary motion. The wall shear stress, an important parameter in physiological flows, is calculated. The flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube of circular cross section is discussed, as a particular case.
Hydroelastic response and stability of a hydrofoil in viscous flow
Ducoin, Antoine; Young, Yin L.
2013-04-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydroelastic response and stability of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow. The focus is on viscous effects, such as laminar to turbulent transition and stall, on the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) response and hydroelastic stability of flexible hydrofoils. The numerical approach is based on the coupling between a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver, CFX, and a simple two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) system that simulates the tip section bend and twist deformations of a cantelivered, rectangular hydrofoil. The hydrodynamic loading is assumed to be uniform in the spanwise direction, and the hydrofoil is assumed to undergo bend and twist deformation along the spanwise direction only. The CFD solver is first validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of the lift, drag, and moment coefficients of a rigid NACA0012 hydrofoil over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The coupled viscous FSI solver is then validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of (i) the lift coefficient of a rigid (stainless steel) NACA66 hydrofoil and (ii) the tip section displacement of a flexible (POM Polyacetate) NACA66 hydrofoil with the same initial (un-deformed) geometry. The hydrodynamic responses of the rigid and flexible NACA66 hydrodfoils are compared to identify FSI effects in viscous flow, including transition, stall, and static divergence. The results show that the flexible hydrofoil undergoes a clockwise twist deformation because the center of pressure is to the left of the elastic axis (center of twist), which increases the effective angle of attack and moves the center of pressure toward the leading edge; the resultant increase in lift and moment will further increase the effective angle of attack until the twist capacity is exceeded, i.e. static divergence or material failure occurs. The results show that viscous effects tend to
Viscous and Gravitational Fingering in Multiphase Compositional and Compressible Flow
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-01-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for 1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and 2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, w...
Parallel discrete vortex methods for viscous flow simulation
Takeda, Kenji
In this thesis a parallel discrete vortex method is developed in order to investigate the long-time behaviour of bluff body wakes. The method is based on inviscid theory, and its extension to include viscous effects is a far from trivial problem. In this work four grid-free viscous models are directly compared to assess their accuracy and efficiency. The random walk, diffusion velocity, corrected core-spreading and vorticity redistribution methods are compared for simulating unbounded fluid flows, and for flows past an impulsively started cylinder at Reynolds numbers between 550 and 9500. The code uses a common core, so that the only free parameters are those directly related to the viscous models. The vorticity redistribution method encompasses all of the advantages of a purely Lagrangian method and incorporates a dynamic regridding scheme to maintain accurate discretisation of the vorticity field. This is used to simulate long-time flow past an impulsively started cylinder for Reynolds numbers 100, 150 and 1000. The code is fully parallel and achieves good speedup on both commodity and proprietary supercomputer systems. At Reynolds numbers below 150 the breakdown of the primary vortex street has been simulated. Results reveal a merging process, causing relaxation to a parallel shear flow. This itself sheds vortices, creating a secondary wake of increased wavelength. At Reynolds number 1000 the cylinder wake becomes chaotic, forming distinct vortex couples. These couples self-convect and can travel upstream. This has a destabilising effect on the vortex street, inducing merging, formation of tripolar and quadrupolar structures and, ultimately, spontaneous ejection of vortex couples upstream of the initial disturbance.
Flow harmonics from self-consistent particlization of a viscous fluid
Wolff, Zack; Molnar, Denes
2017-10-01
The quantitative extraction of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) properties from heavy-ion data, such as its specific shear viscosity η /s , typically requires comparison to viscous hydrodynamic or "hybrid" hydrodynamics + transport simulations. In either case, one has to convert the fluid to hadrons, yet without additional theory input the conversion is ambiguous for dissipative fluids. Here, shear viscous phase-space corrections calculated using linearized transport theory are applied in Cooper-Frye freeze-out to quantify the effects on anisotropic flow coefficients vn(pT) at the energies available at both the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Expanding upon our previous flow harmonics studies [D. Molnar and Z. Wolff, Phys. Rev. C 95, 024903 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.024903; Z. Wolff and D. Molnar, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 535, 012020 (2014), 10.1088/1742-6596/535/1/012020], we calculate pion and proton v2(pT) , v4(pT) , and v6(pT) , but here we incorporate a hadron gas that is chemically frozen below a temperature of 175 MeV and use hypersurfaces from realistic viscous hydrodynamic simulations. For additive quark model cross sections and relative phase-space corrections with p3 /2 momentum dependence rather than the quadratic Grad form, we find at moderately high transverse momentum noticeably higher v4(pT) and v6(pT) for protons than for pions. In addition, the value of η /s deduced from elliptic flow data differs by nearly 50% from the value extracted using the naive "democratic Grad" form of freeze-out distributions. To facilitate the use of the self-consistent viscous corrections calculated here in hydrodynamic and hybrid calculations, we also present convenient parametrizations of the corrections for the various hadron species.
Angular dynamics of small crystals in viscous flow
Fries, J.; Einarsson, J.; Mehlig, B.
2017-01-01
The angular dynamics of a very small ellipsoidal particle in a viscous flow decouples from its translational dynamics and the particle angular velocity is given by Jeffery's theory. It is known that cuboid particles share these properties. In the literature a special case is most frequently discussed, namely that of axisymmetric particles with a continuous rotation symmetry. Here we compute the angular dynamics of crystals that possess a discrete rotation symmetry and certain mirror symmetries but do not have a continuous rotation symmetry. We give examples of such particles that nevertheless obey Jeffery's theory. However, there are other examples where the angular dynamics is determined by a more general equation of motion.
Viscous flow and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ene Remus-Daniel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the flow and heat transfer of a horizontal sheet in a viscous fluid. The stretching rate and temperature of the sheet vary with time. The governing equations for momentum and thermal energy are reduced to ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. These equations are solved approximately by means of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM which provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation solutions and adjust convergence rigorously when necessary. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.
Diffusion and viscous flow in bulk glass forming alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartsch, A.; Zoellmer, V.; Raetzke, K. [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Meyer, A. [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Faupel, F., E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde, Technische Fakultaet, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany)
2011-06-15
Research highlights: > We measured radiotracer diffusivities of all components in a Pd{sub 43}Cu{sub 27}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} melt. > We see a vast decoupling between the diffusivity of Pd and of the smaller components at T{sub g}. > We see no decoupling between Pd diffusion and viscous flow. > The Stokes-Einstein equations holds for Pd in the hole supercooled range. > Pd forms a slow subsystem. - Abstract: We review radiotracer diffusion and isotope measurements in bulk glass forming alloys from the glassy state to the equilibrium melt and compare diffusion and viscous flow. In the glassy as well as in the deeply supercooled state below the critical temperature T{sub c}, where the mode coupling theory predicts a freezing-in of liquid-like motion, very small isotope effects indicate a highly collective hopping mechanism. Not only in the glassy state but also in the supercooled state below T{sub c} the temperature dependence of diffusion is Arrhenius-like with an effective activation enthalpy. A clear decoupling takes place between the diffusivities of the individual components of the alloys and between time scales related to diffusive transport and viscous flow. While the component decoupling is small for the smaller components a vast decoupling of more than 4 orders of magnitude is observed in Pd-Cu-Ni-P alloys between the diffusivity of the large majority component Pd and of the smaller components at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The diffusivities of all components merge close to the critical temperature T{sub c} of mode coupling theory. Above T{sub c}, the onset of liquid-like motion is directly evidenced by a gradual drop of the effective activation energy. This strongly supports the mode coupling scenario. The isotope effect measurements show atomic transport up to the equilibrium melt to be far away from the regime of uncorrelated binary collisions. For Pd, in contrast to the behavior of single component molecular glass formers, the Stokes
Slow viscous flow of two particles in a cylindrical tube
Yao, Xin; Wong, Teck Neng; Marcos, -
2015-11-01
The slow viscous flow around two particles in a cylindrical tube is obtained theoretically. We employ the Lamb's general solution based on spherical harmonics and cylindrical harmonics to solve the flow field around the particles and the flow within the tube, respectively. We compute the drag and torque coefficients of the particles which are dependent on the distance among the cylinder wall and the two particles. The hydrodynamic forces are also a function of particle velocities and background velocity. Our results are in agreement with the existing theory of a single particle traveling in the tube when the distance between the two particles increases. We found that particle-particle interactions can be neglected when the separation distance is three times larger than the sum of particles radii. Furthermore, such analysis can give us insights to understand the mechanisms of collision and aggregation of particles.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-12-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
Passive Control of Viscous Flow via Elastic Snap-Through
Gomez, Michael; Moulton, Derek E.; Vella, Dominic
2017-10-01
We demonstrate the passive control of viscous flow in a channel by using an elastic arch embedded in the flow. Depending on the fluid flux, the arch may "snap" between two states—constricting and unconstricting—that differ in hydraulic conductivity by up to an order of magnitude. We use a combination of experiments at a macroscopic scale and theory to study the constricting and unconstricting states, and determine the critical flux required to transition between them. We show that such a device may be precisely tuned for use in a range of applications, and, in particular, has potential as a passive microfluidic fuse to prevent excessive fluxes in rigid-walled channels.
Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part II: Inviscid-Viscous Coupling Scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CARDOŞ
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using the displacement surface concept is described. This modelling technique uses a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations and laminar and turbulent boundary-layer integral methods. In additional special models for transition, laminar or turbulent separation bubbles and trailing edge treatment have been selected. However, the flow is limited to small parts of trailing edge-type separation. Comparisons with experimental data and other methods are shown.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hookey, N.A. [Memorial Univ., Newfoundland (Canada)
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
Chaudhuri, A.; Jacobs, G. B.; Don, W. S.; Abbassi, H.; Mashayek, F.
2017-03-01
A spatio-temporal adaptive artificial viscosity (AV) based shock-capturing scheme is proposed for the solution of both inviscid and viscous compressible flows using a high-order parallel Discontinuous Spectral Element Method (DSEM). The artificial viscosity and artificial thermal conduction coefficients are proportional to the viscous and thermal entropy generating terms, respectively, in the viscous entropy conservation law. The magnitude of AV is limited based on the explicit stable CFL criterion, so that the stable artificial viscous time step size is greater than the convective stable time step size. To further ensure the stability of this explicit approach, an adaptive variable order exponential filter is applied, if necessary, in elements where the AV has been limited. In viscous flow computations a modified Jameson's sensor (Ducros et al., 1999 [61]) limits the AV to small values in viscous shear regions, so as to maintain a high-order resolution in smooth regions and an essentially non-oscillatory behavior near sharp gradients/shocks regions. We have performed a systematic and extensive validation of the algorithm with one-dimensional problems (inviscid moving shock and viscous shock-structure interaction), two-dimensional problems (inviscid steady and unsteady shocked flows and viscous shock-boundary layer interaction), and a three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow over a ramped cavity. These examples demonstrate that the explicit DSEM scheme with adaptive artificial viscosity terms is stable, accurate and efficient.
Quasi-Simultaneous Viscous-Inviscid Interaction for Transonic Airfoil Flow
Veldman, Arthur E.P.
2005-01-01
Following Prandtl, a viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) method is presented, where the flow field is divided into a viscous shear layer and an inviscid outer region. Their coupling is performed with the quasi-simultaneous approach, making use of an appropriately chosen interaction law. Firstly, an
Viscous free-surface flows on rotating elliptical cylinders
Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish
2017-09-01
The flow of liquid films on rotating discrete objects having complicated cross sections is encountered in coating processes for a broad variety of products. To advance fundamental understanding of this problem, we study viscous free-surface flows on rotating elliptical cylinders by solving the governing equations in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method. Results of our simulations agree well with Hunt's maximum-load condition [Hunt, Numer. Methods Partial Differ. Eqs. 24, 1094 (2008), 10.1002/num.20307], which was obtained in the absence of surface tension and inertia. The simulations are also used to track the transient behavior of the free surface. For O (1 ) cylinder aspect ratios, cylinder rotation results in a droplike liquid bulge hanging on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. This bulge shrinks in size due to surface tension provided that the liquid load is smaller than a critical value, leaving a relatively smooth coating on the cylinder. A decrease in cylinder aspect ratio leads to larger gradients in film thickness, but enhances the rate of bulge shrinkage and thus shortens the time required to obtain a smooth coating. Moreover, with a suitably chosen time-dependent rotation rate, more liquid can be supported by the cylinder relative to the constant-rotation-rate case. For cylinders with even smaller aspect ratios, film rupture and liquid shedding may occur over the cylinder tips, so simultaneous drying and rotation along with the introduction of Marangoni stresses will likely be especially important for obtaining a smooth coating.
Viscous heating in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: implications for magma flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Costa
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Viscous heating plays an important role in the dynamics of fluids with strongly temperature-dependent viscosity because of the coupling between the energy and momentum equations. The heat generated by viscous friction produces a local temperature increase near the tube walls with a consequent decrease of the viscosity which may dramatically change the temperature and velocity profiles. These processes are mainly controlled by the Peclét number, the Nahme number, the flow rate and the thermal boundary conditions. The problem of viscous heating in fluids was investigated in the past for its practical interest in the polymer industry, and was invoked to explain some rheological behaviours of silicate melts, but was not completely applied to study magma flows. In this paper we focus on the thermal and mechanical effects caused by viscous heating in tubes of finite lengths. We find that in magma flows at high Nahme number and typical flow rates, viscous heating is responsible for the evolution from Poiseuille flow, with a uniform temperature distribution at the inlet, to a plug flow with a hotter layer near the walls. When the temperature gradients induced by viscous heating are very pronounced, local instabilities may occur and the triggering of secondary flows is possible. For completeness, this paper also describes magma flow in infinitely long tubes both at steady state and in transient phase.
Measurement of viscous flow velocity and flow visualization using two magnetic resonance imagers
Boiko, A. V.; Akulov, A. E.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Cherevko, A. A.; Denisenko, N. S.; Savelov, A. A.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Khe, A. K.; Yanchenko, A. A.; Tulupov, A. A.
2017-03-01
The accuracies of measuring the velocity field using clinical and research magnetic resonance imagers are compared. The flow velocity of a fluid simulating blood in a carotid artery model connected to a programmable pump was measured. Using phase-contrast magnetic resonance tomography, the velocity distributions in the carotid artery model were obtained and compared with the analytical solution for viscous liquid flow in a cylindrical tube (Poiseuille flow). It is found that the accuracy of the velocity measurement does not depend on the field induction and spatial resolution of the imagers.
Liao, Xian; Liu, Yanlin
2016-01-01
The present work is devoted to proving that the boundary regularity of the three dimensional density patch persists by time evolution for inhomogeneous incompressible viscous flow, with some smallness condition on the initial velocity.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic solutions for the steady velocity, temperature and concentration. The parameters ...
Flow dynamical behavior and performance of a micro viscous pump with unequal inlet and outlet areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenhui Hu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The micro viscous pump is an important type of fluidic device. Optimizing the working performance of the pump is crucial for its wider application. A micro viscous pump design with unequal inlet and outlet areas is proposed in this paper. The flow field of the viscous pump is investigated using 2D laminar simulations. The mass flow rate and driving power are studied with different opening angles. The effects of the Reynolds number and the pressure load on the working performance are discussed in detail. Flow structures and vortex evolution are analyzed. With larger inlet and outlet areas, a higher mass flow rate is obtained and less driving power is achieved. A high pressure load results in a reduction in mass flow rate and an increase in driving power. Pumps with large opening angles are more susceptive to the Reynolds number and the pressure load. The adverse impact of the pressure load can be reduced by increasing the rotor speed. The vortex structure is affected by the geometric and operating parameters in the flow field. The flow dynamical behavior of the viscous pump exerts significant influence on its pumping ability. The present work gives rise to performance improvements for the micro viscous pump.
Experiment study of mud to the moving process influent about viscous debris flow along slope
Jun, JiXian; Ying, Liang; Li, Pan Hua; Qiang, OuGuo
2018-01-01
Mud is the main component of viscous debris flow. The physical model experiments of viscous debris flow were carried out through the mixing mud with different density and fixed components of coarse particles. The width, longitudinal movement distance and motion velocity were recorded by video cameras during experiment. Through viscous debris flow physical model experiments, the influence of mud to transverse width, longitudinal movement distance and motion velocity was discussed. The physical model experiment results show that the motion forms change from inviscid particle flow to viscous debris flow and to the whole mass sliding with the increase of mud density; the width and the length along the slope decrease with mud density increasing; the movement process has classified phenomena about viscous debris flow composed by different mud densities: the velocity increases rapidly with time and the change gradient is steady when the density of mud is lower than 1.413g/cm3; the movement process can be divided into two stages when the density of mud is higher than 1.413g/cm3: the movement velocity is lower and the gradient change is small in the initial stage; but in the second stage, the movement velocity increases quickly, and the gradient is higher than the first stage, and with steady value.
Effect of bubble's arrangement on the viscous torque in bubbly Taylor-Couette flow
Fokoua, G. Ndongo; Gabillet, C.; Aubert, A.; Colin, C.
2015-03-01
An experimental investigation of the interactions between bubbles, coherent motion, and viscous drag in a Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder at rest is presented. The cylinder radii ratio η is 0.91. Bubbles are injected inside the gap through a needle at the bottom of the apparatus. Different bubbles sizes are investigated (ratio between the bubble diameter and the gap width ranges from 0.05 to 0.125) for very small void fraction (α ≤ 0.23%). Different flow regimes are studied corresponding to Reynolds number Re based on the gap width and velocity of the inner cylinder, ranging from 6 × 102 to 2 × 104. Regarding these Re values, Taylor vortices are persistent leading to an axial periodicity of the flow. A detailed characterization of the vortices is performed for the single-phase flow. The experiment also develops bubbles tracking in a meridian plane and viscous torque of the inner cylinder measurements. The findings of this study show evidence of the link between bubbles localisation, Taylor vortices, and viscous torque modifications. We also highlight two regimes of viscous torque modification and various types of bubbles arrangements, depending on their size and on the Reynolds number. Bubbles can have a sliding and wavering motion near the inner cylinder and be either captured by the Taylor vortices or by the outflow areas near the inner cylinder. For small buoyancy effect, bubbles are trapped, leading to an increase of the viscous torque. When buoyancy induced bubbles motion is increased by comparison to the coherent motion of the liquid, a decrease in the viscous torque is rather observed. The type of bubble arrangement is parameterized by the two dimensionless parameters C and H introduced by Climent et al. ["Preferential accumulation of bubbles in Couette-Taylor flow patterns," Phys. Fluids 19, 083301 (2007)]. Phase diagrams summarizing the various types of bubbles arrangements, viscous torque modifications, and axial wavelength evolution are
MATHEMATICAL MODEL NON-ISOTHERMAL FLOW HIGHLY VISCOUS MEDIA CHANNELS MATRIX EXTRUDER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Sidorenko
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional steady flow of highly viscous medium in a cylindrical channel with Dissipation and dependence of the viscosity on the temperature. It is assumed that a relatively small intervals of temperature variation of the dynamic viscosity with a sufficient degree of accuracy can be assumed to be linear. The model was based on the equations of hydrodynamics and the heat transfer fluid. In the task channel wall temperature is assumed constant. An approximate solution of the problem, according to which the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature is sought in the form of an expansion in powers of the dimensionless transverse coordinates. A special case, when the ratio of the velocity distribution, pressure and temperature is allowed to restrict the number of terms in the expansion as follows: for speed - the first 3 to the pressure - the first two for the temperature - the first 5. The expressions to determine the temperature profile of the medium in the channel and characterization dissipative heating. To simulate the process of heat transfer highly viscous media developed a program for personal electronic computers. The calculation was performed using experimental research data melt flow grain mixture of buckwheat and soybeans for the load speed of 0.08 mm / s. The method of computer simulation carried out checks on the adequacy of the solutions to the real process of heat transfer. Analysis of the results indicates that for small values of the length of the channel influence dissipation function appears mainly at the wall. By increasing the reduced length of this phenomenon applies to all section of the channel. At high temperature profile along the channel length is determined entirely by dissipation. In the case of heat transfer due to frictional heat only, the form of curves of temperature distribution is a consequence of the interaction effects of heating due to viscous shear effects cooling by conduction. The
Viscous dissipation effects on the flow of a radiating gas between ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The solution of a boundary layer flow problem often neglects the effects of viscous dissipation. However, the present treatment incorporates these effects with a view to assessing their global contributions to velocity and temperature distributions in the flow field. Hence, fluid motion induced between two differentially heated ...
Superballistic flow of viscous electron fluid through graphene constrictions
Krishna Kumar, R.; Bandurin, D. A.; Pellegrino, F. M. D.; Cao, Y.; Principi, A.; Guo, H.; Auton, G. H.; Ben Shalom, M.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Falkovich, G.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Levitov, L. S.; Polini, M.; Geim, A. K.
2017-12-01
Electron-electron (e-e) collisions can impact transport in a variety of surprising and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Despite strong interest, experiments on the subject proved challenging because of the simultaneous presence of different scattering mechanisms that suppress or obscure consequences of e-e scattering. Only recently, sufficiently clean electron systems with transport dominated by e-e collisions have become available, showing behaviour characteristic of highly viscous fluids. Here we study electron transport through graphene constrictions and show that their conductance below 150 K increases with increasing temperature, in stark contrast to the metallic character of doped graphene. Notably, the measured conductance exceeds the maximum conductance possible for free electrons. This anomalous behaviour is attributed to collective movement of interacting electrons, which `shields' individual carriers from momentum loss at sample boundaries. The measurements allow us to identify the conductance contribution arising due to electron viscosity and determine its temperature dependence. Besides fundamental interest, our work shows that viscous effects can facilitate high-mobility transport at elevated temperatures, a potentially useful behaviour for designing graphene-based devices.
Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage
Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1997-01-01
The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On
Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm
2014-01-01
Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases. This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...
Lectures on Mathematical Foundation of Turbulent Viscous Flows
Miyakawa, Tetsuro
2006-01-01
Five leading specialists reflect on different and complementary approaches to fundamental questions in the study of the Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics equations. Constantin presents the Euler equations of ideal incompressible fluids and discusses the blow-up problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous fluids, describing some of the major mathematical questions of turbulence theory. These questions are connected to the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg theory of singularities for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is explained in Gallavotti's lectures. Kazhikhov introduces the theory of strong approximation of weak limits via the method of averaging, applied to Navier-Stokes equations. Y. Meyer focuses on several nonlinear evolution equations - in particular Navier-Stokes - and some related unexpected cancellation properties, either imposed on the initial condition, or satisfied by the solution itself, whenever it is localized in space or in time variable. Ukai presents the asymptotic analysis th...
Theory of viscous transonic flow over airfoils at high Reynolds number
Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.; Mead, H. R.
1977-01-01
This paper considers viscous flows with unseparated turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional airfoils at transonic speeds. Conventional theoretical methods are based on boundary layer formulations which do not account for the effect of the curved wake and static pressure variations across the boundary layer in the trailing edge region. In this investigation an extended viscous theory is developed that accounts for both effects. The theory is based on a rational analysis of the strong turbulent interaction at airfoil trailing edges. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to develop formal series solutions of the full Reynolds equations in the limit of Reynolds numbers tending to infinity. Procedures are developed for combining the local trailing edge solution with numerical methods for solving the full potential flow and boundary layer equations. Theoretical results indicate that conventional boundary layer methods account for only about 50% of the viscous effect on lift, the remaining contribution arising from wake curvature and normal pressure gradient effects.
An Adaptive Semi-Implicit Scheme for Simulations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows
Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Crutchfield, William Y.; Bell, John B.; Colella, Phillip
1995-01-01
A numerical scheme for simulation of unsteady, viscous, compressible flows is considered. The scheme employs an explicit discretization of the inviscid terms of the Navier-Stokes equations and an implicit discretization of the viscous terms. The discretization is second order accurate in both space and time. Under appropriate assumptions, the implicit system of equations can be decoupled into two linear systems of reduced rank. These are solved efficiently using a Gauss-Seidel method with multigrid convergence acceleration. When coupled with a solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique, the hybrid explicit-implicit scheme provides an effective methodology for accurate simulations of unsteady viscous flows. The methodology is demonstrated for both body-fitted structured grids and for rectangular (Cartesian) grids.
Deformation and transport of micro-fibers and helices in viscous flows
Lindner, Anke
Fluid-structure interactions between flexible objects and viscous flows are, to a large extent, governed by the shape of the flexible object. Using microfabrication methods, we obtain complex ``particles'' in fiber and helix form with perfect control not only over the material properties, but also the particle geometry. We then perform an experimental study on the deformation and transport of these particles in microfluidic flows. Fibers are shown to drift laterally in confined flows due to the transport anisotropy of the elongated object. When these fibers interact with lateral walls, complex dynamics are observed, such as fiber oscillation. Fiber flexibility modifies these dynamics. Flexible microhelices are easily stretched by a viscous flow and we characterize the overall shape as a function of the frictional properties. The deformation of these helices is well-described by non-linear finite extensibility. Due to the non-uniform distribution of the pitch of a helix subject to viscous drag, linear and nonlinear behavior is identified along the contour length of a single helix. When a polymer solution is used for the viscous flow, an interesting multiscale problem arises and the typical polymer size needs to be compared not only to the global size of the helix, but also to the dimensions of the ribbon.
Finite Elements Approximate Flows of Compressible Viscous Melt ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The processing over flow encountered while generating finite elements was assumed to arise as a result of increasing wave interference. Although the flow frequency was found to be increasing, it was insufficient for improving the prescribed energy level. Conclusively, it was assumed that the flow of the fluid being ...
Park, Hyunwook; Pan, Xiaomin; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il
2016-06-01
A novel immersed boundary (IB) method based on an implicit direct forcing (IDF) scheme is developed for incompressible viscous flows. The key idea for the present IDF method is to use a block LU decomposition technique in momentum equations with Taylor series expansion to construct the implicit IB forcing in a recurrence form, which imposes more accurate no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surface. To accelerate the IB forcing convergence during the iterative procedure, a pre-conditioner matrix is introduced in the recurrence formulation of the IB forcing. A Jacobi-type parameter is determined in the pre-conditioner matrix by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the matrix function representing the difference between the IB forcing solution matrix and the pre-conditioner matrix. In addition, the pre-conditioning parameter is restricted due to the numerical stability in the recurrence formulation. Consequently, the present pre-conditioned IDF (PIDF) enables accurate calculation of the IB forcing within a few iterations. We perform numerical simulations of two-dimensional flows around a circular cylinder and three-dimensional flows around a sphere for low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The result shows that PIDF yields a better imposition of no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surfaces for low Reynolds number with a fairly larger time step than IB methods with different direct forcing schemes due to the implicit treatment of the diffusion term for determining the IB forcing. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of the present PIDF scheme by numerical simulations of flow around a circular array of cylinders, flows around a falling sphere, and two sedimenting spheres in gravity.
On flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past an oscillating porous plate
Revankar, S. T.; Korwar, V. M.
1981-10-01
A solution for the flow problem of an elastico-viscous fluid (Walters liquid B') due to an oscillating infinite porous plate with constant suction has been obtained. It has been observed that the magnitude of velocity decreases with increase in suction velocity. The shearing stress increases with increase in suction.
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Cuvelier, C.; Segal, A.; van der Zanden, J.
1988-01-01
In this paper a total linearization method is derived for solving steady viscous free boundary flow problems (including capillary effects) by the finite element method. It is shown that the influence of the geometrical unknown in the totally linearized weak formulation can be expressed in terms of
Stokes flow of micropolar fluid past a viscous fluid spheroid with non ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Stokes axisymmetric flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid past a viscous fluid spheroid whose shape deviates slightly from that of a sphere is studied analytically. The boundary conditions used are the vanishing of the normal velocities, the continuity of the tangential velocities, continuity of shear stresses and ...
MHD flow and heat transfer of a viscous reacting fluid over a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a boundary layer flow analysis for a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting reacting fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field. It is shown that the Hartmann, Prandtl and the Eckert numbers have effect on the velocity and temperature fields. Journal of the Nigerian ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Maria Pellegrino
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper refers to complex granular-fluid mixtures involved into geophysical flows, such as debris and hyper-concentrated flows. For such phenomena, the interstitial fluids play a role when they are in the viscous regime. Referring to experiments on granular-fluid mixture carried out with pressure imposed annular shear cell, we study the rheological behaviour of dense mixture involving both spheres and irregular-shaped particles. For the case of viscous suspensions with irregular grains, a significant scatter of data from the trend observed for mixtures with spherical particles was evident. In effect, the shape of the particles likely plays a fundamental role in the flow dynamics, and the constitutive laws proposed by the frictional theory for the spheres are no longer valid. Starting from the frictional approach successfully applied to suspension of spheres, we demonstrate that also in case of irregular particles the mixture rheology may be fully characterized by the two relationships involving friction coefficient µ and volume concentration Ф as a function of the dimensionless viscous number Iv. To this goal, we provided a new consistent general model, referring to the volume fraction law and friction law, which accounts for the particle shape. In this way, the fitting parameters reduce just to the static friction angle µ1, and the two parameters, k and fs related to the grain shape. The resulting general model may apply to steady fully developed flows of saturated granular fluid mixture in the viscous regime, no matter of granular characteristics.
Moving Geometries and Viscous Flows Using Embedded-boundary Cartesian Grids
2009-11-30
our results (using the more common log-log plot.) Another test case is flow around a NACA0012 at 0 angle of attack, Re 5000, Mach number .5 The...a convergence plot for the NACA0012 viscous case above. A full multigrid scheme is used, starting on the coarsest level and using five grid levels
Deformation of a flexible fiber in a viscous flow past an obstacle
Lopez, H M; Auradou, H; D'Angelo, M V
2015-01-01
We study the deformation and transport of elastic fibers in a viscous Hele-Shaw flow with curved streamlines. The variations of the global velocity and orientation of the fiber follow closely those of the local flow velocity. The ratios of the curvatures of the fibers by the corresponding curvatures of the streamlines reflect a balance between elastic and viscous forces: this ratio is shown experimentally to be determined by a dimensionless {\\it Sperm number} $Sp$ combining the characteristic parameters of the flow (transverse velocity gradient, viscosity, fiber diameter/cell gap ratio) and those of the fiber (diameter, effective length, Young's modulus). For short fibers, the effective length is that of the fiber; for long ones, it is equal to the transverse characteristic length of the flow. For $S\\_p \\lesssim 250$, the ratio of the curvatures increases linearly with $Sp$; For $S\\_p \\gtrsim 250$, the fiber reaches the same curvature as the streamlines.
Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.
1979-01-01
A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.
Collective dynamics of particles from viscous to turbulent flows
2017-01-01
The book surveys the state-of-the-art methods that are currently available to model and simulate the presence of rigid particles in a fluid flow. For particles that are very small relative to the characteristic flow scales and move without interaction with other particles, effective equations of motion for particle tracking are formulated and applied (e.g. in gas-solid flows). For larger particles, for particles in liquid-solid flows and for particles that interact with each other or possibly modify the overall flow detailed model are presented. Special attention is given to the description of the approximate force coupling method (FCM) as a more general treatment for small particles, and derivations in the context of low Reynolds numbers for the particle motion as well as application at finite Reynolds numbers are provided. Other topics discussed in the book are the relation to higher resolution immersed boundary methods, possible extensions to non-spherical particles and examples of applications of such met...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.
Viscous dissipation effect on the flow through a horizontal porous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This work investigates the flow of fluid through a horizontal channel filled with a porous media with a temperature dependent viscosity. The influence of Darcy number on the velocity and temperature was thoroughly investigated. It is observed that high Darcy number leads to a higher velocity and that velocity is parabolic ...
Implicit time-accurate simulation of viscous flow
van Buuren, R.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
2001-01-01
Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is
Calculation and analysis of velocity and viscous drag in an artery with a periodic pressure gradient
Alizadeh, M.; Seyedpour, S. M.; Mozafari, V.; Babazadeh, Shayan S.
2012-07-01
Blood as a fluid that human and other living creatures are dependent on has been always considered by scientists and researchers. Any changes in blood pressure and its normal velocity can be a sign of a disease. Whatever significant in blood fluid's mechanics is Constitutive equations and finding some relations for analysis and description of drag, velocity and periodic blood pressure in vessels. In this paper, by considering available experimental quantities, for blood pressure and velocity in periodic time of a thigh artery of a living dog, at first it is written into Fourier series, then by solving Navier-Stokes equations, a relation for curve drawing of vessel blood pressure with rigid wall is obtained. Likewise in another part of this paper, vessel wall is taken in to consideration that vessel wall is elastic and its pressure and velocity are written into complex Fourier series. In this case, by solving Navier-Stokes equations, some relations for blood velocity, viscous drag on vessel wall and blood pressure are obtained. In this study by noting that vessel diameter is almost is large (3.7 mm), and blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. Finally, available experimental quantities of pressure with obtained curve of solving Navier-Stokes equations are compared. In blood analysis in rigid vessel, existence of 48% variance in pressure curve systole peak caused vessel blood flow analysis with elastic wall, results in new relations for blood flow description. The Resultant curve is obtained from new relations holding 10% variance in systole peak.
Numerical study of purely viscous non-Newtonian flow in an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Marrero, Victor L; Tichy, John A; Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth E
2014-10-01
It is well known that blood has non-Newtonian properties, but it is generally accepted that blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates above 100 s-1. However, in transient conditions, there are times and locations where the shear rate is well below 100 s-1, and it is reasonable to infer that non-Newtonian effects could become important. In this study, purely viscous non-Newtonian (generalized Newtonian) properties of blood are incorporated into the simulation-based framework for cardiovascular surgery planning developed by Taylor et al. (1999, "Predictive Medicine: Computational Techniques in Therapeutic Decision Making," Comput. Aided Surg., 4, pp. 231-247; 1998, "Finite Element Modeling of Blood Flow in Arteries," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 158, pp. 155-196). Equations describing blood flow are solved in a patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm model under steady and physiological flow conditions. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used, and the complex flow is found to be constantly transitioning between laminar and turbulent in both the spatial and temporal sense. It is found for the case simulated that using the non-Newtonian viscosity modifies the solution in subtle ways that yield a mesh-independent solution with fewer degrees of freedom than the Newtonian counterpart. It appears that in regions of separated flow, the lower shear rate produces higher viscosity with the non-Newtonian model, which reduces the associated resolution needs. When considering the real case of pulsatile flow, high shear layers lead to greater unsteadiness in the Newtonian case relative to the non-Newtonian case. This, in turn, results in a tendency for the non-Newtonian model to need fewer computational resources even though it has to perform additional calculations for the viscosity. It is also shown that both viscosity models predict comparable wall shear stress distribution. This work suggests that the use of a non-Newtonian viscosity models may be attractive
Mixed convective flow of immiscible viscous fluids confined between ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
A note on free convection along a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium, ASME J. Heat. Transfer, Vol. 116, pp. 505-508. Selvarajan, S., Tulapurkara, E.G. and Ram, V.V., 1998. A numerical study of flow through wavy-walled channels, J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, Vol. 26, pp. 519-531. Umavathi, J.C., Abdul Mateen, Chamkha, ...
Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface
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N.F. Okechi
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature
Comparison of viscous-shock-layer heating analysis with Shuttle flight data in slip flow regime
Shinn, J. L.; Simmonds, A. L.
1984-01-01
Comparison of STS-2 Shuttle flight heating data along the windward centerline has been made with two-dimensional nonequilibrium viscous shock-layer solutions obtained with shock and wall-slip conditions at an altitude range of 90 to 110 km. The shock slip condition used is the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations of Cheng as used by Davis, and the wall-slip conditions are based on the first order consideration derived from kinetic theory as given by Scott and Hendricks. The results indicate that the calculated heating distributions with slip boundary conditions agree better with the flight data than those without slip conditions. The agreement improves when the accommodation coefficient or freestream density is decreased to one-half, suggesting the possibility of less than full accommodation for the tile surface and (or) an overestimate of freestream density using the Jacchia-Roberts model. Heating reduction due to the slip effect becomes very pronounced as the flow becomes more rarefied, and the effect is more significant for the stagnation region than the aft region of the vehicle.
Goal-oriented model adaptivity for viscous incompressible flows
van Opstal, T. M.
2015-04-04
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In van Opstal et al. (Comput Mech 50:779–788, 2012) airbag inflation simulations were performed where the flow was approximated by Stokes flow. Inside the intricately folded initial geometry the Stokes assumption is argued to hold. This linearity assumption leads to a boundary-integral representation, the key to bypassing mesh generation and remeshing. It therefore enables very large displacements with near-contact. However, such a coarse assumption cannot hold throughout the domain, where it breaks down one needs to revert to the original model. The present work formalizes this idea. A model adaptive approach is proposed, in which the coarse model (a Stokes boundary-integral equation) is locally replaced by the original high-fidelity model (Navier–Stokes) based on a-posteriori estimates of the error in a quantity of interest. This adaptive modeling framework aims at taking away the burden and heuristics of manually partitioning the domain while providing new insight into the physics. We elucidate how challenges pertaining to model disparity can be addressed. Essentially, the solution in the interior of the coarse model domain is reconstructed as a post-processing step. We furthermore present a two-dimensional numerical experiments to show that the error estimator is reliable.
Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flows in a rotating elastico-viscous fluid
Puri, P.; Kythe, P. K.
1994-09-01
This paper points out the errors in the solutions of a research work by N. Nanousis under the same title published in this journal, volume 199, 1993. The correct solutions of the problem for the velocity field and the drag on the plate, by the Laplace transform technique, are presented. The results are discussed for two cases of an arbitrary time-dependent forcing effect. It is shown that the viscoelastic parameter k greater than 0 influences the velocity and introduces reverse flow. For a suddenly accelerated plate, k greater than 0 increases the velocity for z less than the square root of 2t and decreases it for z greater than the square root of 2t. In the case of the ramp-type boundary condition, k greater than 0 tends to decrease the velocity.
Viscous boundary layers in rotating fluids driven by periodic flows
Bergstrom, R. W.; Cogley, A. C.
1976-01-01
The paper analyzes the boundary layers formed in a rotating fluid by an oscillating flow over an infinite half plate, with particular attention paid to the effects of unsteadiness, the critical latitude effect and the structure of the solution to the boundary layer equations at resonance. The Navier-Stokes boundary layer equations are obtained through an asymptotic expansion with the incorporation of the Rossby and Ekman numbers and are analyzed as the sum of a nonlinear steady solution and a linearized unsteady solution. The solution is predominantly composed of two inertial wave vector components, one circularly polarized to the left and the other circularly polarized to the right. The problem considered here has relevance in oceanography and meteorology, with special reference to the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer.
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Udai B. Singh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The ion-irradiation induced synthesis of embedded Au nanoparticles (NPs into glass from islands of Au on a glass substrate is studied in the context of recoiling atoms, sputtering and viscous flow. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of Au NPs embedded in the glass substrates by the 50 keV Si− ion irradiation of irregularly shaped Au nanostructures on the glass surfaces at a fluence of 3 × 1016 ions/cm2. The depth profiles of Au in the samples were obtained from high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry studies. The results from TRIDYN simulation reveal the role of various ion-induced processes during the synthesis of the embedded Au NPs, viz. sputtering and recoiling atoms. Simulation and experimental results suggest that the viscous flow is one of the major factors that are responsible for the embedding of Au nanoparticles into the glass substrate.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar
2017-03-01
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.
On the research of flow around obstacle using the viscous Cartesian grid technique
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Liu Yan-Hua
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new 2-D viscous Cartesian grid is proposed in current research. It is a combination of the existent body-fitted grid and Cartesian grid technology. On the interface of the two different type of grid, a fined triangular mesh is used to connect the two grids. Tests with flow around the cylinder and aerofoil NACA0012 show that the proposed scheme is easy for implement with high accuracy.
Heat transfer for elastico-viscous flow between two rotating porous discs
Sharma, P. R.; Verma, P. D.
1983-04-01
The problem of temperature distribution and heat transfer for elastico-viscous fluid flow between two rotating porous disks is studied. The equations of motion and energy are solved by a regular perturbation method for small Reynolds number. The effects of the elasticity of the fluid, suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, Prandtl number and Eckert number on Nusselt numbers at the two disks have been discussed numerically and compared with Newtonian fluid case.
Velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meir, A.J. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
1994-12-31
In this work we discuss some aspects of the velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows. We describe reasonable boundary conditions that should be imposed on the vorticity and a compatibility condition that the vorticity must satisfy. This formulation may give rise to efficient numerical algorithms for approximating solutions of the Stokes problem, which in turn yields an iterative method for approximating solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Xu, Xiaoyang; Deng, Xiao-Long
2016-04-01
In this paper, an improved weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is proposed to simulate transient free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids. The improved SPH algorithm includes the implementation of (i) the mixed symmetric correction of kernel gradient to improve the accuracy and stability of traditional SPH method and (ii) the Rusanov flux in the continuity equation for improving the computation of pressure distributions in the dynamics of liquids. To assess the effectiveness of the improved SPH algorithm, a number of numerical examples including the stretching of an initially circular water drop, dam breaking flow against a vertical wall, the impact of viscous and viscoelastic fluid drop with a rigid wall, and the extrudate swell of viscoelastic fluid have been presented and compared with available numerical and experimental data in literature. The convergent behavior of the improved SPH algorithm has also been studied by using different number of particles. All numerical results demonstrate that the improved SPH algorithm proposed here is capable of modeling free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids accurately and stably, and even more important, also computing an accurate and little oscillatory pressure field.
Conveyor belt effect in the flow through a tube of a viscous fluid with spinning particles.
Felderhof, B U
2012-04-28
The extended Navier-Stokes equations describing the steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid with spinning particles are solved for flow through a circular cylindrical tube. The flow caused by an applied torque density in the azimuthal direction and linear in the radial distance from the axis is compared with the flow caused by a uniform applied force density directed along the axis of the tube. In both cases the flow velocity is of Poiseuille type plus a correction. In the first case the flow velocity is caused by the conveyor belt effect of spinning particles. The corrections to the Poiseuille flow pattern in the two cases differ only by a proportionality factor. The spin velocity profiles in the two cases are also proportional.
Numerical calculations of turbulent swirling flow
Kubo, I.; Gouldin, F. C.
1974-01-01
Description of a numerical technique for solving axisymmetric, incompressible, turbulent swirling flow problems. Isothermal flow calculations are presented for a coaxial flow configuration of special interest. The calculation results are discussed in regard to their implications for the design of gas turbine combustors.
Paul, Tanaji; Harimkar, Sandip P.
2017-07-01
The viscous flow behavior of Fe-based amorphous alloy powder during isochronal spark plasma sintering was analyzed under the integrated theoretical background of the Arrhenius and directional structural relaxation models. A relationship between viscous flow activation energy and heating rate was derived. An extension of the pertinent analysis to Ti-based amorphous alloys confirmed the broad applicability of such a relationship for predicting the activation energy for sintering below the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous alloy powders.
Sturdza, Peter (Inventor); Martins-Rivas, Herve (Inventor); Suzuki, Yoshifumi (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a quasi-simultaneous technique. The simulation includes a fluid-flow mesh of inviscid and boundary-layer fluid cells. An initial fluid property for an inviscid fluid cell is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. An initial boundary-layer fluid property a boundary-layer fluid cell is determined using the initial fluid property and a viscous fluid simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. An updated boundary-layer fluid property is determined for the boundary-layer fluid cell using the initial fluid property, initial boundary-layer fluid property, and an interaction law. The interaction law approximates the inviscid fluid simulation using a matrix of aerodynamic influence coefficients computed using a two-dimensional surface panel technique and a fluid-property vector. An updated fluid property is determined for the inviscid fluid cell using the updated boundary-layer fluid property.
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D.K. Tiwari
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A linear analysis of capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of axial magnetic field has been carried out when there is heat and mass transfer across the interface. Both fluids are taken as incompressible, viscous and magnetic with different kinematic viscosities and different magnetic permeabilities. Viscous potential flow theory is used for the investigation and a dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied magnetic field as well as critical wave number and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Various graphs are drawn showing the effect of various physical parameters such as magnetic field strength, heat transfer capillary number, and permeability ratio, on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial magnetic field and heat and mass transfer both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.
Lift and drag in three-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow
Liu, L. Q.; Wu, J. Z.; Su, W. D.; Kang, L. L.
2017-11-01
In a recent paper, Liu, Zhu, and Wu ["Lift and drag in two-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow," J. Fluid Mech. 784, 304-341 (2015)] present a force theory for a body in a two-dimensional, viscous, compressible, and steady flow. In this companion paper, we do the same for three-dimensional flows. Using the fundamental solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, we improve the force formula for incompressible flows originally derived by Goldstein in 1931 and summarized by Milne-Thomson in 1968, both being far from complete, to its perfect final form, which is further proved to be universally true from subsonic to supersonic flows. We call this result the unified force theorem, which states that the forces are always determined by the vector circulation Γϕ of longitudinal velocity and the scalar inflow Qψ of transverse velocity. Since this theorem is not directly observable either experimentally or computationally, a testable version is also derived, which, however, holds only in the linear far field. We name this version the testable unified force formula. After that, a general principle to increase the lift-drag ratio is proposed.
Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.
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Norfifah Bachok
Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.
Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf
Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.
2014-01-01
Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.
Leveraging Internal Viscous Flow to Extend the Capabilities of Beam-Shaped Soft Robotic Actuators.
Matia, Yoav; Elimelech, Tsah; Gat, Amir D
2017-06-01
Elastic deformation of beam-shaped structures due to embedded fluidic networks (EFNs) is mainly studied in the context of soft actuators and soft robotic applications. Currently, the effects of viscosity are not examined in such configurations. In this work, we introduce an internal viscous flow and present the extended range of actuation modes enabled by viscosity. We analyze the interaction between elastic deflection of a slender beam and viscous flow in a long serpentine channel embedded within the beam. The embedded network is positioned asymmetrically with regard to the neutral plane and thus pressure within the channel creates a local moment deforming the beam. Under assumptions of creeping flow and small deflections, we obtain a fourth-order integro-differential equation governing the time-dependent deflection field. This relation enables the design of complex time-varying deformation patterns of beams with EFNs. Leveraging viscosity allows to extend the capabilities of beam-shaped actuators such as creation of inertia-like standing and moving wave solutions in configurations with negligible inertia and limiting deformation to a small section of the actuator. The results are illustrated experimentally.
Forces exerted by a flowing foam : viscous, elastic and plastic behaviours
Graner, Francois
2005-11-01
We have built a 1 m long, 10 cm wide foam channel, in which we produce 2D foam flows in the range 0.05 - 50 mm/s. In the middle of the channel, we place an obstacle: circle, square, cogwheel, ellipse or airfoil. We perform measurements of the drag, lift and torque exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle. We observe both a dissipative contribution characteristic of a liquid, and a yielding behaviour typical of a solid. We simultaneously image the foam. In each region of the flow, we measure locally the pressure field, as well as the velocity field, as for a liquid, but also elastic deformation and plastic rearrangements. We discuss how to link the local and global descriptions, and how beyond a few bubble diameters the foam behaves as a continuous material. However, its triple viscous, elastic, plastic behaviour is complex, and most features we observe are not yet explained by current models.
Oscillating viscous boundary layer at high Reynolds number: Experiments and numerical calculations
Reyt, I.; Bailliet, H.; Foucault, E.; Valière, J.-Ch.
2015-10-01
Transition to turbulence for an acoustically oscillating flow (without any mean motion) in a resonant wave guide is considered. Departure from the laminar behaviour of the Stokes boundary layer formed in the near wall region is studied both experimentally and numerically for increasing acoustic levels. Laser Doppler Velocimetry is used to measure velocity profiles at different phases along the acoustic period and the experimental profile distortion is interpreted as the consequence of the development of a turbulent boundary layer. On the other hand, the oscillating flow is investigated numerically with a high order resolution one dimensional scheme for comparison with experimental results. The effective viscosity that models transition to turbulence is included and the velocity profile is integrated along the radial coordinate. Results from experiments and from numerical calculation are in very good agreement.
Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing
Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor
2015-08-01
We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ (t ) and pressure p (t ) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Recturb=RecTDR≃(4.8 ±0.2 ) ×105 independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Recturb and RecTDR depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of Cf and Cp, by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998), 10.1063/1.869532; Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.R28; and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005), 10.1088/0953-8984/17/14/008] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.
On the viscous dissipation modeling of thermal fluid flow in a porous medium
Salama, Amgad
2011-02-24
The problem of viscous dissipation and thermal dispersion in saturated porous medium is numerically investigated for the case of non-Darcy flow regime. The fluid is induced to flow upward by natural convection as a result of a semi-infinite vertical wall that is immersed in the porous medium and is kept at constant higher temperature. The boundary layer approximations were used to simplify the set of the governing, nonlinear partial differential equations, which were then non-dimensionalized and solved using the finite elements method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e.; viscous dissipation) resulted in insignificant generation of heat for the range of parameters considered in this study. On the other hand, thermal dispersion has shown to disperse heat energy normal to the wall more effectively compared with the normal diffusion mechanism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Simulation of Free Airfoil Vibrations in Incompressible Viscous Flow — Comparison of FEM and FVM
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Petr Sváček
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical solution of the interaction of two-dimensional (2-D incompressible viscous flow and a vibrating profile NACA 0012 with large amplitudes. The laminar flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form. The profile with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF can rotate around its elastic axis and oscillate in the vertical direction. Its motion is described by a nonlinear system of two ordinary differential equations. Deformations of the computational domain due to the profile motion are treated by the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerianmethod. The finite volume method and the finite element method are applied, and the numerical results are compared.
Computational Modelling of Couette Flow of Nanofluids with Viscous Heating and Convective Cooling
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Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The combined effect of viscous heating and convective cooling on Couette flow and heat transfer characteristics of water base nanofluids containing Copper Oxide (CuO and Alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles is investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid flows in a channel between two parallel plates with the channel’s upper plate accelerating and exchange heat with the ambient surrounding following the Newton’s law of cooling, while the lower plate is stationary and maintained at a constant temperature. Using appropriate similarity transformation, the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation method with series improvement technique and numerically by an efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting method. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop and Nusselt number are presented graphically, and discussed quantitatively.
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S. Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.
Hydrodynamics of Highly Viscous Flow past a Compound Particle: Analytical Solution
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Longhua Zhao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available To investigate the translation of a compound particle in a highly viscous, incompressible fluid, we carry out an analytic study on flow past a fixed spherical compound particle. The spherical object is considered to have a rigid kernel covered with a fluid coating. The fluid within the coating has a different viscosity from that of the surrounding fluid and is immiscible with the surrounding fluid. The inertia effect is negligible for flows both inside the coating and outside the object. Thus, flows are in the Stokes regime. Taking advantage of the symmetry properties, we reduce the problem in two dimensions and derive the explicit formulae of the stream function in the polar coordinates. The no-slip boundary condition for the rigid kernel and the no interfacial mass transfer and force equilibrium conditions at fluid interfaces are considered. Two extreme cases: the uniform flow past a sphere and the uniform flow past a fluid drop, are reviewed. Then, for the fluid coating the spherical object, we derive the stream functions and investigate the flow field by the contour plots of stream functions. Contours of stream functions show circulation within the fluid coating. Additionally, we compare the drag and the terminal velocity of the object with a rigid sphere or a fluid droplet. Moreover, the extended results regarding the analytical solution for a compound particle with a rigid kernel and multiple layers of fluid coating are reported.
Flow calculation of a bulb turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.
1987-01-01
In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of theoretical flow calculation. Studying the relevant literature one might receive the impression that most problems have been solved. But probing more deeply into details one becomes aware that by no means all questions are answered. The report tries to point out what may be expected of the quasi-three-dimensional flow calculation method employed and - much more important - what it must not be expected to accomplish. (orig.)
Study of high viscous multiphase phase flow in a horizontal pipe
Baba, Yahaya D.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Archibong, Archibong-Eso; Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Igbafe, A. I.
2017-09-01
Heavy oil accounts for a major portion of the world's total oil reserves. Its production and transportation through pipelines is beset with great challenges due to its highly viscous nature. This paper studies the effects of high viscosity on heavy oil two-phase flow characteristics such as pressure gradient, liquid holdup, slug liquid holdup, slug frequency and slug liquid holdup using an advanced instrumentation (i.e. Electrical Capacitance Tomography). Experiments were conducted in a horizontal flow loop with a pipe internal diameter (ID) of 0.0762 m; larger than most reported in the open literature for heavy oil flow. Mineral oil of 1.0-5.0 Pa.s viscosity range and compressed air were used as the liquid and gas phases respectively. Pressure gradient (measured by means differential pressure transducers) and mean liquid holdup was observed to increase as viscosity of oil is increased. Obtained results also revealed that increase in liquid viscosity has significant effects on flow pattern and slug flow features.
Colombo, Luigi P. M.; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Sotgia, Giorgio
2014-11-01
Two-phase flows of viscous oil and water through singularities such as sudden area contractions/expansions have been taken into limited consideration in the relevant scientific literature. Nevertheless, they play a role of primary importance in industrial systems, for instance, but not only, in the exploitation of oil wells and pipelines. The proposed work is based on the comparison of photographic images of the flow patterns taken from three points of view, i.e. upper, lower and frontal, thanks to a couple of mirrors ±45° inclined with respect to the horizontal plane. Oil-water flow regimes have been observed both upward and downward of five horizontal test sections with diameter ratios d/D = 40/50, 30/50, 30/40, respectively. The observed structures of the oil-water interface, especially for core-annular flows, has suggested also detecting flow patterns in a 30 mm straight pipe for sake of comparison. Actually, the shape of the oil-core interface appears significantly influenced by the sharp-edged area change as well as by the expected momentum variation.
Lift and drag in three-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow
Liu, Luoqin; Kang, Linlin; Wu, Jiezhi
2016-01-01
In a recent paper, Liu, Zhu & Wu (2015, J. Fluid Mech. 784: 304; LZW for short) present a far-field theory for the aerodynamic force experienced by a body in a two-dimensional, viscous, compressible and steady flow. In this companion theoretical paper we do the same for three-dimensional flow. By a rigorous fundamental solution method of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, we not only improve the far-field force formula for incompressible flow originally derived by Goldstein in 1931 and summarized by Milne-Thomson in 1968, both being far from complete, to its perfect final form, but also prove that this final form holds universally true in a wide range of compressible flow, from subsonic to supersonic flows. We call this result the unified force theorem (UF theorem for short) and state it as a theorem, which is exactly the counterpart of the two-dimensional compressible Joukowski-Filon theorem obtained by LZW. Thus, the steady lift and drag are always exactly determined by the values of vector circula...
Viscous Flow Behaviour of Karanja Oil Based Bio-lubricant Base Oil.
Sharma, Umesh Chandra; Sachan, Sadhana; Trivedi, Rakesh Kumar
2018-01-01
Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made. The aim of this comparison was to validate the superiority of KOTMPE bio-lubricant over its precursors KO and KOME in terms of stable viscous flow at high temperature and high shear rate conditions usually encountered in engine operations and industrial processes. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of KO was 5.76%. KOME was synthesized from KO in a two-step, acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification, process at 65°C for 5 hours with oil-methanol ratio 1:6, catalysts H 2 SO 4 and KOH (1 and 1.25% w/w KO, respectively). In the final step, KOTMPE was prepared from KOME via transesterification with trimethylolpropane (TMP) at 150°C for 3 hours with KOME-TMP ratio 4:1 and H 2 SO 4 (2% w/w KOME) as catalyst. The viscosity versus temperature studies were made at 0-80°C temperatures in shear rate ranges of 10-1000 s -1 using a Discovery Hybrid Rheometer, model HR-3 (TA instruments, USA). The study found that viscosities of all three samples decreased with increase in temperature, though KOTMPE was able to maintain a good enough viscosity at elevated temperatures due to chemical modifications in its molecular structure. The viscosity index (VI) value for KOTMPE was 206.72. The study confirmed that the synthesized bio-lubricant KOTMPE can be used at high temperatures as a good lubricant, though some additives may be required to improve properties other than viscosity.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-01-01
In this paper, the effects of viscous dissipation on unsteady free convection from an isothermal vertical flat plate in a fluidsaturated porous medium are investigated. The Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to describe the flow field. A new model of viscous dissipation is used for the Darcy-Brinkman model of porous media. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers is obtained by using a finite-difference method. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximation have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the local friction factor and local Nusselt number are displayed graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach steady state. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.
Self-organization of two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow in a friction-free box
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Kondoh, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Nakano, A. [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yabe, T.
1995-10-01
The process by which self-organization occurs for two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow in a friction-free box is investigated theoretically with the use of numerical simulations. It is shown by an eigenfunction spectrum analysis that two basic processes for the self-organization are the spectrum transfer by nonlinear couplings and the selective dissipation among the eigenmodes of the dissipative operator, and they yield spectrum accumulation at the lowest eigenmode. It is also clarified that an important process during nonlinear self-organization is an interchange between the dominant operators, which leads to a final self-similar coherent structure, determined uniquely by the lowest eigenmode of the dissipative operator. (author).
Numerical Investigation of Viscous Flow Velocity Field around a Marine Cavitating Propeller
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Zhifeng Zhu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Velocity field around a ship cavitating propeller is investigated based on the viscous multiphase flow theory. Using a hybrid grid, the unsteady Navier-stokes (N-S and the bubble dynamics equations are solved in this paper to predict the velocity in a propeller wake and the vapor volume fraction on the back side of propeller blade for a uniform inflow. Compared with experimental results, the numerical predictions of cavitation and axial velocity coincide with the measured data. The evolution of tip vortex is shown, and the interaction between the tip vortex of the current blade and the wake of the next one occurs in the far propeller wake. The frequency of velocity signals changes from shaft rate to blade rate. The phenomena reflect the instability of propeller wake.
Liska, Sebastian
2016-01-01
A new parallel, computationally efficient immersed boundary method for solving three-dimensional, viscous, incompressible flows on unbounded domains is presented. Immersed surfaces with prescribed motions are generated using the interpolation and regularization operators obtained from the discrete delta function approach of the original (Peskin's) immersed boundary method. Unlike Peskin's method, boundary forces are regarded as Lagrange multipliers that are used to satisfy the no-slip condition. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized on an unbounded staggered Cartesian grid and are solved in a finite number of operations using lattice Green's function techniques. These techniques are used to automatically enforce the natural free-space boundary conditions and to implement a novel block-wise adaptive grid that significantly reduces the run-time cost of solutions by limiting operations to grid cells in the immediate vicinity and near-wake region of the immersed surface. These techniques also...
On the flow of an elastico-viscous fluid near a rotating disk
Ariel, P. Donald
2003-05-01
The steady laminar flow of an elastico-viscous fluid near a rotating disk is considered. The constitutive equations of the fluid are modeled by those for a Walter B' fluid. They give rise to a boundary-value problem in which the order of the system of differential equations is seven but there are only five boundary conditions. Nevertheless, without augmenting any boundary condition at infinity, it is possible to obtain an exact numerical solution for any value of k, the viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solution also takes into account and eliminates the error introduced by replacing numerical infinity with a finite value. It is shown that solutions exist for all values of k. A perturbation solution valid for small values of k, and an asymptotic analytical solution valid for large values of k are also derived, each up to the third order. By comparing them with the exact solution, a critical assessment is undertaken of their respective domains of usefulness.
Mabood, F.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Kumar, P. V.; Khan, W. A.
A mathematical model has been developed using Tiwari-Das model to study the MHD stagnation-point flow and heat transfer characteristics of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a vertical permeable shrinking/stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation. Formulated partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique is applied to solve the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations. The profiles for velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for various parameters are displayed through graphs and tabular forms. In this problem, we considered two types of nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu) and Alumina (Al2O3) with water as base fluid.
Application of DTM for 2D viscous flow through expanding or contracting gaps with permeable walls
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E. Mohammadian
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, Differential Transformation Method is used to solve the problem of laminar, isothermal, incompressible and viscous flow in a rectangular domain bounded by two moving porous walls, which enable the fluid to enter or exit during successive expansions or contractions. The concept of this method is briefly introduced, and it’s application for this problem is studied. Then, the results are compared with numerical results and the validity of these methods is shown. After this verification, we analyze the effects of some physical applicable parameters to show the efficiency of DTM for this type of problems. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of the non-dimensional wall dilation rate ( and permeation Reynolds number ( on the velocity, normal pressure distribution and wall shear stress. The present problem for slowly expanding or contracting walls with weak permeability is a simple model for the transport of biological fluids through contracting or expanding vessels.
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Habibi Matin Meisam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Forced convection boundary layer magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching plate is studied in this paper. The effects of suction-injection and viscous dissi1pation are taken into account. The nanofluid model includes Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. The governing momentum, energy and nanofluid solid volume fraction equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method and the results are compared with available numerical data. The results for the dimensionless velocity, dimensionless temperature, dimensionless nanofluid solid volume fraction, reduced Nusselt and reduced Sherwood numbers are presented illustrating the effects of magnetic parameter, suction-injection parameter, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and Lewis number.
Effects of viscous dissipation and heat source on unsteady MHD flow over a stretching sheet
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Machireddy Gnaneswara Reddy
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and heat source. Utilizing a similarity variable, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations before they are solved numerically by applying Keller Box method. Effects of physical parameters on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles were depicted graphically and analyzed in detail. The numerical predictions have been compared with already published papers and good agreement is obtained. Finally, numerical values of physical quantities such as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing values of Prandtl number and unsteadiness parameter whereas it decreases with magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, Eckert number and heat source parameter.
Vincent, P. E.; Sherwin, S. J.; Weinberg, P. D.
2008-06-01
An analytic series solution is presented for the shear driven flow of a viscous fluid over an infinite series of outflow slits covered by a Brinkman medium with an anisotropic Darcy permeability. The solution is used to model the cellular scale flow of water over and within the endothelial glycocalyx, when the transmural water flux through the vascular endothelium is only allowed to pass via interendothelial cell clefts. Results are presented illustrating the effect of both the glycocalyx properties and the applied shearing rate (imposed by vascular scale fluid dynamics) on several relevant measures of the velocity field, including the wall normal velocity and the shear rate evaluated at the luminal surface of the glycocalyx.
Investigation of viscous fluid flow in an eccentrically deposited annulus using CFD methods
Bojko, M.; Kozdera, M.; Kozubkova, M.
2013-04-01
The theory of fluid flow in an eccentrically deposited annulus has of great importance especially in the design of sliding bearings (axial, radial). If the geometry is more complex or shaft is deposited eccentrically, then a suitable alternative for design hydrostatic bearing is using ANSYS Fluent, which solves the general three-dimensional viscous fluid flow also in complex geometry. The problem of flow solves in the narrow gap between the cylinders in this paper, when the inner cylinder is stored with a defined eccentricity. The movement of the inner cylinder is composed of two motions (rotation, precession), i.e. rotation around its own axis and move along the circle whose radius is the size of the eccentricity. Addition the pressure gradient is considered in the axial direction. In the introductory section describes the methodology for defining of motions (rotation and precession of the inner cylinder) when the user function (UDF) is created that defines the rotation and move along the circle in C++. The above described methodology of the solution was then applied to the 3D model with a defined pressure drop when the problem was solved as a time-dependent with a time value corresponding to two turns of the internal shaft.
Investigation of viscous fluid flow in an eccentrically deposited annulus using CFD methods
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Kozubkova M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The theory of fluid flow in an eccentrically deposited annulus has of great importance especially in the design of sliding bearings (axial, radial. If the geometry is more complex or shaft is deposited eccentrically, then a suitable alternative for design hydrostatic bearing is using ANSYS Fluent, which solves the general three-dimensional viscous fluid flow also in complex geometry. The problem of flow solves in the narrow gap between the cylinders in this paper, when the inner cylinder is stored with a defined eccentricity. The movement of the inner cylinder is composed of two motions (rotation, precession, i.e. rotation around its own axis and move along the circle whose radius is the size of the eccentricity. Addition the pressure gradient is considered in the axial direction. In the introductory section describes the methodology for defining of motions (rotation and precession of the inner cylinder when the user function (UDF is created that defines the rotation and move along the circle in C++. The above described methodology of the solution was then applied to the 3D model with a defined pressure drop when the problem was solved as a time-dependent with a time value corresponding to two turns of the internal shaft.
Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows
Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.
2016-11-01
We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.
A 3D Simulation of a Moving Solid in Viscous Free-Surface Flows by Coupling SPH and DEM
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Liu-Chao Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a three-dimensional two-way coupled method to simulate moving solids in viscous free-surface flows. The fluid flows are solved by weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH and the displacement and rotation of the solids are calculated using the multisphere discrete element method (DEM allowing for the contact mechanics theories to be used in arbitrarily shaped solids. The fluid and the solid phases are coupled through Newton’s third law of motion. The proposed method does not require a computational mesh, nor does it rely on empirical models to couple the fluid and solid phases. To verify the numerical model, the floating and sinking processes of a rectangular block in a water tank are simulated, and the numerical results are compared with experimental results reported in published literatures. The results indicate that the method presented in this paper is accurate and is capable of modelling fluid-solid interactions with a free-surface.
Soundalgekar, V. M.; Uplekar, A. G.
1981-06-01
An analysis of heat transfer in a two dimensional flow of an elastico-viscous fluid (Walters liquid B) past an infinite porous plate has been carried out under the following conditions: (1) constant suction, (2) free stream oscillates in time about a constant mean, (3) the plate is thermally insulated. Approximate solutions to the temperature field have been derived on taking into consideration viscous dissipative terms. The mean wall temperature has been shown graphically and it is observed that it decreases with increasing frequency.
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Sushila
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an efficient analytical approach based on new homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM to investigate the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD viscous flow due to a stretching sheet. The viscous fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of magnetic field and the induced magnetic field is neglected for small magnetic Reynolds number. Finally, some numerical comparisons among the new HPSTM, the homotopy perturbation method and the exact solution have been made. The numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method show that the approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive.
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Kumar Hitesh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer steady flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid due to a stretching plate with viscous dissipation effect in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied. The equations of motion and heat transfer are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and the exact solutions are obtained using properties of confluent hypergeometric function. It is assumed that the prescribed heat flux at the stretching porous wall varies as the square of the distance from origin. The effects of the various parameters entering into the problem on the velocity field and temperature distribution are discussed.
Generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory forces for viscous flows
Limacher, Eric; Morton, Chris; Wood, David
2018-01-01
The concept of added mass arises from potential flow analysis and is associated with the acceleration of a body in an inviscid irrotational fluid. When shed vorticity is modeled as vortex singularities embedded in this irrotational flow, the associated force can be superimposed onto the added-mass force due to the linearity of the governing Laplace equation. This decomposition of force into added-mass and circulatory components remains common in modern aerodynamic models, but its applicability to viscous separated flows remains unclear. The present work addresses this knowledge gap by presenting a generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory force decomposition which is valid for a body of arbitrary shape in an unbounded, incompressible fluid domain, in both two and three dimensions, undergoing arbitrary motions amid continuous distributions of vorticity. From the general expression, the classical added-mass force is rederived for well-known canonical cases and is seen to be additive to the circulatory force for any flow. The formulation is shown to be equivalent to existing theoretical work under the specific conditions and assumptions of previous studies. It is also validated using a numerical simulation of a pitching plate in a steady freestream flow, conducted by Wang and Eldredge [Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 27, 577 (2013), 10.1007/s00162-012-0279-5]. In response to persistent confusion in the literature, a discussion of the most appropriate physical interpretation of added mass is included, informed by inspection of the derived equations. The added-mass force is seen to account for the dynamic effect of near-body vorticity and is not (as is commonly claimed) associated with the acceleration of near-body fluid which "must" somehow move with the body. Various other consequences of the derivation are discussed, including a concept which has been labeled the conservation of image-vorticity impulse.
Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart
Kiris, Cetin
1992-01-01
A finite difference, three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. Here, equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two.
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I. J. Uwanta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady natural convection and mass transfer flow of viscous reactive, heat generating/absorbing fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite parallel porous plates having temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The motion of the fluid is induced due to natural convection caused by the reactive property as well as the heat generating/absorbing nature of the fluid. The solutions for unsteady state temperature, concentration, and velocity fields are obtained using semi-implicit finite difference schemes. Perturbation techniques are used to get steady state expressions of velocity, concentration, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number. The effects of various flow parameters such as suction/injection (γ, heat source/sinks (S, Soret number (Sr, variable thermal conductivity δ, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter λ, Prandtl number (Pr, and nondimensional time t on the dynamics are analyzed. The skin friction, heat transfer coefficients, and Sherwood number are graphically presented for a range of values of the said parameters.
Chemically reactive flow of micropolar fluid accounting viscous dissipation and Joule heating
Khan, Muhammad Ijaz; Waqas, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed
Inspired by the several applications of non-Newtonian materials, the current investigation manages a theoretical analysis of series solutions in MHD flow of micropolar material towards nonlinear stretchable surface. Mathematical modeling is developed through viscous dissipation, mixed convection, chemical reaction and Joule heating. The phenomenon of heat and mass transfer are investigated simultaneously. The technique of local similarity transformation is utilized in order to transform the governing expressions from PDEs into ODEs. The established non-linear expressions have been tackled analytically by means of homotopic concept. The interference influences and the flow aspects are presented in the form of liquid velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The results described here demonstrate that material parameter boosts the velocity and micro-rotation velocity. It is noticed that thermal and concentration fields are higher when Eckert number and destructive chemical reaction parameter are enhanced. Besides this for the verification of the present findings, the results of presented analysis have been compared with the available works in particular situations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T. [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear System Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P. [U.S. ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boissin, J.-C. [Consultant, Grenoble (France)
2014-01-29
As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.
Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P.; Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias; Boissin, J.-C.
2014-01-01
As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; Morrow, Michael [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Pearce, R.J.H. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant
2014-01-01
As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype
Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator
Konrad, Christopher P.
2011-01-01
The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.
3-D Viscous Flow Analysis of a Mixed Flow Pump Impeller
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Steven M. Miner
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study using a coarse grid to analyze the flow in the impeller of a mixed flow pump. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code (FLOTRAN is used to solve the 3-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations in a rotating cylindrical coordinate system. The standard k-ε turbulence model is used. The mesh for this study uses 26,000 nodes and the model is run on a SPARCstation 20. This is in contrast to typical analyses using in excess of 100,000 nodes that are run on a super computer platform. The smaller mesh size has advantages in the design environment. Stage design parameters are, rotational speed 1185 rpm, flow coefficient φ=0.116, head coefficient ψ=0.094, and specific speed 2.01 (5475 US. Results for the model include circumferentially averaged results at the leading and trailing edges of the impeller, and analysis of the flow field within the impeller passage. Circumferentially averaged results include axial and tangential velocities, static pressure, and total pressure. Within the impeller passage the static pressure and velocity results are presented on surfaces from the leading edge to the trailing edge, the hub to the shroud, and the pressure surface to the suction surface. Results of this study are consistent with the expected flow characteristics of mixed flow impellers, indicating that small CFD models can be used to evaluate impeller performance in the design environment.
Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator
Ritrivi, Charles
2013-01-01
The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.
Behaviour of an isolated rimmed elliptical inclusion in 2D slow incompressible viscous flow
Mancktelow, Neil S.
2013-01-01
For 2D linear viscous flow, it is shown that the rates of rotation and stretch of an isolated elliptical inclusion with a coaxial elliptical rim are fully determined by two corresponding scalar values. For power-law viscosity, effective viscosity ratios of the inclusion and rim to the matrix depend on orientation and the system is more complex but, in practice, the simplification with two scalar values still provides a good approximation. Finite-element modelling (FEM) is used to determine the two characteristic values across a wide parameter space for the linear viscous case, with a viscosity ratio (relative to the matrix) of the inclusion from 106 to 1, of the rim from 10-6 to 1, axial ratios from 1.00025 to 20, and rim thicknesses relative to the inclusion axes of 5 to 20%. Results are presented in a multi-dimensional data table, allowing continuous interpolation over the investigated parameter range. Based on these instantaneous rates, the shape fabric of a population of inclusions is forward modelled using an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) approach, with the simplifying but unrealistic assumption that the rim remains elliptical in shape and coaxial with respect to the inclusion. However, comparison with accurate large strain numerical experiments demonstrates that this simplified model gives qualitatively robust predictions and, for a range of investigated examples, also remarkably good quantitative estimates for shear strains up to at least γ = 5. A statistical approach, allowing random variation in the initial orientation, axial ratio and rim viscosity, can reproduce the characteristic shape preferred orientation (SPO) of natural porphyroclast populations. However, vorticity analysis based on the SPO or the interpreted stable orientation of inclusions is not practical. Varying parameters, such as inclusion and rim viscosity, rim thickness, and power law-exponents for non-linear viscosity, can reproduce the range of naturally observed
Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.
Temporal Entropy Generation in the Viscous Layers of Laterally-converging Duct Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donald M. McEligot; Robert S. Brodkey; Helmut Eckelmann
2008-12-01
Since insight into entropy generation is a key to increasing efficiency and thereby reducing fuel consumption and/or waste and -- for wall-bounded flows -- most entropy is generated in the viscous layer, we examine the transient behavior of its dominant contributor there for a non-canonical flow. New measurements in oil flow are presented for the effects of favorable streamwise mean pressure gradients on temporal entropy generation rates and, in the process, on key Reynolds-stress-producing events such as sweep front passage and on the deceleration/outflow phase of the overall bursting process. Two extremes have been considered: (1) a high pressure gradient, nearing "laminarization," and (2), for comparison, a low pressure gradient corresponding to many earlier experiments. In both cases, the peak temporal entropy generation rate occurs shortly after passage of the ejection/sweep interface. Whether sweep and ejection rates appear to decrease or increase with the pressure gradient depends on the feature examined and the manner of sampling. When compared using wall coordinates for velocities, distances and time, the trends and magnitudes of the transient behaviors are mostly the same. The main effects of the higher pressure gradient are (1) changes in the time lag between detections -- representing modification of the shape of the sweep front and the sweep angle with the wall, (2) modification of the magnitude of an instantaneous Reynolds shear stress with wall distance and (3) enlarging the sweeps and ejections. Results new for both low and high pressure gradients are the temporal behaviors of the dominant contribution to entropy generation; it is found to be much more sensitive to distance from the wall than to streamwise pressure gradient.
Film Flow Dominated Simultaneous Flow of Two Viscous Incompressible Fluids Through a Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olav eAursjø
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental study of two-phase flow in a quasi-two-dimensional porous medium. The two phases, a water-glycerol solution and a commercial food grade rapeseed/canola oil, having an oil to water-glycerol viscosity ratio of 1.3, are injected simultaneously into a Hele-Shaw cell with a mono-layer of randomly distributed glass beads. The two liquids are injected into the model from alternating point inlets. Initially, the porous model is filled with the water-glycerol solution. We observe that after an initial transient state, an overall static cluster configuration is obtained. While the oil is found to create a connected system spanning cluster, a large part of the water-glycerol clusters left behind the initial invasion front is observed to remain immobile throughout the rest of the experiment. This could suggest that the water-glycerol flow-dynamics is largely dominated by film flow. The flow pathways are thus given through the dynamics of the initial invasion. This behavior is quite different from that observed in systems with large viscosity differences between the two fluids, and where compressibility plays an important part of the process.
Through-Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachinery
1976-10-01
Glassman , Lewis Research Center, NASA SP-290, 1973. 3. Dzung, L.S.: Schaufelgitter mit dicker Hinterkante, Technical Note BBC, (unpublished) 4...of peak efficiency was taken from - Warner L.S. : ASME Paper 61-WA-37 - Glassman A.J. : NASA TN-D-6702 The method for computing incidence losses is...devise more intelligent ý , flow models whicn will enable us to do semi-empirical simpler calculations. One of the things that I have in mind and has not
Flow calculation in a bulb turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.
1987-02-01
In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Sometimes the impression may arise when reading the relevant literature that most of the problems in this field have already been solved. Upon studying the matter more deeply, however, it is apparent that some questions still remain unanswered. The use of the quasi-3D (Q3D) computational method for calculating the flow in a fuel hydraulic turbine is described.
Ship viscous flow: A report on the 1990 SSPA-IIHR Workshop
Patel, Virendra C.; Larsson, Lars
1992-01-01
To assess the state of the art in ship viscous flow computation a Workshop was organized in 1990 by three organizations: SSPA Maritime Consulting AB, Chalmers University of Technology, and the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research. Two test cases were specified by the organizers and sent out to all interested research groups, which were asked to submit results in a prescribed format. In September 1990 a meeting was held at Chalmers University of Technology. All results had then been collected and presented in a common format, and the theories based on responses to a questionnaire sent out earlier. During the meeting, each research group was first given the opportunity to briefly introduce their method and results. Thereafter, a considerable time was spent on general discussions on the performance of the different methods considering the differences in the underlying theories. Specific items that were addressed were grid generation, governing equations, boundary conditions, turbulence modelling, and numerical methods. Practical aspects of the results, for instance from the point of view of propeller design, were also discussed. The Workshop Proceedings contain a description of the participating methods, and the results of both test cases. In the present paper, a summary of the Workshop and its results is presented.
Stability of viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube with a porous wall
Liu, Rong; Ding, Zijing
2017-05-01
The stability of the gravity-driven flow of a viscous film coating the inside of a tube with a porous wall is studied theoretically. We used Darcy's law to describe the motion of fluids in a porous medium. The Beaver-Joseph condition is used to describe the discontinuity of velocity at the porous-fluid interface. We derived an evolution equation for the film thickness using a long-wave approximation. The effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is identified by a parameter β . We examine the effect of β on the temporal stability, the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI), and the nonlinear evolution of the interface deformation. The results of the temporal stability reveal that the effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is destabilizing. The parameter β plays an important role in determining the AI-CI behavior and the nonlinear evolution of the interface. The presence of the porous wall promotes the absolute instability and the formation of the plug in the tube.
Yang, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Ren, Yan-Yu
2017-08-01
We examine the evolution of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplets with viscous hydrodynamics and analyze the pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in a granular source model consisting of viscous QGP droplets. The shear viscosity of the QGP droplet speeds up and slows down the droplet evolution in the central and peripheral regions of the droplet, respectively. The effect of the bulk viscosity on the evolution is negligible. Although there are viscous effects on the droplet evolution, the pion momentum spectrum and elliptic flow change little for granular sources with and without viscosity. On the other hand, the influence of viscosity on HBT radius R out is considerable. It makes R out decrease in the granular source model. We determine the model parameters of granular sources using the experimental data of pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii together, and investigate the effects of viscosity on the model parameters. The results indicate that the granular source model may reproduce the experimental data of pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii in heavy-ion collisions of Au-Au at and Pb-Pb at in different centrality intervals. The viscosity of the droplet leads to an increase in the initial droplet radius and a decrease of the source shell parameter in the granular source model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675034, 11275037)
Three-dimensional viscous flow computations of high area ratio nozzles for hypersonic propulsion
Reddy, D. R.; Harloff, G. J.
1991-01-01
The PARC3D code was selected by the authors to analyze a variety of complex and high-speed flow configurations. Geometries considered for code validation include ramps and corner flows, which are characteristic of inlets and nozzles. Flows with Mach numbers of 3-14 were studied. Both two- and three-dimensional experimental data for shock-boundary-layer interaction were considered to validate the code. A detailed comparison of various flow parameters with available experimental data is presented; agreement between the solutions and the experimental data in terms of pitot pressure profiles, yaw-angle distributions, static pressures, and skin friction is found to be very good. In addition, two- and three-dimensional flow calculations were performed for a hypersonic nozzle. Comparison of the wall pressure results with the published solutions is made for the two-dimensional case.
Transient flows of Newtonian viscous fluids in a tube extended by a viscoelastic vessel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennis, S.; Ly, D.; Bellet, D. (C.N.R.S., 31 - Toulouse (France))
1982-09-20
A resolution method based on symbolical calculation is finalized and applied to the determination of fields of velocity and power load, in Newtonian transient flows in a rigid tube one end of which is extended by a viscoelastic vessel and the other subjected to variable pressures.
Ren, Xiaodong; Xu, Kun; Shyy, Wei; Gu, Chunwei
2015-07-01
This paper presents a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method based on a multi-dimensional gas kinetic evolution model for viscous flow computations. Generally, the DG methods for equations with higher order derivatives must transform the equations into a first order system in order to avoid the so-called "non-conforming problem". In the traditional DG framework, the inviscid and viscous fluxes are numerically treated differently. Differently from the traditional DG approaches, the current method adopts a kinetic evolution model for both inviscid and viscous flux evaluations uniformly. By using a multi-dimensional gas kinetic formulation, we can obtain a spatial and temporal dependent gas distribution function for the flux integration inside the cell and at the cell interface, which is distinguishable from the Gaussian Quadrature point flux evaluation in the traditional DG method. Besides the initial higher order non-equilibrium states inside each control volume, a Linear Least Square (LLS) method is used for the reconstruction of smooth distributions of macroscopic flow variables around each cell interface in order to construct the corresponding equilibrium state. Instead of separating the space and time integrations and using the multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping method for time accuracy, the current method integrates the flux function in space and time analytically, which subsequently saves the computational time. Many test cases in two and three dimensions, which include high Mach number compressible viscous and heat conducting flows and the low speed high Reynolds number laminar flows, are presented to demonstrate the performance of the current scheme.
B R Sharma*, Nabajyoti Dutta
2016-01-01
In the present study, the effects of chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD flow of a viscous, electrically conducting and incompressible fluid mixture past a moving vertical cylinder is studied. The fluid is a gray, absorbing-emitting but non scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing dimensionless coupled non-linear partial differential equations are solved numerically using finite di...
Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.
The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
Ha, Hojin; Lantz, Jonas; Haraldsson, Henrik; Casas, Belen; Ziegler, Magnus; Karlsson, Matts; Saloner, David; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Ebbers, Tino
2016-12-01
Flow-induced blood damage plays an important role in determining the hemodynamic impact of abnormal blood flow, but quantifying of these effects, which are dominated by shear stresses in highly fluctuating turbulent flow, has not been feasible. This study evaluated the novel application of turbulence tensor measurements using simulated 4D Flow MRI data with six-directional velocity encoding for assessing hemodynamic stresses and corresponding blood damage index (BDI) in stenotic turbulent blood flow. The results showed that 4D Flow MRI underestimates the maximum principal shear stress of laminar viscous stress (PLVS), and overestimates the maximum principal shear stress of Reynolds stress (PRSS) with increasing voxel size. PLVS and PRSS were also overestimated by about 1.2 and 4.6 times at medium signal to noise ratio (SNR) = 20. In contrast, the square sum of the turbulent viscous shear stress (TVSS), which is used for blood damage index (BDI) estimation, was not severely affected by SNR and voxel size. The square sum of TVSS and the BDI at SNR >20 were underestimated by less than 1% and 10%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of 4D Flow MRI based quantification of TVSS and BDI which are closely linked to blood damage.
Calculation of periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid
Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
Analytic theory of disturbances generated by an oscillating compact source in a viscous continuously stratified fluid was constructed. Exact solution of the internal waves generation problem was constructed taking into account diffusivity effects. This analysis is based on set of fundamental equations of incompressible flows. The linearized problem of periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid, generated by an oscillating part of the inclined plane was solved by methods of singular perturbation theory. A rectangular or disc placed on a sloping plane and oscillating linearly in an arbitrary direction was selected as a source of disturbances. The solutions include regularly perturbed on dissipative component functions describing internal waves and a family of singularly perturbed functions. One of the functions from the singular components family has an analogue in a homogeneous fluid that is a periodic or Stokes' flow. Its thickness is defined by a universal micro scale depending on kinematics viscosity coefficient and a buoyancy frequency with a factor depending on the wave slope. Other singular perturbed functions are specific for stratified flows. Their thickness are defined the diffusion coefficient, kinematic viscosity and additional factor depending on geometry of the problem. Fields of fluid density, velocity, vorticity, pressure, energy density and flux as well as forces acting on the source are calculated for different types of the sources. It is shown that most effective source of waves is the bi-piston. Complete 3D problem is transformed in various limiting cases that are into 2D problem for source in stratified or homogeneous fluid and the Stokes problem for an oscillating infinite plane. The case of the "critical" angle that is equality of the emitting surface and the wave cone slope angles needs in separate investigations. In this case, the number of singular component is saved. Patterns of velocity and density fields were constructed and
Scheel, Janet D.; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-12-01
We discuss two aspects of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) on the basis of high-resolution direct numerical simulations in a unique setting: a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio of one. First, we present a comprehensive comparison of statistical quantities such as energy dissipation rates and boundary layer thickness scales. Data are used from three simulation run series at Prandtl numbers Pr that cover two orders of magnitude. In contrast to most previous studies in RBC the focus of the present work is on convective turbulence at very low Prandtl numbers including Pr=0.021 for liquid mercury or gallium and Pr=0.005 for liquid sodium. In this parameter range of RBC, inertial effects cause a dominating turbulent momentum transport that is in line with highly intermittent fluid turbulence both in the bulk and in the boundary layers and thus should be able to trigger a transition to the fully turbulent boundary layers of the ultimate regime of convection for higher Rayleigh number. Second, we predict the ranges of Rayleigh numbers for which the viscous boundary layer will transition to turbulence and the flow as a whole will cross over into the ultimate regime. These transition ranges are obtained by extrapolation from our simulation data. The extrapolation methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. Two of the three methods predict similar ranges for the transition to ultimate convection when their uncertainties are taken into account. All three extrapolation methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers Rac is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad K.V.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on a combined free and forced convective flow in a vertical channel is investigated for a fully developed flow regime. Boussinesq and Roseseland approximations are considered in the modeling of the conduction radiation heat transfer with thermal boundary conditions (isothermal-thermal, isoflux-thermal, and isothermal-flux. The coupled nonlinear governing equations are also solved analytically using the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM. The results are analyzed graphically for various governing parameters such as the mixed convection parameter, radiation parameter, Brinkman number and perturbation parameter for equal and different wall temperatures. It is found that the viscous dissipation enhances the flow reversal in the case of a downward flow while it counters the flow in the case of an upward flow. A comparison of the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM methods shows the versatility of the Differential Transform Method (DTM. The skin friction and the wall temperature gradient are presented for different values of the physical parameters and the salient features are analyzed.
Prasad, K. V.; Mallikarjun, P.; Vaidya, H.
2017-02-01
The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on a combined free and forced convective flow in a vertical channel is investigated for a fully developed flow regime. Boussinesq and Roseseland approximations are considered in the modeling of the conduction radiation heat transfer with thermal boundary conditions (isothermal-thermal, isoflux-thermal, and isothermal-flux). The coupled nonlinear governing equations are also solved analytically using the Differential Transform Method (DTM) and regular perturbation method (PM). The results are analyzed graphically for various governing parameters such as the mixed convection parameter, radiation parameter, Brinkman number and perturbation parameter for equal and different wall temperatures. It is found that the viscous dissipation enhances the flow reversal in the case of a downward flow while it counters the flow in the case of an upward flow. A comparison of the Differential Transform Method (DTM) and regular perturbation method (PM) methods shows the versatility of the Differential Transform Method (DTM). The skin friction and the wall temperature gradient are presented for different values of the physical parameters and the salient features are analyzed.
2010-06-11
Liang, Premasuthan and Jameson [16]. 2.4.2 Two-Dimensional Plunging and Pitching Airfoils Simulations of flow over plunging and pitching NACA0012 ...airfoil. 20 (a) (b) Figure 7: Vorticity over a plunging NACA0012 airfoil at Re = 1850 calculated using a forth-order SD scheme (a) is compared with an...b) Figure 8: Vorticity over a pitching NACA0012 airfoil at Re = 1.2 × 104 calculated using a forth-order SD scheme (a) is compared with an analogous
Heat transfer by laminar flow of an elastico-viscous liquid along a plane wall with periodic suction
Roy, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.
1980-11-01
The problem of heat transfer by the laminar flow of an elastico-viscous liquid along a plane wall with periodic suction has been considered. A perturbation technique has been used to obtain an approximate solution of the differential equations. The flow phenomenon has been characterized by the non-dimensional parameters like the elastic number ( S), the Reynolds number ( R), the Prandtl number ( P) and the Eckert number ( E). The effects of these parameters on the temperature distributions and the rate of heat transfer at the wall have been studied.
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Khan, Muhammad Ijaz; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-01-01
Simultaneous effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating in flow by rotating disk of variable thickness are examined. Radiative flow saturating porous space is considered. Much attention is given to entropy generation outcome. Developed nonlinear ordinary differential systems are computed for the convergent series solutions. Specifically, the results of velocity, temperature, entropy generation, Bejan number, coefficient of skin friction, and local Nusselt number are discussed. Clearly the entropy generation rate depends on velocity and temperature distributions. Moreover the entropy generation rate is a decreasing function of Hartmann number, Eckert number, and Reynolds number, while they gave opposite behavior for Bejan numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Pushkar Raj
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to investigate effects of ohmic heating and viscous dissipation on steady flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and variable free stream near a stagnation point on a stretching non-conducting isothermal sheet. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta fourth order with shooting technique. The velocity and temperature distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Skin-friction coefficient and the Nusselt number at the sheet are derived, discussed numerically, and their numerical values for various values of physical parameters are compared with earlier results and presented through tables.
Singh, A. K.
1984-10-01
The author presents the two-dimensional free-convective flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate for the Stokes problem when the flow is subjected to a constant suction velocity through the porous plate. As the mean steady flow has been presented in Part I, only the solution for the transient velocity profiles, transient temperature profiles, the amplitude and the phase of the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented in this work. As in the case of mean steady flow, the influence of various parameters on the unsteady flow field is discussed for both the cases cooling and heating of the porous plate by free-convection currents.
Numerical simulation of viscous flow and hydrodynamic noise in surface ship
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YU Han
2017-12-01
Full Text Available [Objectives] The problem of noise caused by an unsteady flow field around a surface ship is a difficulty facing the stealth design of ship hulls, in which the existence of the free surface makes it different from submarine hydrodynamic noise calculation. To solve this problem,[Methods] the Volume of Fluid(VOF method and SST k-ω turbulence model are combined to simulate the unsteady flow field of the hull, and the free surface is given an air acoustic impedance to simulate the absorption boundary. The pulsating pressure of the hull surface is used as the source of the noise, and the underwater radiation noise of the surface ship is calculated with the acoustic finite element method.[Results] The results show high agreement with the experimental results and previous simulation results. The noise sources are mainly concentrated at the bow of the hull.[Conclusions] The results show that this calculation method can accurately simulate the flow field and sound field of a surface ship, and it can provides valuable reference for the acoustic stealth design of surface ships.
Zakharov equations for viscous flow and their use in the blood clot formation
Zhou, Ai-Ping; Li, Xiao-Qing
2017-12-01
For theoretical study, blood can be regarded as a viscous electrically conducting fluid of negative ions and protons. Zakharov equations including viscosity are relevant for describing the behaviour of blood plasma. The dispersion formula is derived from the perturbation method and is solved numerically. It turns out that the imaginary part of one root of the perturbation frequency is greater than zero, and modulation instability occurs. This would lead to the formation of blood clot. The viscous force can suppress the occurrence of instability and prevent thrombosis. One can find that the chaotic state of blood signals human health.
Zakharov equations for viscous flow and their use in the blood clot ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ai-Ping Zhou
2017-11-14
Nov 14, 2017 ... Abstract. For theoretical study, blood can be regarded as a viscous electrically conducting fluid of negative ions and protons. Zakharov equations including viscosity are relevant for describing the behaviour of blood plasma. The dispersion formula is derived from the perturbation method and is solved ...
Zakharov equations for viscous flow and their use in the blood clot ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For theoretical study, blood can be regarded as a viscous electrically conducting fluid of negative ions and protons. Zakharov equations including viscosity are relevant for describing the behaviour of blood plasma. The dispersion formula is derived from the perturbation method and is solved numerically. It turns out that the ...
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The reference temperature of the external fluid is considered to be equal and different. The perturbation method which is valid for small values of perturbation parameter is used to find the combined effects of buoyancy forces and viscous dissipation. The limitation imposed on the perturbation parameter is relaxed by solving ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The unsteady mixed convection flow of electrical conducting nanofluid and heat transfer due to a permeable linear stretching sheet with the combined effects of an electric field, magnetic field, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction have been investigated. A similarity transformation is used to transform the constitutive equations into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant system of equations is then solved numerically using implicit finite difference method. The velocity, temperature, concentration, entropy generation, and Bejan number are obtained with the dependence of different emerging parameters examined. It is noticed that the velocity is more sensible with high values of electric field and diminished with a magnetic field. The radiative heat transfer and viscous dissipation enhance the heat conduction in the system. Moreover, the impact of mixed convection parameter and Buoyancy ratio parameter on Bejan number profile has reverse effects. A chemical reaction reduced the nanoparticle concentration for higher values. Keywords: Entropy generation, MHD nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Bejan number, Chemical reaction, Viscous dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q Joyce Han
Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI to derive RV kinetic energy (KE work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA to better characterize RV work in PAH patients.4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA.PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007 as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001 throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction.This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.
Superelevation Calculation of Debris Flow Climbing Ascending Slopes
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HaiXin Zhao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new method for calculating the superelevation of debris flow when it encounters obstacles in the process of flowing. Our calculation method is based on the Bingham Model for debris flow determination and considers the vertical difference of debris flow velocity and characteristic parameters of debris flow on a hypothetical basis. Moreover, we conducted an indoor flume experiment to verify the accuracy and reasonability of our calculation method. The experimental results showed that our method is able to accurately calculate the superelevation of debris flow with a root-mean-square error (16%. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth example of how our calculation method can be employed. Ultimately, we conclusively prove that our calculation method can be used for the superelevation calculation of debris flow climbing ascending slopes. Finally, we provide more exact parameters for debris flow protection engineering.
Helal, M. M.; Abd-El-Malek, M. B.
2005-01-01
The group theoretic method is applied for solving problem of the flow of an elastico-viscous liquid past an infinite flat plate in the presence of a magnetic field normal to the plate. The application of one-parameter transformation group reduces the number of independent variables, by one, and consequently the system of governing partial differential equations with boundary conditions reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations with appropriate corresponding conditions. Numerical solution of the velocity field and heat transfer have been obtained. The effect of the magnetic parameter M on velocity field, shear stress, temperature fields and heat transfer has been discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. G. Prabhakara Rao,
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional MHD natural convection flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid through porous medium past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations of velocity and temperature fields with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the ordinary differential equations by introducing appropriate coordinate transformations. We solve that ordinary differential equations and find the velocity profiles, temperature profile, the skin friction and nusselt number. The effects of Grashof number (Gr, Hartmann number (M and Prandtl number (Pr, Darcy parameter (D-1 on velocity profiles and temperature profiles are shown graphically.
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Çilingir Süngü İnci
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study is to examine the steady two dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a continuous surface. In this study DTM-Padé method is used to solve which is a combination of differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximant. Comparisons between the solutions obtained by DTM and DTM-Padé and are shown that DTM-Padé is the completely powerful method then DTM for solving the problems in which boundary conditions at infinity. Also in this study the effect of Magnetic and Radiation parameters, Prandtl number and Eckert number for velocity and temperature distributions are investigated.
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Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of unsteady mixed convection electrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow and heat transfer induced due to nanofluid over a permeable stretching sheet using Buongiorno model is investigated. The transverse electric and magnetic fields are considered in the flow field, while in the heat convection is associated with the thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption, viscous and Ohmic dissipations, and chemical reaction is incorporated in the mass diffusion. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the boundary layer governing equations which are partial differential equations to nonlinear differential equations and then solved numerically using implicit finite difference scheme. The nanofluid velocity and temperature are sensitive to an increase in the electric field, which resolved the problem of sticky effects due to the magnetic field. Destructive chemical reaction increases the level nanoparticles concentration while reversed behave happened in the case of the generative chemical reaction. Heat source boosts the fluid temperature while as opposite occurred with the heat sink. Thermal and concentration stratifications decreased the fluid temperature and the nanoparticles concentration profiles. Buoyancy ratio parameter reduced the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers whereas mixed convection parameter increases for higher values. A comparison with the previous study available in literature has been done and found an excellent agreement with the published data. Keywords: Magnetic nanofluid, Doubly stratified flow, Mixed convection, Thermal radiation, Electric field, Viscous and Ohmic dissipations
Guha, Abhijit; Sengupta, Sayantan
2014-03-01
In this article, the fluid dynamics of work transfer within the narrow spacing (usually of the order of 100 μm) of multiple concentric discs of a Tesla disc turbomachine (turbine or compressor) has been analysed theoretically and computationally. Both the overall work transfer and its spatial development have been considered. It has been established that the work transfer mechanism in a Tesla disc turbomachine is very different from that in a conventional turbomachine, and the formulation of the Euler's work equation for the disc turbomachine contains several conceptual subtleties because of the existence of complex, three dimensional, non-uniform, viscous flow features. A work equivalence principle has been enunciated, which establishes the equality between the magnitudes of work transfer determined rigorously from two different approaches—one based on the shear stress acting on the disc surfaces and the other based on the change in angular momentum of the fluid. Care is needed in identifying the shear stress components that are responsible for the generation or absorption of useful power. It is shown from the Reynolds transport theorem that mass-flow-averaged tangential velocities (as opposed to the normally used area-averaged values) must be used in determining the change in angular momentum; the calculation has to be carefully formulated since both radial velocity (that determines throughput) and tangential velocity (that generates torque) depend strongly on the coordinate perpendicular to the disc surfaces. The principle of work transfer has been examined both in the absolute and relative frames of reference, revealing the subtle role played by Coriolis force. The concept of a new non-dimensional quantity called the torque potential fraction (Δ tilde H) is introduced. The value of Δ tilde H at any radial position increases with a decrease in inter-disc spacing. The computational fluid dynamic analysis shows that, for small value of inter-disc spacing and
Viscous computations using a direct solver
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1990-01-01
Laminar viscous flows over airfoils are investigated analytically, applying the flux-difference splitting scheme of Roe (1986) to solve the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Central-difference discretization is used for the viscous terms, and a fully implicit implementation is employed to minimize the Reynolds-number effect on convergence. Results for flows at freestream Mach number 0.5 and Reynolds number 5000 over NACA0012 airfoils at angles of attack 0 and 3 deg are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Good agreement with previous calculations is obtained, with accurate reproduction of essential features despite the use of coarser meshes.
Trajectory control of PbSe–γ-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field
Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina
2010-01-01
The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic γ -Fe2O3 nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the γ -Fe2O3 magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters’ flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (medicine. PMID:20368678
MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous
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Zeeshan Khan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC, nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE. In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter Mand the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current results are compared with published work already available.
Analysis of Three-dimension Viscous Flow in the Model Axial Compressor Stage K1002L
Tribunskaia, K.; Kozhukhov, Y. V.
2017-08-01
The main investigation subject considered in this paper is axial compressor model stage K1002L. Three simulation models were designed: Scheme 1 - inlet stage model consisting of IGV (Inlet Guide Vane), rotor and diffuser; Scheme 2 - two-stage model: IGV, first-stage rotor, first-stage diffuser, second-stage rotor, EGV (Exit Guide Vane); Scheme 3 - full-round model: IGV, rotor, diffuser. Numerical investigation of the model stage was held for four circumferential velocities at the outer diameter (Uout=125,160,180,210 m/s) within the range of flow coefficient: ϕ = 0.4 - 0.6. The computational domain was created with ANSYS CFX Workbench. According to simulation results, there were constructed aerodynamic characteristic curves of adiabatic efficiency and the adiabatic head coefficient calculated for total parameters were compared with data from the full-scale test received at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institution (CBTI), thus, verification of the calculated data was carried out. Moreover, there were conducted the following studies: comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of the schemes 1, 2; comparison of the sector and full-round models. The analysis and conclusions are supplemented by gas-dynamic method calculation for axial compressor stages.
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Kishore P.M.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical study is presented on the effects of chemical reaction and magnetic field on the unsteady free convection flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate by taking into account the heat due to viscous dissipation. The problem is governed by coupled non-linear partial differential equations. The dimensionless equations of the problem have been solved numerically by the implicit finite difference method of Crank - Nicolson’s type. The effects of governing parameters on the flow variables are discussed quantitatively with the aid of graphs for the flow field, temperature field, concentration field, skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. It is found that under the influence of chemical reaction, the flow velocity as well as concentration distributions reduce, while the viscous dissipation parameter leads to increase the temperature.
Lidocaine viscous, a local anesthetic, is used to treat the pain of a sore or irritated mouth ... associated with cancer chemotherapy and certain medical procedures. Lidocaine viscous is not normally used for sore throats ...
Pothanna, N.; Aparna, P.; Gorla, R. S. R.
2017-12-01
In this paper we present numerical solutions to coupled non-linear governing equations of thermo-viscous fluid flow in cylindrical geometry using MATHEMATICA software solver. The numerical results are presented in terms of velocity, temperature and pressure distribution for various values of the material parameters such as the thermo-mechanical stress coefficient, thermal conductivity coefficient, Reiner Rivlin cross viscosity coefficient and the Prandtl number in the form of tables and graphs. Also, the solutions to governing equations for slow steady motion of a fluid have been obtained numerically and compared with the existing analytical results and are found to be in excellent agreement. The results of the present study will hopefully enable a better understanding applications of the flow under consideration.
Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid
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Zeeshan Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
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Pothanna N.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present numerical solutions to coupled non-linear governing equations of thermo-viscous fluid flow in cylindrical geometry using MATHEMATICA software solver. The numerical results are presented in terms of velocity, temperature and pressure distribution for various values of the material parameters such as the thermo-mechanical stress coefficient, thermal conductivity coefficient, Reiner Rivlin cross viscosity coefficient and the Prandtl number in the form of tables and graphs. Also, the solutions to governing equations for slow steady motion of a fluid have been obtained numerically and compared with the existing analytical results and are found to be in excellent agreement. The results of the present study will hopefully enable a better understanding applications of the flow under consideration.
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N. Khan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.
Sharma, Kalpna; Gupta, Sumit
2017-06-01
This paper investigates steady two dimensional flow of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over an impermeable surface in presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. By using similarity transformation, the arising governing equations of momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration are transformed into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are than solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effect of different physical parameters, namely, Prandtl number Pr, Eckert number Ec, Magnetic parameter M, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophoresis parameter Nt, Lewis parameter Le and Radiation parameter Rd on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles along with the Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are discussed graphically and in tabular form in details. The present results are also compared with existing limiting solutions.
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Reza Hosseini
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid in convergent or divergent channels under the influence of an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field is studied both analytically and numerically. Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetism equations are reduced into highly non-linear ordinary differential equation. The resulting non-linear equation has been solved analytically using a very efficient technique, namely, differential transform method (DTM. The DTM solution is compared with the results obtained by a numerical method (shooting method, coupled with fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. The plots have revealed the physical characteristics of flow by changing angles of the channel, Hartmann and Reynolds numbers.
Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method
Nixon, D.
1976-01-01
An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.
Muralidharan, Balaji; Menon, Suresh
2016-09-01
A new adaptive finite volume conservative cut-cell method that is third-order accurate for simulation of compressible viscous flows is presented. A high-order reconstruction approach using cell centered piecewise polynomial approximation of flow quantities, developed in the past for body-fitted grids, is now extended to the Cartesian based cut-cell method. It is shown that the presence of cut-cells of very low volume results in numerical oscillations in the flow solution near the embedded boundaries when standard small cell treatment techniques are employed. A novel cell clustering approach for polynomial reconstruction in the vicinity of the small cells is proposed and is shown to achieve smooth representation of flow field quantities and their derivatives on immersed interfaces. It is further shown through numerical examples that the proposed clustering method achieves the design order of accuracy and is fairly insensitive to the cluster size. Results are presented for canonical flow past a single cylinder and a sphere at different flow Reynolds numbers to verify the accuracy of the scheme. Investigations are then performed for flow over two staggered cylinders and the results are compared with prior data for the same configuration. All the simulations are carried out with both quadratic and cubic reconstruction, and the results indicate a clear improvement with the cubic reconstruction. The new cut-cell approach with cell clustering is able to predict accurate results even at relatively low resolutions. The ability of the high-order cut-cell method in handling sharp geometrical corners and narrow gaps is also demonstrated using various examples. Finally, three-dimensional flow interactions between a pair of spheres in cross flow is investigated using the proposed cut-cell scheme. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement with past studies, which employed body-fitted grids for studying this complex case.
Duda, D.; Švančara, P.; La Mantia, M.; Rotter, M.; Skrbek, L.
2015-08-01
The motions of micrometer-sized solid deuterium particles in liquid 4He, at temperatures between approximately 1.2 and 3 K, are visualized in the proximity of an oscillating cylinder of rectangular cross section (3 mm high and 10 mm wide). The cylinder is oscillating vertically, perpendicularly to its cross-section width, at frequencies between 0.05 and 1.25 Hz, and amplitudes of 5 and 10 mm, resulting in Reynolds numbers R e up to 105. The aim of the reported experiments is to investigate systematically the macroscopic vortical structures shed at the cylinder sharp edges, by tracking the deuterium particles. We find that large-scale, millimeter-sized vortices are generated in the surrounding fluid by the oscillating cylinder, both in viscous He I and superfluid He II. An estimate of the strength of the shed vortical structures reveals that, for R e >104 , the corresponding magnitudes are approximately equal in He I and He II if, in He II, the kinematic viscosity is suitably defined. For R e <104 , the strength of the large-scale vortices is smaller in He II than in He I. Although the outcome is partly affected by the larger scatter of the He I data and possibly also by the much larger heat conductivity of superfluid 4He, we argue that the fundamental physical reason for observing this difference is that, at these Reynolds numbers, the experimentally probed length scales in He II are smaller than the average distance between quantized vortices—the quantum length scale of the flow. The result strongly suggests that, similarly to thermal counterflow, both viscous and quantum features can be observed in mechanically driven flows of He II, depending on the length scales at which the quantum flow is probed.
Semidiscrete Galerkin modelling of compressible viscous flow past a circular cone at incidence
Meade, Andrew James, Jr.
1989-10-01
A numerical study of the laminar and compressible boundary layer, about a circular cone in a supersonic free stream, is presented. It is thought that if accurate and efficient numerical schemes can be produced to solve the boundary layer equations, they can be joined to numerical codes that solve the inviscid outer flow. The combination of these numerical codes is competitive with the accurate, but computationally expensive, Navier-Stokes schemes. The primary goal is to develop a finite element method for the calculation of 3-D compressible laminar boundary layer about a yawed cone. The proposed method can, in principle, be extended to apply to the 3-D boundary layer of pointed bodies of arbitrary cross section. The 3-D boundary layer equations governing supersonic free stream flow about a cone are examined. The 3-D partial differential equations are reduced to 2-D integral equations by applying the Howarth, Mangler, Crocco transformations, a linear relation between viscosity, and a Blasius-type of similarity variable. This is equivalent to a Dorodnitsyn-type formulation. The reduced equations are independent of density and curvature effects, and resemble the weak form of the 2-D incompressible boundary layer equations in Cartesian coordinates. In addition the coordinate normal to the wall has been stretched, which reduces the gradients across the layer and provides high resolution near the surface. Utilizing the parabolic nature of the boundary layer equations, a finite element method is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation. The formulation is presented in a Petrov-Galerkin finite element form and discretized across the layer using linear interpolation functions. The finite element discretization yields a system of ordinary differential equations in the circumferential direction. The circumferential derivatives are solved by an implicit and noniterative finite difference marching scheme. Solutions are presented for a 15 deg half angle cone at angles of attack of
Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar
2017-05-01
This communication is devoted to analyze elastic deformation on electrically conducted viscoelastic fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation effects. Non-linear analysis is computed through exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Special emphasis is provided for elastic deformation in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics effects. Concentration profile is discussed significantly in the presence constructive and destructive chemical reaction. Results are displayed through graphs and discussed for physical parameters that are used in present analysis. Notable findings include that temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of Prandtl number and a decreasing function of elastic deformation. In addition, heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing the conjugate parameter (γ) which measures the strength of surface heating.
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S. K. Pandey
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical investigation of the peristaltic transport of a viscous fluid under the influence of a magnetic field through a tube of finite length in a dimensionless form. The expressions of pressure gradient, volume flow rate, average volume flow rate and local wall shear stress have been obtained. The effects of the transverse magnetic field and electrical conductivity (i.e. the Hartmann number on the mechanical efficiency of a peristaltic pump have also been studied. The reflux phenomenon is also investigated. It is concluded, on the basis of the pressure distribution along the tubular length and pumping efficiency, that if the transverse magnetic field and the electric conductivity increase, the pumping machinery exerts more pressure for pushing the fluid forward. There is a linear relation between the averaged flow rate and the pressure applied across one wavelength that can restrain the flow due to peristalsis. It is found that there is a particular value of the averaged flow rate corresponding to a particular pressure that does not depend on the Hartmann number. Naming these values ‘critical values’, it is concluded that the pressure required for checking the flow increases with the Hartmann number above the critical value and decreases with it below the critical value. It is also inferred that magneto-hydrodynamic parameters make the fluid more prone to flow reversal. The conclusion applied to oesophageal swallowing reveals that normal water is easier to swallow than saline water. The latter is more prone to flow reversal. A significant difference between the propagation of the integral and non-integral number of waves along the tube is that pressure peaks are identical in the former and different in the latter cases.
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Li, Mao; Qiu, Zihua; Liang, Chunlei; Sprague, Michael; Xu, Min
2017-01-13
In the present study, a new spectral difference (SD) method is developed for viscous flows on meshes with a mixture of triangular and quadrilateral elements. The standard SD method for triangular elements, which employs Lagrangian interpolating functions for fluxes, is not stable when the designed accuracy of spatial discretization is third-order or higher. Unlike the standard SD method, the method examined here uses vector interpolating functions in the Raviart-Thomas (RT) spaces to construct continuous flux functions on reference elements. Studies have been performed for 2D wave equation and Euler equa- tions. Our present results demonstrated that the SDRT method is stable and high-order accurate for a number of test problems by using triangular-, quadrilateral-, and mixed- element meshes.
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O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of a Berman flow of water based nanofluids containing copper (Cu and alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles in a porous channel with Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and convective cooling are investigated. It is assumed that the exchange of heat with the ambient surrounding takes place at the channel walls following Newton’s law of cooling. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity transformations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation methods with series improvement technique and numerically using an efficient Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop, and Nusselt numbers are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Yasin, Mohd Hafizi Mat; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan
2015-12-09
The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable.
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Alok Kumar Pandey
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to examine the collective influence of thermal radiation and convection flow of Cu-water nanofluid due to a stretching cylinder in a porous medium along with viscous dissipation and slip boundary conditions. The governing non-linear ODEs and auxiliary boundary conditions those obtained by applying assisting similarity transformations have been handled numerically with shooting scheme through Runge-Kutta-integration procedure of fourth-fifth order. The non-dimensional velocity and temperature distribution are designed and also skin friction coefficient as well as heat transfer rate are tabulated for various values of relatable parameters. The results explain that Nusselt number depreciates with boost in radiation parameter, thermal slip parameter and Eckert number. Moreover, it is accelerated with increase in velocity slip parameter and natural convection parameter. The results are distinguished via published ones and excellent accord has been detected.
Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip
1994-01-01
A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.
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Aurang Zaib
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Casson fluid and heat transfer due to an exponentially permeable shrinking sheet with viscous dissipation is investigated. Using similarity transformations, the governing momentum and energy equations are transformed to self-similar nonlinear ODEs and then those are solved numerically by very efficient shooting method. The analysis explores many important aspects of flow and heat transfer of the aforesaid non-Newtonian fluid flow dynamics. For the steady flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid, more amount of wall mass suction through the porous sheet is required in comparison to that of Newtonian fluid flow. Dual similarity solutions are obtained for velocity and temperature. The viscous dissipation effect has major impact on the heat transfer characteristic. In fact, heat absorption at the surface occurs and it increases due to viscous dissipation. For higher Prandtl number, the temperature inside the boundary layer reduces, but with larger Eckert number (viscous dissipation it is enhanced.
Viscous-inviscid interaction using the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1997-01-01
A numerical model for the calculation of incompressible viscous flows past airfoils andwings has been developed. The approach is based on a strong viscous-inviscid coupling of aboundary element method with the Navier-Stokesequations in vorticity-streamfunction formulation.A semi-adaptive or fully...
Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube
Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng
2018-01-01
The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.
Cheny, Yoann; Botella, Olivier
2010-02-01
This paper concerns the development of a new Cartesian grid/immersed boundary (IB) method for the computation of incompressible viscous flows in two-dimensional irregular geometries. In IB methods, the computational grid is not aligned with the irregular boundary, and of upmost importance for accuracy and stability is the discretization in cells which are cut by the boundary, the so-called "cut-cells". In this paper, we present a new IB method, called the LS-STAG method, which is based on the MAC method for staggered Cartesian grids and where the irregular boundary is sharply represented by its level-set function. This implicit representation of the immersed boundary enables us to calculate efficiently the geometry parameters of the cut-cells. We have achieved a novel discretization of the fluxes in the cut-cells by enforcing the strict conservation of total mass, momentum and kinetic energy at the discrete level. Our discretization in the cut-cells is consistent with the MAC discretization used in Cartesian fluid cells, and has the ability to preserve the five-point Cartesian structure of the stencil, resulting in a highly computationally efficient method. The accuracy and robustness of our method is assessed on canonical flows at low to moderate Reynolds number: Taylor-Couette flow, flows past a circular cylinder, including the case where the cylinder has forced oscillatory rotations. Finally, we will extend the LS-STAG method to the handling of moving immersed boundaries and present some results for the transversely oscillating cylinder flow in a free-stream.
M. Cibiş (Merih); K. Jarvis (Kelly); M. Markl (Michael); M. Rose (Michael); C. Rigsby (Cynthia); A.J. Barker (Alex); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda)
2015-01-01
textabstractViscous dissipation inside Fontan circulation, a parameter associated with the exercise intolerance of Fontan patients, can be derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or 4D flow MRI velocities. However, the impact of spatial resolution and measurement noise on the estimation of
Elbaz, MSM; van der Geest, R; Calkoen, EE; de Roos, A.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Roest, AAW; Westenberg, JJM
2017-01-01
Purpose To evaluate viscous energy loss and the association with three-dimensional (3D) vortex ring formation in left ventricular (LV) blood flow during diastolic filling. Theory and Methods Thirty healthy volunteers were compared with 32 patients with corrected atrioventricular septal defect as
Xu, Li; Weng, Peifen
2014-02-01
An improved fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) scheme combined with the moving overset grid technique has been developed to compute unsteady compressible viscous flows on the helicopter rotor in forward flight. In order to enforce periodic rotation and pitching of the rotor and relative motion between rotor blades, the moving overset grid technique is extended, where a special judgement standard is presented near the odd surface of the blade grid during search donor cells by using the Inverse Map method. The WENO-Z scheme is adopted for reconstructing left and right state values with the Roe Riemann solver updating the inviscid fluxes and compared with the monotone upwind scheme for scalar conservation laws (MUSCL) and the classical WENO scheme. Since the WENO schemes require a six point stencil to build the fifth-order flux, the method of three layers of fringes for hole boundaries and artificial external boundaries is proposed to carry out flow information exchange between chimera grids. The time advance on the unsteady solution is performed by the full implicit dual time stepping method with Newton type LU-SGS subiteration, where the solutions of pseudo steady computation are as the initial fields of the unsteady flow computation. Numerical results on non-variable pitch rotor and periodic variable pitch rotor in forward flight reveal that the approach can effectively capture vortex wake with low dissipation and reach periodic solutions very soon.
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Alok Kumar Pandey
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of present study is to identify the effects of viscous dissipation and suction/injection on MHD flow of a nanofluid past a wedge with convective surface in the appearance of slip flow and porous medium. The basic non-linear PDEs of flow and energy are altered into a set of non-linear ODEs using auxiliary similarity transformations. The system of equations together with coupled boundary conditions have been solved numerically by applying Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg procedure via shooting scheme. The influence of relevant parameters on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are depicted graphically and investigated in detail. The results elucidate that as enhance in the Eckert number, the skin friction coefficient increases, while heat transfer rate decreases. The outcomes also specify that thermal boundary layer thickness declines with an increase in suction parameter. Moreover, it is accelerated with augment in injection parameter. The results are analogized with the study published earlier and it creates a fine concord.
Behaviour of a rimmed elliptical inclusion in 2D slow incompressible viscous flow
Mancktelow, N. S.
2012-04-01
The shape preferred orientation of natural populations of inclusions (or "porphyroclasts") is often inconsistent with predictions from established analytical theory for inclusions with coherent boundaries (e.g., Pennacchioni et al. 2001). A totally incoherent or slipping interface can explain observed stable back-rotated (or antithetic) orientations but not the observed cut-off axial ratio, below which inclusions still rotate. However, this behaviour is reproduced by a rimmed inclusion with a rim viscosity that is not infinitely weak but still weaker than the matrix (e.g., Schmid and Podladchikov 2005; Johnson et al. 2009). In this study, finite-element numerical modelling (FEM) is employed to investigate this system in 2D over a very wide parameter space, from a viscosity ratio (relative to the matrix) of the inclusion from 106 to 1, the rim from 10-6 to 1, the axial ratio from 1.00025 to 20, and the rim thickness from 5% to 20%. Theoretical consideration of a concentric elliptical inclusion and ellipse reduces the number of scalar values to be determined to fully characterize the system to two: one for the rate of stretch of the inclusion and one for the rate of rotation. From these two values, the rotation and stretching rate can be calculated for any orientation and 2D background flow field. For effectively rigid particles, the cut-off axial ratio between rotation and stabilization is determined by the remaining two parameters, namely the rim viscosity and the thickness, with low rim viscosity or thick rims promoting stabilization. The shape fabric of a population of particles in a high strain shear zone, presented as a typical Rf/φ plot, can be forward modelled using an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) approach. Because the rim does not remain elliptical to high strain, this method cannot accurately model the behaviour of individual inclusions. However, a statistical approach, allowing variation in rim viscosity, which is also a proxy for
Decaying quasi-two-dimensional viscous flow on a square domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Konijnenberg, J.A. van de; Flor, J.B.; Heijst, G.J.F. van
1998-01-01
A comparison is made between experimental, numerical and analytical results for the two-dimensional flow on a square domain. The experiments concern the flow at the interface of a two-layer stratified fluid, evoked by either stirring the fluid with a rake, or by injecting additional fluid at the ...
On the effect of boundary vibration on poiseuille flow of an elastico-viscous liquid
Siginer, A.
1992-11-01
The longitudinal and orthogonal superposition of boundary driven, small strain, oscillatory shear flow and steady Poiseuille flow is investigated. Boundary oscillations are of different frequencies and amplitudes and are represented by sinusoidal waveforms. A regular perturbation in terms of the amplitude of the oscillations is used. The flow field is determined up to and including third order for a simple fluid of multiple integral type with fading memory. Flow enhancement effects dependent on material parameters, mean pressure gradient, and amplitude and frequency of the boundary waves are predicted and closed form formulas derived for the mass transport rate. Enhancement is determined both by the elastic and shear thinning or thickening properties of the liquid. Resonance effects are shown to take place and, in particular, mean secondary and longitudinal flows, independent of the mean pressure gradient, are shown to exist for certain frequency relationships.
Compton, Katharine E.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Holk, Gregory J.
2017-06-01
Exhumed shear zones often contain folded and/or dynamically recrystallized structures, such as veins and pseudotachylytes, which record broadly contemporaneous brittle and ductile deformation. Here, we investigate veins within the Saddlebag Lake Shear Zone, central Sierra Nevada, California, to constrain the conditions and processes that caused fractures to form during ductile deformation. The shear zone mylonites contain compositional banding at centimeter- to meter- scales, and a ubiquitous, grain-scale, continuous- to spaced-foliation defined by aligned muscovite and chlorite grains. Veins of multiple compositions formed in two predominant sets: sub-parallel to the foliation and at high angle to the foliation. Some foliation sub-parallel veins show apparent shear offset consistent with the overall kinematics of the shear zone. These veins are folded with the foliation and are commonly boudinaged, showing they were rigid inclusions after formation. Quartz microstructures and fluid inclusion thermobarometry measurements indicate the veins formed by fracture at temperatures between 400-600 °C. Quartz, feldspar and tourmaline δ18O values (+ 2.5 to + 16.5) suggest extended fluid-rock interaction that involved magmatic, metamorphic, and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. The orientation and spatial distribution of the veins shows that shear fractures formed along mechanically weak foliation planes. We infer fracture was promoted by perturbations to the strain rate and/or pore pressure during frictional-viscous deformation in a low effective stress environment. Evidence for repeated fracture and subsequent flow suggest both the stress and pore pressure varied, and that the tendency to fracture was controlled by the rates of pore pressure recovery, facilitated by fracture cementation. The tectonic setting and inferred phenomenological behavior were similar to intra-continental transform faults that host triggered tectonic tremor, suggesting the mechanisms that caused
Certainty Power Flow Calculation for Distribution Network with Distributed Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FU Min
2017-06-01
Full Text Available System nodes need to be renumbered manually when upgrading and reforming distribution network makes network topology change． Because optimization method is inapplicable to the network change，an improved forward and backward sweep algorithm is proposed which is unrelated to node label． In this paper，node type of sorts of distributed generation ( DG in power flow calculation are induced and part of new node type of DG under improved control strategy are provided． The basis of DG as active constant node in certainty power flow calculation is analyzed． Based on improved back － forward sweep algorithm，general programs of power flow calculation in power distribution network of DG are programmed by MATLAB and the impact of DG on flow calculation to distribution network is analyzed quantitatively by plenty of simulation calculation of IEEE33 test system．
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil
1996-01-01
A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...... modulus, which increases as the temperature decreases. The model is confirmed by experiments on a number of molecular liquids....
Elbaz, Mohammed S M; van der Geest, Rob J; Calkoen, Emmeline E; de Roos, Albert; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Roest, Arno A W; Westenberg, Jos J M
2017-02-01
To evaluate viscous energy loss and the association with three-dimensional (3D) vortex ring formation in left ventricular (LV) blood flow during diastolic filling. Thirty healthy volunteers were compared with 32 patients with corrected atrioventricular septal defect as unnatural mitral valve morphology and inflow are common in these patients. 4DFlow MRI was acquired from which 3D vortex ring formation was identified in LV blood flow at peak early (E)-filling and late (A)-filling and characterized by its presence/absence, orientation, and position from the lateral wall. Viscous energy loss was computed over E-filling, A-filling, and complete diastole using the Navier-Stokes energy equations. Compared with healthy volunteers, viscous energy loss was significantly elevated in patients with disturbed vortex ring formation as characterized by a significantly inclined orientation and/or position closer to the lateral wall. Highest viscous energy loss was found in patients without a ring-shaped vortex during E-filling (on average more than double compared with patients with ring-shape vortex, P formation was associated with significant increase in total viscous energy loss over diastole even in the presence of normal E-filling vortex ring. Altered vortex ring formation during LV filling is associated with increased viscous energy loss. Magn Reson Med 77:794-805, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
van der Geest, Rob J.; Calkoen, Emmeline E.; de Roos, Albert; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P.F.; Roest, Arno A.W.; Westenberg, Jos J.M.
2016-01-01
Purpose To evaluate viscous energy loss and the association with three‐dimensional (3D) vortex ring formation in left ventricular (LV) blood flow during diastolic filling. Theory and Methods Thirty healthy volunteers were compared with 32 patients with corrected atrioventricular septal defect as unnatural mitral valve morphology and inflow are common in these patients. 4DFlow MRI was acquired from which 3D vortex ring formation was identified in LV blood flow at peak early (E)‐filling and late (A)‐filling and characterized by its presence/absence, orientation, and position from the lateral wall. Viscous energy loss was computed over E‐filling, A‐filling, and complete diastole using the Navier‐Stokes energy equations. Results Compared with healthy volunteers, viscous energy loss was significantly elevated in patients with disturbed vortex ring formation as characterized by a significantly inclined orientation and/or position closer to the lateral wall. Highest viscous energy loss was found in patients without a ring‐shaped vortex during E‐filling (on average more than double compared with patients with ring‐shape vortex, P formation was associated with significant increase in total viscous energy loss over diastole even in the presence of normal E‐filling vortex ring. Conclusion Altered vortex ring formation during LV filling is associated with increased viscous energy loss. Magn Reson Med 77:794–805, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:26924448
Ghaffari, Farhad
1999-01-01
Numerical viscous solutions based on an unstructured grid methodology are presented for a candidate high-speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA), within the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The numerical results are obtained on a representative TCA high-lift configuration that consisted of the fuselage and the wing, with deflected full-span leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps. Typical on-and off-surface flow structures, computed at high-lift conditions appropriate for the takeoff and landing, indicated features that are generally plausible. Reasonable surface pressure correlations between the numerical results and the experimental data are obtained at free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) = 0.25 and Reynolds number based on bar-c R(sub c) = 8 x 10(exp 6) for moderate angles of attack of 9.7 deg. and 13.5 deg. However, above and below this angle-of-attack range, the correlation between computed and measured pressure distributions starts to deteriorate over the examined angle-of-attack range. The predicted longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are shown to correlate very well with existing experimental data across the examined angle-of-attack range. An excellent agreement is also obtained between the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and the experimental data over the examined range of flow conditions.
Progress Towards a Cartesian Cut-Cell Method for Viscous Compressible Flow
Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2012-01-01
We present preliminary development of an approach for simulating high Reynolds number steady compressible flow in two space dimensions using a Cartesian cut-cell finite volume method. We consider both laminar and turbulent flow with both low and high cell Reynolds numbers near the wall. The approach solves the full Navier-Stokes equations in all cells, and uses a wall model to address the resolution requirements near boundaries and to mitigate mesh irregularities in cut cells. We present a quadratic wall model for low cell Reynolds numbers. At high cell Reynolds numbers, the quadratic is replaced with a newly developed analytic wall model stemming from solution of a limiting form of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model which features a forward evaluation for flow velocity and exactly matches characteristics of the SA turbulence model in the field. We develop multigrid operators which attain convergence rates similar to inviscid multigrid. Investigations focus on preliminary verification and validation of the method. Flows over flat plates and compressible airfoils show good agreement with both theoretical results and experimental data. Mesh convergence studies on sub- and transonic airfoil flows show convergence of surface pressures with wall spacings as large as approx.0.1% chord. With the current analytic wall model, one or two additional refinements near the wall are required to obtain mesh converged values of skin friction.
Non-isothermal flow of viscous liquids: engineering correlations for scale-up guidelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dey, A.K.
1988-10-01
Measurements of pressure distribution and temperature distribution along the length of model pipeline test rigs were made at varying operating variables for laminar flow of newtonion and power-law liquids. Flow data were also collected for different concentrations of Sobhason Field crude oil mixed with various mixtures of petroleum products. The pressure gradient was found to vary with the length of pipe. The departure of the results from a Poiseuille type equation were examined in the light of related information available in the literature. The selection of proper operating variables could reduce power consumption substantially. The relationships developed from experimental results for a varying range of non-isothermal parameters based on inlet condition and ambient temperature acclaimed importance to scale up in designing pipelines for a given flow rate or pressure drop under variable heat flux conditions. 11 figs., 10 refs., 3 tabs.
A multiple pass space-marching method for three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow
Kirtley, K. R.; Lakshminarayana, B.
A new multiple pass space-marching method for the coupled three-dimensional form of the incompressible, partially parabolized Navier-Stokes equation is developed. Pseudocompressibility theory is incorporated to give a stable and convergent algorithm for internal flow computations. The effect of initial conditions, mesh size and the pseudocompressibility coefficient on stability and convergence of the method is studied. Also studied is the influence of the factorization error inherent in the linearized block implicit solution procedure. The accuracy of the method is assessed by computing the developing laminar flow in a square straight duct; comparisons with analysis are very good. In addition, the computation of the developing laminar flow in an S-shaped duct yields results in good agreement with the experimental data.
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
Optimization of ships in shallow water with viscous flow computations and surrogate modeling
Rotteveel, E.; van der Ploeg, A; Hekkenberg, R.G.; Nielsen, U.D.; Jensen et al, J.J.
2016-01-01
Shallow water effects change the flow around a ship significantly which can affect the optimum design of the hull. This paper describes a study into the optimization of the aft ship region for various water depths. The research focuses on variations of the following parameters of a hull form: The
Thoughts on the chimera method of simulation of three-dimensional viscous flow
Steger, Joseph L.
1991-01-01
The chimera overset grid is reviewed and discussed relative to other procedures for simulating flow about complex configurations. It is argued that while more refinement of the technique is needed, current schemes are competitive to unstructured grid schemes and should ultimately prove more useful.
Evanescent-Wave Visualizations of the Viscous Sublayer in Turbulent Channel Flow
2015-09-02
fluorescent a = 0.25 µm polystyrene (PS) particles (Life Technologies F8812 with excitation and emission peaks at wavelengths λ = 580 nm and 605 nm...particle images separated by ∆t = 5 µs so that each laser illuminates exactly the same location in the flow; Expand the laser beams to illuminate
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The laminar fully developed flow in a vertical double passage channel filled with clear fluid has been discussed using Robin boundary conditions. The thin perfectly conductive baffle is inserted in the channel. The governing equations of the fluid which are coupled and nonlinear are solved analytically by the perturbation ...
Restart time correlation for core annular flow in pipeline lubrication of high-viscous oil
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Livinus, Aniefiok; Yeung, Hoi; Lao, Liyun
... in a 5.5-m-long PVC horizontal pipe with internal diameter of 26 mm are first presented. A new correlation for the prediction of the restart time of a shutdown core annular flow line is then formulated...
Karim, M. Enamul; Samad, M. Abdus; Ferdows, M.
2017-06-01
The present note investigates the magneto hall effect on unsteady flow of elastico-viscous nanofluid in a channel with slip boundary considering the presence of thermal radiation and heat generation with Brownian motion. Numerical results are achieved by solving the governing equations by the implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) obtaining primary and secondary velocities, temperature, nanoparticles volume fraction and concentration distributions within the boundary layer entering into the problem. The influences of several interesting parameters such as elastico-viscous parameter, magnetic field, hall parameter, heat generation, thermal radiation and Brownian motion parameters on velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the fluid flow are discussed with the help of graphs. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters, which are of physical and engineering interest, such as Skin friction parameter, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are sorted out. It is found that the flow field and other quantities of physical concern are significantly influenced by these parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.V.S. Raju
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a steady MHD forced convective flow of a viscous fluid of finite depth in a saturated porous medium over a fixed horizontal channel with thermally insulated and impermeable bottom wall in the presence of viscous dissipation and joule heating. The governing equations are solved in the closed form and the exact solutions are obtained for velocity and temperature distributions when the temperatures on the fixed bottom and on the free surface are prescribed. The expressions for flow rate, mean velocity, temperature, mean temperature, mean mixed temperature in the flow region and the Nusselt number on the free surface have been obtained. The cases of large and small values of porosity coefficients have been obtained as limiting cases. Further, the cases of small depth (shallow fluid and large depth (deep fluid are also discussed. The results are presented and discussed with the help of graphs.
40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.
2010-07-01
... temperature of the flow rate. R = molar gas constant. M mix = molar mass of the flow rate. Example 1: V stdref... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter....314472 J/(mol·K) ER08OC08.101 n ref = 19.619 mol/s Example 2: m ref = 17.2683 kg/min = 287.805 g/s M mix...
Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation
Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2011-01-01
An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.
Analytical solution for viscous incompressible Stokes flow in a spherical shell
Thieulot, Cedric
2017-11-01
I present a new family of analytical flow solutions to the incompressible Stokes equation in a spherical shell. The velocity is tangential to both inner and outer boundaries, the viscosity is radial and of the power-law type, and the solution has been designed so that the expressions for velocity, pressure, and body force are simple polynomials and therefore simple to implement in (geodynamics) codes. Various flow average values, e.g., the root mean square velocity, are analytically computed. This forms the basis of a numerical benchmark for convection codes and I have implemented it in two finite-element codes: ASPECT and ELEFANT. I report error convergence rates for velocity and pressure.
Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows
Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.
2016-11-01
The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.
Qiao, Y.; Andersen, P. Ø.; Evje, S.; Standnes, D. C.
2018-02-01
It is well known that relative permeabilities can depend on the flow configuration and they are commonly lower during counter-current flow as compared to co-current flow. Conventional models must deal with this by manually changing the relative permeability curves depending on the observed flow regime. In this paper we use a novel two-phase momentum-equation-approach based on general mixture theory to generate effective relative permeabilities where this dependence (and others) is automatically captured. In particular, this formulation includes two viscous coupling effects: (i) Viscous drag between the flowing phases and the stagnant porous rock; (ii) viscous drag caused by momentum transfer between the flowing phases. The resulting generalized model will predict that during co-current flow the faster moving fluid accelerates the slow fluid, but is itself decelerated, while for counter-current flow they are both decelerated. The implications of these mechanisms are demonstrated by investigating recovery of oil from a matrix block surrounded by water due to a combination of gravity drainage and spontaneous imbibition, a situation highly relevant for naturally fractured reservoirs. We implement relative permeability data obtained experimentally through co-current flooding experiments and then explore the model behavior for different flow cases ranging from counter-current dominated to co-current dominated. In particular, it is demonstrated how the proposed model seems to offer some possible interesting improvements over conventional modeling by providing generalized mobility functions that automatically are able to capture more correctly different flow regimes for one and the same parameter set.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. V. Litvinov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed the flat non-isothermal stationary flow of abnormally viscous fluid in the channels with asymmetric boundary conditions and an unknown output boundary. The geometry of the channels in which the problem is considered, is such regions, that at the transition to bipolar a system of coordinates map into rectangles. This greatly simplifies the boundary conditions, since it is possible to use an orthogonal grid and boundary conditions are given in its nodes. Fields of this type are often found in applications. The boundary conditions are set as follows: the liquid sticks to the boundaries of the channels, which rotate at different speeds and have different radius and temperature; moreover, temperature at the entrance to deformation is known, while on the boundary with the surface the material has the surface temperature; the pressure on the enter and exit of the region becomes zero. The rheological model only takes into account the anomaly of viscosity. The material is not compressible. This process can be described by a system consisting of continuity equations, the equations of conservation of momentum and an energy equation: ∇
Rhodes, J. A.; Tiwari, S. N.; Vonlavante, E.
1988-01-01
A comparison of flow separation in transonic flows is made using various computational schemes which solve the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics. The flows examined are computed using several simple two-dimensional configurations including a backward facing step and a bump in a channel. Comparison of the results obtained using shock fitting and flux vector splitting methods are presented and the results obtained using the Euler codes are compared to results on the same configurations using a code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations.
Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method
Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.
1991-01-01
An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.
Leclercq, Colin; Kerswell, Rich R
2016-01-01
The `Rayleigh line' mu=eta^2, where mu=Omega_o/Omega_i and eta=r_i/r_o are respectively the rotation and radius ratios between inner (subscript `i') and outer (subscript `o') cylinders, is regarded as marking the limit of centrifugal instability (CI) in unstratified inviscid Taylor--Couette flow, for both axisymmetric [1] and non-axisymmetric [2] modes. Non-axisymmetric stratorotational instability (SRI) is known to set in for anticyclonic rotation ratios beyond that line, i.e. eta^2<\\mu<1 for axially stably-stratified Taylor--Couette flow [3,4], but the competition between CI and SRI in the range mu
Leclercq, Colin; Nguyen, Florian; Kerswell, Rich R.
2016-10-01
The "Rayleigh line" μ =η2 , where μ =Ωo/Ωi and η =ri/ro are respectively the rotation and radius ratios between inner (subscript i ) and outer (subscript o ) cylinders, is regarded as marking the limit of centrifugal instability (CI) in unstratified inviscid Taylor-Couette flow, for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric modes. Nonaxisymmetric stratorotational instability (SRI) is known to set in for anticyclonic rotation ratios beyond that line, i.e., η2Bars and Le Gal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 064502 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.064502], making them indistinguishable at onset. Both instabilities are also continuously connected to the radiative instability at finite Re. These results demonstrate the complex impact viscosity has on the linear stability properties of this flow. Several other qualitative differences with inviscid theory were found, among which are the instability of a nonaxisymmetric mode localized at the outer cylinder without stratification and the instability of a mode propagating against the inner cylinder rotation with stratification. The combination of viscosity and stratification can also lead to a "collision" between (axisymmetric) Taylor vortex branches, causing the axisymmetric oscillatory state already observed in past experiments. Perhaps more surprising is the instability of a centrifugal-like helical mode beyond the Rayleigh line, caused by the joint effects of stratification and viscosity. The threshold μ =η2 seems to remain, however, an impassable instability limit for axisymmetric modes, regardless of stratification, viscosity, and even disturbance amplitude.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moradi Amir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article considers the influence of heat transfer on the nonlinear Jeffery-Hamel flow problem in a nanofluid. Analysis is performed for three types of nanoparticles namely copper Cu, alumina Al2O3 and titania TiO2 by considering water as a base fluid. The resulting nonlinear mathematical problems are solved for both analytic and numerical solutions. Analytic solution is developed by using differential transformation method (DTM whereas the numerical solution is presented by Runge-Kutta scheme. A comparative study between the analytical and numerical solutions is made. Dimensionless velocity and temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are addressed for the involved pertinent parameters. It is observed that the influence of solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the heat transfer and fluid flow parameters is more pronounced when compared with the type of nanoparticles. It is also found that skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for Al2O3 nanofluid is highest in comparison to the other two nanoparticles.
New approach to the exact solution of viscous flow due to stretching (shrinking and porous sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azhar Ali
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions for the generalized stretching (shrinking of a porous surface, for the variable suction (injection velocity, is presented in this paper. The solution is generalized in the sense that the existing solutions that correspond to various stretching velocities are recovered as a special case of this study. A suitable similarity transformation is introduced to find self-similar solution of the non-linear governing equations. The flow is characterized by a few non-dimensional parameters signifying the problem completely. These parameters are such that the whole range of stretching (shrinking problems discussed earlier can be recovered by assigning appropriate values to these parameters. A key point of the whole narrative is that a number of earlier works can be abridged into one generalized problem through the introduction of a new similarity transformation and finding its exact solution encompassing all the earlier solutions. Keywords: Exact solutions, New similarities, Permeable and moving sheet
Numerical simulation by cubic-polynomial interpolation for unsteady, incompressible, viscous flow
Sugiyama, Hiromi
1995-01-01
A procedure for computing time-accurate solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The procedure, designated as the CIP-ACE method, uses (1) an artificial compressibility approach to transform the equations into a hyperbolic system, (2) a fractional-step-like approach, and (3) cubic-polynomial interpolation to upwind difference the N-S equations. Two sample incompressible flow problems with known exact solutions were used to validate this CIP-ACE method. The method showed rapid convergence to a numerical solution that is reasonably compatible with the exact solutions. Furthermore, it can be extended to solve the three-dimensional, incompressible N-S equations in generalized coordinates, making it an attractive alternative to more established numerical methods.
Formation of Fiber Materials by Pneumatic Spraying of Polymers in Viscous-Flow States
Lysak, I. A.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Lysak, G. V.; Potekaev, A. I.; Kulagina, V. V.; Tazin, D. I.
2017-02-01
Using a novel ejection spraying unit and relying on new approaches, fibers are formed by the method of pneumatic melt blowing of polycarbonate, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate. The proposed approach is based on the concepts of atomization of the polymer melt flow as a preferential regime for fibermaterial formation. From the analysis of the values of numerical characteristics in the zone of atomization and the physical background of the criteria under study a conclusion is drawn that the essential role in destruction of the jet belongs to the formation of a boundary layer in the melt under the action of friction forces, followed by its separation. An assumption is made on the prevailing action of the separating destruction of the melt jet via the mechanism of `skinning' of the boundary layer of the melt due to a shorter time of its persistence compared to the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo
2018-01-01
In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umar Khan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Squeezing flow of nanofluids has been taken into account under the effects of viscous dissipation and velocity slip. Two types of base fluids are used to study the behavior of Copper nanoparticles between parallel plates. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations governing the flow are obtained by imposing similarity transformations on conservation laws. Resulting equations are solved by using an efficient analytical technique the variation of parameters method (VPM. Influences of nanoparticle concentration and different emerging parameters on flow profiles are presented graphically coupled with comprehensive discussions. A numerical solution is also sought for the sake of comparison. Effect of different parameters on skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number is also discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
of the flow. Contrary to fractional step methods, the streamfunction formulation eliminates the pressure unknowns, and automatically fulfills the incompressibility constraint by construction. As a result, the method circumvents the loss of temporal accuracy at low Reynolds numbers. The interface is tracked......Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variable...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
of the flow. Contrary to fractional step methods, the streamfunction formulation eliminates the pressure unknowns, and automatically fulfills the incompressibility constraint by construction. As a result, the method circumvents the loss of temporal accuracy at low Reynolds numbers. The interface is tracked......Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variable...
Calculating e-flow using UAV and ground monitoring
Zhao, C. S.; Zhang, C. B.; Yang, S. T.; Liu, C. M.; Xiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Shao, N. F.; Yu, Q.
2017-09-01
Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3-5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements
Rigby, David L.; Ameri, Ali A.; Veres, Joe; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
2017-01-01
Viscous three-dimensional simulations of the Honeywell ALF502R-5 low pressure compressor (sometimes called a booster) using the NASA Glenn code GlennHT have been carried out. A total of ten simulations were produced. Five operating points are investigated, with each point run with two different wall thermal conditions. These operating points are at, or near, points where engine icing has been determined to be likely. In the future, the results of this study will be used for further analysis such as predicting collection efficiency of ice particles and ice growth rates at various locations in the compressor. A mixing plane boundary condition is used between each blade row, resulting in convergence to steady state within each blade row. The k-omega turbulence model of Wilcox, combined with viscous grid spacing near the wall on the order of one, is used to resolve the turbulent boundary layers. For each of the operating points, heat transfer coefficients are generated on the blades and walls. The heat transfer coefficients are produced by running the operating point with two different wall thermal conditions and then solving simultaneously for the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature at each point. Average Nusselt numbers are calculated for the most relevant surfaces. The values are seen to scale with Reynolds number to approximately a power of 0.7. Additionally, images of surface distribution of Nusselt number are presented. Qualitative comparison between the five operating points show that there is relatively little change in the character of the distribution. The dominant observed effect is that of an overall scaling, which is expected due to Reynolds number differences. One interesting aspect about the Nusselt number distribution is observed on the casing (outer diameter) downstream of the exit guide vanes (EGVs). The Nusselt number is relatively high between the pairs of EGVs, with two lower troughs downstream of each EGV trailing edge. This
Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.
2017-09-01
Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.
Status and Prospects of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Unsteady Transonic Viscous Flows.
1984-10-01
formation (Fig. 6), and to afterbodies with propulsive jets by Deiwert and Rothmund (Ref. 19) ,Fig. 7). M -082 Re 10 6 -5 40x6Ox30GRID REAT TACHME N T 2 - Y...afterbody with a propulsive @1 ;et Ref. 19); M_ - 2.0, 6’, Mi = 2.5, Re = 1.5 ’ 10’, 140 ’ 100 - 20 grid._- Although Mansour’s wing calculations were...of aerodynamic events, A,n aS "i.ttnr, and ’,)r effect’-ey crpsent’c Ind describing these events to the tecnica - communi t,. :n -ddilt’jr. - I,--es ar
Bernhard, Stefan; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Tilgner, Andreas
2006-01-01
Background The pressure drop – flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR) have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance of the disease. From a fluid mechanical point of view the pathophysiological situation in myocardial bridges involves fluid flow in a time dependent flow geometry, caused by contracting cardiac muscles overlying an intramural segment of the coronary artery. These flows mostly involve flow separation and secondary motions, which are difficult to calculate and analyse. Methods Because a three dimensional simulation of the haemodynamic conditions in myocardial bridges in a network of coronary arteries is time-consuming, we present a boundary layer model for the calculation of the pressure drop and flow separation. The approach is based on the assumption that the flow can be sufficiently well described by the interaction of an inviscid core and a viscous boundary layer. Under the assumption that the idealised flow through a constriction is given by near-equilibrium velocity profiles of the Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC) family, the evolution of the boundary layer is obtained by the simultaneous solution of the Falkner-Skan equation and the transient von-Kármán integral momentum equation. Results The model was used to investigate the relative importance of several physical parameters present in myocardial bridges. Results have been obtained for steady and unsteady flow through vessels with 0 – 85% diameter stenosis. We compare two clinical relevant cases of a myocardial bridge in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The pressure derived FFR of fixed and dynamic lesions has shown that the flow is less affected in the dynamic case, because the distal pressure partially recovers
Critical surface roughness for wall bounded flow of viscous fluids in an electric submersible pump
Deshmukh, Dhairyasheel; Siddique, Md Hamid; Kenyery, Frank; Samad, Abdus
2017-11-01
Surface roughness plays a vital role in the performance of an electric submersible pump (ESP). A 3-D numerical analysis has been carried out to find the roughness effect on ESP. The performance of pump for steady wall bounded turbulent flows is evaluated at different roughness values and compared with smooth surface considering a non-dimensional roughness factor K. The k- ω SST turbulence model with fine mesh at near wall region captures the rough wall effects accurately. Computational results are validated with experimental results of water (1 cP), at a design speed (3000 RPM). Maximum head is observed for a hydraulically smooth surface (K=0). When roughness factor is increased, the head decreases till critical roughness factor (K=0.1) due to frictional loss. Further increase in roughness factor (K>0.1) increases the head due to near wall turbulence. The performance of ESP is analyzed for turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity at different roughness values. The wall disturbance over the rough surface affects the pressure distribution and velocity field. The roughness effect is predominant for high viscosity oil (43cP) as compared to water. Moreover, the study at off-design conditions showed that Reynolds number influences the overall roughness effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed M. Elsayed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Film cooling is vital to gas turbine blades to protect them from high temperatures and hence high thermal stresses. In the current work, optimization of film cooling parameters on a flat plate is investigated numerically. The effect of film cooling parameters such as inlet velocity direction, lateral and forward diffusion angles, blowing ratio, and streamwise angle on the cooling effectiveness is studied, and optimum cooling parameters are selected. The numerical simulation of the coolant flow through flat plate hole system is carried out using the “CFDRC package” coupled with the optimization algorithm “simplex” to maximize overall film cooling effectiveness. Unstructured finite volume technique is used to solve the steady, three-dimensional and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results are compared with the published numerical and experimental data of a cylindrically round-simple hole, and the results show good agreement. In addition, the results indicate that the average overall film cooling effectiveness is enhanced by decreasing the streamwise angle for high blowing ratio and by increasing the lateral and forward diffusion angles. Optimum geometry of the cooling hole on a flat plate is determined. In addition, numerical simulations of film cooling on actual turbine blade are performed using the flat plate optimal hole geometry.
Gas flow calculation method of a ramjet engine
Kostyushin, Kirill; Kagenov, Anuar; Eremin, Ivan; Zhiltsov, Konstantin; Shuvarikov, Vladimir
2017-11-01
At the present study calculation methodology of gas dynamics equations in ramjet engine is presented. The algorithm is based on Godunov`s scheme. For realization of calculation algorithm, the system of data storage is offered, the system does not depend on mesh topology, and it allows using the computational meshes with arbitrary number of cell faces. The algorithm of building a block-structured grid is given. Calculation algorithm in the software package "FlashFlow" is implemented. Software package is verified on the calculations of simple configurations of air intakes and scramjet models.
Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows
Tran, Hai Duong
2001-12-01
The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the
Numerical Calculation of Interaction Between Plane Jet and Subsonic Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. O. Moskalenko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper makes numerical calculation of interaction between plane jet and subsonic flow. Its aim is to determine the jet trajectory, velocity profiles, distribution of pressure coefficient on the plate surface at different jet angles, namely ωj=45°; 90°; 105° and at low blowing strengths ( ≤1.5 as well as a to make comparison with the experimental data of other authors.To simulate a two-dimensional jet in the subsonic flow the software package “CAD SolidWorks Flow Simulation” has been used. Initially, the test task was solved with its calculation results compared with experimental ones [6.8] in order to improve the convergence; the size of the computational domain and a computational grid within the k-ε turbulence model were selected. As a result of the calculation, were identified and analysed the pressure values, jet trajectories, and velocity profiles. In the graphs the solid lines show calculation results, and dots represent experimental data.From the calculation results it is seen that, with increasing intensity of the reduced mass flow ¯q in the above range, the change of the jet pressure coefficient p¯ distribution behind a slotted nozzle is almost linear and significant. Before the nozzle, with increasing ¯q the pressure coefficient increases slightly.Analysis of results has shown that blowing of jets with ωj>90ω, provides a greater perturbation of the subsonic flow. Thus, the jet penetrates into the flow deeper, forms a dead region of the greater length, and more significantly redistributes the pressure coefficient on the surface of the plate.The calculation results are in good compliance with the experimental data both for the jet axis and for the pressure coefficient distribution on the plate surface. The research results can be used in the designing the jet control of aircrafts.
Non-equilibrium radiation from viscous chemically reacting two-phase exhaust plumes
Penny, M. M.; Smith, S. D.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Ring, L. R.; Anderson, P. G.
1976-01-01
A knowledge of the structure of the rocket exhaust plumes is necessary to solve problems involving plume signatures, base heating, plume/surface interactions, etc. An algorithm is presented which treats the viscous flow of multiphase chemically reacting fluids in a two-dimensional or axisymmetric supersonic flow field. The gas-particle flow solution is fully coupled with the chemical kinetics calculated using an implicit scheme to calculate chemical production rates. Viscous effects include chemical species diffusion with the viscosity coefficient calculated using a two-equation turbulent kinetic energy model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kishore P.M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This investigation is undertaken to study the hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with radiation, viscous dissipation and variable heat and mass diffusion. Governing equations are solved by unconditionally stable explicit finite difference method of DuFort - Frankel’s type for concentration, temperature, vertical velocity field and skin - friction and they are presented graphically for different values of physical parameters involved. It is observed that plate oscillation, variable mass diffusion, radiation, viscous dissipation and porous medium affect the flow pattern significantly.
Uwanta, Ime Jimmy; Usman, Halima
2014-01-01
The present paper investigates the combined effects of Soret and Dufour on free convective heat and mass transfer on the unsteady one-dimensional boundary layer flow over a vertical channel in the presence of viscous dissipation and constant suction. The governing partial differential equations are solved numerically using the implicit Crank-Nicolson method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number at the plate are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and are presented through tables. It has been observed that the velocity and temperature increase with the increase in the viscous dissipation parameter and Dufour number, while an increase in Soret number causes a reduction in temperature and a rise in the velocity and concentration. PMID:27419208
Uwanta, Ime Jimmy; Usman, Halima
2014-01-01
The present paper investigates the combined effects of Soret and Dufour on free convective heat and mass transfer on the unsteady one-dimensional boundary layer flow over a vertical channel in the presence of viscous dissipation and constant suction. The governing partial differential equations are solved numerically using the implicit Crank-Nicolson method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number at the plate are discussed numerically for various values of physical parameters and are presented through tables. It has been observed that the velocity and temperature increase with the increase in the viscous dissipation parameter and Dufour number, while an increase in Soret number causes a reduction in temperature and a rise in the velocity and concentration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Numerical and analytical investigation of the effects of thermal radiation and viscous heating on a convective flow of a non-Newtonian, incompressible fluid in an axisymmetric stretching sheet with constant temperature wall is performed. The power law model of the blood is used for the non-Newtonian model of the fluid and the Rosseland model for the thermal radiative heat transfer in an absorbing medium and viscous heating are considered as the heat sources. The non-dimensional governing equations are transformed to similarity form and solved numerically. A parameter study on entropy generation in medium is presented based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics by considering various parameters such as the thermal radiation parameter, the Brinkman number, Prandtl number, Eckert number.
Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarnow, Viggo
1997-01-01
The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly......-consistent procedure gives the same results as the more complicated procedure based on average over Voronoi cells. Graphs of the dynamic resistivity versus frequency are given for fiber densities and diameters typical for acoustic fiber materials........The second procedure is an extension to oscillating air flow of the Brinkman self-consistent procedure for dc flow. The procedures are valid for volume concentrations of cylinders less than 0.1. The calculations show that for the density of fibers of interest for acoustic fibre materials the simple self...
1981-10-01
mesure de calculer las dgcollements. Des 616ments d’analysa sant indiqu6s dana lea conf~rances de Melnik [10] , Le Balleur [13. Una revue plus...Aux incertitudes d6JA mentionn~es sur la technique num~rique adoptge Pour l’gcoulement externe, s’aiautc Is difficult6 d’un maillage de discr~tisation...d’algorithmes num~riques indispensables 5 leur rlsolution coupl~e rigoureuse. Bien que des incertitudes demeurent aur les Drobigmes de bord de fuite ou
Flow and Performance Calculations of Axial Compressor near Stall Margin
Hwang, Yoojun; Kang, Shin-Hyoung
2010-06-01
Three-dimensional flows through a Low Speed Research Axial Compressor were numerically conducted in order to estimate the performance through unsteady and steady-state simulations. The first stage with the inlet guide vane was investigated at the design point to confirm that the rotor blade induced periodicity exists. Special attention was paid to the flow near the stall condition to inspect the flow behavior in the vicinity of the stall margin. The performance predicted under the steady-state assumption is in good agreement with the measured data. However, the steady-state calculations induce more blockage through the blade passage. Flow separations on the blade surface and end-walls are reduced when unsteady simulation is conducted. The negative jet due to the wake of the rotor blade periodically distorts the boundary layer on the surface of the stator blade and improves the performance of the compressor in terms of the pressure rise. The advantage of the unsteadiness increases as the flow rate reduces. In addition, the rotor tip leakage flow is forced downstream by the unsteadiness. Consequently, the behavior contributes to extending the range of operation by preventing the leakage flow from proceeding upstream near the stall margin.
Ali Shah, Nehad; Mahsud, Yasir; Ali Zafar, Azhar
2017-10-01
This article introduces a theoretical study for unsteady free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The fluid flows near an isothermal vertical plate. The plate has a translational motion with time-dependent velocity. The equations governing the fluid flow are expressed in fractional differential equations by using a newly defined time-fractional Caputo-Fabrizio derivative without singular kernel. Explicit solutions for velocity, temperature and solute concentration are obtained by applying the Laplace transform technique. As the fractional parameter approaches to one, solutions for the ordinary fluid model are extracted from the general solutions of the fractional model. The results showed that, for the fractional model, the obtained solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration exhibit stationary jumps discontinuity across the plane at t=0 , while the solutions are continuous functions in the case of the ordinary model. Finally, numerical results for flow features at small-time are illustrated through graphs for various pertinent parameters.
Application of compressibility correction to calculation of flow in inlets.
Albers, J. A.
1973-01-01
An application of the compressibility correction developed by Lieblein and Stockman (1972) to the calculation of flow in axisymmetric inlets is described. The results with experimental data from wind tunnel model tests are compared. The configuration is a conventional subsonic inlet with a NACA series one external cowl shape and a two-to-one ellipse internal lip. It is shown that the compressibility correction gives a relatively good approximation to the internal compressible flow behavior, and thus should be useful in the design and analysis of engine nacelle inlets.
Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect
Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.
Design of a lube oil reservoir by using flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rinkinen, J.; Alfthan, A. [Institute of Hydraulics and Automation IHA, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)] Suominen, J. [Institute of Energy and Process Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Airaksinen, A.; Antila, K. [R and D Engineer Safematic Oy, Muurame (Finland)
1997-12-31
The volume of usual oil reservoir for lubrication oil systems is designed by the traditional rule of thumb so that the total oil volume is theoretically changed in every 30 minutes by rated pumping capacity. This is commonly used settling time for air, water and particles to separate by gravity from the oil returning of the bearings. This leads to rather big volumes of lube oil reservoirs, which are sometimes difficult to situate in different applications. In this presentation traditionally sized lube oil reservoir (8 m{sup 3}) is modelled in rectangular coordinates and laminar oil flow is calculated by using FLUENT software that is based on finite difference method. The results of calculation are velocity and temperature fields inside the reservoir. The velocity field is used to visualize different particle paths through the reservoir. Particles that are studied by the model are air bubbles and water droplets. The interest of the study has been to define the size of the air bubbles that are released and the size of the water droplets that are separated in the reservoir. The velocity field is also used to calculate the modelled circulating time of the oil volume which is then compared with the theoretical circulating time that is obtained from the rated pump flow. These results have been used for designing a new lube oil reservoir. This reservoir has also been modelled and optimized by the aid of flow calculations. The best shape of the designed reservoir is constructed in real size for empirical measurements. Some results of the oil flow measurements are shown. (orig.) 7 refs.
Adaptive Navier-Stokes Calculations for Vortical Flows
1993-03-12
Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1992. 8.) Modiano , D. L., "Adaptive Mesh Euler Equation Computation of Vortex Breakdown in Delta Wing Flow...Conference, Orlando, Fla, July 6-9, 1993. 11.) Modiano , D. and Murman, E.M,, "An Acceleration Technique for Time Accurate Calculations", Submitted to the...Open Forum Session, l1th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Orlando, Fla, July 6-9, 1993. 6 4 12.) Modiano , D. and Murman, E. M., "Adaptive
Das, Utpal Jyoti
2016-01-01
The purpose of the study is to investigate the steady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, mixed convection heat and mass transfer of a conducting, optically thin, incompressible, elastico-viscous fluid (characterized by the Walters' B' model) past a permeable, stationary, vertical, infinite plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction with account for an induced magnetic field. The governing equations of the flow are solved by the series method, and expressions for the velocity field, induced magnetic field, temperature field, and the skin friction are obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etienne, St.
1999-09-01
To compute the viscous flow around flexible circular cylinders arrays, a numerical model has been set up so solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANSE). A domain decomposition method has been chosen to ensure the great flexibility of structures in the fluid domain. It consists in solving the RANS equations in a Eulerian way near the bodies and in a Lagrangian way in the wake(s). Then, we concentrate calculations in interest areas and we avoid mesh distortions. The resolution in the turbulent regime has been realized with k - {omega} and k - {epsilon} models. Compared with experiments, mix k - {omega} and k - {epsilon} models give the best results. Applications concern with the modeling of shielding and vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) phenomena in arrays of flexible cylinders. Results are validated by comparisons with experimental data. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhentao Wang
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A model based on the volume of fluid (VOF method and leaky dielectric theory is established to predict the deformation and internal flow of the droplet suspended in another vicious fluid under the influence of the electric field. Through coupling with hydrodynamics and electrostatics, the rate of deformation and internal flow of the single droplet are simulated and obtained under the different operating parameters. The calculated results show that the direction of deformation and internal flow depends on the physical properties of fluids. The numerical results are compared with Taylor's theory and experimental results by Torza et al. When the rate of deformation is small, the numerical results are consistent with theory and experimental results, and when the rate is large the numerical results are consistent with experimental results but are different from Taylor's theory. In addition, fluid viscosity hardly affects the deformation rate and mainly dominates the deformation velocity. For high viscosity droplet spends more time to attain the steady state. The conductivity ratio and permittivity ratio of two different liquids affect the direction of deformation. When fluid electric properties change, the charge distribution at the interface is various, which leads to the droplet different deformation shapes.
Calculating Study of the Turbine at Last Stage Flow Field in the Small Volume Flow Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Tieliu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Based on basic equation and boundary layer theory of pneumodynamics, the thesis conducts numerical modeling and theoretical analysis on the last stage of turbine characteristics at a small volume flow by using FLUENT, gives an emphasized analysis on the position of first occurrence of backflow and its expansion direction and comes up with flow structure of the turbine flow field at last stage in the small volume flow condition. In connection with specific experiments, it puts forward the flow model of backflow occurring in the last stage field and the solution to the model. The flow field at last stage for a 100MW turbine in the small volume flow condition that is calculated by using the model is basically in conformity to the actual result.
Sekhar, G P Raja; Rohde, Christian
2016-01-01
The motion of a viscous drop is investigated when the interface is fully covered with a stagnant layer of surfactant in an arbitrary unsteady Stokes flow for the low surface P\\'eclet number limit. The effect of the interfacial slip coefficient on the behavior of the flow field is also considered. The hydrodynamic problem is solved by the solenoidal decomposition method and the drag force is computed in terms of Faxen's laws using a perturbation ansatz in powers of the surface P\\'eclet number. The analytical expressions for the migration velocity of the drop are also obtained in powers of the surface P\\'eclet number. Further instances corresponding to a given ambient flow as uniform flow, Couette flow, Poiseuille flow are analyzed. Moreover, it is observed that, a surfactant-induced cross-stream migration of the drop occur towards the centre-line in both Couette flow and Poiseuille flow cases. The variation of the drag force and migration velocity is computed for different parameters such as P\\'eclet number, M...
The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huadong Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.
Green, T. E.; Bramley, A.; Lue, L.; Grassia, P.
2006-11-01
Microscale models of foam structure traditionally incorporate a balance between bubble pressures and surface tension forces associated with curvature of bubble films. In particular, models for flowing foam microrheology have assumed this balance is maintained under the action of some externally imposed motion. Recently, however, a dynamic model for foam structure has been proposed, the viscous froth model, which balances the net effect of bubble pressures and surface tension to viscous dissipation forces: this permits the description of fast-flowing foam. This contribution examines the behavior of the viscous froth model when applied to a paradigm problem with a particularly simple geometry: namely, a two-dimensional bubble “lens.” The lens consists of a channel partly filled by a bubble (known as the “lens bubble”) which contacts one channel wall. An additional film (known as the “spanning film”) connects to this bubble spanning the distance from the opposite channel wall. This simple structure can be set in motion and deformed out of equilibrium by applying a pressure across the spanning film: a rich dynamical behavior results. Solutions for the lens structure steadily propagating along the channel can be computed by the viscous froth model. Perturbation solutions are obtained in the limit of a lens structure with weak applied pressures, while numerical solutions are available for higher pressures. These steadily propagating solutions suggest that small lenses move faster than large ones, while both small and large lens bubbles are quite resistant to deformation, at least for weak applied back pressures. As the applied back pressure grows, the structure with the small lens bubble remains relatively stiff, while that with the large lens bubble becomes much more compliant. However, with even further increases in the applied back pressure, a critical pressure appears to exist for which the steady-state structure loses stability and unsteady
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez, P.F.; Dawson, P.R.
1978-11-01
COUPLEFLO is a two-dimensional finite element code for plane strain or axisymmetric analyses of thermomechanically coupled systems. It is capable of analyzing the creeping flow of non-Newtonian fluids or the secondary creep of solids. COUPLEFLO solves equations for conductive-convective heat transfer to determine the thermal response of a system. Thermomechanical coupling between the flow field and temperature distribution can exist in terms of temperature dependent material properties, temperature dependent body forces, viscous dissipation, material convection, and changing system geometry. Either transient or steady-state problems can be analyzed in Eulerian or quasi-Lagrangian reference frames. Part I - Theoretical Background contains the governing equation, finite element formulation, and verification of the code capabilities. Part II - User's Manual contains instructions for code use. Currently, COUPLEFLO is available at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque on the 7600, 6600, and NOS systems.
Ooms, G.; Segal, A.; Vanderwess, A. J.; Oliemans, R. V. A.
1982-07-01
The mechanism by which the buoyancy force on the core, resulting from any density difference between oil and water, is counterbalanced in a theoretical model of core-annular flow of a viscous oil core and a water annulus through a pipe was analyzed. Oil viscosity was assumed to be so high that any flow in the core may be neglected, therefore there is no variation with time of the oil-water interface form. The core was assumed to be solid and the interface to be a solid-liquid interface. By means of the hydrodynamic lubrication theory, it is proved that, due to the movement of ripples present in the core surface with respect to the pipe wall, pressure variations occur in the annular layer, which exert a force on the core. This force can be so large that the buoyancy force is counterbalanced.
Abou-zeid, Mohamed
In this paper, a study of the peristaltic motion of incompressible micropolar non-Newtonian nanofluid with heat transfer in a two-dimensional asymmetric channel is investigated under long-wavelength assumption. The flow includes radiation and viscous dissipation effects as well as all micropolar fluid parameters. The fundamental equations which govern this flow have been modeled under long-wavelength assumption, and the expressions of velocity and microrotation velocity are obtained in a closed form, while the solutions of both temperature and nanoparticles phenomena are obtained using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Also, the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are obtained at both lower and upper walls. The results have been discussed graphically to observe the effects the physical parameters of the problem have on the physical quantities.
The instability of water-mud interface in viscous two-layer flow with large viscosity contrast
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Jiebin Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The temporal instability of parallel viscous two-phase mixing layers is extended to current-fluid mud by considering a composite error function velocity profile. The influence of viscosity ratio, Reynolds number, and Froude number on the instability of the system are discussed and a new phenomenon never discussed is investigated based on our numerical results. It is shown that viscosity can enlarge the unstable wave number range, cause new instability modes, and certainly reduce the growth rate of Kelvin—Helmholtz (K—H instability.
Gnaneswara Reddy, Machireddy
2017-12-01
The problem of micropolar fluid flow over a nonlinear stretching convective vertical surface in the presence of Lorentz force and viscous dissipation is investigated. Due to the nature of heat transfer in the flow past vertical surface, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model effect is properly accommodated in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing the acceptable similarity transformations. Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods are utilized to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Obtained numerical results are compared with the available literature and found to be an excellent agreement. The impacts of dimensionless governing flow pertinent parameters on velocity, micropolar velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically for two cases (linear and nonlinear) and analyzed in detail. Further, the variations of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported with the aid of plots for the sundry flow parameters. The temperature and the related boundary enhances enhances with the boosting values of M. It is found that fluid temperature declines for larger thermal relaxation parameter. Also, it is revealed that the Nusselt number declines for the hike values of Bi.
Ramzan, Muhammad
2015-01-01
The present exploration discusses the influence of Newtonian heating on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional couple stress nanofluid past a stretching surface. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects are also considered. Moreover, the nanofluid model includes the combined effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Using an appropriate transformation, the governing non linear partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Series solutions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are computed. Plots are presented to portrait the arising parameters in the problem. It is seen that an increase in conjugate heating parameter results in considerable increase in the temperature profile of the stretching wall. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers tabulated and analyzed. Higher values of conjugate parameter, Thermophoresis parameter and Brownian motion parameter result in enhancement of temperature distribution.
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Khilap Singh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to examine the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady mixed convection flow of a viscous dissipating incompressible micropolar fluid adjacent to a heated vertical stretching surface in the presence of the buoyancy force and heat generation/absorption. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The model contains nonlinear coupled partial differential equations which have been converted into ordinary differential equation by using the similarity transformations. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth-order method with shooting technique. Numerical solutions are then obtained and investigated in detail for different interesting parameters such as the local skin-friction coefficient, wall couple stress, and Nusselt number as well as other parametric values such as the velocity, angular velocity, and temperature.
Reddy Reddisekhar Reddy, Seethi; Bala Anki Reddy, P.; Sandeep, N.
2017-11-01
This work concentrates on the study of the unsteady hydromagnetic heat and mass transfer of a Newtonian fluid in a permeable stretching surface with viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. Thermal radiation, velocity slip, concentrate slip are also considered. The unsteady in the flow, velocity, temperature and concentration distribution is past by the time dependence of stretching velocity surface temperature and surface concentration. Appropriate similarity transformations are used to convert the governing partial differential equations into a system of coupled non-linear differential equations. The resulting coupled non-linear differential equations are solved numerically by using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The impact of various pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are presented graphically and in tabular form. Our computations disclose that fluid temperature has inverse relationship with the radiation parameter.
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Prasad Ramachandra V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.
Mancktelow, N.
2012-12-01
For 2D linear viscous flow, it is demonstrated that an isolated elliptical inclusion with a coaxial elliptical rim shows a sinusoidal variation in both stretching and rotation rate with respect to orientation (taken as the double angle). The behavior is therefore fully characterized by two scalar values (the respective amplitudes of the two sinusoidal curves). For power-law viscosity, effective viscosity ratios of the inclusion and rim to the matrix depend on orientation and the stretching rate in particular is no longer sinusoidal. The difference is most marked when the stretching rate of the inclusion is low, which tends to reduce the overall effect of non-linear viscosity. As a result, the simplification with two scalar values still provides a good approximation. For the linear viscous case, finite-element modelling (FEM) is used to determine the two characteristic values across a wide parameter space of viscosity ratio, axial ratio and rim thickness, with the results then integrated into a multi-dimensional data table to allow continuous interpolation over the investigated parameter range. For power-law viscous rheology, specific examples are investigated for the full range of orientation (at 2.5° intervals) and results compared to those estimated assuming sinusoidal behavior. Using the instantaneous rates obtained from these numerical experiments, an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) method is used to predict the shape fabric of a population of inclusions. This approach unrealistically assumes that the rim remains elliptical in shape and coaxial with respect to the inclusion. However, comparison with large strain numerical experiments demonstrates that this simplified model gives qualitatively robust predictions for shear strains up to at least γ = 5. Allowing for a random variation in the initial orientation and more limited random normal variation in initial axial ratio and rim viscosity, the simplified forward models can reproduce the
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Alexander V. Perig
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The present article is focused on a phenomenological description of a polymer workpiece Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE through 2θ-dies of Segal and Iwahashi geometries with a channel intersection angle 2θ = 105° with fixed and movable external inlet and outlet die walls. The local flow dynamics, including the formation of macroscopic rotation and a dead zone appearance during the flow of plasticine, paraffin, and wax workpiece models through the subject die configuration was studied using physical simulation techniques. The present article utilizes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical approach to a theoretical description of 2D viscous flow of incompressible Newtonian continuum through the stated die geometries. The boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in the curl transfer form for the local viscous flow was formulated and numerically solved with a finite-difference method. Theoretical CFD-derived plots with computational flow lines, dimensionless flow and curl functions, flow velocities, and tangential stresses for viscous material flow through the stated die geometries have been generated and described. As a first rheological approximation the derived computational results provide the theoretical description of physical simulation experiments and visualize the formation of ECAE-induced rotational modes of large deformations like macroscopic rotation and rotational inhomogeneity.
A viscous compressible model of soap film flow and its equivalence with the Navier-Stokes equations
Fast, Petri
2005-01-01
We present a quasi-two dimensional model of flowing soap films that bears striking similarity to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The variation in soap film thickness that is commonly used for flow visualization in experiments is analogous to density variations in the Navier-Stokes equations. When the soap film flow velocity is comparable to the Marangoni elastic wave velocity we recover the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the soap film behaves like a two-dimensional isother...
Vilà, Arnau; González, Miguel
2016-10-05
The influence of the mass in the photodissociation dynamics of a homonuclear diatomic molecule (X2), embedded in a superfluid helium nanodroplet (T = 0.37 K) of 300 atoms, has been investigated using a hybrid quantum dynamics method recently proposed by us. Several hypothetical isotopic variants of Cl2 have been examined in order to make possible the analysis of a wide diversity of masses (mX: 0.25mCl-1.50mCl). This is probably the first time that this problem has been considered theoretically. The photodissociation mechanism of X2(B) is very similar to that of Cl2(B) and the efficiency of the X2-helium energy exchange mechanism can be so great that it leads to the full and partial (≈86%) geminate recombination for the lower masses explored (mX = 0.25mCl and 0.50mCl, respectively). From the energy exchange perspective two dynamic regimes have been identified. The first regime occurs at the initial times of the photodissociation and corresponds to a perfectly inelastic collision (IC) between the atomic fragments (X) and some helium atoms of the solvation shell. The second regime occurs when the atomic fragments are moving through the nanodroplet, which behaves as a viscous fluid (VF). The ICVF mechanism has probably general character in the photodissociation of molecules embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets.
Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, S.; Siddiqui, A. M.; Haroon, T.
2012-06-01
The present study focuses on the heat transfer by the laminar flow of an elastico-viscous fluid in posttreatment of wire coating analysis with linearly varying temperature on the surface of coated wire. The surface of wire (uncoated) and the surface of coated wire were subjected to two thermal boundary conditions. The constitutive equation of motion and equation of energy have been solved by using perturbation theory for velocity, pressure distribution along the radial direction and temperature distribution. The theoretical analysis of flow rate, average velocity, shear stress, thickness of coated wire, and force on the total wire were also derived. Moreover, the flow phenomenon has been studied under the influence of elastic number R e velocity ratio U and the dimensionless number S in the ranges 0 ≤ R e ≤ 20, 0.2 ≤ U ≤ 1.4 and 0 ≤ S ≤ 20. We noticed that with the increase in elastic number R e velocity decreases whereas thickness of the coated wire and force on the total wire increases. Also temperature profile decreases with the increase of non-dimensional parameter S.
Viscous-inviscid interaction with the quasi-simultaneous method for 2D and 3D aerodynamic flow
Coenen, Edith Gerda Maria
2001-01-01
Flow phenomena are around us everywhere. One can think of the waves in the sea or the wind playing with the leaves fallen from the trees. Most of these fluid flow situations are described by the so-called Navier-Stokes equations which are based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy.
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Saima Noreen
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones.
Noreen, Saima; Qasim, Muhammad
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source) on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones.
Calculation of unsteady transonic flows using the integral equation method
Nixon, D.
1978-01-01
The basic integral equations for a harmonically oscillating airfoil in a transonic flow with shock waves are derived; the reduced frequency is assumed to be small. The problems associated with shock wave motion are treated using a strained coordinate system. The integral equation is linear and consists of both line integrals and surface integrals over the flow field which are evaluated by quadrature. This leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved directly. The shock motion is obtained explicitly by enforcing the condition that the flow is continuous except at a shock wave. Results obtained for both lifting and nonlifting oscillatory flows agree satisfactorily with other accurate results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sheikholeslami, R; Ashorynejad, H.R; Barari, Amin
2013-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze hydromagnetic flow between two horizontal plates in a rotating system. The bottom plate is a stretching sheet and the top one is a solid porous plate. Heat transfer in an electrically conducting fluid bounded by two parallel plates is also studied...
Calculation of transonic flow in radial turbine blade cascade
Petr, Straka
2017-09-01
Numerical modeling of transonic centripetal turbulent flow in radial blade cascade is described in this paper. Attention is paid to effect of the outlet confusor on flow through the radial blade cascade. Parameters of presented radial blade cascade are compared with its linear representation
A modified calculation model for groundwater flowing to horizontal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Corresponding author. e-mail: wangweichd@chd.edu.cn. The simulation models for groundwater flowing to horizontal seepage wells proposed by Wang and Zhang. (2007) are based on the theory of coupled seepage-pipe flow model which treats the well pipe as a highly permeable medium. However, the limitations of the ...
A modified calculation model for groundwater flowing to horizontal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The simulation models for groundwater flowing to horizontal seepage wells proposed by Wang and Zhang (2007) are based on the theory of coupled seepage-pipe flow model which treats the well pipe as a highly permeable medium. However, the limitations of the existing model were found during applications. Specifically ...
NONLINEAR PERTURBATION METHOD FOR CALCULATING AXISYMMETRIC CAVITATIONAL FLOWS
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Vasyl Buivol
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cavity under the influence of perturbations of various origins is evaluated. The model is based on hydrodynamics of flows with free boundaries and the theory of small perturbations. Specific analysis is provided for cavitational flows behind cones
CFD Calculations of the Flow Around a Wind Turbine Nacelle
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Varela, J.; Bercebal, D. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)
2000-07-01
The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of a MADE AE30 wind turbine nacelle on the site calibration anemometer placed on the upper back of the nacelle by means of flow simulations around the nacelle using FLUENT, a Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD), which provides modeling capabilities for the simulation of wide range laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Different 2D and 3D simulations were accomplished in order to estimate the effects of the complex geometry on the flow behavior. The speed up and braking values of the air flow at the anemometer position are presented for different flow conditions. Finally some conclusions about the accuracy of results are mentioned. (Author) 5 refs.
Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef
2016-01-01
The flow over a porous wedge, in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating, has been investigated. The wedge is assumed to be saturated with nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganisms. For the flow, magneto-hydrodynamic effects are also taken into consideration. The problem is formulated by using the passive control model. The partial differential equations, governing the flow, are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing some suitable similarity transformations. A numerical scheme, called Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, has been used to obtain the local similarity solutions for the system. Variations in the velocity, temperature, concentration and motile micro-organisms density profiles are highlighted with the help of graphs. The expressions for skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number and motile micro-organisms density number are obtained and plotted accordingly. For the validity of the obtained results, a comparison with already existing results (special cases) is also presented. The magnetic field increases the velocity of the fluid. Injection at the walls can be used to reduce the velocity boundary layer thickness. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be reduced by using the magnetic field and the suction at the wall. The motile microorganisms density profile is an increasing function of the bioconvection Pecket number and bioconvection constant. The same is a decreasing function of m, M and Le. The skin friction coefficient increases with increasing m and [Formula: see text]. Nusselt number and the density number of motile microorganisms are higher for the case of suction as compared to the injection case. The density number of motile microorganisms is an increasing function for all the involved parameters.
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Giancarlo Alfonsi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to its relevance in ocean engineering, the subject of the flow field generated by water waves around a vertical circular cylinder piercing the free surface has recently started to be considered by several research groups. In particular, we studied this problem starting from the velocity-potential framework, then the implementation of the numerical solution of the Euler equations in their velocity-pressure formulation, and finally the performance of the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. We also developed and applied methods of extraction of the flow coherent structures and most energetic modes. In this work, we present some new results of our research directed, in particular, toward the clarification of the main nonintuitive character of the phenomenon of interaction between a wave and a surface-piercing cylinder, namely, the fact that the wave exerts its maximum force and exhibits its maximum run-up on the cylindrical obstacle at different instants. The understanding of this phenomenon becomes of crucial importance in the perspective of governing the entity of the wave run-up on the obstacle by means of wave-flow-control techniques.
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Ahmed A. Afify
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The impacts of multiple slips with viscous dissipation on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching surface have been investigated numerically. The Casson fluid model is applied to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Physical mechanisms responsible for Brownian motion and thermophoresis with chemical reaction are accounted for in the model. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations through appropriate transformations are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically using a shooting method with fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Comparisons of the numerical method with the existing results in the literature are made and an excellent agreement is obtained. The heat transfer rate is enhanced with generative chemical reaction and concentration slip parameter, whereas the reverse trend is observed with destructive chemical reaction and thermal slip parameter. It is also noticed that the mass transfer rate is boosted with destructive chemical reaction and thermal slip parameter. Further, the opposite influence is found with generative chemical reaction and concentration slip parameter.
Ghehsareh, Hadi Roohani; Abbasbandy, Saeid; Soltanalizadeh, Babak
2012-05-01
In this research, the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method (LADM) is applied for the analytical and numerical treatment of the nonlinear differential equation that describes a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow under slip condition over a permeable stretching surface. The technique is well applied to approximate the similarity solutions of the problem for some typical values of model parameters. The obtained series solutions by the LADM are combined with the Padé approximation to improve the accuracy and enlarge the convergence domain of the obtained results. Through tables and figures, the efficiency of the presented method is illustrated.
Sohrab, Siavash H.
1999-01-01
Counterflow premixed flames play a significant role in the modeling of laminar flames. This is in part motivated by the fact that stretched premixed flames simulate local flamelet dynamics within turbulent premixed flames. In the present study, the modified form of the Navier-Stokes equation for reactive fields introduced earlier is employed to investigate the hydrodynamics of spherical flows embedded within counterflows. The geometry of premixed flames near the stagnation point is also determined. The predictions are in favorable agreement with the experimental observations and prior numerical studies.
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R. Fares
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study the nonsteady Stokes flow in a thin tube structure composed by two thin rectangles with lateral elastic boundaries which are connected by a domain with rigid boundaries. After a variational approach of the problem which gives us existence, uniqueness, regularity results, and some a priori estimates, we construct an asymptotic solution. The existence of a junction region between the two rectangles imposes to consider, as part of the asymptotic solution, some boundary layer correctors that correspond to this region. We present and solve the problems for all the terms of the asymptotic expansion. For two different cases, we describe the order of steps of the algorithm of solving the problem and we construct the main term of the asymptotic expansion. By means of the a priori estimates, we justify our asymptotic construction, by obtaining a small error between the exact and the asymptotic solutions.
Exponential Decay of the Vorticity in the Steady-State Flow of a Viscous Liquid Past a Rotating Body
Deuring, Paul; Galdi, Giovanni P.
2016-07-01
Consider the flow of a Navier-Stokes liquid past a body rotating with a prescribed constant angular velocity, {ω}, and assume that the motion is steady with respect to a body-fixed frame. In this paper we show that the vorticity field associated to every "weak" solution corresponding to data of arbitrary "size" ( Leray Solution) must decay exponentially fast outside the wake region at sufficiently large distances from the body. Our result improves and generalizes in a non-trivial way famous results by Clark (Indiana Univ Math J 20:633-654, 1971) and Babenko and Vasil'ev (J Appl Math Mech 37:651-665, 1973) obtained in the case {ω=0}.
Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time (GWTT-95)
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Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Ho, C.K.; McKenna, S.A.; Eaton, R.R.
1996-09-01
In 1983, high-level radioactive waste repository performance requirements related to groundwater travel time were defined by NRC subsystem regulation 10 CFR 60.113. Although DOE is not presently attempting to demonstrate compliance with that regulation, understanding of the prevalence of fast paths in the groundwater flow system remains a critical element of any safety analyses for a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Therefore, this analysis was performed to allow comparison of fast-path flow against the criteria set forth in the regulation. Models developed to describe the conditions for initiation, propagation, and sustainability of rapid groundwater movement in both the unsaturated and saturated zones will form part of the technical basis for total- system analyses to assess site viability and site licensability. One of the most significant findings is that the fastest travel times in both unsaturated and saturated zones are in the southern portion of the potential repository, so it is recommended that site characterization studies concentrate on this area. Results support the assumptions regarding the importance of an appropriate conceptual model of groundwater flow and the incorporation of heterogeneous material properties into the analyses. Groundwater travel times are sensitive to variation/uncertainty in hydrologic parameters and in infiltration flux at upper boundary of the problem domain. Simulated travel times are also sensitive to poorly constrained parameters of the interaction between flow in fractures and in the matrix.
Nanofibril Alignment in Flow Focusing: Measurements and Calculations.
Håkansson, Karl M O; Lundell, Fredrik; Prahl-Wittberg, Lisa; Söderberg, L Daniel
2016-07-14
Alignment of anisotropic supermolecular building blocks is crucial to control the properties of many novel materials. In this study, the alignment process of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in a flow-focusing channel has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and modeled using the Smoluchowski equation, which requires a known flow field as input. This flow field was investigated experimentally using microparticle-tracking velocimetry and by numerically applying the two-fluid level set method. A semidilute dispersion of CNFs was modeled as a continuous phase, with a higher viscosity as compared to that of water. Furthermore, implementation of the Smoluchowski equation also needed the rotational Brownian diffusion coefficient, which was experimentally determined in a shear viscosity measurement. The order of the nanofibrils was found to increase during extension in the flow-focusing channel, after which rotational diffusion acted on the orientation distribution, driving the orientation of the fibrils toward isotropy. The main features of the alignment and dealignment processes were well predicted by the numerical model, but the model overpredicted the alignment at higher rates of extension. The apparent rotational diffusion coefficient was seen to increase steeply as the degree of alignment increased. Thus, the combination of SAXS measurements and modeling provides the necessary framework for quantified studies of hydrodynamic alignment, followed by relaxation toward isotropy.
Efficient Numerical Calculation of Evaporating Sprays in Combustion Chamber Flows
Schmehl, R.; Klose, G.; Maier, G.; Wittig, S.
1998-01-01
Representing two different conceptual approaches, either Eulerian continuum models or Lagrangian particle models are commonly applied for the numerical description of dispersed two phase flows. Taking advantage of the positive features inherent to each model, a combination approach is presented in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prada, Jose Walter Vanegas
1999-07-01
The increase in importance of heavy oil in the energy scenario makes it viable the exploitation of initially unprofitable reservoirs. This leads to the search of technologies capable to improve the development of heavy oil fields. In view of this scenario the present work proposes a new technology for heavy oil lift by using the core annular flow pattern (shortly 'coreflow'). This flow arrangement can be induced through the lateral injection of relatively small quantities of water, in order to get a lubricated oil core in the pipe. With this objective in mind, an experimental apparatus was built and tested at a laboratory scale (1 in. vertical pipe) with an 17.6 Pa.s oil and water at room temperatures. The experiments were quite successful. The core-flow allowed to reduce the friction pressure drop by more than 1000 times with respect to single phase oil flow and is of the same order as the flow of water alone at same total flow rate. The total pressure drop was reduced 93 times with respect to single phase oil flow. Finally, a physically based correlation for friction pressure drop in upward core flow was developed and validated with our measurements. Comparison of this correlation with data from another source gave excellent results. Besides the fluid properties and rates, the correlation requires the volumetric fraction of the oil, which is determined from another correlation. (author)
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Tatiana Petrova
2016-08-01
Full Text Available An extremely interesting problem in aero-hydrodynamics is the sound radiation of a single vortical structure. Currently, this type of problem is mainly considered for an incompressible medium. In this paper a method was developed to take into account the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gas. The acoustic radiation frequency of a cylindrical vortex on a flat wall in viscous heat-conducting gas (air has been investigated. The problem is solved on the basis of the Navier–Stokes equations using the small initial vorticity approach. The power expansion of unknown functions in a series with a small parameter (vorticity is used. It is shown that there are high-frequency oscillations modulated by a low-frequency signal. The value of the high frequency remains constant for a long period of time. Thus the high frequency can be considered a natural frequency of the vortex radiation. The value of the natural frequency depends only on the initial radius of the cylindrical vortex, and does not depend on the intensity of the initial vorticity. As expected from physical considerations, the natural frequency decreases exponentially as the initial radius of the cylinder increases. Furthermore, the natural frequency differs from that of the oscillations inside the initial cylinder and in the outer domain. The results of the paper may be of interest for aeroacoustics and tornado modeling.
Badie, R.; Badie, R.; Jonker, Jan B.; van den Braembussche, R.A.
1994-01-01
In this paper we present a finite-element-based methode for the calculation of the unsteady potential flow in rotor/stator configurations. A numerical algorithm was developed to calculate the two-dimensional flow through a centrifugal volute pump, taking into account the width variation of the
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Prasad Ramachandra V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we examine the effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and heat source/sink on non-Darcy MHD natural convection heat transfer flow over permeable horizontal circular cylinder in a porous medium. The boundary layer equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller-box finite difference scheme. A parametric study illustrating the influence of Darcy parameter (Da, Forchheimer parameter (Λ, Grashof number(Gr, heat source/sink parameter (Ω and viscous dissipation parameter (Ec on the fluid velocity, temperature as well as local skin-friction and Nusselt numbers is conducted Increasing Forchheimer inertial drag parameter (Λ retards the flow considerably but enhances temperatures. Increasing viscous dissipation parameter(Ec is found to elevate velocities i.e. accelerate the flow and increase temperatures. Increasing heat source/sink parameter (Ω is found to elevate velocities and increase temperatures. Increasing the Grashof number (Gr is found to elevate the velocity and decrease the temperatures. Local skin friction number is found to be increases with increasing heat source/sink parameter (Ω where as Local Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing heat source/sink parameter (Ω.
Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model
Farshchi, M.
1990-01-01
This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.
Stremel, Paul M.
1995-01-01
A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.
Numerical Calculation of the Three-Dimensional Swirling Flow Inside the Centrifugal Pump Volutes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Cezmi Nursen
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The flow inside the volute of a centrifugal pump is threedimensional and, depending upon the position of the inlet relative to the cross-section center line, a single or double swirling flow occurs. The purpose of this study was the calculation of the three-dimensional swirling flow inside the centrifugal pump volute.
A multilevel approximate projections for incompressible flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howell, L.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-12-31
An adaptive-mesh projection algorithm for unsteady, variable-density, incompressible flow at high Reynolds number has been developed in the Applied Mathematics Group at LLNL. A grid-based refinement scheme combines the theoretical efficiencies of adaptive methods with the computational advantages of uniform grids, while a second-order Godunov method provides a robust and accurate treatment of advection in the presence of discontinuities without excessive dissipation. This paper focuses on the work of the present author concerning the approximate projection itself, which involves the numerical inversion of the operator {del} {center_dot} (1/{rho}){del} on various subsets of the adaptive grid hierarchy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noll, L.A.; Burchfield, T.E.
1982-01-01
The article describes the calculation of the reduced surface excess from a continuous flow experiment. The desirability of using surface excess is considered. The usual method of frontal analysis is explained, and its shortcomings are briefly mentioned. The results of both methods of calculation are shown using the Everett model, and these results are compared with each other and with the thermal data gathered simultaneously. Calculation of surface excess for a flowing multicomponent system is outlined. 4 figures, 3 tables.
Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe
2014-07-01
Particle methods are very convenient to compute transport equations in fluid mechanics as their computational cost is linear and they are not limited by convection stability conditions. To achieve large 3D computations the method must be coupled to efficient algorithms for velocity computations, including a good treatment of non-homogeneities and complex moving geometries. The Penalization method enables to consider moving bodies interaction by adding a term in the conservation of momentum equation. This work introduces a new computational algorithm to solve implicitly in the same step the Penalization term and the Laplace operators, since explicit computations are limited by stability issues, especially at low Reynolds number. This computational algorithm is based on the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula coupled to a GMRES iterative method to reduce the computations to a sequence of Poisson problems: this allows to formulate a penalized Poisson equation as a large perturbation of a standard Poisson, by means of algebraic relations. A direct consequence is the possibility to use fast solvers based on Fast Fourier Transforms for this problem with good efficiency from both the computational and the memory consumption point of views, since these solvers are recursive and they do not perform any matrix assembling. The resulting fluid mechanics computations are very fast and they consume a small amount of memory, compared to a reference solver or a linear system resolution. The present applications focus mainly on a coupling between transport equation and 3D Stokes equations, for studying biological organisms motion in a highly viscous flows with variable viscosity.
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient methods for low speed flow calculations
Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and the convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the lower-upper (L-U)-successive symmetric over-relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional line Gauss-Seidel relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akhmetov Vadim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Swirling flow with particle deposition effects at the lateral surface is numerically investigated. The flow field calculation results have been obtained as the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Various flow regimes with the formation of axial recirculation zones are presented. The convection-diffusion model is used for the determination of the flow particle concentration and the formation of typical sedimentation zones.
Error Representation in Time For Compressible Flow Calculations
Barth, Timothy J.
2010-01-01
Time plays an essential role in most real world fluid mechanics problems, e.g. turbulence, combustion, acoustic noise, moving geometries, blast waves, etc. Time dependent calculations now dominate the computational landscape at the various NASA Research Centers but the accuracy of these computations is often not well understood. In this presentation, we investigate error representation (and error control) for time-periodic problems as a prelude to the investigation of feasibility of error control for stationary statistics and space-time averages. o These statistics and averages (e.g. time-averaged lift and drag forces) are often the output quantities sought by engineers. o For systems such as the Navier-Stokes equations, pointwise error estimates deteriorate rapidly which increasing Reynolds number while statistics and averages may remain well behaved.
Three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flow calculations using direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Celenligil, M. Cevdet; Moss, James N.
1993-01-01
A summary of three-dimensional simulations on the hypersonic rarefied flows in an effort to understand the highly nonequilibrium flows about space vehicles entering the Earth's atmosphere for a realistic estimation of the aerothermal loads is presented. Calculations are performed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a five-species reacting gas model, which accounts for rotational and vibrational internal energies. Results are obtained for the external flows about various bodies in the transitional flow regime. For the cases considered, convective heating, flowfield structure and overall aerodynamic coefficients are presented and comparisons are made with the available experimental data. The agreement between the calculated and measured results are very good.
Investigation of swirling diphasic flow in centrifugal phase separator
Kishkin, A. A.; Melkozerov, M. G.; Delkov, A. V.
2017-10-01
Separation of disphasic mediums form the basis of many technological processes. However calculation methods for diphasic mediums used in industry found on empirical studies and cannot lay a claim to universality. In the offered model of swirling diphasic flow the flow is divided into the viscous interface and the diphasic core. To research the flow of liquid in the area of the viscous interface with big gradients of velocity Navier-Stokes equations are used.
Viscous thread behavior in branching microchannels
Cubaud, Thomas; Hu, Xiaoyi; Sauzade, Martin
2014-11-01
We experimentally study the properties of viscous core-annular flows using miscible fluids in bifurcating microchannels. A viscous filament is first generated using a square hydrodynamic focusing junction by injecting a thick fluid into the central channel and a thin fluid from the side-channels. This method allows us to produce miscible fluid threads of various sizes and lateral positions in the channel, and enables the systematic study of thread transport and stability from low to moderate Reynolds numbers in branching microfluidic networks. We examine, in particular, the role of viscous buckling instabilities on thread behavior and the formation of complex viscous mixtures and stratifications at the small-scale. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).
Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws
Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.
2017-03-01
Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8-106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamoto, Kazuhisa [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nonaka, Chiho [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)
2017-06-15
We construct a new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code optimized in the Milne coordinates. We split the conservation equations into an ideal part and a viscous part, using the Strang spitting method. In the code a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation is utilized for the ideal part and the Piecewise Exact Solution (PES) method is applied for the viscous part. We check the validity of our numerical calculations by comparing analytical solutions, the viscous Bjorken's flow and the Israel-Stewart theory in Gubser flow regime. Using the code, we discuss possible development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Boyd, S Y; Sako, E Y; Trinkle, J K; O'Rourke, R A; Zabalgoitia, M
2001-05-15
Single-lung transplantation (SLT) is a viable option for patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. After successful SLT, pulmonary blood flow is preferentially shifted to the transplanted lung, creating a flow differential. Lack of flow differential may be indicative of potential vascular complications such as anastomotic stenosis or thrombosis. To assess the ability of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in estimating lung flow differential in patients undergoing SLT, biplane TEE was prospectively performed in 18 consecutive patients undergoing SLT early (24 to 72 hours), and in 10 of them late (3 to 6 months) after surgery. Right and left pulmonary vein flow were calculated as Qnu=A. VTI, where A, the pulmonary vein area, was derived as pi.(D/2)(2) and VTI is the velocity time integral of the pulmonary vein spectral display. Lung flow differential was calculated as the ratio of right (RQnu) or left (LQnu) pulmonary vein flow to total pulmonary venous flow (RQnu + LQnu). Lung perfusion imaging scintigraphy (technetium-99m) was used for comparison. Pulmonary vein velocity time integral of transplanted lung was significantly greater than that of native lung (34 +/- 9 vs 18 +/- 8 cm, p differential lung flow derived by perfusion imaging scintigraphy and by TEE showed a good correlation (r = 0.67, p calculating lung flow differential in patients undergoing SLT. In addition, TEE provides superb direct visualization of the venous and arterial anastomoses in most patients. Contrary to previous reports, the overall incidence of anastomotic complications is relatively low.
Ananin, S. I.
1986-03-01
A two-dimensional model for describing the dynamics of partially ionized air compression plasma flows, generated by a magnetoplasma compressor, is proposed. The model is based on the large-particle method together with the introduction of a magnetic field. The results of calculations of the dynamics and structure of compression plasma flows are studied and compared with experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ananin, S.I.
1986-03-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional model for describing the dynamics of partially ionized air compression plasma flows, generated by a magnetoplasma compressor. The model is based on the large-particle method together with the introduction of a magnetic field. The results of calculations of the dynamics and structure of compression plasma flows are studied and compared with experimental data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Celsis, P; Goldman, T; Henriksen, L
1981-01-01
Emission tomography of positron or gamma emitting inert gases allows calculation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cross-sectional slices of human brain. An algorithm is presented for rCBF calculations from a sequence of time averaged tomograms using inhaled 133Xe. The approach is designed...
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
Cebeci, Tuncer
2005-01-01
This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.
New Formulas for Calculating the Fluid Flow Characteristics in a Circular Pipe
Chesnokov, Yu. G.
2017-07-01
We propose new formulas for calculating the friction factor in pipes with smooth walls and relations between the mean and the maximum fluid flow velocity in a pipe. The formulas are in better agreement with experimental data than the literature relations. An expression for the friction factor suitable for all flow conditions is proposed. The results of this work can be used in calculating the hydraulic resistance of pipes, as well as in calculating the heat and mass transfer processes in apparatuses incorporating tubular elements.
Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CARDOS
2010-06-01
Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.
A Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Model for Rotor Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1994-01-01
A numerical model for the viscous-inviscid interactive computations ofrotor flows is presented. The basic methodology for deriving the outer inviscid solution is a fully three-dimensional boundary element method.The inner viscous domain, i.e. the boundary layer, is described by the two-dimensiona...
Qu, Mengmeng; Jiang, Dazhi; Lu, Lucy X.
2016-11-01
To address the multiscale deformation and fabric development in Earth's ductile lithosphere, micromechanics-based self-consistent homogenization is commonly used to obtain macroscale rheological properties from properties of constituent elements. The homogenization is heavily based on the solution of an Eshelby viscous inclusion in a linear viscous medium and the extension of the solution to nonlinear viscous materials. The homogenization requires repeated numerical evaluation of Eshelby tensors for constituent elements and becomes ever more computationally challenging as the elements are deformed to more elongate or flattened shapes. In this paper, we develop an optimal scheme for evaluating Eshelby tensors, using a combination of a product Gaussian quadrature and the Lebedev quadrature. We first establish, through numerical experiments, an empirical relationship between the inclusion shape and the computational time it takes to evaluate its Eshelby tensors. We then use the relationship to develop an optimal scheme for selecting the most efficient quadrature to obtain the Eshelby tensors. The optimal scheme is applicable to general homogenizations. In this paper, it is implemented in a MATLAB package for investigating the evolution of solitary rigid or deformable inclusions and the development of shape preferred orientations in multi-inclusion systems during deformation. The MATLAB package, upgrading an earlier effort written in MathCad, can be downloaded online.
Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization
Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong
2017-06-01
Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.
Laminar and Turbulent Flow Calculations for the Hifire-5B Flight Test
2017-11-01
STATES AIR FORCE AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0172 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW CALCULATIONS FOR THE HIFIRE-5B FLIGHT TEST Roger L. Kimmel Hypersonic Sciences...LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW CALCULATIONS FOR THE HIFIRE-5B FLIGHT TEST 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Clearance Date: 28 Apr 2017 14. ABSTRACT The HIFiRE-5b program launched an experimental FLight test vehicle to study laminar-turbulent transition
2D Inviscid and Viscous Inverse Design Using Continuous Adjoint and Lax-Wendroff Formulation
Proctor, Camron Lisle
The continuous adjoint (CA) technique for optimization and/or inverse-design of aerodynamic components has seen nearly 30 years of documented success in academia. The benefits of using CA versus a direct sensitivity analysis are shown repeatedly in the literature. However, the use of CA in industry is relatively unheard-of. The sparseness of industry contributions to the field may be attributed to the tediousness of the derivation and/or to the difficulties in implementation due to the lack of well-documented adjoint numerical methods. The focus of this work has been to thoroughly document the techniques required to build a two-dimensional CA inverse-design tool. To this end, this work begins with a short background on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the use of optimization tools in conjunction with CFD tools to solve aerodynamic optimization problems. A thorough derivation of the continuous adjoint equations and the accompanying gradient calculations for inviscid and viscous constraining equations follows the introduction. Next, the numerical techniques used for solving the partial differential equations (PDEs) governing the flow equations and the adjoint equations are described. Numerical techniques for the supplementary equations are discussed briefly. Subsequently, a verification of the efficacy of the inverse design tool, for the inviscid adjoint equations as well as possible numerical implementation pitfalls are discussed. The NACA0012 airfoil is used as an initial airfoil and surface pressure distribution and the NACA16009 is used as the desired pressure and vice versa. Using a Savitsky-Golay gradient filter, convergence (defined as a cost functionequations results are followed by the discussion of the viscous inverse design results and techniques used to further the convergence of the optimizer. The relationship between limiting step-size and convergence in a line-search optimization is shown to slightly decrease the final cost function at
Wormholes in viscous cosmology
Wang, Deng
2016-01-01
We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...
Bounds on the phase velocity in the linear instability of viscous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
parallel shear flow problem are extended to the problem of viscous parallel, shear flow problem in the beta plane and a sufficient condition for stability has also been derived. Keywords. Viscous shear flows; linear stability. 1. Introduction. Parallel shear flows problem is a classical hydrodynamic instability problem and contin ...
On calculation of a steam-water flow in a geothermal well
Shulyupin, A. N.; Chermoshentseva, A. A.
2013-08-01
Approaches to calculation of a steam-water flow in a geothermal well are considered. For hydraulic applications, a WELL-4 model of a steam-water well is developed. Data obtained using this model are compared with experimental data and also with calculations by similar models including the well-known HOLA model. The capacity of the A-2 well in the Mutnovskoe flash-steam field (Kamchatka half-island, Russia) after planned reconstruction is predicted.
Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering
Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.
2017-10-01
We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.
Simulations of the Yawed MEXICO Rotor Using a Viscous-Inviscid Panel Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
In the present work the viscous-inviscid interactive model MIRAS is used to simulate flows past the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions. The solver is based on an unsteady three-dimensional free wake panel method which uses a strong viscous-inviscid interaction technique to account for the viscous...
Is Earth-based scaling a valid procedure for calculating heat flows for Mars?
Ruiz, Javier; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Dohm, James M.; Fernández, Carlos; López, Valle
2013-09-01
Heat flow is a very important parameter for constraining the thermal evolution of a planetary body. Several procedures for calculating heat flows for Mars from geophysical or geological proxies have been used, which are valid for the time when the structures used as indicators were formed. The more common procedures are based on estimates of lithospheric strength (the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere or the depth to the brittle-ductile transition). On the other hand, several works by Kargel and co-workers have estimated martian heat flows from scaling the present-day terrestrial heat flow to Mars, but the so-obtained values are much higher than those deduced from lithospheric strength. In order to explain the discrepancy, a recent paper by Rodriguez et al. (Rodriguez, J.A.P., Kargel, J.S., Tanaka, K.L., Crown, D.A., Berman, D.C., Fairén, A.G., Baker, V.R., Furfaro, R., Candelaria, P., Sasaki, S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 150-194) criticized the heat flow calculations for ancient Mars presented by Ruiz et al. (Ruiz, J., Williams, J.-P., Dohm, J.M., Fernández, C., López, V. [2009]. Icarus 207, 631-637) and other studies calculating ancient martian heat flows from lithospheric strength estimates, and casted doubts on the validity of the results obtained by these works. Here however we demonstrate that the discrepancy is due to computational and conceptual errors made by Kargel and co-workers, and we conclude that the scaling from terrestrial heat flow values is not a valid procedure for estimating reliable heat flows for Mars.
Numerical calculations of mass transfer flow in semi-detached binary systems. [of stars
Edwards, D. A.; Pringle, J. E.
1987-01-01
The details of the mass transfer flow near the inner Lagrangian point in a semidetached binary system are numerically calculated. A polytropic equation of state with n = 3/2 is used. The dependence of the mass transfer rate on the degree to which the star overfills its Roche lobe is calculated, and good agreement with previous analytic estimates is found. The variation of mass transfer rate which occurs if the binary system has a small eccentricity is calculated and is used to cast doubt on the model for superhumps in dwarf novae proposed by Papaloizou and Pringle (1979).
Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2008-01-01
This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... of the calculated SVC susceptance while retaining acceptable load flow convergence rate....
Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2008-01-01
We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating back...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishioka, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Nishimura, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Lee, H. Y. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2016-03-15
A moment approach to calculate neoclassical transport in non-axisymmetric torus plasmas composed of multiple ion species is extended to include the external parallel momentum sources due to unbalanced tangential neutral beam injections (NBIs). The momentum sources that are included in the parallel momentum balance are calculated from the collision operators of background particles with fast ions. This method is applied for the clarification of the physical mechanism of the neoclassical parallel ion flows and the multi-ion species effect on them in Heliotron J NBI plasmas. It is found that parallel ion flow can be determined by the balance between the parallel viscosity and the external momentum source in the region where the external source is much larger than the thermodynamic force driven source in the collisional plasmas. This is because the friction between C{sup 6+} and D{sup +} prevents a large difference between C{sup 6+} and D{sup +} flow velocities in such plasmas. The C{sup 6+} flow velocities, which are measured by the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system, are numerically evaluated with this method. It is shown that the experimentally measured C{sup 6+} impurity flow velocities do not contradict clearly with the neoclassical estimations, and the dependence of parallel flow velocities on the magnetic field ripples is consistent in both results.
MONOTONIC DERIVATIVE CORRECTION FOR CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS WITH SHOCK WAVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. Numerical solution methods of gas dynamics problems based on exact and approximate solution of Riemann problem are considered. We have developed an approach to the solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas based on finite volume method and finite difference schemes of various order of accuracy. Godunov scheme, Kolgan scheme, Roe scheme, Harten scheme and Chakravarthy-Osher scheme are used in calculations (order of accuracy of finite difference schemes varies from 1st to 3rd. Comparison of accuracy and efficiency of various finite difference schemes is demonstrated on the calculation example of inviscid compressible gas flow in Laval nozzle in the case of continuous acceleration of flow in the nozzle and in the case of nozzle shock wave presence. Conclusions about accuracy of various finite difference schemes and time required for calculations are made. Main Results. Comparative analysis of difference schemes for Euler equations integration has been carried out. These schemes are based on accurate and approximate solution for the problem of an arbitrary discontinuity breakdown. Calculation results show that monotonic derivative correction provides numerical solution uniformity in the breakdown neighbourhood. From the one hand, it prevents formation of new points of extremum, providing the monotonicity property, but from the other hand, causes smoothing of existing minimums and maximums and accuracy loss. Practical Relevance. Developed numerical calculation method gives the possibility to perform high accuracy calculations of flows with strong non-stationary shock and detonation waves. At the same time, there are no non-physical solution oscillations on the shock wave front.
Viscous Design of TCA Configuration
Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.
1999-01-01
The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.
[Influence of measurement position on calculating pear tree stem sap flow].
Sun, Huizhen; Kang, Sha-Ozhong; Gong, Daozhi
2006-11-01
By the method of heat pulse, this paper studied the influence of different measurement positions on calculating the stem sap flow velocity and quantity of pear trees. The results showed that at definite depths, the directional variation of the volume fraction of water and wood was lower than the seasonal change of wood physical parameters. The directional and seasonal variation of the volumetric water and wood was 0.01 - 0.03 and 0 - 0.02, and 0.02 - 0.09 and 0.02 -0.08, respectively. The sap flow velocity at definite depth, which was calculated by different depths wood physical parameters measured at the same time, had no significant difference, but that calculated by the same depth wood parameters measured at different time was significantly different. The sap flow quantity measured at the inner two points and four points was underestimated 1.5 and 4.9 times of that measured at the outer corresponding measurement positions, relative to the estimation obtained from a multi-point measurement. The sap flow quantity measured by four-point at the position of 0 - 0.6 from the cambium could represent the water consumption of whole tree.
Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain GWTT analyses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnard, R.W.; Brown, T.J.; Altman, S.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
1995-12-01
Sandia National Laboratories has developed calculational tools and modeling domains for groundwater-flow analyses; these tools are being used for evaluation of the Postclosure Geohydrology guideline in 10 CFR 960 [with emphasis on the Groundwater Travel Time (GWTT) disqualifying condition] for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV. The emphasis of this work is on investigations of hydrologic processes and hydrogeologic features that may produce fast-path flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain. Based on the current understanding, conceptual models for UZ flow at Yucca Mountain generally assume that flow in fractures will be the mechanism for fastest water movement, and thus for fastest contaminant transport. The models used for these analyses require saturated conditions in the rock before UZ fracture flow can be initiated and sustained. This work investigates the initiation of fracture flow due to the creation of locally saturated zones in the unsaturated Yucca Mountain tuffs caused by natural heterogeneities in the rock units. For this purpose, we have developed model domain, using the composite-porosity flow model, where local saturation can be achieved without arbitrarily introducing saturated boundary conditions.
Singh, M.
2016-02-01
The instability of the plane interface between two uniform, superposed and streaming Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluids through porous media, including the `effective interfacial tension' effect, is considered. In the absence of the `effective interfacial tension' stability/instability of the system as well as perturbations transverse to the direction of streaming are found to be unaffected by the presence of streaming if perturbations in the direction of streaming are ignored, whereas for perturbation in all other directions, there exists instability for a certain wave number range. The `effective interfacial tension' is able to suppress this Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for small wavelength perturbations, the medium porosity reduces the stability range given in terms of a difference in streaming velocities.
USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall Seright
2011-09-30
This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be
Calculation of sheath and wake structure about a pillbox-shaped spacecraft in a flowing plasma
Parker, L. W.
1977-01-01
A computer program was used for studies of the disturbed zones around bodies in flowing plasmas, particularly spacecraft and their associated sheaths and wakes. The program solved a coupled Poisson-Vlasov system of nonlinear partial differential integral equations to obtain distributions of electric potential and ion and electron density about a finite length cylinder in a plasma flow at arbitrary ion Mach numbers. The approach was applicable to a larger range of parameters than other available approaches. In sample calculations, bodies up to 100 Debye lengths in radius were treated, that is, larger than any previously treated realistically. Applications were made to in-situ satellite experiments.
Synergetic Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering and Alternating Injection
Jha, B.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2013-12-01
We study mixing of two fluids of different viscosity in a microfluidic channel or porous medium. In recent work, we suggested that miscible viscous fingering--a hydrodynamic instability that takes place when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid--can enhance mixing in Darcy flows, such as flows in Hele-Shaw cells or porous media [1]. Enhanced mixing due to viscous fingering emerges from the velocity disorder and the additional interfacial area created between the two fluids as a result of the hydrodynamic instability. Here, we show that the synergetic action of alternating injection and viscous fingering leads to a dramatic increase in mixing efficiency at high Péclet numbers. Based on observations from high-resolution simulations, we develop a theoretical model of mixing efficiency that combines a hyperbolic mixing model of the channelized region ahead, and a mixing-dissipation model of the pseudo-steady region behind. Our macroscopic model quantitatively reproduces the evolution of the average degree of mixing along the flow direction, and can be used as a design tool to optimize mixing from viscous fingering in a microfluidic channel. [1] B. Jha, L. Cueto-Felgueroso and R. Juanes, Fluid mixing from viscous fingering, Physical Review Letters, 106, 194502 (2011).
Bayesian inference in mass flow simulations - from back calculation to prediction
Kofler, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Hellweger, Valentin; Huber, Andreas; Mergili, Martin; Pudasaini, Shiva; Fellin, Wolfgang; Oberguggenberger, Michael
2017-04-01
Mass flow simulations are an integral part of hazard assessment. Determining the hazard potential requires a multidisciplinary approach, including different scientific fields such as geomorphology, meteorology, physics, civil engineering and mathematics. An important task in snow avalanche simulation is to predict process intensities (runout, flow velocity and depth, ...). The application of probabilistic methods allows one to develop a comprehensive simulation concept, ranging from back to forward calculation and finally to prediction of mass flow events. In this context optimized parameter sets for the used simulation model or intensities of the modeled mass flow process (e.g. runout distances) are represented by probability distributions. Existing deterministic flow models, in particular with respect to snow avalanche dynamics, contain several parameters (e.g. friction). Some of these parameters are more conceptual than physical and their direct measurement in the field is hardly possible. Hence, parameters have to be optimized by matching simulation results to field observations. This inverse problem can be solved by a Bayesian approach (Markov chain Monte Carlo). The optimization process yields parameter distributions, that can be utilized for probabilistic reconstruction and prediction of avalanche events. Arising challenges include the limited amount of observations, correlations appearing in model parameters or observed avalanche characteristics (e.g. velocity and runout) and the accurate handling of ensemble simulations, always taking into account the related uncertainties. Here we present an operational Bayesian simulation framework with r.avaflow, the open source GIS simulation model for granular avalanches and debris flows.
Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toumi, I. [Laboratoire d`Etudes Thermiques des Reacteurs, Gif sur Yvette (France); Caruge, D. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)
1997-07-01
This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for both one and three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods and are based on the use of Approximate Riemann Solvers concepts to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. The first part of the paper presents the numerical method for a one dimensional hyperbolic two-fluid model including differential terms as added mass and interface pressure. This numerical solution scheme makes use of the Riemann problem solution to define backward and forward differencing to approximate spatial derivatives. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe`s method that has been successfully used to solve gas dynamic equations. As far as the two-fluid model is hyperbolic, this numerical method seems very efficient for the numerical solution of two-phase flow problems. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid computer codes. The second part describes the numerical method in the three dimensional case. The authors discuss also some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. Such a scheme is not implemented in a thermal-hydraulic computer code devoted to 3-D steady-state and transient computations. Some results obtained for Pressurised Water Reactors concerning upper plenum calculations and a steady state flow in the core with rod bow effect evaluation are presented. In practice these new numerical methods have proved to be stable on non staggered grids and capable of generating accurate non oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kanno, I; Lassen, N A
1979-01-01
Two methods are described for calculation of regional cerebral blood flow from completed tomographic data of radioactive inert gas distribution in a slice of brain tissue. It is assumed that the tomographic picture gives the average inert gas concentration in each pixel over data collection perio...... are implemented using synthetic data of xenon-133 emission computed tomography and some of the difficulties likely to be encountered in practice are stressed....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry
2003-04-01
A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson
MODELING AND CALCULATION OF FLOW AMPLIFIER PARAMETERS IN STEERING OF HEAVY TRUCKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. P. Avtushko
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes prospects pertaining to development of methods for dynamic calculation of monitoring hydraulic units with various types of relations. Calculated diagram of steering hydraulic drive with flow amplifier and turning cylinder has been given in the paper and its dynamic model has been developed. A hydraulic drive is considered as a system with lumped parameters. It is supposed that properties of working fluid are unchangeable during transient process; leakages and cavitations do not occur; fluid can be pressed; resistance of service drain line is taken into account. Model has been developed with due account of resistance of manifolds and internal channels of flow amplifier, hydrodynamic forces, that influence on amplifier control valves, and friction forces of movable elements. Multi-variant dynamic calculation has been done and some results of the investigations are presented in the paper. The paper also contains analysis that shows influence of various design and component parameters of flow amplifier on the drive dynamics.
New Techniques for Heat Flow Calculations and Mapping Temperature-At
Frone, Z.; Blackwell, D. D.; Batir, J.; Park, J.; Richards, M.
2010-12-01
The results from a new geothermal resource assessment of the US, including for the first time detailed data from much of the eastern US, are summarized along with the techniques used to accomplish the assessment. BHT data were incorporated in the eastern US, where current heat flow data is sparse, using BHT corrections and calculated conductivities from a regional lithology model; comparing results to where overlapping conventional heat flow and BHT data exist for error calibration. A total of 5,000 points are now available in the northeast as opposed to the 1,000 used to produce the 2004 Geothermal Map of North America. Where neither heat flow nor BHT data were available, geophysical data (regional gravity and magnetics) were used as an ancillary predictor to the process for areas with sedimentary cover. The effectiveness of that process is demonstrated. This study uses the new heat flow data to improve the calculated heat in place to 10 km for the US. Based on the preliminary results from this work, the Appalachian Basin may contain some of the most favorable potential targets for EGS geothermal exploration in the eastern 1/3 of the United Stated and especially in eastern West Virginia, where temperatures of at least 150°C exist at a depth of 4.5 km.
White, N. J.; Schoonman, C. M.
2016-12-01
The Icelandic mantle plume has had a significant influence on the geologic and oceanographic evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean during Cenozoic times. Full-waveform tomographic imaging of this region show that the planform of this plume has a complex irregular shape with significant shear wave velocity anomalies lying beneath the lithospheric plates between 100 and 200 km depth. The planform of these anomalies suggests that five or more horizontal fingers extend radially beneath the fringing continental margins. The best-imaged fingers lie beneath the British Isles and beneath western Norway where significant crustal isostatic departures have been measured. Here, we propose that these radial fingers are generated by a phenomenon known as the Saffman-Taylor instability. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that radial, miscible viscous fingering occurs when a less viscous fluid is injected into a more viscous fluid. The wavelength and number of fingers are controlled by the mobility (i.e. the ratio of viscosities), by the Peclet number (i.e. the ratio of advective and diffusive processes), and by the thickness of the horizontal layer into which fluid is injected. We have combined shear wave velocity estimates with residual depth measurements around the Atlantic margins to calculate the planform distribution of temperature and viscosity within an asthenospheric layer beneath the lithospheric plates. Our calculations suggest that the mobility is 20-50, that the Peclet number is O(104, and that the asthenospheric channel is 150 ± 50 km thick. The existence and form of viscous fingering is consistent with experimental observations and with linear stability analysis. A useful rule of thumb is that the wavelength of viscous fingering is 5 ± 1 times the thickness of the horizontal layer. Our proposal support the notion that dynamic topography of the Earth's surface can be influenced by rapid horizontal flow within spatially evolving asthenospheric fingers.
Airfoil computation at high angles of attack, inviscid and viscous phenomena
Barton, J. T.; Pulliam, T. H.
1984-01-01
An implicit central difference code is used to calculate two dimensional inviscid and thin-layer Navier-Stokes solutions for flow about an NACA0012 airfoil at high angles of attack. Among the issues addressed are whether separation can occur in an inviscid calculation and what the causes would be of such separation. Examples are shown of inviscid shocked flow with and without separation and shock-free flow with separation. An Euler solution with self-induced oscillation and separation driven by a strong shock is contrasted with a shock-free solution whose separation is caused by numerical error. Computed solutions to the Euler equations are compared to those of the potential equations. Comparisons are also made between experimental data from wind tunnel tests and viscous calculations at similar conditions.
Variations in respiratory excretion of carbon dioxide can be used to calculate pulmonary blood flow.
Preiss, David A; Azami, Takafumi; Urman, Richard D
2015-02-01
A non-invasive means of measuring pulmonary blood flow (PBF) would have numerous benefits in medicine. Traditionally, respiratory-based methods require breathing maneuvers, partial rebreathing, or foreign gas mixing because exhaled CO2 volume on a per-breath basis does not accurately represent alveolar exchange of CO2. We hypothesized that if the dilutional effect of the functional residual capacity was accounted for, the relationship between the calculated volume of CO2 removed per breath and the alveolar partial pressure of CO2 would be reversely linear. A computer model was developed that uses variable tidal breathing to calculate CO2 removal per breath at the level of the alveoli. We iterated estimates for functional residual capacity to create the best linear fit of alveolar CO2 pressure and CO2 elimination for 10 minutes of breathing and incorporated the volume of CO2 elimination into the Fick equation to calculate PBF. The relationship between alveolar pressure of CO2 and CO2 elimination produced an R(2) = 0.83. The optimal functional residual capacity differed from the "actual" capacity by 0.25 L (8.3%). The repeatability coefficient leveled at 0.09 at 10 breaths and the difference between the PBF calculated by the model and the preset blood flow was 0.62 ± 0.53 L/minute. With variations in tidal breathing, a linear relationship exists between alveolar CO2 pressure and CO2 elimination. Existing technology may be used to calculate CO2 elimination during quiet breathing and might therefore be used to accurately calculate PBF in humans with healthy lungs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Ferrarini
2016-03-01
Full Text Available To date, corridors for species dispersals have been thought as deterministic outputs emerging from some kind of model. Uncertainty about the individuation of biotic corridors has never been considered. Flow connectivity (FC is a methodology first introduced in 2013 to forecast biotic flows over real landscapes, alternative to both circuit theory and least-cost modelling. Its name is due to the fact that it resembles in some way the motion characteristic of fluids over a surface. FC predicts species dispersal by minimizing at each time step the potential energy due to fictional gravity force over a frictional 3D landscape built upon the real landscape. In this work, FC is further developed to find a solution to the problem of calculating the uncertainty associated to the forecast of species dispersals. The output of this method is an ''uncertainty polygon'' (e.g., 5% or 10% uncertainty around the predicted biotic flow. The importance of this new variant of FC is clear: when planning greenways for biodiversity, uncertainty about biotic flows prediction must be taken into account and the planned corridors must encompass the ''uncertainty polygon'' as well, otherwise they are at serious risk to underestimate the necessary space required by animal species to flow over landscape.
Waves of pressure in viscous incompressible fluid
Prosviryakov, E. Yu.
2017-12-01
A three-dimensional non-stationary flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in the infinite space is examined. The description of possible shapes of pressure is based on the equation for the axial component of velocity, which is an exact consequence of the basic equations. New analytical exact solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for periodic and localized traveling waves have been found.
Blanck, Harvey F.
2012-01-01
Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…
Semianalytical calculation of the zonal-flow oscillation frequency in stellarators
Monreal, Pedro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Calvo, Iván; Bustos, Andrés; Parra, Félix I.; Mishchenko, Alexey; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf
2017-06-01
Due to their capability to reduce turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas, understanding the dynamics of zonal flows is an important problem in the fusion program. Since the pioneering work by Rosenbluth and Hinton in axisymmetric tokamaks, it is known that studying the linear and collisionless relaxation of zonal flow perturbations gives valuable information and physical insight. Recently, the problem has been investigated in stellarators and it has been found that in these devices the relaxation process exhibits a characteristic feature: a damped oscillation. The frequency of this oscillation might be a relevant parameter in the regulation of turbulent transport, and therefore its efficient and accurate calculation is important. Although an analytical expression can be derived for the frequency, its numerical evaluation is not simple and has not been exploited systematically so far. Here, a numerical method for its evaluation is considered, and the results are compared with those obtained by calculating the frequency from gyrokinetic simulations. This ‘semianalytical’ approach for the determination of the zonal-flow frequency is revealed to be accurate and faster than the one based on gyrokinetic simulations.
Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Methods for Advanced Marine Propeller Applications
Greve, Martin; Wöckner-Kluwe, Katja; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Rung, Thomas
2012-01-01
The paper reports the development of coupling strategies between an inviscid direct panel method and a viscous RANS method and their application to complex propeller ows. The work is motivated by the prohibitive computational cost associated to unsteady viscous flow simulations using geometrically resolved propellers to analyse the dynamics of ships in seaways. The present effort aims to combine the advantages of the two baseline methods in order to reduce the numerical effort without comprom...
A truncation error injection approach to viscous-inviscid interaction
Goble, B. D.; Fung, K.-Y.
1987-01-01
An approach to viscous-inviscid interaction which is based on truncation error injection is presented in the context of solving flow over an airfoil. A two-dimensional interpolation scheme is used to restrict the fine grid solutions to the global coarse grid. Details on the current implementation of the approach are given, and the boundary conditions being used are discussed. Inviscid results from a NACA0012 airfoil test case and the viscous results are presented.
Gas diffusion optic flow calculation and its applications in gas cloud infrared imaging
Liu, Shao-hua; Luo, Xiu-li; Wang, Ling-xue; Cai, Yi
2015-11-01
Motion detection frequently employs Optic Flow to get the velocity of solid targets in imaging sequences. This paper suggests calculate the gas diffusion velocity in infrared gas leaking videos by optic flow algorithms. Gas target is significantly different from solid objects, which has variable margin and gray values in diffusion. A series of tests with various scenes and leakage rate were performed to compare the effect of main stream methods, such as Farneback algorithm, PyrLK and BM algorithm. Farneback algorithm seems to have the best result in those tests. Besides, the robustness of methods used in uncooled infrared imaging may decline seriously for the low resolution, big noise and poor contrast ratio. This research adopted a special foreground detection method (FDM) and spectral filtering technique to address this issue. FDM firstly computes corresponding sample sets of each pixel, and uses the background based on the sets to make a correlation analysis with the current frame. Spectral filtering technique means get two or three images in different spectrum by band pass filters, and show a better result by mixing those images. In addition, for Optic Flow methods have ability to precisely detect directional motion and to ignore the nondirectional one, these methods could be employed to highlight the gas area and reduce the background noise. This paper offers a credible way for obtaining the diffusion velocity and resolves the robust troubles in practical application. In the meanwhile, it is an exploration of optic flow in varied shape target detection.
A porosity model for flow resistance calculation of heat exchanger with louvered fins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Taek Keun [Halla Visteon Climate Control Corp. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hie Chan [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
A full 3-dimensional flow simulation of a louvered fin heat exchanger assembly requires a huge number of grid points and enormous computing time. This work proposes a porous media model for the flow resistance calculation of the louvered fin side in order to efficiently simulate a complex 3-dimensional flow over the louvered fins. In the present model, we determine the permeability and Ergun constant in the modified Darcy equation. We first build up a database of the friction factor from the available experimental data and our own CFD data, and then develop the friction factor correlation in the range of the Reynolds number based on the louver pitch from 0.001 to 20000 for 14 different louvered fin types. We use the non-linear and multi-linear regression analyses to obtain the friction factor correlation as a function of louvered fin geometric parameters such as louver pitch, louver angle and fin pitch. The present friction factor correlation shows an excellent agreement with the previous experimental and CFD data. The modified Darcy equation with the proposed permeability and Ergun constant for the louvered fin side can easily be coupled with the 3-dimensional computation of the main tube flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raschick, H.; Bernhardt, R. [Ingenieur- und Servicegesellschaft fuer Energie und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Simulatorenentwicklung
1997-10-20
The following article describes a PC program package for the training of load switching in electrical power supply and distribution station under normal, critical and fault conditions. It contains load flow and short circuit calculation, station interlocking checking and protection device simulation. There exist a single user version as well as a multi user version intended for group switching training. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser stellen ein PC-Programmsystem zum Training von Schalthandlungen in elektrischen Energieversorgungsanlagen unter Normal- und Ausnahmebedingungen vor. Es enhaelt Lastfluss- und Kurzschlussberechnung, Verriegelungsueberpruefung und Schutzemulation. Es ist sowohl eine Einzelplatz- als auch eine Mehrplatzversion zum Gruppenschalttraining verfuegbar. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)
1998-05-01
NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised.
Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 12 on through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines
1981-10-01
JI 61 rr 00 cro m mom e r4 -0- ChQ~ 0 00 C4oC m fn oo a\\%n0 -___ __M *~~~ CDr.~~*~ ’ 0 0 0’ - 0 0 00i 1^~t ’. ~4 r A. 4 1.0 N w v 0 OO It.f ~Ŕ 0 0 0...one sucks back the mass flow injected along a sink line, with an arbitrary distribution (79, 80). One starts a new calculation with a perfect fluid...Unterschallstramung durch raumliche Gitter aus Schaufeln auch grosser Dicke und Wolbung. ETH Zurich, Prom 3402, 1964. 4. VAN DEN BRAEMBUSSCHE, R.: Calculation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The calculation of river flows necessary to maintain the environmental services of the diverse river basins in Mexico has been an element to be considered in complying with the Mexican Norm and in allowing an adequate administration of water resources. Several methods have been proposed for this calculation, among which a very simple one is a hydrological method that requires a data base on runoff to determine the volume of water that ecosystem functions need. Hydrological methodology proposed by the NMX cited above, provides guidelines for establishing a regime as a percentage of average annual runoff and it is assumed maintain biological attributes at certain levels of conservation. It also analyzes the regime of seasonal normal flow for wet hydrological conditions, socks, dry and very dry, and the system of avenues (considered as the sudden increase in the volume and speed of the current in a river due to runoff resulting from rain cyclical or extraordinary, it is also known as flooding, considering at least three categories of avenues (intra-annual, annual and interannual low magnitude of average size with corresponding attributes of magnitude, duration, frequency, time of occurrence and rate exchange. For greater certainty calculation it will always be necessary to have records in the three levels of a basin. This level of analysis is to determine the final volume of ecological flow, considering the benchmark to achieve the previously defined environmental objective. For ecological calculation referred by the NMX, some fundamental aspects were considered, such as: ecology importance (which ranks among very high, high, medium and low based on the concepts of the rule itself ; use pressures (determined as the ratio percentage of the volume allocated over the concession between the annual average availability basin or aquifer, determined as high ≥ 80%, ≥ 40% high, medium and low ≥ 11% ≤ 10% ; the environmental objective (ecological
Rabhi, R.; Amami, B.; Dhahri, H.; Mhimid, A.
2017-11-01
This paper deals with heat transfer and fluid flow in a porous micro duct under local thermal non equilibrium conditions subjected to an external oriented magnetic field. The considered sample is a micro duct filled with porous media assumed to be homogenous, isotropic and saturated. The slip velocity and the temperature jump were uniformly imposed to the wall. In modeling the flow, the Brinkmann-Forchheimer extended Darcy model was incorporated into the momentum equations. In the energy equation, the local thermal non equilibrium between the two phases was adopted. A modified axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann method was used to solve the obtained governing equation system. Attention was focused on the influence of the emerging parameters such as Knudsen number, Kn, Hartmann number, Ha, Eckert number, Ec, Biot number, Bi and the magnetic field inclination γ on flow and heat transfer throughout this paper.
VALIDATION OF NUMERICAL METHODS TO CALCULATE BYPASS FLOW IN A PRISMATIC GAS-COOLED REACTOR CORE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NAM-IL TAK
2013-11-01
Full Text Available For thermo-fluid and safety analyses of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR, intensive efforts are in progress in the developments of the GAMMA+ code of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI and the AGREE code of the University of Michigan (U of M. One of the important requirements for GAMMA+ and AGREE is an accurate modeling capability of a bypass flow in a prismatic core. Recently, a series of air experiments were performed at Seoul National University (SNU in order to understand bypass flow behavior and generate an experimental database for the validation of computer codes. The main objective of the present work is to validate the GAMMA+ and AGREE codes using the experimental data published by SNU. The numerical results of the two codes were compared with the measured data. A good agreement was found between the calculations and the measurement. It was concluded that GAMMA+ and AGREE can reliably simulate the bypass flow behavior in a prismatic core.
A simple interaction law for viscous-inviscid interaction
Veldman, Arthur E. P.
2009-01-01
The viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) philosophy for modelling aerodynamic boundary layers is discussed. 'Traditionally' the shear-layer equations are solved with pressure prescribed by the inviscid flow, but then the solution breaks down in a singularity related to flow separation. In the
Time-dependent Flow and Transport Calculations for Project Opalinus Clay (Entsorgungsnachweis)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosakowski, G
2004-07-01
This report describes two specific assessment cases used in the safety assessment for a proposed deep geological repository for spent fuel, high level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste, sited in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, NAG RA, 2002d). In this study the influence of time dependent flow processes on the radionuclide transport in the geosphere is investigated. In the Opalinus Clay diffusion dominates the transport of radionuclides, but processes exist that can locally increase the importance of the advective transport for some time. Two important cases were investigated: (1) glaciation-induced flow due to an additional overburden in the form of an ice shield of up to 400 m thickness and (2) fluid flow driven by tunnel convergence. For the calculations the code FRAC3DVS (Therrien and Sudicky, 1996) was used. FRAC3DVS solves the three-dimensional flow and transport equation in porous and fractured media. For the case of glaciation-induced flow (1) a two-dimensional reference model without glaciations was calculated. During the glaciations the geosphere release-rates are up to a factor of about 1.7 higher compared to the reference model. The influence of glaciations on the transport of cations or neutral species is less than for anions, since the importance of the advective transport for anions is higher due to the lower accessible porosity for anions. The increase in the release rates during glaciations is lower for sorbing compared to non-sorbing radionuclides. The influence of the tunnel convergence (2) on the transport of radionuclides in the geosphere is very small. Due to the higher source term the geosphere release rates are slightly higher if tunnel convergence is considered. In addition to the two assessment cases this report investigates the applicability of the one-dimensional approximation for modelling transport through the Opalinus Clay. For the reference case of the safety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Salem
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to study the effects of temperature-dependent viscosity on heat and mass transfer flow of magnetohydrodynamic(MHD micropolar fluids with medium molecular weight along a permeable stretching surface embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium in the presence of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. The governing boundary equations for momentum, angular momentum (microrotation, and energy and mass transfer are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity solutions which are then solved numerically by shooting technique. A comparison between the analytical and the numerical solutions has been included. The effects of the various physical parameters entering into the problem on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. Finally, the effects of pertinent parameters on local skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are also presented graphically. One important observation is that for some kinds of mixtures (e.g., H2, air with light and medium molecular weight, the magnetic field and temperature-dependent viscosity effects play a significant role and should be taken into consideration as well.
Khan, Zeeshan; Islam, Saeed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Bonyah, Ebenezer; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Aurangzeb
Modern optical fibers require a double-layer coating on the glass fiber in order to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low and high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. One of the most important things which affect the final product after processing is the design of the coating die. In the present study, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a pressure type die with the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD). Wet-on-wet coating process is applied for double-layer optical fiber coating. The coating process in the coating die is modeled as a simple two-layer Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in an annulus with an assigned pressure gradient. Based on the assumptions of fully developed laminar and MHD flow, the Oldroyd 8-constant model of non-Newtonian fluid of two immiscible resin layers is modeled. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the new technique of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The effect of important parameters such as magnetic parameter Mi , the dilatant constant α , the Pseodoplastic constant β , the radii ratio δ , the pressure gradient Ω , the speed of fiber optics V , and the viscosity ratio κ on the velocity profiles, thickness of coated fiber optics, volume flow rate, and shear stress on the fiber optics are investigated. At the end the result of the present work is also compared with the experimental results already available in the literature by taking non-Newtonian parameters tends to zero.
Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography.
Kovácsová, Gabriela; Grünbein, Marie Luise; Kloos, Marco; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce; Schlichting, Ilme
2017-07-01
Serial (femtosecond) crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates - gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydro-gels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carb-oxy-methyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new matrices afford
Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Kovácsová
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new
Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Hao-Jie; Bai, Yu
2017-06-01
In classical study on generalized viscoelastic fluid, the momentum equation was derived by considering the fractional constitutive model, while the energy equation was ignored its effect. This paper presents an investigation for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of an incompressible generalized Burgers’ fluid due to an exponential accelerating plate with the effect of the second order velocity slip. The energy equation and momentum equation are coupled by the fractional Burgers’ fluid constitutive model. Numerical solutions for velocity, temperature and shear stress are obtained using the modified implicit finite difference method combined with the G1-algorithm, whose validity is confirmed by the comparison with the analytical solution. Our results show that the influences of the fractional parameters α and β on the flow are opposite each other, which is just like the effects of the two parameters on the temperature. Moreover, the impact trends of the relaxation time λ 1 and retardation time λ 3 on the velocity are opposite each other. Increasing the boundary parameter will promote the temperature, but has little effect on the temperature boundary layer thickness. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 21576023, 51406008, and the National Key Research Program of China under Grant Nos. 2016YFC0700601, 2016YFC0700603, and 2016YFE0115500
Electromagnetic field modeling and ion optics calculations for a continuous-flow AMS system
Han, B. X.; von Reden, K. F.; Roberts, M. L.; Schneider, R. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Jenkins, W. J.
2007-06-01
A continuous-flow 14C AMS (CFAMS) system is under construction at the NOSAMS facility. This system is based on a NEC Model 1.5SDH-1 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator and will utilize a combination of a microwave ion source (MIS) and a charge exchange canal (CXC) to produce negative carbon ions from a continuously flowing stream of CO2 gas. For high-efficiency transmission of the large emittance, large energy-spread beam from the ion source unit, a large-acceptance and energy-achromatic injector consisting of a 45° electrostatic spherical analyzer (ESA) and a 90° double-focusing magnet has been designed. The 45° ESA is rotatable to accommodate a 134-sample MC-SNICS as a second ion source. The high-energy achromat (90° double focusing magnet and 90° ESA) has also been customized for large acceptance. Electromagnetic field modeling and ion optics calculations of the beamline were done with Infolytica MagNet, ElecNet, and Trajectory Evaluator. PBGUNS and SIMION were used for the modeling of ion source unit.
Comparison of Different Methods for the Calculation of the Microvascular Flow Index
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario O. Pozo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The microvascular flow index (MFI is commonly used to semiquantitatively characterize the velocity of microcirculatory perfusion as absent (0, intermittent (1, sluggish (2, or normal (3. There are three approaches to compute MFI: (1 the average of the predominant flow in each of the four quadrants (MFIby quadrants, (2 the direct assessment during the bedside video acquisition (MFIpoint of care, and (3 the mean value of the MFIs determined in each individual vessel (MFIvessel by vessel. We hypothesized that the agreement between the MFIs is poor and that the MFIvessel by vessel better reflects the microvascular perfusion. For this purpose, we analyzed 100 videos from septic patients. In 25 of them, red blood cell (RBC velocity was also measured. There were wide 95% limits of agreement between MFIby quadrants and MFIpoint of care (1.46, between MFIby quadrants and MFIvessel by vessel (2.85, and between MFIby point of care and MFIvessel by vessel (2.56. The MFIs significantly correlated with the RBC velocity and with the fraction of perfused small vessels, but MFIvessel by vessel showed the best R2. Although the different methods for the calculation of MFI reflect microvascular perfusion, they are not interchangeable and MFIvessel by vessel might be better.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Gerasimovich
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a calculation method for electromagnetic parameters of single continuously long rod grounding electrode of tubular section at flowing of alternating current of mains frequency into the ground. The method is based on the Maxwell equations. The paper gives a distribution calculation of vertical and radial components of current density using finite differences.
Causal viscous cosmology without singularities
Laciana, Carlos E
2016-01-01
An isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model with a source of dark energy is studied. That source is simulated with a viscous relativistic fluid with minimal causal correction. In this model the restrictions on the parameters coming from the following conditions are analized: a) energy density without singularities along time, b) scale factor increasing with time, c) universe accelerated at present time, d) state equation for dark energy with "w" bounded and close to -1. It is found that those conditions are satified for the following two cases. i) When the transport coefficient ({\\tau}_{{\\Pi}}), associated to the causal correction, is negative, with the aditional restriction {\\zeta}|{\\tau}_{{\\Pi}}|>2/3, where {\\zeta} is the relativistic bulk viscosity coefficient. The state equation is in the "phantom" energy sector. ii) For {\\tau}_{{\\Pi}} positive, in the "k-essence" sector. It is performed an exact calculation for the case where the equation of state is constant, finding that option (ii) is favored in r...
Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott Misture
2012-09-30
Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850Â°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650Â°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friberg, L; Kastrup, J; Hansen, M
1986-01-01
of f1 was due to the 'slippage' phenomenon:calculation of f1 was affected by a reduction in f2 due to a considerably reduced extracerebral blood flow. The initial slope index (ISI) calculated from 30 to 90 s of the first part of the presumed mono-exponential 133Xe wash-out curve was not affected...... values. With a two-compartmental analysis of the wash-out curves during cooling there was a significant reduction of the CBF indices f1, representing mainly fast blood flow in the grey matter and f2, representing blood flow in the slowly perfused white matter and extracerebral structures. The reduction...
Calculation of Heat-Bearing Agent’s Steady Flow in Fuel Bundle
Amosova, E. V.; Guba, G. G.
2017-11-01
This paper introduces the result of studying the heat exchange in the fuel bundle of the nuclear reactor’s fuel magazine. The article considers the fuel bundle of the infinite number of fuel elements, fuel elements are considered in the checkerboard fashion (at the tops of a regular triangle a fuel element is a plain round rod. The inhomogeneity of volume energy release in the rod forms the inhomogeneity of temperature and velocity fields, and pressure. Computational methods for studying hydrodynamics in magazines and cores with rod-shape fuel elements are based on a significant simplification of the problem: using basic (averaged) equations, isobaric section hypothesis, porous body model, etc. This could be explained by the complexity of math description of the three-dimensional fluid flow in the multi-connected area with the transfer coefficient anisotropy, curved boundaries and technical computation difficulties. Thus, calculative studying suggests itself as promising and important. There was developed a method for calculating the heat-mass exchange processes of inter-channel fuel element motions, which allows considering the contribution of natural convection to the heat-mass exchange based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Boussinesq approximation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friberg, L; Kastrup, J; Hansen, M
1986-01-01
values. With a two-compartmental analysis of the wash-out curves during cooling there was a significant reduction of the CBF indices f1, representing mainly fast blood flow in the grey matter and f2, representing blood flow in the slowly perfused white matter and extracerebral structures. The reduction...... by slippage as the ISI remained unchanged in spite of reduced extracerebral blood flow. It is concluded that CBF was unaffected by extracranial cooling. Extracranial cooling can be used to reduce the extracerebral blood flow contribution to the calculated CBF values....
Klunker, E. B.; South, J. C., Jr.; Davis, R. M.
1972-01-01
A user's manual is presented for a program that calculates the supersonic flow on the windward side of conical delta wings with shock attached at the sharp leading edge by the method of lines. The program also has a limited capability for computing the flow about circular and elliptic cones at incidence. It provides information including the shock shape, flow field, isentropic surface-flow properties, and force coefficients. A description of the program operation, a sample computation, and a FORTRAN 4 program listing are included.
White, Nicky; Schoonman, Charlotte
2017-04-01
The Icelandic plume has had a significant influence upon the geologic and oceanographic evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean throughout Cenozoic times. Published full-waveform earthquake tomographic imaging of this region shows that the planform of this plume has a complex irregular shape with significant shear wave velocity anomalies lying beneath the lithospheric plate at depths of between 100 and 200 km. The planform of these anomalies suggests that five or more horizontal fingers extend radially beneath the fringing continental margins. The best-resolved of these fingers lie beneath the British Isles and beneath western Norway where significant crustal isostatic departures have been measured. Here, we propose that these radial fingers are generated by a well-known fluid dynamical phenomenon known as the Saffman-Taylor instability. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that radial, miscible viscous fingering occurs when a less viscous fluid is injected into a more viscous fluid. The wavelength and number of fingers are controlled by the mobility (i.e. the ratio of viscosities), by the Peclet number (i.e. the ratio of advective and diffusive processes), and by the thickness of the horizontal layer into which fluid is injected. We have combined shear wave velocity estimates with residual depth measurements around the Atlantic margins to calculate the planform distribution of temperature and viscosity within an asthenospheric layer beneath the lithospheric plates. Our calculations suggest that the mobility is 20-50, that the Peclet number is O(10000), and that the asthenospheric channel is 150 +/- 50 km thick. The existence and form of viscous fingering is consistent with experimental observations and with linear stability analysis. A useful rule of thumb is that the wavelength of viscous fingering is 5 +/- 1 times the thickness of the horizontal layer. Our proposal support the notion that dynamic topography of the Earth's surface can be generated and
Finite Element Based Viscous Numerical Wave Flume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianmin Qin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A two-dimensional numerical wave flume (NWF for viscous fluid flows with free surface is developed in this work. It is based on the upwind finite element solutions of Navier-Stokes equations, CLEAR-volume of fluid method for free surface capture, internal wave maker for wave generation, and sponge layer for wave absorbing. The wave generation and absorption by prescribing velocity boundary conditions along inlet and radiation boundary condition along outlet are also incorporated. The numerical model is validated against several benchmarks, including dam-breaking flow, liquid sloshing in baffled tank, linear water wave propagation and reflection from vertical wall, nonlinear solitary wave fission over sharp step, and wave-induced fluid resonance in narrow gap confined by floating structures. The comparisons with available experimental data, numerical results, and theoretical solutions confirm that the present numerical wave flume has good performance in dealing with complex interface flows and water wave interaction with structures.
Viscous drag reduction in boundary layers
Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor); Hefner, Jerry N. (Editor)
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the development status of stability theory for laminar flow control design, applied aspects of laminar-flow technology, transition delays using compliant walls, the application of CFD to skin friction drag-reduction, active-wave control of boundary-layer transitions, and such passive turbulent-drag reduction methods as outer-layer manipulators and complex-curvature concepts. Also treated are such active turbulent drag-reduction technique applications as those pertinent to MHD flow drag reduction, as well as drag reduction in liquid boundary layers by gas injection, drag reduction by means of polymers and surfactants, drag reduction by particle addition, viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection, and interactive wall-turbulence control.
Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.
2016-05-01
According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube ... Dates. Manuscript received: 7 February 2016; Manuscript revised: 20 July 2016; Accepted: 5 October 2016; Early published: Unedited version published online: Final version published online: 16 February 2017 ...
Topological Fluid Dynamics For Free and Viscous Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balci, Adnan
In an incompressible fluid flow, streamline patterns and their bifurcations are investigated close to wall for two-dimensional system and close to free and viscous surfaces in three-dimensional system. Expanding the velocity field in a Taylor series, we conduct a local analysis at the given expan...
Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...
A finite element analysis of the distribution velocity in viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work we use the finite element method to analyze the distribution of velocity in a viscous incompressible fluid flow using Lagrange interpolation function. The results obtained are highly accurate and converge fast to the exact solution as the number of elements increase.
Hafez, M.; Palaniswamy, S.; Mariani, P.
1988-01-01
Transonic flows with shocks are simulated using steady Euler equations and by simultaneously solving the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations using Newton's method. At each iteration, a direct solver computes the corrections and the process is repeated until convergence is achieved. The corrections and errors are reduced quadratically with the present method, allowing solutions of machine accuracy to be obtained in a few steps. Nonunique inviscid solutions and nonunique solutions of the Navier Stokes equations for quasi-one-dimensional flows in nozzles are presented. Calculations are also presented for steady two-dimensional inviscid flows around a cylinder in the transonic regime.
Rüstemoǧlu, Sevinç; Barutçu, Burak; Sibel Menteş, Å..
2010-05-01
The continuous usage of fossil fuels as primary energy source is the reason of the emission of CO and powerless economy of the country affected by the great flactuations in the unit price of energy sources. In recent years, developments in wind energy sector and the supporting new renewable energy policies of the countries allow the new wind farm owners and the firms who expect to be an owner to consider and invest on the renewable sources. In this study, the annual production of the turbines with 1.8 kW and 30 kW which are available for Istanbul Technical University in Energy Institute is calculated by Wasp and WindPro Field Flow Models and the wind characteristics of the area are analysed. The meteorological data used in calculation includes the period between 02.March.2000 and 31.May.2004 and is taken from the meteorological mast ( ) in Istanbul Technical University's campus area. The measurement data is taken from 2 m and 10 m heights with hourly means. The topography, roughness classes and shelter effects are defined in the models to make accurate extrapolation to the turbine sites. As an advantage, the region is nearly 3.5 km close to the Istanbul Bosphorous but as it can be seen from the Wasp and WindPro Model Results, the Bosphorous effect is interrupted by the new buildings and hight forestry. The shelter effect of these high buildings have a great influence on the wind flow and decrease the high wind energy potential which is produced by the Bosphorous effect. This study, which determines wind characteristics and expected annual production, is important for this Project Site and therefore gains importance before the construction of wind energy system. However, when the system is operating, developing the energy management skills, forecasting the wind speed and direction will become important. At this point, three statistical models which are Kalman Fitler, AR Model and Neural Networks models are used to determine the success of each method for correct
Canonical Nonlinear Viscous Core Solution in pipe and elliptical geometry
Ozcakir, Ozge
2016-11-01
In an earlier paper (Ozcakir et al. (2016)), two new nonlinear traveling wave solutions were found with collapsing structure towards the center of the pipe as Reynolds number R -> ∞ , which were called Nonlinear Viscous Core (NVC) states. Asymptotic scaling arguments suggested that the NVC state collapse rate scales as R - 1 / 4 where axial, radial and azimuthal velocity perturbations from Hagen-Poiseuille flow scale as R - 1 / 2, R - 3 / 4 and R - 3 / 4 respectively, while (1 - c) = O (R - 1 / 2) where c is the traveling wave speed. The theoretical scaling results were roughly consistent with full Navier-Stokes numerical computations in the range 105 differential equations derived in Ozcakir et al. (2016) indeed has solution that satisfies requisite far-field conditions. We also show that these are in good agreement with full Navier-Stokes calculations in a larger R range than previously calculated (R upto 106). Further, we extend our study to NVC states for pipes with elliptical cross-section and identify similar canonical structure in these cases. National Science Foundation NSF-DMS-1515755, EPSRC Grant EP/1037948/1.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, A.; Christensen, A.H.
2018-01-01
Fluid-structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present...... thickness h0, and viscosity η as Q ∼η-1 a1/2h05/2 (1 - Δp/Δpc)5/2Δp, where the critical pressure Δpc scales with spring constant k as Δpc ∼ kh0a-2. These predictions compared favourably to the results of our experiments with no free parameters....
Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-04-20
The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...
Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1998-12-01
The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.
Finite element calculations of flow past a spherical bubble rising on the axis of a cylindrical tube
Hartholt, G.P.; Hoffmann, A.C.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Hoogstraten, H.W.; Moes, J.H.
The velocity and pressure fields of a Newtonian fluid with homogeneous and constant physical properties flowing around a sphere on the axis of a cylindrical tube with no slip, free slip and partial slip at the sphere surface and no slip at the cylinder wall have been calculated by solving the
Numerical Research of the Viscous Effect of the Bilge Keel on the Damping Moment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deng Rui
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Bilge keels are effective passive devices in mitigating the rolling motion, and the usage of them covers almost all the sea going vessels. This paper focuses on the viscous effect of the bilge keel, ignored the effect of the free surface and the effect of the ship hull, for the general viscous characteristic of the bilge keel. In order to investigate the viscous effect of the bilge keel on the total damping moment, a special 2 dimensional numerical model, which includes a submerged cylinder with and without bilge keels, is designed for the simulation of forced rolling. Three important factors such as bilge keels width, rolling periods, as well as maximal rolling angles are taken into account, and the viscous flow field around the cylinder is simulated by some codes based on the viscous method in different conditions, in which the three factors are coupled. Verification and validation based on the ITTC method are performed for the cylinder without bilge keels in the conditions of different rolling periods and maximal rolling angles. The primary calculation of damping moment induced by the cylinder with 0mm, 4mm, and 10mm width bilge keels shows some interesting results, and a systematic analysis is conducted. The analysis of the damping moment components suggests there is phase difference between the damping moment induced by the cylinder and the bilge keels, and when the bilge keels width reaches a special size, the total damping moment is mitigated. The calculation of the damping moments induced by the cylinder with some larger bilge keels are also performed, and the results suggest that, the damping moment induced by the bilge keels is increased rapidly and becomes the dominant part in the total damping moment while the width of the bilge keels are increased, but the damping moment induced by the cylinder is not changed significantly. Some illustration of the vortices formation and shedding is included, which is the mechanism of the damping
Advective accretion flow properties around rotating black holes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We examine the properties of the viscous dissipative accretion flow around rotating black holes in the presence of mass loss. Considering the thin disc approximation, we self-consistently calculate the inflow-outflow solutions and observe that the mass outflow rates decrease with the increase in viscosity parameter ( α ).
Viscous relaxation of the Moho under large lunar basins
Brown, C. David; Grimm, Robert E.
1993-01-01
Viscously relaxed topography on the Moon is evidence of a period in lunar history of higher internal temperatures and greater surface activity. Previous work has demonstrated the viscous relaxation of the Tranquilitatis basin surface. Profiles of the lunar Moho under nine basins were constructed from an inversion of lunar gravity data. These profiles show a pattern of increasingly subdued relief with age, for which two explanations have been proposed. First, ancient basins may have initially had extreme Moho relief like that of younger basins like Orientale, but, due to higher internal temperatures in early lunar history, this relief viscously relaxed to that observed today. Second, ductile flow in the crust immediately after basin formation resulted in an initially shallow basin and subdued mantle uplift. The intent is to test the first hypothesis.
AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....
Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence
Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of viscous liquids.
Shimizu, Y; Blanchard, J W; Pustelny, S; Saielli, G; Bagno, A; Ledbetter, M P; Budker, D; Pines, A
2015-01-01
We report zero-field NMR measurements of a viscous organic liquid, ethylene glycol. Zero-field spectra were taken showing resolved scalar spin-spin coupling (J-coupling) for ethylene glycol at different temperatures and water contents. Molecular dynamics strongly affects the resonance linewidth, which closely follows viscosity. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to obtain the relative stability and coupling constants of all ethylene glycol conformers. The results show the potential of zero-field NMR as a probe of molecular structure and dynamics in a wide range of environments, including viscous fluids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Viscous Behaviour of All-Oil Drilling Fluids
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hermoso, J; Martínez-Boza, F; Gallegos, C
2014-01-01
.... Drilling fluid viscous flow characterization was performed with a controlled-stress rheometer, using both conventional coaxial cylinder and non-conventional geometries for High Pressure/High Temperature (HPHT) measurements...
Wu, Yuanqing
2015-03-01
Flash calculations have become a performance bottleneck in the simulation of compositional flow in subsurface reservoirs. We apply a sparse grid surrogate model to substitute the flash calculation and thus try to remove the bottleneck from the reservoir simulation. So instead of doing a flash calculation in each time step of the simulation, we just generate a sparse grid approximation of all possible results of the flash calculation before the reservoir simulation. Then we evaluate the constructed surrogate model to approximate the values of the flash calculation results from this surrogate during the simulations. The execution of the true flash calculation has been shifted from the online phase during the simulation to the offline phase before the simulation. Sparse grids are known to require only few unknowns in order to obtain good approximation qualities. In conjunction with local adaptivity, sparse grids ensure that the accuracy of the surrogate is acceptable while keeping the memory usage small by only storing a minimal amount of values for the surrogate. The accuracy of the sparse grid surrogate during the reservoir simulation is compared to the accuracy of using a surrogate based on regular Cartesian grids and the original flash calculation. The surrogate model improves the speed of the flash calculations and the simulation of the whole reservoir. In an experiment, it is shown that the speed of the online flash calculations is increased by about 2000 times and as a result the speed of the reservoir simulations has been enhanced by 21 times in the best conditions.
Liechty, Derek S.; Burt, Jonathan M.
2016-01-01
There are many flows fields that span a wide range of length scales where regions of both rarefied and continuum flow exist and neither direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) nor computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provide the appropriate solution everywhere. Recently, a new viscous collision limited (VCL) DSMC technique was proposed to incorporate effects of physical diffusion into collision limiter calculations to make the low Knudsen number regime normally limited to CFD more tractable for an all-particle technique. This original work had been derived for a single species gas. The current work extends the VCL-DSMC technique to gases with multiple species. Similar derivations were performed to equate numerical and physical transport coefficients. However, a more rigorous treatment of determining the mixture viscosity is applied. In the original work, consideration was given to internal energy non-equilibrium, and this is also extended in the current work to chemical non-equilibrium.
Solidity of viscous liquids. III
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, Jeppe
2005-01-01
is much larger than estimated from the alpha relaxation time. This is shown to follow from the solidity of viscous liquids in an argument which, utilizing the irrelevance of momentum conservation at high viscosity, predicts that at high viscosity the coherent diffusion constant is much larger than...
Yu, Minghao; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kihara, Hisashi; Abe, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Abe, Takashi
2014-12-01
Numerical investigation of nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flow was carried out to study the physical properties of the flow inside a 10-kW ICP torch with the working gas being nitrogen. The flow field was described by two-dimensional compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations that took into account 5 species and 8 chemical reactions. The magnetic vector-potential equations were tightly coupled with the flow-field equations to describe the heating process by inductive discharge. A four-temperature model was adopted to model thermal nonequilibrium process in the discharge torch. The characteristics of ICP flow such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, and strong effects of Lorentz forces became clear through the present study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Egor M. Mikhailovsky
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We proposed a method for numerically solving the problem of flow distribution in hydraulic circuits with lumped parameters for the case of random closing relations. The conventional and unconventional types of relations for the laws of isothermal steady fluid flow through the individual hydraulic circuit components are studied. The unconventional relations are presented by those given implicitly by the flow rate and dependent on the pressure of the working fluid. In addition to the unconventional relations, the formal conditions of applicability were introduced. These conditions provide a unique solution to the flow distribution problem. A new modified nodal pressure method is suggested. The method is more versatile in terms of the closing relation form as compared to the unmodified one, and has lower computational costs as compared to the known technique of double-loop iteration. The paper presents an analysis of the new method and its algorithm, gives a calculated example of a gas transportation network, and its results.
Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology
Velten, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Fabris, J. C.; Zimdahl, W.
2013-11-01
We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart’s theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.
Molchanov, A. M.; Bykov, L. V.; Yanyshev, D. S.
2017-05-01
The method has been developed to calculate infrared radiation of vibrational nonequilibrium gas based on k-distribution. A comparison of the data on the calculated nonequilibrium radiation with results of other authors and with experimental data has shown satisfactory agreement. It is shown that the results of calculation of radiation intensity using nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods significantly differ from each other. The discrepancy increases with increasing height (decreasing pressure) and can exceed an order of magnitude.
A Mathematical Scheme for Calculating Flows and Pressure Drops in Lit and Unlit Cigarettes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dwyer RW
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A computational methodology is presented for evaluating the flows and pressure drops in both lit and unlit cigarettes. The flows and pressure drops across rows of tipping-paper perforations are considered explicitly, as are the locations and relative sizes of the ventilation holes. The flows and pressure drops across air-permeable cigarette papers are included. The influence of plugwrappermeabilities on filter ventilation is developed. Lit cigarettes are mimicked by adding a “coal” pressure drop to the upstream end of the cigarette. The computational scheme is used to predict the effects of tobacco-rod length, puff volume, and vent blocking on cigarette ventilation and pressure drop. A derivation of the pressure-drop and flow equations for a cigarette with an upstream pressure drop is included in an appendix.
IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials
1998-01-01
The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...
Olsen, Nils; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Finlay, Christopher C.
2014-05-01
Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements taken by ground observatories are a useful data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field and the underlying core flow. However, the usual way of calculating monthly means as the arithmetic mean of all days (geomagnetic quiet as well as disturbed) and all local times (day and night) may result in contributions from external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin in the (ordinary, omm) monthly means. Such contamination makes monthly means less favourable for core studies. We calculated revised monthly means (rmm), and their uncertainties, from observatory hourly means using robust means and after removal of external field predictions, using an improved method for characterising the magnetospheric ring current. The utility of the new method for calculating observatory monthly means is demonstrated by inverting their first differences for core surface advective flows. The flow is assumed steady over three consecutive months to ensure uniqueness; the effects of more rapid changes should be attenuated by the weakly conducting mantle. Observatory data are inverted directly for a regularised core flow, rather than deriving it from a secular variation spherical harmonic model. The main field is specified by the CHAOS-4 model. Data from up to 128 observatories between 1997 and 2013 were used to calculate 185 flow models from the omm and rmm, for each possible set of three consecutive months. The full 3x3 (non-diagonal) data covariance matrix was used, and two-norm (least squares) minimisation performed. We are able to fit the data to the target (weighted) misfit of 1, for both omm and rmm inversions, provided we incorporate the full data covariance matrix, and produce consistent, plausible flows. Fits are better for rmm flows. The flows exhibit noticeable changes over timescales of a few months. However, they follow rapid excursions in the omm that we suspect result from external field contamination
The Calculated Ratio of the Gas Flow in a Countercurrent Cyclone Dust Concentrator
Vasilevsky, Michail; Razva, Aleksandr; Pleschko, Alissa; Kadurkin, Ivan
2016-02-01
There are numerous studies of the structure of swirling flow in a variety of devices in which the peculiarities of the parameters associated with the twist flow. The values of the local parameters of the twist of the axial direction are experimentally and connect them with a constructive twist parameter, which is built from the idealized repose of the gas flow in vortex distribution and speed at the exit of the swirl. For counter flow chamber is the equation for the input pulse in the radial direction and the twist parameter is provided in the radial direction. It allows us to estimate the maximum radius of the circumferential velocity not only near the outlet, but also near the end surface of the chamber. On a cylindrical surface with a radius of outlet cyclone tangential turbulent friction in the radial direction depends on the product of a circle and radial speeds. Compiled equation changes the flow of angular momentum in the axial zone, depending on the force of friction tangential flow on the surface with the radius of the outlet pipe of the cyclone. This equation allowed assessing the circulation of gas in the axial zone.
The Calculated Ratio of the Gas Flow in a Countercurrent Cyclone Dust Concentrator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilevsky Michail
2016-01-01
Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the structure of swirling flow in a variety of devices in which the peculiarities of the parameters associated with the twist flow. The values of the local parameters of the twist of the axial direction are experimentally and connect them with a constructive twist parameter, which is built from the idealized repose of the gas flow in vortex distribution and speed at the exit of the swirl. For counter flow chamber is the equation for the input pulse in the radial direction and the twist parameter is provided in the radial direction. It allows us to estimate the maximum radius of the circumferential velocity not only near the outlet, but also near the end surface of the chamber. On a cylindrical surface with a radius of outlet cyclone tangential turbulent friction in the radial direction depends on the product of a circle and radial speeds. Compiled equation changes the flow of angular momentum in the axial zone, depending on the force of friction tangential flow on the surface with the radius of the outlet pipe of the cyclone. This equation allowed assessing the circulation of gas in the axial zone.
Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Malík
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect. A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.
Drift due to viscous vortex rings
Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc
2016-11-01
Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.
Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces
Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan
2018-01-01
Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.
Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian
2010-09-01
For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO3SE model. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamah, C. A.; Harris, W. L.
1983-01-01
A novel analytical-numerical method for calculating unsteady small disturbance transonic flow over airfoils has been developed. The method uses an extended integral equation technique, based on both the velocity potential and the acceleration potential, to predict unsteady aerodynamic loading on airfoils oscillating in subcritical transonic free stream conditions. The formulation is an extension of the work of Sivaneri and Harris (1980) for steady, non-lifting flows and utilizes the linear theory of Landahl (1961) for decoupling of steady and unsteady components. The analytical-numerical procedure involves several intnegrating schemes and applies to general frequencies of oscillations. The technique is illustrated by computing the transonic flow about parabolic arc airfoils. Specific unsteady results for reduced frequencies based on semi-chord of 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 are given. Comparison of results with those obtained by an ADI finite difference scheme is made.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.c [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sangrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Leuzinger, Sebastian [Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstr. 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)
2010-09-15
For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO{sub 3}SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janetzky, B.
2001-07-01
A numerical model for the transient, free surface flow is implemented in a Finite-Element program for the unsteady calculation of incompressible flow with free surface. The program is used to calculate the flow in different components of a hydraulic turbine, the Pelton turbine. The movement of the fluid with free surface is described mathematically by introducing a partial differential equation for the volume fraction. This equation is simply a transport equation for f, i.e. the volume fraction is advected with the flow in time. The equations is solved numerically. (orig.) [German] Es wird ein Verfahren zur Modellierung von veraenderlichen, freien Oberflaechen vorgestellt und in einem Finite-Elemente-Programm zur numerischen Berechnung von instationaeren, inkompressiblen Stroemungen implementiert. Die veraenderliche, freie Oberflaeche wird mit einem Volume-Of-Fluid Ansatz erfasst. Zur Approximierung der freien Oberflaeche werden stueckweise konstante oder gestufte Verlaeufe im Element angesetzt. Es werden die Eigenschaften des Verfahrens an ausgewaehlten Beispielen mit freier Oberflaeche untersucht. Das erweiterte Programm wird auf instationaere Stroemungen mit freier Oberflaeche in einer hydraulischen Maschine, der Peltonturbine, angewandt. (orig.)
Passmann, Maximilian; aus der Wiesche, Stefan; Joos, Franz
2017-03-01
The calculation of isentropic flow and normal shock waves of real gases are important, especially in the preliminary design of turbo-machinery and test rigs. In an ideal gas, the relations for one-dimensional isentropic flow and normal shock waves are well known and can be found in standard textbooks. However, for fluids exhibiting strong deviations from the ideal gas assumption universal relations do not exist due to complex equations of state. This paper presents a analytical method for the prediction of isentropic real gas flows and normal shock waves, based on the Redlich-Kwong (RK) equation of state. Explicit expressions based on a series expansion for describing isentropic flow of Novec™ 649 are compared to Refprop data and ideal gas equations. For moderate pressures the RK method is in very good agreement with the Refprop data, while the ideal gas equations fail to predict the real gas behaviour. The same observations are made for normal shock calculations, where both real gas methods yield very close results. Especially the predicted stagnation pressure losses across a shock wave are in excellent agreement.
Measurement and Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Rooms with Convective Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overby, H.
The paper deals with experimental and theoretical examinations of the vertical temperature gradient in rooms with convective flows under transient conditions. The measurements are carried out in a laboratory test room of three different sizes. A small room (7.25 m2) with a normal room height of 2...
CFD Calculations of the Air Flow Along a Cold Vertical Wall with an Obstacle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per
This paper deals with the ability of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict downdraught at a plane wall and at a wall with large obstacles. Quite simple boundary conditions were used in this study. Predictions of the main flow characteristics and the velocity levels in the occupied zone showed...
A Simplified Calculation of a Continuous Flow Packed Contactor with Help of Characteristic Times
Sovová, Helena
2011-01-01
The proposed approach is illustrated on several examples of supercritical fluid extraction kinetics. Simple expressions for the calculation of characteristic times of both extraction and individual extraction steps are derived from mass balance equations and applied on experimental data from typical extractions from plants with supercritical CO2, as the extraction of oils from seeds or the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.
Self-consistent calculation of the flux-flow conductivity in diffusive superconductors
Vargunin, A.; Silaev, M. A.
2017-12-01
In the framework of Keldysh-Usadel kinetic theory, we study the temperature dependence of flux-flow conductivity (FFC) in diffusive superconductors. By using self-consistent vortex solutions we find the exact values of dimensionless parameters that determine the diffusion-controlled FFC both in the limit of the low temperatures and close to the critical one. Taking into account the electron-phonon scattering, we study the transition between flux-flow regimes controlled by either the diffusion or the inelastic relaxation of nonequilibrium quasiparticles. We demonstrate that the inelastic electron-phonon relaxation leads to the strong suppression of FFC compared to the previous estimates, making it possible to obtain numerical agreement with experimental results.
Back calculation of Debris flow Run-Out & Entrainment Using the Voellmy Rheology
Bayissa, Lemessa Fille
2017-01-01
Debris flow is one of the many geo-hazards that cause a major damage worldwide. It can cause loss of human lives especially to those living in mountainous regions. Besides, it cause economic damage by destroying properties and infrastructure. Forecasting and controlling the hazard associated to this type of mass movements is still a difficult task that requires qualitative and quantitative analyses. However, the development of numerical dynamic run out models has a major advantage in the stud...
The CFD calculations as a main tool for the mixed-flow pump modernization
Skrzypacz, J.; Szulc, P.
2017-08-01
The primary aim of the project was to increase cavitation performance of a big mixed-flow pump. The CFD software was used as a main research tool. The two kinds of numerical models were used to solve this problem - both were presented. The results were verified on the basis of comparison with experimental results obtained for real and model pumps. The interesting way of estimating cavitation performance was presented. The pump characteristics before and after the modernisation were shown.
Banerjee, Rupak K; Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Back, Lloyd H; Back, Martin R; Khoury, Saeb F; Millard, Ronald W
2007-01-01
Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR(myo)) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), measured with guidewire, and quantitative angiography (QA) are widely used in combination to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic coronary stenoses. Recent studies have shown that simultaneous measurements of FFR(myo) and CFR are recommended to dissociate conduit epicardial coronary stenoses from distal resistance microvascular disease. In this study, a more comprehensive diagnostic parameter, named as lesion flow coefficient, c, is proposed. The coefficient, c, which accounts for mean pressure drop, Delta p, mean coronary flow, Q, and percentage area stenosis, can be used to assess the hemodynamic severity of a coronary artery stenoses. Importantly, the contribution of viscous loss and loss due to momentum change for several lesion sizes can be distinguished using c. FFR(myo), CFR and c were calculated for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty epicardial lesions, without microvascular disease. While hyperemic c decreased from 0.65 for pre-angioplasty to 0.48 for post-angioplasty lesion with guidewire of size 0.35 mm, FFR(myo) increased from 0.52 to 0.87, and CFR increased from 1.72 to 3.45, respectively. Thus, reduced loss produced by momentum change due to lower percentage area stenosis decreased c. For post-angioplasty lesion, c decreased from 0.55 to 0.48 with the insertion of guidewire. Hence, increased viscous loss due to the presence of guidewire decreased c compared with a lesion without guidewire. Further, c showed a linear relationship with FFR(myo), CFR and percentage area stenosis for pre-angioplasty, intermediate and post-angioplasty lesion. These baseline values of c were developed from fluid dynamics fundamentals for focal lesions, and provided a single hemodynamic endpoint to evaluate coronary stenosis severity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaczek, Mauiusz; /Fermilab
1996-08-15
The purpose of this engineering note is to explain the method involved in calculating the mass flow rates through venturis and orifice plates at sub-sonic conditions. In particular, the mass flow rate calculations are required for two FLOW-DYNE venturi flow meters, serial no. 35821 and no. 35822, and an orifice plate flow meter, serial no. 35823. The two venturis, FT-4052-H and FT-4053-H, are located in the D-Zero VLPC valve box at the refrigerator and the orifice plate, FO-2019-H, is on the high pressure helium supply line in the assembly building.
Viscous Fingering in the Mantle Asthenosphere
Nissanka, U. S.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Parmentier, E. M.; Rincon, J. M.
2015-12-01
Regional seismic tomography studies in the Pacific ocean and continental western U.S show linear bands of low velocity anomalies that are aligned with absolute plate motion and coincident with volcanic lineaments located within the interior of plates far from plate boundaries. Small-scale convection provides one possible explanation for these lineations but does not predict age progressive seafloor volcanism that opposes plate motion. We propose a new hypothesis where viscous fingering instabilities form due to hot and wet mantle plumes which rise and discharge into the upper mantle asthenosphere and displace higher viscosity depleted mantle. We perform laboratory fluid experiments scaled to the Earth's mantle, with stationary and moving surface plates that use fluids with viscosities (μ) from 1 to 300 Pas and viscosity ratios (μ1/μ2) from 3 to 400. Viscous fingers are observed to form for all viscosity ratios we consider and after an initial growth period, exhibit a constant wavelength that depends on several parameters. Fingering wavelength is strongly dependent on plate spacing (and therefore asthenospheric layer thickness) but shows weak or no dependence on viscosity ratio and injection rate. The radius, Ro, at which fingers first form varies inversely with increasing viscosity ratio. This indicates that low viscosity mantle may flow long distances before fingers develop if viscosity ratios are small. For mobile plates, a ratio Γ of plume flux to plate velocity is defined where Γ is varied from 3.6x10-4 to 3.6x105 which considers the range expected in the Earth (6.3x10-3 to 1.5x10-2). Results indicate that fingers align with plate motion both upstream and downstream, with longer wavelengths in the downstream direction. Particle imaging successfully resolves particle motion vectors and also indicates the presence of a thin film layer above and below each finger. This new geodynamic model for viscous fingering in the asthenosphere links off-axis and rising
Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets
Das, Siddhartha
2013-01-01
It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re<<1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this letter, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such "viscous liquid" state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand an external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions.
Three dimensional simulations of viscous folding in diverging microchannels
Xu, Bingrui; Shin, Seungwon; Juric, Damir
2016-01-01
Three dimensional simulations on the viscous folding in diverging microchannels reported by Cubaud and Mason are performed using the parallel code BLUE for multi-phase flows. The more viscous liquid L_1 is injected into the channel from the center inlet, and the less viscous liquid L_2 from two side inlets. Liquid L_1 takes the form of a thin filament due to hydrodynamic focusing in the long channel that leads to the diverging region. The thread then becomes unstable to a folding instability, due to the longitudinal compressive stress applied to it by the diverging flow of liquid L_2. Given the long computation time, we were limited to a parameter study comprising five simulations in which the flow rate ratio, the viscosity ratio, the Reynolds number, and the shape of the channel were varied relative to a reference model. In our simulations, the cross section of the thread produced by focusing is elliptical rather than circular. The initial folding axis can be either parallel or perpendicular to the narrow di...
A Tightly Coupled Particle-Fluid Model for DNA-Laden Flows in Complex Microscale Geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Colella, P; Graves, D T; Martin, D F; Schwartz, P O
2004-11-18
We present a stable and convergent method for the computation of flows of DNA-laden fluids in microchannels with complex geometry. The numerical strategy combines a ball-rod model representation for polymers tightly coupled with a projection method for incompressible viscous flow. We use Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods to discretize the fluid equations in the presence of complex domain boundaries. A sample calculation is presented showing flow through a packed array microchannel in 2D.
Viscous oil dynamics evaluation for better fluid sampling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canas, J.A.; Low, S.; Adur, N.; Teixeira, V. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)
2005-11-01
The benefits that heavy oil producers can gain by sampling formation fluid early in the life of a well were discussed. Sampling provides the necessary information for reservoir completion planning and decision making, which is important in areas where flow assurance is a key concern. Most sampling problems are attributed to a sudden pressure change and the associated surge of fluids. The increased flow rate mobilizes sand grains and fines, which can plug flow lines, cause erosion of drilling parts and prevent proper operation of mechanical components in tools. In addition to the extremely low flow rates that are generally required for sampling highly viscous oils in unconsolidated sands, other factors should also be considered for optimum sampling, such as reservoir permeability, anisotropy, nearby upper and lower impermeable barriers, and location of the wireline formation tester (WFT) or modular formation tester (MDT) relative to the formation being samples. This paper presented the results of a study of near wellbore fluid flow during cleanup prior to sampling with a large diameter probe, a new extra large diameter probe, dual packer formation testers with customized gravel pack screens, an extra high-pressure displacement unit pump for low flow rates, advanced downhole flow analysis monitoring and special sampling methods. The intent of the study was to predict cleanup time with respect to viscous oils and the variables which make sampling feasible with respect to quality, operational time and reduction of associated risks. 11 refs., 32 figs.
Relativistic shocks and mach cones in viscous gluon matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouras, Ioannis; Xu, Zhe; El, Andrej; Fochler, Oliver; Lauciello, Francesco; Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molnar, Etele; Niemi, Harri [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, Dirk [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2010-07-01
We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in a viscous and heat conducting gluon matter employing a microscopic parton cascade and compare it to the relativistic causal dissipative fluid dynamical model of Israel and Stewart. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shocks by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio {eta}/s from zero to infinity and compare different dissipative quantities. We show the behaviour and the break down of viscous hydrodynamics for an out of equilibrium state using the local Knudsen number. Employing the microscopic parton cascade we investigate the evolution of mach cones in a viscous gluonic matter. We see that for {eta}/s=1/4{pi} a collective behaviour of the medium is observed, resulting in cone structure and diffusion wake of the energy density profile. The mach cone vanish very fast when increasing the shear viscosity in the medium. As comparison to experiments two-particle correlations are shown. We have derived third-order corrections to the Israel-Stewart theory using the entropy principle. This new equation is solved for one-dimensional Bjorken boost-invariant expansion. The scaling solutions for various values of {eta}/s are shown to be in very good agreement with those obtained from kinetic transport calculations.
Fingering dynamics on the adsorbed solute with influence of less viscous and strong sample solvent.
Rana, Chinar; Mishra, Manoranjan
2014-12-07
Viscous fingering is a hydrodynamic instability that sets in when a low viscous fluid displaces a high viscous fluid and creates complex patterns in porous media flows. Fundamental facets of the displacement process, such as the solute concentration distribution, spreading length, and the solute mixing, depend strongly on the type of pattern created by the unstable interface of the underlying fluids. In the present study, the frontal interface of the sample shows viscous fingering and the strong solvent causes the retention of the solute to depend on the solvent concentration. This work presents a computational investigation to explore the effect of the underlying physico-chemical phenomena, (i.e., the combined effects of solvent strength, retention, and viscous fingering) on the dynamics of the adsorbed solute. A linear adsorption isotherm has been assumed between the mobile and stationary phases of the solute. We carried out the numerical simulations by considering a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell as an analog to 2D-porous media containing a three component system (displacing fluid, sample solvent, solute) to map out the evolution of the solute concentration. We observed that viscous fingering at the frontal interface of the strong sample solvent intensifies the band broadening of the solute zone. Also notable increase in the spreading dynamics of the solute has been observed for less viscous and strong sample solvent as compared to the high viscous sample slices or in the pure dispersive case. On the contrary, the solute gets intensively mixed at early times for more viscous sample in comparison to less viscous one. The results of the simulations are in qualitative agreement with the behavior observed in the liquid chromatography column experiments.
Swimming of a deformable slab in a viscous incompressible fluid with inertia
Felderhof, B U
2015-01-01
The swimming of a deformable planar slab in a viscous incompressible fluid is studied on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations. A continuum of plane wave displacements, symmetric on both sides of the slab and characterized by a polarization angle, allows optimization of the swimming efficiency with respect to polarization. The mean swimming velocity and mean rate of dissipation are calculated to second order in the amplitude of the stroke. The optimum efficiency depends on the ratio of viscosity and mass density of the fluid. For high viscosity a stroke is found with significantly higher efficiency than Taylor's solution for a swimming sheet. For low viscosity the efficiency is optimal for a nearly irrotational flow pattern.
Preconditioned conjugate-gradient methods for low-speed flow calculations
Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations is integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the Lower-Upper Successive Symmetric Over-Relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on Incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional Line Gauss-Seidel Relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu
2007-05-30
This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.
Second law analysis of slip velocity on oscillatory MHD flow of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports the analytical calculation of entropy generation due to unsteady heat and mass transfer flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, and viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate along with porous medium of time dependent permeability with radiative heat transfer and variable suction.
Compartmental analysis approach to fluorescence anisotropy: Perylene in viscous solvents
Piston, DW; Bilash, T; Gratton, E
1989-01-01
The fluorescence and polarization anisotropy decays of perylene in viscous solvents are investigated at several temperatures between -20 and 35 °C by using the technique of multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry. The anisotropy decay data are globally analyzed over all temperatures studied and fit directly to physical quantities by using a compartmental model. We present a generalized compartmental model that can be used to calculate anisotropy decay arising from any type of intercon...
Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Floerchinger Stefan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.
Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid
Floerchinger, S.; Tetradis, N.; Wiedemann, U.A.
2016-10-28
Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.
Mathematical models of viscous friction
Buttà, Paolo; Marchioro, Carlo
2015-01-01
In this monograph we present a review of a number of recent results on the motion of a classical body immersed in an infinitely extended medium and subjected to the action of an external force. We investigate this topic in the framework of mathematical physics by focusing mainly on the class of purely Hamiltonian systems, for which very few results are available. We discuss two cases: when the medium is a gas and when it is a fluid. In the first case, the aim is to obtain microscopic models of viscous friction. In the second, we seek to underline some non-trivial features of the motion. Far from giving a general survey on the subject, which is very rich and complex from both a phenomenological and theoretical point of view, we focus on some fairly simple models that can be studied rigorously, thus providing a first step towards a mathematical description of viscous friction. In some cases, we restrict ourselves to studying the problem at a heuristic level, or we present the main ideas, discussing only some as...
Surfactant transport on viscous bilayers
Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Warner, Mark
2001-11-01
We model the external delivery of surfactant to pulmonary airways, an integral part of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT), a method of treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in neonates. We examine the spreading dynamics of insoluble surfactant by Marangoni stresses along the mucus-perciliary liquid bilayers that line the inside of airways. The bilayer is modelled as a thin highly viscous mucus surface film (mucus) overlying a much less viscous perciliary liquid layer (PCL); this is appropriate for small airways. By exploiting this large viscosity constrast, a variant of standard lubrication theory is adopted wherein terms, which would have otherwise been neglected in the lubrication approximation, are promoted in order to model correctly the presence of the mucus. Inclusion of van der Waals forces in the model permit the study of the effect of this mucus 'skin' on the possibility of bilayer rupture, a potential cause of failure of SRT. We find that increasing the viscosity contrast and initial mucus layer thickness delays the onset of rupture, while increasing the relative significance of Marangoni stresses leads to more marked thinning and rapid bilayer rupture [1]. [1] O. K. Matar, R. V. Craster and M. R. Warner, submitted to J. Fluid Mech. (2001).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Taehong
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents calculations of the temperature distribution in an atherosclerotic plaque experiencing an inflammatory process; it analyzes the presence of hot spots in the plaque region and their relationship to blood flow, arterial geometry, and inflammatory cell distribution. Determination of the plaque temperature has become an important topic because plaques showing a temperature inhomogeneity have a higher likelihood of rupture. As a result, monitoring plaque temperature and knowing the factors affecting it can help in the prevention of sudden rupture. Methods The transient temperature profile in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques is calculated by solving an energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models of a bending artery and an arterial bifurcation. For obtaining the numerical solution, the commercial package COMSOL 3.2 was used. The calculations correspond to a parametric study where arterial type and size, as well as plaque geometry and composition, are varied. These calculations are used to analyze the contribution of different factors affecting arterial wall temperature measurements. The main factors considered are the metabolic heat production of inflammatory cells, atherosclerotic plaque length lp, inflammatory cell layer length lmp, and inflammatory cell layer thickness dmp. Results The calculations indicate that the best location to perform the temperature measurement is at the back region of the plaque (0.5 ≤ l/lp ≤ 0.7. The location of the maximum temperature, or hot spot, at the plaque surface can move during the cardiac cycle depending on the arterial geometry and is a direct result of the blood flow pattern. For the bending artery, the hot spot moves 0.6 millimeters along the longitudinal direction; for the arterial bifurcation, the hot spot is concentrated at a single location due to the flow recirculation observed at both ends of the plaque. Focusing on the
Kuhn, G. D.
1971-01-01
A computer program was developed to do the calculations for two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations from low speeds to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary streamwise pressure, temperature, and Mach number distributions. Options are provided for obtaining initial conditions either from experimental information or from a theoretical similarity solution. The transition region can be described either by an arbitrary distribution of intermittency or by a function based on Emmons' probability theory. Correlations were developed for use in estimating the parameters of the theoretical intermittency function. Correlations obtained from other sources are used for estimating the transition point. Comparisons were made between calculated and measured boundary layer quantities for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows on flat plates, cones, cone flares, and a waisted body of revolution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the present theory and two other theories based on the method of finite differences. The intermittency required to reproduce some experimental heat transfer results in hypersonic flow was found to be quite different from the theoretical function. It is suggested that the simple probability theory of Emmons may not be valid for representing the intermittency of hypersonic transitional boundary layers and that the program could be useful as a tool for detailed study of the intermittency of the transition region.
Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery
Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav
2017-11-01
We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.
Boccardi, G.; Lillo, G.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A. W.; Saraceno, L.; Pieve, M.; Trinchieri, R.
2017-11-01
Nowadays, air conditioning systems, especially those used in residential and office buildings, contribute largely to the energy consumptions and to the direct and indirect emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an interesting option to replace traditional HFCs in vapor compression systems, due to its environmentally friendly characteristics: zero ODP and extremely low GWP. In the case of heat pumps, the use of ejection systems for the expansion phase can contribute to recovery a fraction of the mechanical energy otherwise dissipated as friction, bringing to significant benefits in terms of performance. Currently, at the laboratory DTE-PCU-SPCT of the research center ENEA (Casaccia) in cooperation with the Industrial Engineering Department of Federico II University of Naples, a project is in progress, in order to evaluate experimentally the effect of several ejectors geometries on the global performance of a CO2 heat pump working with a transcritical cycle. As a part of this project, measurements of the motive flow mass flow rate have been carried out, in transcritical CO2 conditions. The ejector sizing is a crucial point for the balancing of components and the correct operation of the CO2 heat pump and therefore the availability of reliable calculation methods for the motive flowrate would be useful. This paper presents the results obtained by a comparison between the new experimental data and the predictions of some predictive semi-empirical correlations available in the open literature for transcritical CO2 conditions. Their predictions are analyzed as a function of the main physical parameters of the process to assess their reliability compared to the experimental data. Based on these indications and of the available experimental data, a new semi-empirical correlations and a calculation method based on the hypothesis of isentropic and choked two-phase flow are presented.
Sudden viscous dissipation of compressing turbulence
Davidovits, S.; Fisch, N. J.
2015-01-01
Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.
Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence.
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2016-03-11
Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.
Destabilization of highly viscous fluid threads in complex microgeometries
Cubaud, Thomas
2015-11-01
High-viscosity multiphase flows in microchannels encompass a broad range of fluid phenomena, including self-lubrication and viscous buckling instabilities. Here, a series of experiments is conducted to study the dynamic response of miscible fluid threads to a change in carrier flow velocity due to varying microgeometries. The structural stability of core-annular flows is systematically investigated in simple and complex microchannels, such as square, bifurcating, and corrugated channels, from low to high flow rates of injection and for a variety of fluid viscosities. Focus is on flow regimes of practical interest for the improvement of mixing and separation processes between fluids having large viscosity contrasts at the small scale. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).
Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kishore Mohanty
2012-03-31
includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil
Investigation of the Unsteady Flow Behaviour on a Wind Turbine Using a BEM and a RANSE Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Israa Alesbe
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Analyses of the unsteady flow behaviour of a 5 MW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT rotor (Case I and a rotor with tower (Case II are carried out using a panel method and a RANSE method. The panel method calculations are obtained by applying the in-house boundary element method (BEM panMARE code, which is based on the potential flow theory. The BEM is a three-dimensional first-order panel method which can be used for investigating various steady and unsteady flow problems. Viscous flow simulations are carried out by using the RANSE solver ANSYS CFX 14.5. The results of Case I allow for the calculation of the global integral values of the torque and the thrust and include detailed information on the local flow field, such as the pressure distribution on the blade sections and the streamlines. The calculated pressure distribution by the BEM is compared with the corresponding values obtained by the RANSE solver. The tower geometry is considered in the simulation in Case II, so the unsteady forces due to the interaction between the tower and the rotor blades can be calculated. The application of viscous and inviscid flow methods to predict the forces on the HAWT allows for the evaluation of the viscous effects on the calculated HAWT flows.
Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.
Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard
2012-11-01
In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.
Influence of the Lubricant Thermo-Piezo-Viscous Property on Hydrostatic Bearings in Oil Hydraulics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.
2016-01-01
In fluid power machinery hydrostatic bearings are frequently used, and a first approximation approach to design is determination of a balance ratio by analytical calculations of the hydrostatic presure force. Usually this is performed assuming that the thermo-piezo-viscous property can be neglect...... that design engineers need to understand the thermodynamics of hydrostatic bearings, when using the conventional simple analytical approach, neglecting thermo-piezo-viscosity, in hydrostatic pressure force calculations.......In fluid power machinery hydrostatic bearings are frequently used, and a first approximation approach to design is determination of a balance ratio by analytical calculations of the hydrostatic presure force. Usually this is performed assuming that the thermo-piezo-viscous property can be neglected...... adds to the discrepancy of such simple design approach. In this paper the hydrostatic pressure force calculation is reviewed in terms of thermohydrodynamic (THD) lubrication theory, and simple analytical approximations of the hydrostatic pressure force, incorporating the piezo-viscous and thermo...
Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vial C.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.
Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux
Bland, Michael T.; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.
2017-11-01
Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede's dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite's history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40-50 mW m-2 can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived ;heat pulses; with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2 and timescales of 10-100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2 are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede's middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event caused both Ganymede's tectonic deformation and
Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux
Bland, Michael; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.
2017-01-01
Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shirakawa, Toshihiko [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatanaka, Koichiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)
2001-11-01
In order to document a basic manual about input data, output data, execution of computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation in heterogeneous porous rock, we investigated the theoretical background about geostatistical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport which calculates water flow in three dimension, the path of moving radionuclide, and one dimensional radionuclide migration. In this report, based on above investigation we describe the geostatistical background about simulating heterogeneous permeability field. And we describe construction of files, input and output data, a example of calculating of the programs which simulates heterogeneous permeability field, and calculates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Therefore, we can document a manual by investigating the theoretical background about geostatistical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation. And we can model heterogeneous porous rock and analyze groundwater flow and radionuclide transport by utilizing the information from this report. (author)
Large scale structure from viscous dark matter
Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-01-01
Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...
Viscous theory of surface noise interaction phenomena
Yates, J. E.
1980-01-01
A viscous linear surface noise interaction problem is formulated that includes noise production by an oscillating surface, turbulent or vortical interaction with a surface, and scattering of sound by a surface. The importance of viscosity in establishing uniqueness of solution and partitioning of energy into acoustic and vortical modes is discussed. The results of inviscid two dimensional airfoil theory are used to examine the interactive noise problem in the limit of high reduced frequency and small Helmholtz number. It is shown that in the case of vortex interaction with a surface, the noise produced with the full Kutta condition is 3 dB less than the no Kutta condition result. The results of a study of an airfoil oscillating in a medium at rest are discussed. It is concluded that viscosity can be a controlling factor in analyses and experiments of surface noise interaction phenomena and that the effect of edge bluntness as well as viscosity must be included in the problem formulation to correctly calculate the interactive noise.
Sintering of polydisperse viscous droplets
Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W.; Dingwell, Donald B.
2017-03-01
Sintering—or coalescence—of compacts of viscous droplets is driven by the interfacial tension between the droplets and the interstitial gas phase. The process, which occurs in a range of industrial and natural settings, such as the manufacture of ceramics and the welding of volcanic ash, causes the compact to densify, to become stronger, and to become less permeable. We investigate the role of droplet polydispersivity in sintering dynamics by conducting experiments in which populations of glass spheres with different size distributions are heated to temperatures above the glass transition interval. We quantify the progress of sintering by tracking changes in porosity with time. The sintering dynamics is modeled by treating the system as a random distribution of interstitial gas bubbles shrinking under the action of interfacial tension only. We identify the scaling between the polydispersivity of the initial droplets and the dynamics of bulk densification. The framework that we develop allows the sintering dynamics of arbitrary polydisperse populations of droplets to be predicted if the initial droplet (or particle) size distribution is known.
Influence of viscous loads on motor planning.
Thoroughman, Kurt A; Wang, Wei; Tomov, Dimitre N
2007-08-01
Here we computationally investigate how encumbering the hand could alter predictions made by the minimum torque change (MTC) and minimum endpoint variance hypotheses (MEPV) of movement planning. After minutes of training, people have made arm trajectories in a robot-generated viscous force field that were similar to previous baseline trajectories without the force field. We simulate the human arm interacting with this viscous load. We found that the viscous forces clearly differentiated MTC and MEPV predictions from both minimum-jerk predictions and from human behavior. We conclude that learned behavior in the viscous environment could arise from minimizing kinematic costs but could not arise from a minimization of either torque change or endpoint variance.
Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2012-01-01
A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....
Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Nourian
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.
A model of laminar-turbulent transition based on viscous stream buckling
Kulish, Vladimir; Skote, Martin; Horak, Vladimir
2012-11-01
The model of viscous streams' buckling is used to determine values of the local Reynolds numbers, for which transition to turbulence begins. These values are then used to estimate the global critical Reynolds numbers. The method discussed in this work has been used to determine the critical values of the Reynolds number in some well-known flows, e. g. flow over a flat plate, circular pipe flow and free jets. The values thus found agree well with the known critical Re.
The effect of gap width on viscous stresses within the leakage across a bileaflet valve pivot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Travis, Brandon R; Andersen, Morten E; Fründ, Ernst Torben
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Stresses of leakage flow may contribute to the increased tendency for thromboembolic complications in patients with mechanical valves. In bileaflet valves, leakage occurs primarily in the pivots, and the width of the pivot gap influences viscous stress magnitudes....... The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of gap width on viscous stresses within the pivots of a bileaflet mitral valve during the leakage phase. METHODS: A computational model of a bileaflet valve was created and inserted between models of the left atrium and ventricle. Three simulations...... reported within the pivots in previous studies. Velocities measured experimentally were even larger than those estimated computationally. CONCLUSION: These experiments suggest that viscous stresses in leakage flow across a bileaflet mitral valve increase with gap width, and may contribute more to blood...
Stabilization of miscible viscous fingering by a step-growth polymerization reaction
Bunton, Patrick; Stewart, Simone; Marin, Daniela; Tullier, Michael; Meiburg, Eckart; Pojman, John
2017-11-01
Viscous fingering is a hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a more mobile fluid displaces a fluid of lower mobility. Viscous fingering is often undesirable in industrial processes such as secondary petroleum recovery where it limits resource recovery. Linear stability analysis by Hejazi et al. (2010) has predicted that a non-monotonic viscosity profile at an otherwise unstable interface can in some instances stabilize the flow. We use step-growth polymerization at the interface between two miscible monomers as a model system. A dithiol monomer displacing a diacrylate react to form a linear polymer that behaves as a Newtonian fluid. Viscous fingering was imaged in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell via Schlieren, which is sensitive to polymer conversion. By varying reaction rate via initiator concentration along with flow rate, we demonstrated increasing stabilization of the flow with increasing Damkohler number (ratio of the reaction rate to the flow rate). Results were compared with regions of predicted stability from the results of Hejazi et al. (2010). When the advection outran the reaction, viscous fingering occurred as usual. However, when the reaction was able to keep pace with the advection, the increased viscosity at the interface stabilized the flow. We acknowledge support from NSF CBET-1335739 and NSF CBET 1511653.
Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Viscous Behaviour of All-Oil Drilling Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermoso J.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The overall objective of this research was to study the combined influence of pressure and temperature on the complex viscous behaviour of two oil-based drilling fluids. The oil-based fluids were formulated by dispersing selected organobentonites in mineral oil, using a high-shear mixer, at room temperature. Drilling fluid viscous flow characterization was performed with a controlled-stress rheometer, using both conventional coaxial cylinder and non-conventional geometries for High Pressure/High Temperature (HPHT measurements. The rheological data obtained confirm that a helical ribbon geometry is a very useful tool to characterise the complex viscous flow behaviour of these fluids under extreme conditions. The different viscous flow behaviours encountered for both all-oil drilling fluids, as a function of temperature, are related to changes in polymer-oil pair solvency and oil viscosity. Hence, the resulting structures have been principally attributed to changes in the effective volume fraction of disperse phase due to thermally induced processes. Bingham’s and Herschel-Bulkley’s models describe the rheological properties of these drilling fluids, at different pressures and temperatures, fairly well. It was found that Herschel-Bulkley’s model fits much better B34-based oil drilling fluid viscous flow behaviour under HPHT conditions. Yield stress values increase linearly with pressure in the range of temperature studied. The pressure influence on yielding behaviour has been associated with the compression effect of different resulting organoclay microstructures. A factorial WLF-Barus model fitted the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the plastic viscosity of both drilling fluids fairly well, being this effect mainly influenced by the piezo-viscous properties of the continuous phase.
Cavitation structures formed during the collision of a sphere with an ultra-viscous wetted surface
Mansoor, Mohammad M.
2016-05-05
We investigate the inception of cavitation and resulting structures when a sphere collides with a solid surface covered with a layer of non-Newtonian liquid having a kinematic viscosity of up to (Formula presented.) cSt. We show the existence of shear-stress-induced cavitation during sphere approach towards the base wall (i.e. the pressurization stage) in ultra-viscous films using a synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging system. For the experimental parameters employed, liquids having viscoelastic properties of (Formula presented.) are shown to enable sphere rebound without any prior contact with the solid wall. Cavitation by depressurization (i.e. during rebound) in such non-contact cases is observed to onset after a noticeable delay from when the minimum gap distance is reached. Also, the cavities created originate from remnant bubbles, being the remains of the primary bubble entrapment formed by the lubrication pressure of the air during film entry. Cases where physical contact occurs (contact cases) in 10 000 cSt (Formula presented.) cSt films produce cavities attached to the base wall, which extend into an hourglass shape. In contrast, strikingly different structures occur in the most viscous liquids due to the disproportionality in radial expansion and longitudinal extension along the cavity length. Horizontal shear rates calculated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements show the apparent fluid viscosity to vary substantially as the sphere approaches and rebounds away from the base wall. A theoretical model based on the lubrication assumption is solved for the squeeze flow in the regime identified for shear-induced cavity events, to investigate the criterion for cavity inception in further detail. © 2016 Cambridge University Press
Sampaio, Francisco; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Almeida, João; Fonseca, Paulo; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ribeiro, José; Gama, Vasco
2017-07-01
Management of patients with mitral stenosis (MS) depends heavily on the accurate quantification of mitral valve area (MVA) using echocardiography. All currently used two-dimensional (2D) methods have limitations. Estimation of MVA using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method with real time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography may circumvent those limitations. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 3D direct measurement of PISA in the estimation of MVA. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (median age of 63 years; 77.8% females) with rheumatic MS were prospectively studied. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography with 2D and 3D acquisitions were performed on the same day. The reference method for MVA quantification was valve planimetry after 3D-volume multiplanar reconstruction. A semi-automated software was used to calculate the 3D flow convergence volume. Compared to MVA estimation using 3D planimetry, 3D PISA showed the best correlation (rho=0.78, PPISA (rho=0.26, P=.203). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a good agreement for MVA estimation with 3D PISA (mean difference -0.03 cm2 ; limits of agreement (LOA) -0.40-0.35), in contrast to wider LOA for 2D methods: CE (mean difference 0.02 cm2 , LOA -0.56-0.60); PHT (mean difference 0.31 cm2 , LOA -0.32-0.95); 2D PISA (mean difference -0.03 cm2 , LOA -0.92-0.86). MVA estimation using 3D PISA was feasible and more accurate than 2D methods. Its introduction in daily clinical practice seems possible and may overcome technical limitations of 2D methods. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fluid flow structure around the mixer in a reactor with mechanical mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lecheva, A., E-mail: alecheva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Mathematics, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria); Zheleva, I., E-mail: izheleva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Heat Technology, Hydraulics and Ecology, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria)
2015-10-28
Fluid flow structure around the mixer in a cylindrical reactor with mechanical mixing is studied and numerical results are presented in this article. The model area is complex because of the presence of convex corners of the mixer in the fluid flow. Proper boundary conditions for the vorticity calculated on the base of the stream function values near solid boundaries of the examined area are presented. The boundary value problem of motion of swirling incompressible viscous fluid in a vertical tank reactor with a mixer is solved numerically. The calculations are made by a computer code, written in MATLAB. The complex structure of the flow around the mixing disk is described and commented.
Computation of Viscous-Inviscid Interactions
1981-02-01
vorticity disturbance generated by convection of the known upstream vorticity along the streamlines of the Inviscid potential flow as indicated schematically...volet) Lea essais ont dtd effectuds en transition naturelle et lea efforts CJ*C. obtenus par intdgration des preasions sur lea profila. Le coefficient...suppldmentaire. Dana le calcul die couche limite, la transi- tion a’ effectue de fagon naturelle A l’extrados. A l’intrados, par contre, elle eat imposde A 85
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jobelin, M
2006-10-15
This thesis treats of time resolution methods for the Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the well-known projection method of Chorin and Temam, an original pressure correction method, named 'projection-penalty' is developed. Its specificity concerns the addition of a penalty term in the prediction step, which constrains the predicted velocity to fit with the mass balance. The precision improvements added by this method are demonstrated by some analysis results and by some numerical experiments of incompressible or dilatable flows. Finally, the potentialities offered by the use of the joint finite elements method in this type of fractionary step scheme is studied. Two applications are presented, one for local refinement purpose, the other for the resolution of a multi-physics problem. (J.S.)