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Sample records for viscous conducting liquid

  1. Solidity of viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1999-01-01

    Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length...

  2. Generic Primary Mechanical Response of Viscous Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwirth, S. Peter; Böhmer, Roland; Gainaru, Catalin

    2017-12-01

    Four decades ago a seminal review by Jonscher [Nature (London) 267, 673 (1977), 10.1038/267673a0] revealed that the dielectric response of conducting materials is characterized by a "remarkable universality". Demonstrating that the same response pattern is exhibited also by shear rheological spectra of nonpolymeric viscous liquids, the present contribution connects two branches of condensed matter physics: Concepts developed for charge transport can be employed for the description of mass flow and vice versa. Based on the virtual equivalence of the two dynamics a connection is established between microscopic and macroscopic viscoelastic characteristics of liquids, resembling the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation for conductivity.

  3. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  4. Dynamics of amorphous solids and viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    -square displacement as function of time. The 15 publications are related to each other in the following way. P1-P7 is a continuously progressing attempt to explain the AC properties of extremely disordered solids (with P2 as a digression). P8 discusses a simple model for viscous liquids and the glass transition. In P...... with the title "Viscous Liquids and the Glass Transition" reviews and comments P8-P10. In P8 from 1987 a simple model for the glass transition is proposed in which there is only one relevant degree of freedom, the potential energy of a region in the liquid. The model was originally constructed to explain the non......This thesis consists of fifteen publications (P1-P15) published between 1987 and 1996 and a summary. In this abstract an overview of the main results is given by following the summary's three Chapters. The first Chapter with the title "AC Conduction in Disordered Solids" reviews and comments P1-P7...

  5. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...

  6. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  7. Sloshing analysis of viscous liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of viscosity on the sloshing response of tanks containing viscous liquids is studied using the in-house finite element computer code, FLUSTR-ANL. Two different tank sizes each filled at two levels, are modeled, and their dynamic responses under harmonic and seismic ground motions are simulated. The results are presented in terms of the wave height, and pressures at selected nodes and elements in the finite element mesh. The viscosity manifests itself as a damping effect, reducing the amplitudes. Under harmonic excitation, the dynamic response reaches the steady-state faster as the viscosity value becomes larger. The fundamental sloshing frequency for each study case stays virtually unaffected by an increase in viscosity. For the small tank case, a 5% difference is observed in the fundamental frequency of the smallest (1 cP) and the highest (1000 cP) viscosity cases considered in this study. The fundamental frequencies of the large tank are even less sensitive

  8. The thinning of viscous liquid threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejon-Pita, J. Rafael; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2012-11-01

    The thinning neck of dripping droplets is studied experimentally for viscous Newtonian fluids. High speed imaging is used to measure the minimum neck diameter in terms of the time τ to breakup. Mixtures of water and glycerol with viscosities ranging from 20 to 363 mPa s are used to model the Newtonian behavior. The results show the transition from potential to inertial-viscous regimes occurs at the predicted values of ~Oh2. Before this transition the neck contraction rate follows the inviscid scaling law ~τ 2 / 3 . After the transition, the neck thinning tends towards the linear viscous scaling law ~ τ . Project supported by the EPSRC-UK (EP/G029458/1) and Cambridge-KACST.

  9. Violations of conservation laws in viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover,......, although particle number conservation applies strictly for any liquid, the solidity of viscous liquids implies that even this conservation law is apparently violated in coarse-grained descriptions of density fluctuations.......The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover...

  10. Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.

  11. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  12. Scaling of viscous dynamics in simple liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhling, Lasse; Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Grzybowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Supercooled liquids are characterized by relaxation times that increase dramatically by cooling or compression. From a single assumption follows a scaling law according to which the relaxation time is a function of h(ρ) over temperature, where ρ is the density and the function h(ρ) depends on the...

  13. Time-temperature superposition in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2001-01-01

    with a reduced time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  14. Nonlinear Thermal Instability in Compressible Viscous Flows Without Heat Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the thermal instability of a smooth equilibrium state, in which the density function satisfies Schwarzschild's (instability) condition, to a compressible heat-conducting viscous flow without heat conductivity in the presence of a uniform gravitational field in a three-dimensional bounded domain. We show that the equilibrium state is linearly unstable by a modified variational method. Then, based on the constructed linearly unstable solutions and a local well-posedness result of classical solutions to the original nonlinear problem, we further construct the initial data of linearly unstable solutions to be the one of the original nonlinear problem, and establish an appropriate energy estimate of Gronwall-type. With the help of the established energy estimate, we finally show that the equilibrium state is nonlinearly unstable in the sense of Hadamard by a careful bootstrap instability argument.

  15. Study of the rise of gas bubbles in a viscous liquid. Stability and speed. Bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Gilbert

    1969-01-01

    This short thesis reports a bibliographical study on the movement of gas bubbles in viscous liquids. The author addresses the formation of gas bubbles in liquids of different viscosity (devices used for the formation of bubbles in viscous liquids, formation of bubbles at a hole), and the behaviour of bubbles rising in viscous liquids and more particularly the speed and shape of these bubbles [fr

  16. Mathematical Theory of Compressible Viscous, and Heat Conducting Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2007), s. 461-490 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : compressible fluid * viscous fluid * entropy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2007

  17. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electroaerodynamic Instability of a Liquid Sheet Sprayed with an Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Awasthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability of a thin sheet of viscous and dielectric liquid moving in the same direction as an air stream in the presence of a uniform horizontal electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. It is observed that aerodynamic-enhanced instability occurs if the Weber number is much less than a critical value related to the ratio of the air and liquid stream velocities, viscosity ratio of two fluids, the electric field, and the dielectric constant values. Liquid viscosity has stabilizing effect in the stability analysis, while air viscosity has destabilizing effect.

  18. One-Dimensional Problem of a Conducting Viscous Fluid with One Relaxation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angail A. Samaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.

  19. Meniscus and viscous forces during normal separation of liquid-mediated contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaobiao; Bhushan, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    Menisci form between two solid surfaces with the presence of an ultra-thin liquid film. Meniscus and viscous forces contribute to an adhesive force when two surfaces are separated. The adhesive force can be very large and can result in high friction, stiction and possibly high wear. The situation may become more pronounced when the contacting surfaces are ultra-smooth and the normal load is small, as is common for micro-/nanodevices. In this study, equations for meniscus and viscous forces during separation of two flat surfaces, and a sphere and a flat surface, are developed, and the corresponding adhesive forces contributed by these two types of forces are examined. The geometric meniscus curvatures and break point are theoretically determined, and the role of meniscus and viscous forces is evaluated during separation. The influence of separation distance, liquid thickness, meniscus area, separation time, liquid properties and contact angles are analyzed. Critical meniscus areas at which transition in the dominance of meniscus to viscous forces occurs for different given conditions, i.e. various initial liquid thicknesses, contact angles and designated separation time, are identified. The analysis provides a fundamental understanding of the physics of separation process, and insights into the relationships between meniscus and viscous forces. It is also valuable for the design of the interface for various devices

  20. Bistability of heat transfer of a viscous liquid under conditions of flow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkikh, A.V.; Seleznev, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    The heat exchange model for a viscous liquid flowing under the pressure drop effect in a tube, surrounded by the medium with a lower temperature, is considered. It is shown that the system bistable behavior is possible by availability of the liquid viscosity exponential dependence on the temperature and by negligible dissipative heat release. The transitions between cold and hot flows in this case should proceed by a jump. The liquid and channel parameters, whereby the bistability may be observed, are determined [ru

  1. Relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes I. Heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow and chemical reactions; formal part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, G.A.; Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.

    1953-01-01

    The relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes is developed for an isotropic mixture in which heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow, chemical reactions and their cross-phenomena may occur. The four-vectors, representing the relative flows of matter, are defined in such a way that, in

  2. Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.; Cimpeanu, Radu; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Petropoulos, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  3. A model for the generic alpha relaxation in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric measurements on molecular liquids just above the glass transition indicate that alpha relaxation is characterized by a generic high-frequency loss varying as one over square root of frequency, whereas deviations from this come from one or more low-lying beta processes [Olsen et al., Phys...

  4. Pragmatical access to the viscous flow of undercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchenau, U.

    2017-06-01

    The paper derives a relation for the viscosity of undercooled liquids on the basis of the pragmatical model concept of Eshelby relaxations with a finite lifetime. From accurate shear relaxation data in the literature, one finds that slightly less than half of the internal stresses relax directly via single Eshelby relaxations; the larger part dissolves at the terminal lifetime, which is a combined effect of many Eshelby relaxations.

  5. Dynamics of bubble formation in highly viscous liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancholi, Ketan; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2008-04-15

    There has recently been considerable interest in the development of devices for the preparation of monodisperse microbubble suspensions for use as ultrasound contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. These applications require not only a high degree of bubble uniformity but also a maximum bubble size of 8 mum, and this provides a strong motivation for developing an improved understanding of the process of bubble formation in a given device. The aim of this work was to investigate bubble formation in a T-junction device and determine the influence of the different processing parameters upon bubble size, in particular, liquid viscosity. Images of air bubble formation in a specially designed T-junction were recorded using a high-speed camera for different ratios of liquid to gas flow rate (Ql/Qg) and different liquid viscosities (microl). It was found that theoretical predictions of the flow profile in the focal region based on analysis of axisymmetric Stokes flow were accurate to within 6% when compared with the experimental data, indicating that this provided a suitable means of describing the bubble formation process. Both the theoretical and experimental results showed that Ql/Qg and mul had a significant influence upon bubble formation and eventual size, with higher flow rates and higher viscosities producing smaller bubbles. There were, however, found to be limiting values of Ql/Qg and mul beyond which no further reduction in bubble size was achieved.

  6. The acoustic radiation force on a small thermoviscous or thermoelastic particle suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical analysis (arxiv.org/abs/1507.01043) of the acoustic radiation force on a single small particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid. Our analysis places no restrictions on the viscous and thermal boundary layer thicknesses relative to the particle radius, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from sub-micrometer particles. For particle sizes smaller than the boundary layer widths, our theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. For example, for liquid droplets and solid particles suspended in gasses we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory. Moreover, for certain relevant choices of materials, we find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to applications in acoustic levitation or separation of micro-particles in gases, as well as to handling of μm- and nm-sized particles such as bacteria and vira in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  7. Nanoscale Carbon Greatly Enhances Mobility of a Highly Viscous Ionic Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    liquids (ILs) and apolar carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are disparate objects; nevertheless, their interaction leads to spontaneous CNT filling with ILs. Moreover, ionic diffusion of highly viscous ILs can increase 5-fold inside CNTs, approaching that of molecular liquids, even though the confined IL phase still......The ability to encapsulate molecules is one of the outstanding features of nanotubes. The encapsulation alters physical and chemical properties of both nanotubes and guest species. The latter normally form a separate phase, exhibiting drastically different behavior compared to the bulk. Ionic...

  8. Numerical investigation of interaction between rising bubbles in a viscous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ik Roh [Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin Seung Won [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The rising behavior of bubbles undergoing bubble-bubble interaction in a viscous liquid is studied using a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Level contour reconstruction method (LCRM), one of the connectivity-free front tracking methods, is applied to describe a moving interface accurately under highly deformable conditions. This work focuses on the effects of bubble size on the interaction of two bubbles rising side-by-side in a stagnant liquid. Several characteristics of bubble-bubble interaction are analyzed quantitatively as supported by energy analysis. The results showed clear differences between small and large bubbles with respect to their interaction behavior in terms of lateral movement, vortex intensity, suppression of surface deformation, and viscous dissipation rate. Distributions of vorticity and viscous dissipation rate near the bubble interfaces also differed depending on the size of the bubbles. Strong vortices from large bubbles triggered oscillation in bubble-bubble interaction and played a dominant role in the interaction process as the size of bubbles increases.

  9. Numerical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes in a spherical layer of viscous incompressible liquid with free boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakurdaeva Alia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of mathematical modelling of the dynamics of a mixture of the viscous incompressible liquid and gas, which fills a spherical layer with free boundaries and contains a gas bubble within itself, are presented in this paper. Spherical symmetry is assumed, and it is considered that the dynamics of the layer is determined by thermal, diffusive and inertial factors. On the basis of constructed numerical algorithm the studies of the formation of the liquid glass layers, which contain the carbon dioxide gas within themselves, have been conducted. The impact of the external thermal regime, external pressure and the density of gas in the bubble at the initial time on the dynamics of the layer, diffusion and heat-and-mass processes inside it is investigated. The results of numerical investigation of the full and simplified thermal problem statement, without consideration of gas diffusion, are compared.

  10. Influences of viscous losses and end effects on liquid metal flow in electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Seo, Joon Ho; Hong, Sang Hee; Cho, Su won; Nam, Ho Yun; Cho, Man

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of the viscous and end effects on electromagnetic (EM) pumps of annular linear induction type for the sodium coolant circulation in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors have been carried out based on the MHD laminar flow analysis and the electromagnetic field theory. A one-dimensional MHD analysis for the liquid metal flowing through an annular channel has been performed on the basis of a simplified model of equivalent current sheets instead of three-phase currents in the discrete primary windings. The calculations show that the developed pressure difference resulted from electromagnetic and viscous forces in the liquid metal is expressed in terms of the slip, and that the viscous loss effects are negligible compared with electromagnetic driving forces except in the low-slip region where the pumps operate with very high flow velocities comparable with the synchronous velocity of the electromagnetic fields, which is not applicable to the practical EM pumps. A two-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis based on an equivalent current sheet model has found the vector potentials in closed form by means of the Fourier transform method. The resultant magnetic fields and driving forces exerted on the liquid metal reveal that the end effects due to finiteness of the pump length are formidable. In addition, a two-dimensional numerical analysis for vector potentials has been performed by the SOR iterative method on a realistic EM pump model with discretely-distributed currents in the primary windings. The numerical computations for the distributions of magnetic fields and developed pressure differences along the pump axial length also show considerable end effects at both inlet and outlet ends, especially at high flow velocities. Calculations of each magnetic force contribution indicate that the end effects are originated from the magnetic force caused by the induced current (υxB) generated by the liquid metal movement across the magnetic field rather than the one

  11. Low-cost viscometer based on energy dissipation in viscous liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, C.; Cristobal, G.; Nicolas, A.; Panizza, P.; Rouch, J.; Ushiki, H.

    2001-04-01

    We describe a new type of low-cost easy-to-use viscometer based on the temperature elevation in a liquid under shear flow. After calibration, this instrument can be used to measure the apparent steady state viscosity for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids with no yield stress. We compute the rise in temperature due to viscous dissipation in a Couette cell and compare it to experimental results for different fluids. We show that the variation of the temperature with shear rate can be used to characterize the rheological behaviour of viscous fluids and to evaluate their viscosity in a large domain, from typically a few cP up to more than 10 P, with an accuracy of about ±5%. In contrast to simple viscometers, non-Newtonian fluids can be studied with this apparatus. We give experimental results for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids and show that they are very similar to those given in the literature by using much more sophisticated instruments.

  12. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, E P [Integrated Materials and Microstructures Laboratory, Electronic Imaging Products, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650-2121 (United States)

    2005-01-07

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties.

  13. Temporal instability of viscous liquid microjets with spatially varying surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2005-01-01

    A linear theory is developed for the temporal instability of a viscous liquid microjet of Newtonian fluid with a spatially periodic variation of surface tension imposed along its length. The variation of surface tension induces Marangoni flow within the jet that leads to breakup and drop formation. An analytical expression is derived for the behaviour of the free surface of the microjet. This expression is useful for parametric analysis of jet instability and breakup as a function of jet radius, wavelength and fluid properties

  14. Electro-spray of high viscous liquids for producing mono-sized spherical alginate beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Moghadam; Mohsen Samimi; Abdolreza Samimi; Mohamad Khorram

    2008-01-01

    Alginate beads, often used for controlled release of enzymes and drugs, are usually produced by spraying sodium alginate liquid into a gelling agent using mechanical vibration nozzle or air jet. In this work an alternative method of electro-spray was employed to form droplets with desired size from a highly viscous sodium alginate solution using constant DC voltage. The droplets were then cured in a calcium chloride solution. The main objective was to produce mono-sized beads from such a highly viscous and non-Newtonian liquid (1000-5000 mPa s). The effects of nozzle diameter, flow rate and concentration of liquid on the size of the beads were investigated. Among the parameters studied, voltage had a pronounced effect on the size of beads as compared to flow rate zzle diameter and concentration of alginate liquid. The size of beads was reduced to a minimum value with increasing the voltage in the range of 0-10 kV. At the early stages of voltage increase (I.e. Up to about 4 kV), the rate of size reduction was relatively low, while the dripping mode dominated. However, in the middle part of the range of applied voltage, where the rate of size reduction was high (I.e. About 4-7 kV), an unstable transition occurred between dripping and jetting. At the end part of the range (I.e. 7-10 kV) jet mode of spray was observed. Increasing the height of fall of the droplets was found to improve the sphericity of the beads, because of the increased time of flight for the droplets. This was especially identifiable at higher concentrations of the alginate liquid (I.e. 3 w/v%)

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed conducting Walters B' elastico-viscous fluids in hydromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.; Kumar, Pardeep

    1998-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed electrically conducting Walters elastico-viscous fluids (Model B') of uniform densities when the whole system is immersed in a uniform horizontal magnetic field has been studied. The stability analysis has been carried out, for mathematical simplicity, for two highly viscoelastic fluids of equal kinematic viscosities and equal kinematic viscoelasticities. For the stable configuration as in hydrodynamic case, the system is found to be stable or unstable for the wave-number range k (2v') -12 depending on kinematic viscoelasticity v'. For the unstable configuration, the magnetic field has got stabilizing effect and completely stabilizes certain wave-number range which was always unstable in the absence of magnetic field. The behaviour of growth rates with respect kinematic viscosity and kinematic viscoelasticity parameters are examined analytically. (author)

  16. Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Bernhard; Temelli, Feral

    2009-07-01

    The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 degrees C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities, such as ethanol and corn oil, respectively. At ambient conditions, the pump delivered continuous flow of ethanol and corn oil at a flow rate of up to 170 and 17 cm3/min, respectively. For pumping viscous fluids comparable to corn oil, an optimum reciprocation frequency was ascertained to maximize flow rate. For low viscosity liquids such as ethanol, a linear relationship between the flow rate and reciprocation frequency was determined up to the maximum reciprocation frequency of the pump. Since its fabrication, the pump has been used in our laboratory for circulating triglycerides in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures of up to 25 MPa (3600 psi) and temperatures up to 70 degrees C on a daily basis for a total of more than 1500 h of operation functioning trouble free.

  17. On the dynamics of liquids in their viscous regime approaching the glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Angell, C A; Richert, R

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Mallamace et al. (Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 94 (2011)) proposed a crossover temperature, T(×), and claimed that the dynamics of many supercooled liquids follow an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence between T(×) and the glass transition temperature T(g). The opposite, namely super-Arrhenius behavior in this viscous regime, has been demonstrated repeatedly for molecular glass-former, for polymers, and for the majority of the exhaustively studied inorganic glasses of technological interest. Therefore, we subject the molecular systems of the Mallamace et al. study to a "residuals" analysis and include not only viscosity data but also the more precise data available from dielectric relaxation experiments over the same temperature range. Although many viscosity data sets are inconclusive due to their noise level, we find that Arrhenius behavior is not a general feature of viscosity in the T(g) to T(×) range. Moreover, the residuals of dielectric relaxation times with respect to an Arrhenius law clearly reveal systematic curvature consistent with super-Arrhenius behavior being an endemic feature of transport properties in this viscous regime. We also observe a common pattern of how dielectric relaxation times decouple slightly from viscosity.

  18. The break-up of a viscous liquid drop in a high Reynolds number shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Hei; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The break-up of a viscous liquid droplet in a sheared turbulent flow evolves in several steps, the most visually dominant of which is the formation of high aspect ratio ligaments. This feature takes them apart from the various break-up models based on the Hinze-Kolmogorov paradigm of eddy-spherical particle collisions. We investigate the development of ligaments in a high Reynolds number (up to 250,000) submerged round jet, within the high viscosity, near-unity density ratio regime. Unlike in H-K theory, applicable to the break-up of inviscid fluid particles, break-up of inertial-scale viscous droplets occurs through a sequence of eddy collisions and long-term deformation, as evidenced by measurements of the aspect ratio that fluctuates and increases progressively during the deformation stage, and results in non-binary break-up. Additionally, the ligament formation stretches a droplet to multiple times its original size, bringing the influence of integral-scale structures. High speed imaging has been statistically analyzed to inform and validate theoretical models for the break-up time and the break-up probability. In addition, a particle size scaling model has been developed and compared with the experimental measurements of the frozen-state particle size.

  19. Unsteady Flow of Reactive Viscous, Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid with Soret and Variable Thermal Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Uwanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady natural convection and mass transfer flow of viscous reactive, heat generating/absorbing fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite parallel porous plates having temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The motion of the fluid is induced due to natural convection caused by the reactive property as well as the heat generating/absorbing nature of the fluid. The solutions for unsteady state temperature, concentration, and velocity fields are obtained using semi-implicit finite difference schemes. Perturbation techniques are used to get steady state expressions of velocity, concentration, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number. The effects of various flow parameters such as suction/injection (γ, heat source/sinks (S, Soret number (Sr, variable thermal conductivity δ, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter λ, Prandtl number (Pr, and nondimensional time t on the dynamics are analyzed. The skin friction, heat transfer coefficients, and Sherwood number are graphically presented for a range of values of the said parameters.

  20. Use of one-dimensional Cosserat theory to study instability in a viscous liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogy, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the instability of an incompressible viscous liquid jet is considered within the context of one-dimensional Cosserat equations. Linear stability analyses are performed for both the infinite and semi-infinite jets. The results obtained for the inviscid case are compared with the corresponding results derived from ideal fluid equations. They are also compared with recent results by other authors obtained from a different set of one-dimensional jet equations. Solutions are also obtained, within the framework of the linearized theory, to the jet break-up problems formulated as an initial-value problem for the infinite jet and as a boundary-value problem for the semi-infinite jet

  1. Remarks on the global existence in the dynamics of a viscous, heat-conducting, one-dimensional gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jiang

    1994-01-01

    We consider initial boundary value problems for the equations of the motion of a viscous, heat-conducting, one-dimensional gas which is confined to a fixed tube with impermeable ends and whose viscosity varies with density, and prove the global existence of smooth (large) solutions. (author). 17 refs

  2. NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC MINI-RELAXOMETER FOR LIQUID AND VISCOUS MEDIA CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Davydov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new method for registration of nuclear magnetic resonance signal of small volume liquid and viscous media being studied (0.5 ml in a weak magnetic field (0.06 –0.08 T, and measuring of longitudinal T1 and transverse T2 relaxation constants. A new construction of NMR mini-relaxometer magnetic system is developed for registration of NMR signal. The nonuniformity of a magnetic field in a pole where registration coil is located is 0,410–3 sm–1 (the induction is В0 = 0.079 T. An electrical circuit of autodyne receiver (weak fluctuations generator has been developed with usage of low noise differential amplifier and NMR signal operating and control scheme (based on microcontroller STM32 for measuring of relaxation constants of liquid and viscous media in automatic operating mode. New technical decisions made it possible to improve relaxometer response time and dynamic range of measurements for relaxation constants T1 and T2 in comparison with small sized nuclear-magnetic spectrometer developed by the authors earlier (with accuracy characteristics conservation. The developed schemes for self-tuning of registration frequency, generating amplitude of magnetic field H1 in registration coil, and amplitude and frequency of modulating field provide measuring of T1 and T2 with error less than 0.5 % and signal to noise ratio about 1.2 in temperature range from 3 to 400 C. A new construction of mini-relaxometer reduced the weight of the device to 4 kg (with independent supply unit and increased transportability and operating convenience.

  3. Energies of conduction bands in dielectric liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of excess electrons in non-polar liquids depend on the relative energies of the trapped and conducting states. We have measured the energies of the conducting states, denoted V 0 , for about twenty non-polar liquids. Two methods were used: In one the work functions of metals immersed in the liquid were measured. In the other, solutes (TMPD) were photoionized in the liquid and V 0 calculated from the wavelength at which ionization onsets occur. A wide variation in conduction state energies is observed from a high of +0.21 eV for tetradecane to a low of --0.60 eV for tetramethylsilane. In general V 0 shifts to more negative values with increasing molecular symmetry, and correlates well with electron mobility. The photoionization results indicate that V 0 decreases with increasing temperature. In mixtures V 0 is linearly dependent on mole fraction. It was found empirically for n-hexane-neopentane mixtures that μ = 0.34 exp [--15.2(V 0 )]. This equation relating V 0 to the electron mobility also applies approximately to pure hydrocarbons. Thus the role of the conduction state energy in influencing electron mobilities and photoionization onsets is established and recent evidence indicates V 0 also influences the rates of electron reactions in these liquids

  4. On the Impact of Spheres onto Liquid Pools and Ultra-viscous Films

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad Mujtaba

    2016-06-01

    The free-surface impact of spheres is important to several applications in the military, industry and sports such as the water-entry of torpedoes, dip-coating procedures and slamming of boats. This two-part thesis attempts to explore this field by investigating cavity formation during the impact of spheres with deep liquid pools and cavitation in thin ultra-viscous films. Part I reports results from an experimental study on the formation of stable- streamlined and helical cavity wakes following the free-surface impact of heated Leidenfrost spheres. The Leidenfrost effect encapsulates the sphere by a vapor layer to prevent any physical contact with the surrounding liquid. This phenomenon is essential for the pacification of acoustic rippling along the cavity interface to result in a stable-streamlined cavity wake. Such a streamlined configuration experiences drag coefficients an order of magnitude lower than those acting on room temperature spheres. A striking observation is the formation of helical cavities which occur for impact Reynolds numbers 0 ≳ 1.4 × 105 and are characterized by multiple interfacial ridges, stemming from and rotating synchronously about an evident contact line around the sphere equator. This helical configuration has 40-55% smaller overall force coefficients than those obtained in the formation of stable cavity wakes. Part II of this thesis investigates the inception of cavitation and resulting structures when a sphere collides with a solid surface covered with a layer of non-Newtonian liquid having kinematic viscosities of up to 0 = 20,000,000 cSt. The existence of shear-stress- induced cavitation during sphere approach towards the base wall (i.e. the pressurization stage) in ultra-viscous films is shown using a synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging system. In addition, cavitation by depressurization is noted for a new class of non-contact cases whereby the sphere rebounds without any prior contact with the solid wall. Horizontal

  5. Ionic conductivity and complexation in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhakin, Anatolii I

    2003-01-01

    Electronic and ionic conductivity in nonpolar liquids is reviewed. Theoretical results on ionic complexation (formation of ion pairs and triplets, dipole-dipole chains, ion-dipole clusters) in liquid dielectrics in an intense external electric field are considered, and the relation between the complexation process and ionic conductivity is discussed. Experimental results supporting the possibility of complexation are presented and compared with theoretical calculations. Onsager's theory about the effect of an intense external electric field on ion-pair dissociation is corrected for the finite size of ions. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SWALLOWS OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUID BOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslania Viviane NASCIMENTO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Swallow function has a decline with aging, mainly in those over 80 years old. In the population over 69 years, about 11% of subjects reported symptoms indicative of significant dysphagia. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that older asymptomatic subjects before 80 years old have compensations to sustain a safe and efficient swallow, at least with swallows of liquid bolus. Methods We performed videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows in 55 normal volunteers, a younger group with 33 subjects (16 men and 17 women aged 19 to 55 years, mean 35.5±9.8 years, and an older group with 22 subjects (15 men and 7 women aged 56 to 77 years, mean 64.8±6.8 years. The subjects swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid barium with a pH of 7.9, density of 1.82 g/cm3, and viscosity of 895 cp. Results The mean duration of pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were longer in the younger group compared with the older group. The relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration was similar in younger and older subjects, for 5 mL and 10 mL bolus volumes. Conclusions On average, a highly viscous liquid bolus crosses the pharynx faster in older subjects (56-77 years old than in younger subjects (19-55 years old, which suggested an adaptation to the aging process to maintain a safe swallow.

  7. Large-time behavior of the motion of a viscous heat-conducting one-dimensional gas coupled to radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 2 (2012), s. 219-260 ISSN 0373-3114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : compressible * viscous * heat-conducting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.680, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0gw2j0311w430012/

  8. Fundamental characteristics of heat conduction enhancement in oscillating viscous flow-dream pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, M.; Nagata, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Tsujimori, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that to confirm the heat conduction augmentation technique via sinusoidal oscillation experimentally and to establish a fundamental data base of this device, systematic measurements using almost identically scaled with Kurzweg's apparatus for demonstration were conducted. In this heat exchanger, the fluid occupied a capillary tube or its bundle that connected two reservoirs at different temperature; a special constructed oscillation driving unit generated a pulsed motion of working fluid. Operation took place at various tube diameters, oscillated frequency and stroke using pure water and ethanol as working liquid. As a result, a new factor so-called heat transport coefficient which indicates the heat transfer rate multiplying temperature gradient between hot and cold reservoir was introduced. This factor increased with increasing oscillated frequency and stroke, however, beyond a critical frequency, this trend disappeared. Using modified Reynolds number and stroke ratio, a new empirical formula which correlated the data regardless of the difference of working liquid was proposed. A discussion of tube bundle was also made using this correlation. Finally, an attempt was performed to correlate the data using effective thermal diffusivity predicted by simple lumped capacitance analysis and characteristic period

  9. Two-dimensional simulation of intermediate-sized bubbles in low viscous liquids using counter diffusion lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seungyeob, E-mail: syryu@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngin; Kang, Hanok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sungho, E-mail: sunghoko@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We directly simulate intermediate-sized bubbles in low viscous liquids. • The path instability and shape oscillation can be successfully simulated. • The motion of a pair bubble and bubble swarm is presented. • Bubbles with high-Reynolds-number can be simulated with under-resolved grids. • The counter diffusion multiphase method is feasible for the direct simulation of bubbly flows. - Abstract: The counter diffusion lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate intermediate-sized bubbles in low viscous liquids. Bubbles at high Reynolds numbers ranging from hundreds to thousands are simulated successfully, which cannot be done for the existing LBM versions. The characteristics of the path instability of two rising bubbles are studied for a wide range of Eotvos and Morton numbers. Finally, the study presented how bubble swarms move within the flow and how the flow surrounding the bubbles is affected by the bubble motions.

  10. Viscous Dissipation and Heat Conduction in Binary Neutron-Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark G.; Bovard, Luke; Hanauske, Matthias; Rezzolla, Luciano; Schwenzer, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Inferring the properties of dense matter is one of the most exciting prospects from the measurement of gravitational waves from neutron star mergers. However, it requires reliable numerical simulations that incorporate viscous dissipation and energy transport as these can play a significant role in the survival time of the post-merger object. We calculate time scales for typical forms of dissipation and find that thermal transport and shear viscosity will not be important unless neutrino trapping occurs, which requires temperatures above 10 MeV and gradients over length scales of 0.1 km or less. On the other hand, if direct-Urca processes remain suppressed, leaving modified-Urca processes to establish flavor equilibrium, then bulk viscous dissipation could provide significant damping to density oscillations right after merger. When comparing with data from state-of-the-art merger simulations, we find that the bulk viscosity takes values close to its resonant maximum in a typical merger, motivating a more careful assessment of the role of bulk viscous dissipation in the gravitational-wave signal from merging neutron stars.

  11. Viscous Dissipation and Heat Conduction in Binary Neutron-Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark G; Bovard, Luke; Hanauske, Matthias; Rezzolla, Luciano; Schwenzer, Kai

    2018-01-26

    Inferring the properties of dense matter is one of the most exciting prospects from the measurement of gravitational waves from neutron star mergers. However, it requires reliable numerical simulations that incorporate viscous dissipation and energy transport as these can play a significant role in the survival time of the post-merger object. We calculate time scales for typical forms of dissipation and find that thermal transport and shear viscosity will not be important unless neutrino trapping occurs, which requires temperatures above 10 MeV and gradients over length scales of 0.1 km or less. On the other hand, if direct-Urca processes remain suppressed, leaving modified-Urca processes to establish flavor equilibrium, then bulk viscous dissipation could provide significant damping to density oscillations right after merger. When comparing with data from state-of-the-art merger simulations, we find that the bulk viscosity takes values close to its resonant maximum in a typical merger, motivating a more careful assessment of the role of bulk viscous dissipation in the gravitational-wave signal from merging neutron stars.

  12. Conductivity of liquid lithium electrolytes with dispersed mesoporous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, K.; Roggenbuck, J.; Krawczyk, N.; Buschmann, H.; Luerßen, B.; Fröba, M.; Janek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conductivity of disperse lithium electrolytes with mesoporous fillers is studied. ► In contrast to other investigations in literature, no conductivity enhancement could be observed for standard battery electrolytes and typical mesoporous fillers in various combinations. ► Disperse electrolytes can become relevant in terms of battery safety. ► Dispersions of silicas and electrolyte with LiPF 6 as conducting salt are not stable, although the silicas were dried prior to preparation and the electrolyte water content was controlled. Surface modification of the fillers improved the stability. ► The observed conductivity decrease varied considerably for various fillers. - Abstract: The electrical conductivity of disperse electrolytes was systematically measured as a function of temperature (0 °C to 60 °C) and filler content for different types of fillers with a range of pore geometry, pore structure and specific surface area. As fillers mesoporous silicas SBA-15, MCM-41 and KIT-6 with pore ranges between 3 nm and 15 nm were dispersed in commercially available liquid lithium electrolytes. As electrolytes 1 M of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) at the ratio 3:7 (wt/wt) and the same solvent mixture with 0.96 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imide (LiTFSI) were used. No conductivity enhancement could be observed, but with respect to safety aspects the highly viscous disperse pastes might be useful. The conductivity decrease varied considerably for the different fillers.

  13. Viscosity, Conductivity, and Electrochemical Property of Dicyanamide Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous, and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes, and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4mim][N(CN2], [C4m2im][N(CN2], N4442[N(CN2], and N8444[N(CN2] including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures. The melting points, temperature-dependent viscosities and conductivities reveal the structure-activity relationship of four DCA ILs. From the Walden plots, the imidazolium cations exhibit stronger cation–anion attraction than the ammonium cations. DCA ILs have relatively high values of electrochemical windows (EWs, which indicates that the DCA ILs are potential candidates for electrolytes in electrochemical applications. The cyclic voltammograms of Eu(III in these DCA ILs at GC working electrode at various temperatures 303–333 K consists of quasi-reversible waves. The electrochemical properties of the DCA ILs are also dominated by the cationic structures. The current intensity (ip, the diffusion coefficients (Do, the charge transfer rate constants (ks of Eu(III in DCA ILs all increased with the molar conductivities increased. The cationic structure-transport property relationships of DCA ILs were constructed for designing novel functionalized ILs to fulfill specific demands.

  14. Viscous liquid barrier demonstration at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Sullivan, T.; Ludewig, H.; Brower, J.; North-Abbott, M.; Manchester, K.; Zaluski, M.; Penny, G.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has detected tritium ( 3 H) and 22 Na contamination down gradient from the Brookhaven LINAC Isotope Producer (BLIP), located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Site characterization studies indicate that the BLIP is the source of contamination. The highest measured values for 3 H were 52,400 pCi/L recorded less than 100 feet south (down gradient) of the BLIP facility. The BLIP produces radioisotopes that are crucial in nuclear medicine for both research and clinical use. The BLIP also supports research on diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. During operation a proton beam impinges a target (typically salts encapsulated in stainless steel) to produce the required radioisotopes. The proton beam is completely absorbed prior to reaching the soils surrounding the target shaft. However, secondary neutrons are produced that reach the soil causing activation products to form. Among the longer-lived isotopes of concern are tritium and 22 Na. Both of these isotopes have the potential to negatively impact the groundwater below the BLIP. Several corrective actions have been implemented at the BLIP facility in response to tritium detection in the groundwater. The first actions were to improve surface water management (e.g. storm water down spouts) and the installation of a gunite cap around the BLIP facility. These measures are designed to minimize water flow through the activated soils in the vicinity of BLIP. In conjunction with these improvements, BNL is installing a close-proximity subsurface barrier in the activated soils beneath the BLIP facility. The barrier will prevent water migration through the activated soil zone as well as prevent activation product migration out of the zone. To minimize impacts on the operation of the BLIP requires in-situ barrier installation using low energy techniques that will not disturb the alignment of the BLIP or nearby accelerator beams. BNL chose an innovative barrier technology termed Viscous

  15. Direct numerical simulation of circular-cap bubbles in low viscous liquids using counter diffusion lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seungyeob, E-mail: syryu@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngin; Yoon, Juhyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 1045 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sungho, E-mail: sunghoko@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We directly simulate circular-cap bubbles in low viscous liquids. • The counter diffusion multiphase lattice Boltzmann method is proposed. • The present method is validated through benchmark tests and experimental results. • The high-Reynolds-number bubbles can be simulated without any turbulence models. • The present method is feasible for the direct simulation of bubbly flows. -- Abstract: The counter diffusion lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to directly simulate rising circular-cap bubbles in low viscous liquids. A counter diffusion model for single phase flows has been extended to multiphase flows, and the implicit formulation is converted into an explicit one for easy calculation. Bubbles at high Reynolds numbers ranging from O(10{sup 2}) to O(10{sup 4}) are simulated successfully without any turbulence models, which cannot be done for the existing LBM versions. The characteristics of the circular-cap bubbles are studied for a wide range of Morton numbers and compared with the previous literature. Calculated results agree with the theoretical and experimental data. Consequently, the wake phenomena of circular-cap bubbles and bubble induced turbulence are presented.

  16. Heat and electrical conductivity of thermotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, N.S.; Majidov, H.; Saburov, B.S.; Safarov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    A results of thermal conduction and electrical conduction of chemo tropic liquid crystals are brought in this article. An installation dependence formula of thermal conduction investigating things from the electrical conduction and temperatures is constructed

  17. In search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime: investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejowska, Agnieszka; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Paluch, Marian

    2017-07-19

    In this paper, we report the nontrivial results of our investigations of dynamic and thermodynamic moduli in search of invariants for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime by using selected supercooled van der Waals liquids as representative materials. Previously, the dynamic modulus M p-T (defined in the pressure-temperature representation by the ratio of isobaric activation energy and activation volume) as well as the ratio B T /M p-T (where B T is the thermodynamic modulus defined as the inverse isothermal compressibility) have been suggested as some kinds of material constants. We have established that they are not valid in the explored wide range of temperatures T over a dozen decades of structural relaxation times τ. The temperature dependences of M p-T and B T /M p-T have been elucidated by comparison with the well-known measure of the relative contribution of temperature and density fluctuations to molecular dynamics near the glass transition, i.e., the ratio of isochoric and isobaric activation energies. Then, we have implemented an idea to transform the definition of the dynamic modulus M p-T from the p-T representation to the V-T one. This idea relied on the disentanglement of combined temperature and density fluctuations involved in isobaric parameters and has resulted in finding an invariant for viscous liquids in the density scaling regime, which is the ratio of thermodynamic and dynamic moduli, B T /M V-T . In this way, we have constituted a characteristic of thermodynamics and molecular dynamics, which remains unchanged in the supercooled liquid state for a given material, the molecular dynamics of which obeys the power density scaling law.

  18. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurasulov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids. The thermoelastic properties of liquids were studied taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation. The results of determination of dynamic coefficient of thermal conductivity of liquids taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation are presented.

  19. Modeling of conductive particle motion in viscous medium affected by an electric field considering particle-electrode interactions and microdischarge phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ghiyam; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmaeil; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2016-10-01

    Up and down motion of a spherical conductive particle in dielectric viscous fluid driven by a DC electric field between two parallel electrodes was investigated. A nonlinear differential equation, governing the particle dynamics, was derived, based on Newton's second law of mechanics, and solved numerically. All the pertaining dimensionless groups were extracted. In contrast to similar previous works, hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the electrodes, as well as image electric forces, has been taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of the microdischarge produced between the electrodes and the approaching particle on the particle dynamics has been included in the model. The model results were compared with experimental data available in the literature, as well as with some additional experimental data obtained through the present study showing very good agreement. The results indicate that the wall hydrodynamic effect and the dielectric liquid ionic conductivity are very dominant factors determining the particle trajectory. A lower bound is derived for the charge transferred to the particle while rebounding from an electrode. It is found that the time and length scales of the post-microdischarge motion of the particle can be as small as microsecond and micrometer, respectively. The model is able to predict the so called settling/dwelling time phenomenon for the first time.

  20. Thermal Conductivity and Liquid Crystal Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes using stock liquid crystal postcards as inexpensive classroom thermometers. Also suggests using these postcards as a good visual temperature indicator for classroom demonstrations such as temperature gradients. One such activity is provided. (MVL)

  1. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C [Dep. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-03-07

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful.

  2. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C

    2007-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful

  3. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  4. Viscous sintering : the surface-tension-driven flow of a liquid form under the influence of curvature gradients at its surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    A boundary-element method is applied to solve the equations describing the deformation of a two-dimensional liquid region under the influence of gradients of the curvature of its outer boundary. This research is motivated by a desire to obtain a better understanding of viscous sintering processes in

  5. Feasibility of a single-parameter description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Christensen, Tage Emil; Schrøder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics results for the dynamic Prigogine-Defay ratio are presented for two glass-forming liquids, thus evaluating the experimentally relevant quantity for testing whether metastable-equilibrium liquid dynamics is described by a single parameter to a good approximation. For the Kob......-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones mixture as well as for an asymmetric dumbbell model liquid, a single-parameter description works quite well. This is confirmed by time-domain results where it is found that energy and pressure fluctuations are strongly correlated on the alpha time scale in the constant...

  6. A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 238 Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached

  7. Forming of film surface of very viscous liquid flowing with gas in pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernek Krystian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of the values, which are specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas liquid flow in vertical pipes, where a very-high-viscosity liquid forms a falling film in a pipe. The experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values, which characterize the two-phase flow. Attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of flow parameters and properties of the liquid on the gas-liquid interface value, which is decisive for the conditions of heat exchange and mass transfer in falling film equipment. The nature and form of created waves at various velocities were also described.

  8. Molecular motions in a viscous organic liquid: ferrocene in cold butyl phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, S.L.; Zabransky, B.J.; Flinn, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The two main purposes of this work were to learn (a) if rotational diffusion can be seen along with translational, and (b) is [x(T) 2 ] unusual as the sample is heated from a glass to a liquid. Our observations show that (a) rotational molecular diffusion is not likely ever to be observed by quadrupole relaxation and (b) that there is indeed a fast increase in [x 2 ] above T/sub g/. This increase is correlated with a rapid and linear increase of the number of ''soft modes'' for the liquid above the glass transition temperature

  9. Corona-induced electrohydrodynamic instabilities in low conducting liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, F.; Perez, A.T. [Depto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n. 41012, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-06-01

    The rose-window electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability has been observed when a perpendicular field with an additional unipolar ion injection is applied onto a low conducting liquid surface. This instability has a characteristic pattern with cells five to 10 times greater than those observed in volume instabilities caused by unipolar injection. We have used corona discharge from a metallic point to perform some measurements of the rose-window instability in low conducting liquids. The results are compared to the linear theoretical criterion for an ohmic liquid. They confirmed that the minimum voltage for this instability is much lower than that for the interfacial instability in high conducting liquids. This was predicted theoretically in the dependence of the critical voltage as a function of the non-dimensional conductivity. It is shown that in a non-ohmic liquid the rose window appears as a secondary instability after the volume instability. (orig.)

  10. Low-energy excitations in a low-viscous glass-forming liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polarized and depolarized low frequency Raman spectra of a liquid mixture, viz. 0·15LiCl–0·85H2O, has been analysed in detail in order to elucidate the temperature and polarization characteristics of quasi-elastic line and Boson peak. The employed fitting procedure shows more convincingly that the Boson peak ...

  11. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  12. Motions in a viscous inorganic liquid: ferrous ion in cold phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, P A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Zabransky, B J; Ruby, S L [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1976-01-01

    The two main purposes of this work were to decide if there are rotational relaxation effects when diffusion becomes important above the glass transition temperature T/sub g/; and if the intensity of the Moessbauer absorption can be understood in terms of glass and liquid dynamics. Rotational relaxation was not seen, and there is a rapid increase in soft modes with temperature beginning at T/sub g/ seen both by Moessbauer technique and by Raman scattering.

  13. A method of measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Held, E.F.M. van der; Drunen, F.G. van

    1949-01-01

    We described the development of an apparatus for the determination of the thermal conductivity of liquids. The apparatus is suitable for all kinds of liquids, including the strongest acids. From a given time we pass an electric current through a thin straight wire, placed in a homogeneous material

  14. Asymptotic properties of axisymmetric Stokes flow of a viscous liquid with intersecting boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The general axisymmetric problem on the liquid flow by the low Reynolds number when the boundary surfaces (both of the solid body and free one) are intersecting at the certain angle on the moving line, is considered. The work is aimed at establishing the asymptotic regularities of the behavior of the current function and voltages in the small vicinity of the intersection (contact) line of the boundary surfaces. The asymptotic analysis makes it possible to consider the arbitrary axisymmetric Stokes flow with the intersecting boundaries [ru

  15. Applicability of fan spray nozzles to stripping insoluble gases from viscous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, H.H.; Johnson, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Fan spray nozzle stripping appears to be a practical technique for separating dilute volatile solutes from nonvolatile solvents. In particular this technique can be used to strip molecular tritium and tritium fluoride at extremely small concentration (in the parts per million range) from molten salts used as blanket materials in a fusion reactor. Under adjusted operating conditions of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle, a high percentage of the theoretically maximum achievable stripping would take place from the expanding sheet of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle and before it breaks up. Although the only available experimental data are for aqueous solutions, a new theoretical analysis of the fan spray sheet demonstrates the applicability of this technique to nonaqueous liquids. The equation derived from this analysis relates the theoretically achievable mass transfer efficiency to the properties of the liquid flowing through the fan spray nozzle and to the operating conditions of the nozzle. Any fluid with viscosity higher than or equal to that of water would be expected to follow this equation as long as a fan-shaped sheet is formed under the operating conditions of the nozzle

  16. Temperature dependence of three-point correlation functions of viscous liquids: the case of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Ferrier, Cecile; Eibl, Stefan; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, Batiment 349, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Pappas, Catherine [BENSC, Hahn-Meitner-Institute, HMI Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cecile.dalle-ferrier@lcp.u-psud.fr

    2008-12-10

    What causes the dramatic slowing down of flow and relaxation that leads to glass formation in liquids as temperature decreases is hardly understood so far and is the subject of intensive research work. It is tempting to ascribe the strong temperature dependence of the dynamics, irrespective of molecular details, to a collective or cooperative behavior characterized by a length scale that grows as one approaches the glass transition. To access this length experimentally, we use the recently introduced three-point dynamic susceptibility, from which the number of molecules dynamically correlated during the structural relaxation, N{sub corr}, can be extracted. The three-point functions are related to the sensitivity of the averaged two-time dynamics to external control parameters, such as temperature and density. We studied N{sub corr} values in an important temperature range for a large number of liquids, and found that it systematically grows when approaching the glass transition. Here we specially emphasize the case of glycerol for which we combined dielectric and neutron spin echo spectroscopy to cover more than 16 decades in relaxation time.

  17. Electrical conductivity measurements in shock compressed liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of shock compressed liquid nitrogen was measured in the pressure range 20 to 50 GPa using a two-stage light-gas gun. The conductivities covered a range 4 x 10 -2 to 1 x 10 2 ohm -1 cm -1 . The data are discussed in terms of a liquid semiconductor model below the onset of the dissociative phase transition at 30 GPa. 15 refs., 1 fig

  18. Asymptotic behavior of the motion of a viscous heat-conducting one-dimesional gas with radiation: the pure scattering case

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350003 ISSN 0219-5305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : compressible fluids * viscous * conducting fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2013 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219530513500036

  19. On the motion of viscous, compressible and heat-conducting liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.; Sun, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2016), s. 083101 ISSN 0022-2488 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes equations * weak solution * relative energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.077, year: 2016 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jmp/57/8/10.1063/1.4959772

  20. Electromagnetic interaction between a rising spherical particle in a conducting liquid and a localized magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Tran, N.; Boeck, T.; Karcher, C.

    2017-07-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a non-contact electromagnetic flow measurement technique for electrically conductive liquids. It is based on measuring the flow-induced force acting on an external permanent magnet. Motivated by extending LFV to liquid metal two-phase flow measurement, in a first test we consider the free rising of a non-conductive spherical particle in a thin tube of liquid metal (GaInSn) initially at rest. Here the measured force is due to the displacement flow induced by the rising particle. In this paper, numerical results are presented for three different analytical solutions of flows around a moving sphere under a localized magnetic field. This simplification is made since the hydrodynamic flow is difficult to measure or to compute. The Lorentz forces are compared to experiments. The aim of the present work is to check if our simple numerical model can provide Lorentz forces comparable to the experiments. The results show that the peak values of the Lorentz force from the analytical velocity fields provide us an upper limit to the measurement results. In the case of viscous flow around a moving sphere we recover the typical time-scale of Lorentz force signals.

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  2. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Feygenson, M.; Yu, H. L.; Wu, D.; Ohara, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Shibata, K.; Yamada, T.; Ning, X. K.; Chen, Y.; He, J. Q.; Vaknin, D.; Wu, R. Q.; Nakajima, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

  3. Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of protic alkanolammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, André; Ang, Keng L; Marsh, Kenneth N; Pang, Shusheng

    2011-03-21

    Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting temperatures below the boiling point of water, and their qualification for applications in potential industrial processes does depend on their fundamental physical properties such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This study aims to investigate the structure-property relationship of 15 ILs that are primarily composed of alkanolammonium cations and organic acid anions. The influence of both the nature and number of alkanol substituents on the cation and the nature of the anion on the densities, viscosities and electrical conductivities at ambient and elevated temperatures are discussed. Walden rule plots are used to estimate the ionic nature of these ionic liquids, and comparison with other studies reveals that most of the investigated ionic liquids show Walden rule values similar to many non-protic ionic liquids containing imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, tetraalkylammonium, or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. Comparison of literature data reveals major disagreements in the reported properties for the investigated ionic liquids. A detailed analysis of the reported experimental procedures suggests that inappropriate drying methods can account for some of the discrepancies. Furthermore, an example for the improved presentation of experimental data in scientific literature is presented.

  4. Determination of the viscous acoustic field for liquid drop positioning/forcing in an acoustic levitation chamber in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.

  5. Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiete, G., E-mail: schwiete@uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Spin Phenomena Interdisciplinary Center (SPICE) and Institut für Physik (Germany); Finkel’stein, A. M. [Texas A& M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann–Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal–insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.

  6. Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwiete, G.; Finkel’stein, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann–Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal–insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.

  7. Measuring electric conductivity in liquid metals by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, S.P.; Ostrovskij, O.I.; Grigoryan, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique permitting to apply the method of vertiginous currents for investigation of electric conductivity of metal melts in the high temperature range is presented. Interferences affecting accuracy of measurements are specified and ways of their removing are pointed out. Scheme of measuring and design of the facility are described. Results of measuring electric resistance of liquid Fe, Co, Ni obtained for the first time by this method are presented. The data obtained agree with the results of measurements conducted by the method of the rotating magnetic field. Difference in absolute values of electric resistance in parallel experiments for each metal does not exceed 4%

  8. Poly-Phenylene-Quinonediimine as a possible conducting liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. K.

    1986-06-01

    The synthesis of stable electrically conducting, fabricable polymers of known structure represents an important goal of current polymer science. It seems to us that conductive, processable, and stable materials of defined structure should not be beyond the reach of the modern synthetic polymer chemist. Our approach has been to utilize a wide variety of polycondensation reactions to see whether they are useful for the synthesis of potentially conducting, stable, processable polymers. Polycondensation routes are preferred because they will lead to polymers of rational, known structure. Standard techniques of polymer chemistry such as copolymerization, use of unsymmetrical monomers, and introduction of softening substituents can be used to enhance processability. Further, the extended para structures preferred for conductivity may also lead to liquid crystal behavior, another potential tool for fabrication.

  9. Comparison of the Viscous Liquids Spraying by the OIG and the Oil Configurations of an Effervescent Atomizer at Low Inlet Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlkvik Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the influence of the fluid injection configuration (OIG: outside-in-gas, OIL: outside-in-liquid on the internal flows and external sprays parameters. We sprayed the viscous aqueous maltodextrin solutions (μ = 60 mPa·s at a constant inlet pressure of the gas and the gas to the liquid mass flow ratio (GLR within the range 2.5 to 20%. We found that the fluids injection has a crucial influence on the internal flows. The internal flows patterns for the OIG atomizer were the slug flows, the internal flow of the OIL device was annular which led to the significant improvement of the spray quality: Smaller droplets, faster atomization, fewer pulsations.

  10. Acoustical study of electro- and thermal conductivity of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Rygalov, L.N.; Ivanova, I.V.; Barashkov, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    One established a link between electrical, elastic and structural properties of electronic smelts. One calculated polyterms of resistance and thermal conductivity of liquid metals (Be, Cd, U, V, Mo, Cr, rare-earth metals) on the basis of data covering both melting and boiling points. For some metals the values were obtained for the first time. To analyze kinetic properties of metals under high temperatures one should apply complex many-particles model representations and efficient computing equipment. It is pointed out that essential problems blocking efforts to tackle the mentioned task result in necessity to find simple though approximate models describing satisfactorily properties of metals [ru

  11. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  12. Use of anisotropy of light transmittance in a system to measure the frequency of nanowires' rotation in a viscous liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiec, Wojciech; Sikora, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Fe nanowires with diameters of ca. 80 nm and lengths ranging from 1 to 3 μm were immersed in a viscous liquid and exposed to a static magnetic field in order to orient them in a specific direction. The nanowire suspension was illuminated with a laser beam. The light intensity was measured at the input and output. It was observed that the light transmittance of the nanowire system was strongly dependent on the nanowires' orientation in relation to the laser beam. The phenomenon was applied to measure the rotation frequency of the nanowires immersed in a liquid with a viscosity of 2 Pa·s. Rotation of the nanowires was enforced by a rotating magnetic field generated by a rotating magnet. On the basis of the obtained results it was observed that the highest frequency of the nanowires' rotation in the applied liquid, in a rotating magnetic field with induction of 46 mT, exceeded 382 Hz. - Highlights: • Measurement method of the light transmittance of the nanowire system was presented. • The light transmittance depends on orientation of the nanowire system. • An application of anisotropy of light transmittance of the nanowire system was shown. • Nanowires suspended in a liquid with a big viscosity were able to rotate

  13. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, E.H. [The Faculty of Liberal Arts (Chemistry), Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Lim, S.A. [Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Park, J.H. [Department of Herbal Medicine, Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Kim, D.W. [Department of Chemical Technology, Han Bat National University, Daejon 305-719 (Korea); Macfarlane, D.R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2008-04-01

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N{sub 1134}TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N{sub 1134}TCM (2.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N{sub 1134}TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species. (author)

  14. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High order schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics. • The mathematical model applies simultaneously to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. • Viscous fluids are treated in the frame of hyper-elasticity as generalized visco-plastic solids. • Formal asymptotic analysis reveals the connection with the Navier–Stokes equations. • The distortion tensor A in the model appears to be well-suited for flow visualization. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell–Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic–parabolic Navier

  15. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbser, Michael, E-mail: michael.dumbser@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Peshkov, Ilya, E-mail: peshkov@math.nsc.ru [Open and Experimental Center for Heavy Oil, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Université, 64012 Pau (France); Romenski, Evgeniy, E-mail: evrom@math.nsc.ru [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, 4 Acad. Koptyug Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zanotti, Olindo, E-mail: olindo.zanotti@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    Highlights: • High order schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics. • The mathematical model applies simultaneously to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. • Viscous fluids are treated in the frame of hyper-elasticity as generalized visco-plastic solids. • Formal asymptotic analysis reveals the connection with the Navier–Stokes equations. • The distortion tensor A in the model appears to be well-suited for flow visualization. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell–Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic–parabolic Navier

  16. Numerical Study on Deformation and Interior Flow of a Droplet Suspended in Viscous Liquid under Steady Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A model based on the volume of fluid (VOF method and leaky dielectric theory is established to predict the deformation and internal flow of the droplet suspended in another vicious fluid under the influence of the electric field. Through coupling with hydrodynamics and electrostatics, the rate of deformation and internal flow of the single droplet are simulated and obtained under the different operating parameters. The calculated results show that the direction of deformation and internal flow depends on the physical properties of fluids. The numerical results are compared with Taylor's theory and experimental results by Torza et al. When the rate of deformation is small, the numerical results are consistent with theory and experimental results, and when the rate is large the numerical results are consistent with experimental results but are different from Taylor's theory. In addition, fluid viscosity hardly affects the deformation rate and mainly dominates the deformation velocity. For high viscosity droplet spends more time to attain the steady state. The conductivity ratio and permittivity ratio of two different liquids affect the direction of deformation. When fluid electric properties change, the charge distribution at the interface is various, which leads to the droplet different deformation shapes.

  17. A cold plasma plume with a highly conductive liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Wenxing; Chen Shihua; Yang Size

    2008-01-01

    A cold dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma plume with one highly conductive liquid electrode has been developed to treat thermally sensitive materials, and its preliminary discharging characteristics have been studied. The averaged electron temperature and density is estimated to be 0.6eV and 10 11 /cm 3 , respectively. The length of plasma plume can reach 5 cm with helium gas (He), and the conductivity of the outer electrode affects the plume length obviously. This plasma plume could be touched by bare hand without causing any burning or painful sensation, which may provide potential application for safe aseptic skin care. Moreover, the oxidative particles (e.g., OH, O * , O 3 ) in the downstream oxygen (O2) gas of the plume have been applied to treat the landfill leachate. The results show that the activated O 2 gas can degrade the landfill leachate effectively, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and suspended solid (SS) can be decreased by 52%, 57%, 76% and 92%, respectively. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  18. Pulsating hydrodynamic instability and thermal coupling in an extended Landau/Levich model of liquid-propellant combustion. 2. Viscous analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen B. Margolis

    2000-01-01

    A pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability has recently been shown to arise during liquid-propellant deflagration in those parameter regimes where the pressure-dependent burning rate is characterized by a negative pressure sensitivity. This type of instability can coexist with the classical cellular, or Landau, form of hydrodynamic instability, with the occurrence of either dependent on whether the pressure sensitivity is sufficiently large or small in magnitude. For the inviscid problem, it has been shown that when the burning rate is realistically allowed to depend on temperature as well as pressure, that sufficiently large values of the temperature sensitivity relative to the pressure sensitivity causes the pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability to become dominant. In that regime, steady, planar burning becomes intrinsically unstable to pulsating disturbances whose wavenumbers are sufficiently small. In the present work, this analysis is extended to the fully viscous case, where it is shown that although viscosity is stabilizing for intermediate and larger wavenumber perturbations, the intrinsic pulsating instability for small wavenumbers remains. Under these conditions, liquid-propellant combustion is predicted to be characterized by large unsteady cells along the liquid/gas interface.

  19. Hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids under seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamic response of liquid-tank systems, such as reactor vessels, spent-fuel pools and liquid storage tanks have been studied extensively in the last decade (Chang et al. 1988; Ma et al. 1991). However, most of the studies are conducted with the assumption of an inviscid fluid. In recent years, the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids has received increasing attention in high level waste storage tanks containing viscous waste material. This paper presents a numerical study on the hydrodynamic response of viscous fluids in a large 2-D fluid-tank system under seismic excitation. Hydrodynamic responses (i.e. sloshing wave height, fluid pressures, shear stress, etc.) are calculated for a fluid with various viscosities. Four fluid viscosities are considered. They are 1 cp, 120 cp, 1,000 cp and 12,000 cp (1 cp = 1.45 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in 2 ). Note that the liquid sodium of the Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) reactor has a viscosity of 1.38 x 10 -5 lb-sec/in 2 (about 95 cp) at an operational temperature of 900 degree F. Section 2 describes the pertinent features of the mathematical model. In Section 3, the fundamental sloshing phenomena of viscous fluid are examined. Sloshing wave height and shear stress for fluid with different viscosities are compared. The conclusions are given in Section 4

  20. A study to investigate viscous coupling effects on the hydraulic conductance of fluid layers in two-phase flow at the pore level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mosayeb; Raeini, Ali Q; Blunt, Martin J; Bijeljic, Branko

    2018-07-15

    This paper examines the role of momentum transfer across fluid-fluid interfaces in two-phase flow. A volume-of-fluid finite-volume numerical method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flow at the micro-scale. The model is applied to investigate viscous coupling effects as a function of the viscosity ratio, the wetting phase saturation and the wettability, for different fluid configurations in simple pore geometries. It is shown that viscous coupling effects can be significant for certain pore geometries such as oil layers sandwiched between water in the corner of mixed wettability capillaries. A simple parametric model is then presented to estimate general mobility terms as a function of geometric properties and viscosity ratio. Finally, the model is validated by comparison with the mobilities computed using direct numerical simulation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Barta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the stationary heat transfer near the contact line of an evaporating liquid wedge surrounded by the atmosphere of its pure vapor. In a simplified setting, the problem reduces to the Laplace equation in a half circle, subject to a non-homogeneous and singular boundary condition. By classical tools (conformal mapping, Green's function, we reformulate the problem as an integral equation for the unknown Neumann boundary condition in the setting of appropriate fractional Sobolev and weighted space. The unique solvability is then obtained by means of the Fredholm theorem.

  2. Pump effect of a capillary discharge in electrically conductive liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Baerdemaeker, F.; Šimek, Milan; Leys, C.; Verstraete, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2007), s. 473-485 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water * conductive * capillary * AC discharge * pump Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w802073563282272/fulltext.pdf

  3. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  4. A novel thick-film electrical conductivity sensor suitable for liquid and soil conductivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, John; Sophocleous, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Results are reported from an initial evaluation of a novel conductivity sensor that could be incorporated onto a multi-element thick film (screen printed) sensor array designed for soil and water analysis. The new sensor exhibits a repeatable cell constant over a wide range of conductivities and is currently performing very well in an investigation of soil structural properties where its output is being correlated with soil water content in a study of different soil porosities.

  5. Physical processes in high field insulating liquid conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Anderson, Delmar; Wilkins, Frank; Obregon, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In the power grid transmission where a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances, High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission of up to 1MV becomes more attractive since is more efficient than the counterpart AC. However, two of the most difficult problems to solve are the cable connections to the high voltage power sources and their insulation from the ground. The insulating systems are usually composed of transformer oil and solid insulators. The oil behavior under HVDC is similar to that of a weak electrolyte. Its behavior under HVDC is dominated more by conductivity than dielectric constant. Space charge effects in the oil bulk near high voltage electrodes and impeded plastic insulators affect the voltage oil hold-off. We have constructed an experimental facility where we study the oil and plastic insulator behavior in an actual HVDC System. Experimental results will be presented and compared with the present understanding of the physics governing the oil behavior under very high electrical stresses. Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  6. CTE-Matched, Liquid-Cooled, High Thermal Conductivity Heat Sink, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a CTE-matched, liquid-cooled, high thermal conductivity heat sink for use in spacecraft thermal management applications. The material...

  7. Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a

  8. Viscous and Joule heating effects on MHD free convection flow with variable plate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    A steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical heated plate with variable temperature in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field has been investigated by bringing the effect of viscous and Joules heating. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method along with Newton's approximation for small Prandtl number chosen as typical of coolant liquid metals at operating temperature. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Lightweight magnesium nanocomposites: electrical conductivity of liquid magnesium doped by CoPd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymovych, Andriy; Slabon, Adam; Plevachuk, Yuriy; Sklyarchuk, Vasyl; Sokoliuk, Bohdan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of monodisperse bimetallic CoPd NP admixtures on the electrical conductivity of liquid magnesium was studied. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of liquid Mg98(CoPd)2, Mg96(CoPd)4, and Mg92(CoPd)8 alloys was measured in a wide temperature range above the melting point by a four-point method. It was shown that the addition of even small amount of CoPd nanoparticles to liquid Mg has a significant effect on the electrical properties of the melts obtained.

  10. Viscous entrainment on hairy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Brun, P.-T.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Nectar-drinking bats and honeybees have tongues covered with hairlike structures, enhancing their ability to take up viscous nectar by dipping. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we explore the physical mechanisms that govern viscous entrainment in a hairy texture. Hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. We model the liquid trapped within the texture using a Darcy-Brinkmann-like approach and derive the drainage flow solution. The amount of fluid that is entrained is dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, the density of the hairs, and the withdrawal speed. Both experiments and theory reveal an optimal hair density to maximize fluid uptake.

  11. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  12. Electronic conductivity of solid and liquid (Mg, Fe)O computed from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, E.; Stixrude, L.; Scipioni, R.; Foster, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    Ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O is an abundant mineral of Earth's lower mantle and the liquid phase of the material was an important component of the early magma ocean. Using quantum-mechanical, finite-temperature density-functional theory calculations, we compute the electronic component of the electrical and thermal conductivity of (Mg0.75, Fe0.25)O crystal and liquid over a wide range of planetary conditions: 0-200 GPa, 2000-4000 K for the crystal, and 0-300 GPa, 4000-10,000 K for the liquid. We find that the crystal and liquid are semi-metallic over the entire range studied: the crystal has an electrical conductivity exceeding 103 S/m, whereas that of the liquid exceeds 104 S/m. Our results on the crystal are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements of the electrical conductivity of ferropericlase once we account for the dependence of conductivity on iron content. We find that a harzburgite-dominated mantle with ferropericlase in combination with Al-free bridgmanite agrees well with electromagnetic sounding observations, while a pyrolitic mantle with a ferric-iron rich bridgmanite composition yields a lower mantle that is too conductive. The electronic component of thermal conductivity of ferropericlase with XFe = 0.19 is negligible (accounts for the high conductance that has been proposed to explain anomalies in Earth's nutation. The electrical conductivity of liquid ferropericlase exceeds that of liquid silica by more than an order of magnitude at conditions of a putative basal magma ocean, thus strengthening arguments that the basal magma ocean could have produced an ancient dynamo.

  13. Design of instantaneous liquid film thickness measurement system for conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new capacitive sensor with a dielectric film coating was designed to measure the thickness of the liquid film on a flat surface. The measured medium can be conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity such as silicone oil, syrup, CMC solution and melt. With the dielectric film coating, the defects caused by the humidity in a capacitor can be avoided completely. With a excitation frequency 0-20kHz, the static permittivity of capacitive sensor is obtained and stable when small thicknesses are monitored within the frequency of 0-3kHz. Based on the measurement principle, an experimental system was designed and verified including calibration and actual measurement for different liquid film thickness. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity, the resolution, repeatability and linear range of the capacitive sensor are satisfied to the liquid film thickness measurement. Finally, the capacitive measuring system was successfully applied to the water, silicone oil and syrup film thickness measurement.

  14. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Sun Jiazeng; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10 -4 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the 7 Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids

  15. Conductivity-Relaxation Relations in Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaatalhosseini, Mansoureh; Elamin, Khalid; Swenson, Jan

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we have used nanocomposite polymer electrolytes, consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), δ-Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt (with 4 wt % δ-Al 2 O 3 and PEO:Li ratios of 16:1 and 8:1), and added different amounts of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (BMITFSI). The aim was to elucidate whether the ionic liquid is able to dissociate the Li-ions from the ether oxygens and thereby decouple the ionic conductivity from the segmental polymer dynamics. The results from DSC and dielectric spectroscopy show that the ionic liquid speeds up both the segmental polymer dynamics and the motion of the Li + ions. However, a close comparison between the structural (α) relaxation process, given by the segmental polymer dynamics, and the ionic conductivity shows that the motion of the Li + ions decouples from the segmental polymer dynamics at higher concentrations of the ionic liquid (≥20 wt %) and instead becomes more related to the viscosity of the ionic liquid. This decoupling increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the structural α-relaxation, two more local relaxation processes, denoted β and γ, are observed. The β-relaxation becomes slightly faster at the highest concentration of the ionic liquid (at least for the lower salt concentration), whereas the γ-relaxation is unaffected by the ionic liquid, over the whole concentration range 0-40 wt %.

  16. Mapping liquid hazardous waste migration in ground water with electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site which includes an area of 12 ha (30 acres). Conductivity measurements in the area correlate with specific conductance measurements of surface and ground water samples. Contouring of the conductivity data located contaminant migration pathways in the subsurface. A complex contaminant plume was defined by the conductivity survey. Conductivity values obtained reflected anisotropic characteristics related to local bedrock structure. Anisotropic characteristics of measurements and the use of different instrument configurations indicated semiquantitatively the depth of the high conductivity zone and the direction of flow. 4 references, 2 figures

  17. Use of electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements to map liquid hazardous waste migration in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Pin, F.G.

    1983-11-01

    Electromagnetic conductivity measurements have been used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. An area of approximately 12 ha (30 acres) was surveyed. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site. Conductivity measurments in the area correlate with specific conductance measurements of surface and groundwater samples. Contouring of the conductivity data showed the precise location of contaminant migration pathways in the subsurface. A complex contaminant plume was defined by the conductivity survey. Conductivity values obtained reflected anisotropic characteristics related to local bedrock structure. Anisotropy characteristics and the use of different instrument configurations indicated semiquantitatively the depth of the high conductivity zone and the direction of flow

  18. Generation of highly-viscous microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto

    2015-11-01

    An ink-jet printing system (or a liquid-dispensing device) has ecological and cost advantages compared to other printing systems such as offset printing and gravure printing since it requires a small amount of liquids. However, most ink-jet printers are not able to eject high-viscous liquids more than 10 cSt. This limitation severely restricts applications of the ink-jet system. Here we present a novel jet-generation system, discharging jets of high-viscous liquids up to 1,000 cSt. The system employs an impulsive force and converges the force efficiently in order to accelerate the liquid-air interface strongly for generating viscous jets: It consists of a liquid container and a thin tube partially inserted in the liquid. The liquid-air interface inside the thin tube is set deeper than that outside of the tube. We then add an impulsive force on the bottom of the container, leading to the microjet generation inside the thin tube. The pressure field under the impulsive force is estimated using pressure-impulse approach, deriving the jet velocity. The jet velocity is experimentally measured with varying the impulsive force and liquid levels in the tube and the container. It is found that the measured velocities agree with the estimation. Owing to the simple structure of the generation system and an ability for ejecting viscous liquids, it could extend the limits of existing ink-jet printers and may be applicable for next-generation technologies such as 3D printing systems and needle-free injection devices. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26709007.

  19. Correlations between phase behaviors and ionic conductivities of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam Ku; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-01-01

    To understand the basic properties of ionic liquids (ILs), we examined the phase behavior and ionic conductivity characteristics using various compositions of different ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [emim] [PF6] and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bzmim] [PF6]) in several different alcohols (ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and hexanol). We conducted a systematic study of the impact of different factors on the phase behavior of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in alcohols. Using a new experimental method with a liquid electrolyte system, we observed that the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid/alcohol was sensitive to the surrounding temperature. We employed Chang et al.'s thermodynamic model [Chang et al. (1997, 1998) ] based on the lattice model. The obtained co-ordinated unit parameter from this model was used to describe the phase behavior and ionic conductivities of the given system. Good agreement with experimental data of various alcohol and ILs systems was obtained in the range of interest.

  20. Measurement and Correlation of the Ionic Conductivity of Ionic Liquid-Molecular Solvent Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Wen-Jing; HAN,Bu-Xing; TAO,Ran-Ting; ZHANG,Zhao-Fu; ZHANG,Jian-Ling

    2007-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of the solutions formed from 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) or 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF6]) and different molecular solvents (MSs) were measured at 298.15 K. The molar conductivity of the ionic liquids (ILs) increased dramatically with increasing concentration of the MSs. It was found that the molar conductivity of the IL in the solutions studied in this work could be well correlated by the molar conductivity of the neat ILs and the dielectric constant and molar volume of the MSs.

  1. In situ recording of particle network formation in liquids by ion conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenhuber, Christian; Sörgel, Seniz; Weichert, Katja; Bele, Marjan; Mundinger, Tabea; Göbel, Marcus; Maier, Joachim

    2011-09-21

    The formation of fractal silica networks from a colloidal initial state was followed in situ by ion conductivity measurements. The underlying effect is a high interfacial lithium ion conductivity arising when silica particles are brought into contact with Li salt-containing liquid electrolytes. The experimental results were modeled using Monte Carlo simulations and tested using confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and ζ-potential measurements.

  2. Equations of viscous flow of silicate liquids with different approaches for universality of high temperature viscosity limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Kozmidis-Petrović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT, Avramov and Milchev (AM as well as Mauro, Yue, Ellison, Gupta and Allan (MYEGA functions of viscous flow are analysed when the compositionally independent high temperature viscosity limit is introduced instead of the compositionally dependent parameter η∞ . Two different approaches are adopted. In the first approach, it is assumed that each model should have its own (average high-temperature viscosity parameter η∞ . In that case, η∞ is different for each of these three models. In the second approach, it is assumed that the high-temperature viscosity is a truly universal value, independent of the model. In this case, the parameter η∞ would be the same and would have the same value: log η∞ = −1.93 dPa·s for all three models. 3D diagrams can successfully predict the difference in behaviour of viscous functions when average or universal high temperature limit is applied in calculations. The values of the AM functions depend, to a greater extent, on whether the average or the universal value for η∞ is used which is not the case with the VFT model. Our tests and values of standard error of estimate (SEE show that there are no general rules whether the average or universal high temperature viscosity limit should be applied to get the best agreement with the experimental functions.

  3. Proton-conductive materials formed by coumarin photocrosslinked ionic liquid crystal dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Concellon, A.; Liang, T.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Luis Serrano, J.; Romero, P.; Marcos, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we have successfully examined for the first time the use of ionic dendrimers as building blocks for the preparation of 1D and 2D proton conductive materials. For this purpose, a new family of liquid crystalline dendrimers has been synthesized by ionic self-assembly of poly(amidoamine)

  4. Determination of proton conductivity of ionic liquids for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallnofer, E.; Baumgartner, W.R.; Hacker, V. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria). Inst. for Chemistry and Technology of Inorganic Material

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells operating at temperatures of between 100 and 200 degrees C allow the catalyst to tolerate higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO) impurities. However, the number of possible materials for high temperature fuel cell electrolytes or membranes is limited. This study examined the relevant electrochemical properties of different ion liquids with specific reference to neutralized imidazole derivates with a dominant Grotthuss mechanism of proton conduction. The electrochemical stability of the ionic liquids was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) under nitrogen. Proton conductivity was measured under hydrogen by CV within the electrochemical limits. Hydrogen was dissolved at the anode, transported through the ionic liquid, and recombined at the cathode, so that the detected current could indicate the amount of transported hydrogen. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the frequency dependent behaviour of the ionic liquids. All measurements were conducted at 50, 100, and 150 degrees C. Results of the study showed that proton conductivity increased with higher temperatures. It was concluded that neutralized imidazole derivates with optimized side chains of the cation may prove to be a viable alternative to conventional fuel cell electrolytes. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Development of a LSSVM-GC model for estimating the electrical conductivity of ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    In this communication, an extensive set of 1077 experimental electrical conductivity data for 54 ionic liquids (ILs) was collected from 21 different literature sources. Using this dataset, a reliable least square support vector machine-group contribution (LSSVM-GC) model has been developed, which...

  6. Highly-viscous microjet induced by an impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Hajime; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    Ejection of a liquid microjet with high viscosity is essential for various novel technologies such as 3D printers, printed electronics and bio printers. To generate such a microjet, we focus on utilizing an impulsive force. Thanks to a short-time impact, the viscous dissipation in the liquid can be suppressed, resulting in the ejection of viscous microjets. In this study, we investigate ejection mechanism of the viscous jet experimentally and numerically. The jet velocity decreases with increasing the viscosity of a liquid. Remarkably it is found that all the data of jet velocities normalized by initial velocities of the liquid as a function of Reynolds number, the balance between the inertia force and the viscous force, collapse onto a single master curve.

  7. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  8. Note: Development of a microfabricated sensor to measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a thermal analysis device, which can measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid sample. We employ the three omega method with a microfabricated AC thermal sensor with nanometer width heater. The liquid sample is confined by a micro-well structure fabricated on the sensor surface. The performance of the instrument was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of 27-picoliter samples of de-ionized (DI) water, ethanol, methanol, and DI water-ethanol mixtures with accuracies better than 3%. Furthermore, another analytical scheme allows real-time thermal conductivity measurement with 5% accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this technique requires the smallest volume of sample to measure thermal property ever.

  9. Studies of photoionization in liquids using a laser two-photon ionization conductivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomos, K.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    One-photon ionization studies of solute molecules in a liquid medium are limited by the absorption of the host medium. A laser two-photon ionization (TPI) technique using a frequency tunable dye laser has been developed, whereby the photoionization threshold of a solute molecule was determined from the induced conductivity in the liquid medium under study due to electron-ion pair formation via two-photon ionization of the solute. The two-photon induced electron-ion current is measured as a function of the laser wavelength, lambda/sub laser/. In this paper, results are reported and discussed on the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), pyrene and fluoranthene in liquid n-pentane

  10. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  11. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  12. O the Electrohydrodynamics of Drop Extraction from a Conductive Liquid Meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Graham Scott

    This thesis is concerned with the use of an electric field in the extraction of liquid drops from a capillary orifice or nozzle. The motivating application is ink jet printing. Current drop-on-demand ink jets use pressure pulses to eject drops. Literature on electrostatic spraying suggests that by using an electric field, drops could be produced with a wider range of sizes and speeds than is possible with pressure ejection. Previous efforts to apply electric spraying to printing or similar selective coating tasks have taken an experimental approach based on steady or periodic spraying phenomena, without attempting cycle -by-cycle drop control. The centerpiece of this thesis is a simulation tool developed to explore such possibilities. A simplified analytic model is developed as a preliminary step, yielding formulas for force and time scales that provide an appropriate basis for nondimensionalization of the governing differential equations; important dimensionless parameters are identified. The complete self-consistent model permits simulation of meniscus behavior under time -varying applied voltage or pressure, with the electric field solution continually updated as the surface changes shape. The model uses a quasi-one-dimensional hydrodynamic formulation and a two-dimensional axisymmetric boundary element solution for the electric field. The simulation is checked against experimental results for meniscus stability, resonant modes, and drop emission under electric field. The simulation faithfully captures important qualitative aspects of meniscus behavior and gives reasonable quantitative agreement within the limitations of the model. Insights gained in simulation point the way to a successful laboratory demonstration of drop extraction using a shaped voltage pulse. Drop size control is pursued in simulation using pressure and voltage pulses both alone and in combination, for both light and viscous liquids. Combining pressure and field pulses is shown to be

  13. Conductivity relaxation and charge transport of trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium dicyanamide ionic liquid by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasneema K., K.; Thayyil, M. Shahin; Krishna Kumar N., S.; Govindaraj, G.; Saheer, V. C.

    2018-04-01

    Usually ionic liquids consists of a large organic cation with low symmetry such as imidazolium, pyridinium, quaternary ammonium or phosponium etc combined with enormously wide range of inorganic or organic symmetric anion with melting point below 100. Ionic liquids existing in an extremely large number of possible ion pair combinations. It offers a very wide range of thermo physical properties led to the concept of designer solvents for specific applications. Due to the features of high chemical and thermal stability, low vapor pressure non flammability high ionic conductivity, and they show a good solvent ability towards a great variety of organic or inorganic compounds, ionic liquids have a widespread use in many areas such as batteries, fuel cell, solar cells, super capacitors etc. The main focus of this work is the study of molecular dynamics and conductivity relaxation of amorphous Trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium dicyanamide ([P14,6,6,6][N(CN)2]) ionic liquid which is proved as a better electrolyte in super capacitors, over a wide frequency 10-2 Hz to 107 Hz and the temperature range between 123k and 265 k by means of Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy. We observe alpha conductivity relaxation and secondary relaxation above and below Glass Transition Temperature. The experimental results were analyzed using electric modulus representation. The analysis emphasis the inter molecular interaction and the nature of glass forming system, whether it is fragile or strong system. The ionic liquid shows a fragile behavior and the fragility index m=123.59. TGA result of the sample exhibit a good resistance to thermal decomposition, up to 300°C.

  14. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  15. Equilibrium configurations of the conducting liquid surface in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a conducting liquid deformed by a nonuniform external electric field are investigated. The liquid rests on an electrode that has the shape of a dihedral angle formed by two intersecting equipotential half-planes (conducting wedge). It is assumed that the problem has plane symmetry: the surface is invariant under shift along the edge of the dihedral angle. A one-parametric family of exact solutions for the shape of the surface is found in which the opening angle of the region above the wedge serves as a parameter. The solutions are valid when the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the liquid is zero. For an arbitrary pressure difference, approximate solutions to the problem are constructed and it is demonstrated the approximation error is small. It is found that, when the potential difference exceeds a certain threshold value, equilibrium solutions are absent. In this case, the region occupied by the liquid disintegrates, the disintegration scenario depending on the opening angle.

  16. Mean droplet size and local velocity in horizontal isothermal free jets of air and water, respectively, viscous liquid in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rabadi, S.; Friedel, L. [Fluid Mechanics Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Al Salaymeh, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jordan (Jordan)

    2007-01-15

    Measurements using two-dimensional Phase Doppler Anemometry as well as high speed cinematography in free jets at several nozzle exit pressures and mass flow rates, show that the Sauter mean droplet diameter decreases with increasing air and liquid-phase mass flow ratio due to the increase of the air stream impact on the liquid phase. This leads to substantial liquid fragmentation, respectively primary droplet breakup, and hence, satellite droplet formation with small sizes. This trend is also significant in the case of a liquid viscosity higher than that of water. The increased liquid viscosity stabilizes the droplet formation and breakup by reducing the rate of surface perturbations and consequently droplet distortions, ultimately also leading, in total, to the formation of smaller droplets. The droplet velocity decreases with the nozzle downstream distance, basically due to the continual air entrainment and due to the collisions between the droplets. The droplet collisions may induce further liquid fragmentation and, hence, formation of a number of relatively smaller droplets respectively secondary breakup, or may induce agglomeration to comparatively larger liquid fragments that may rain out of the free jet. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of pyridinium-based hydrophobic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Li, Pei-Pei; Welz-Biermann, Urs; Chen, Jian; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Targets of this research are hydrophobic series ionic liquids. • Density, dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity were determined. • Influences of methylene to properties were discussed. • Influences of methyl group on pyridinium ring position to properties were discussed. • Relationship of ρ, η and σ were described systematically. -- Abstract: Air and water stable hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized: N-propyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 3 3mpy][NTf 2 ], N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 3mpy][NTf 2 ], and N-hexyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 4mpy][NTf 2 ]. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of ILs were determined at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of (278 to 353) K. The effects of methylene and methyl groups to density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity, respectively, were discussed. The thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, standard molar entropy, and lattice energy of the samples were estimated in terms of empirical and semi-empirical equations based on the density values. The temperature dependence on dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity values of the ILs were discussed by Vogel–Fulcher–Tamman (VFT) and Arrhenius equations. The molar conductivities were calculated by density and electrical conductivity values

  18. Viscous Design of TCA Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.

  19. EFFECT OF FINITE LARMOR RADIUS CORRECTIONS ON THE THERMAL INSTABILITY OF THERMALLY CONDUCTING VISCOUS PLASMA WITH HALL CURRENT AND ELECTRON INERTIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana [Physics Department, Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, MP-456010 (India); Kaothekar, Sachin [Physics Department, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain, MP-456664 (India); Chhajlani, R. K., E-mail: sackaothekar@gmail.com [Retired, School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain, MP-456010 (India)

    2016-10-01

    The thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, thermally conducting, and rotating plasma, incorporating finite electrical resistivity, finite electron inertia, and an arbitrary radiative heat-loss function in the presence of finite Larmor radius corrections and Hall current, has been studied. Analysis has been made with the help of linearized magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. A general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis method, and the dispersion relation is discussed for longitudinal propagation and transverse propagation separately. The dispersion relation has been solved numerically to obtain the dependence of the growth rate on the various parameters involved. The conditions of modified thermal instability and stability are discussed in the different cases of interest.

  20. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Mokshin, A. V.; Galimzyanov, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state is calculated by using the relaxation time approach and structural factor of ions obtained by molecular dynamics simulation. Resistivity witin the Ziman-Evans approach is also considered to be higher than in the approach with previously calculated conductivity via the relaxation time. Calculations based on the construction of the ion structural factor through the classical molecular dynamics and kinetic equation for electrons are more economical in terms of computing resources and give results close to the Kubo-Greenwood with the quantum molecular dynamics calculations.

  1. Liquid state behaviour of semi-conducting materials; Comportement a l'etat liquide des materiaux semiconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevyver, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This work is a review of the present state of knowledge concerning the behaviour in the liquid state of materials having semi-conducting properties in the solid state. In the case of many materials it is observed that a 'short-distance order' persists (with modifications) at temperatures above the melting point; this phenomenon is responsible for the semi-conducting properties of certain liquids. A decrease in the mobility of the carriers is generally observed on fusion, whereas the width of the forbidden zone increases: {delta}E{sub g} = {delta}E{sub g1} + {delta}E{sub g2}; {delta}E{sub g1} which is related to the expansion of the crystal is usually positive whereas {delta}E{sub g2} which is related to a change in the short-distance order is negative. According to the relative importance of these two phenomena, {delta}E{sub g} is either positive or negative, involving an increase or a decrease in the semiconducting nature of the material at its melting point. Various examples are presented, in particular that of selenium-tellurium solutions. The experimental study of the electrical properties of liquids comes up against major difficulties (the Hall effect in particular). It is shown nevertheless that the theoretical studies explain semi-quantitatively the known experimental results. (author) [French] Cette etude fait le point sur l'etat actuel des connaissances relatives au comportement a l'etat liquide des materiaux presentant a l'etat solide des proprietes semiconductrices. Dans de nombreux materiaux on observe la persistance (avec modification), d'un 'ordre a courte distance' a des temperatures superieures a celles de la fusion; ceci est a l'origine des proprietes semiconductrices de certains liquides. A la fusion on observe generalement une diminution de la mobilite des porteurs tandis que la largeur de la bande interdite subit un accroissement: {delta}E{sub g} = {delta}E{sub g1} + {delta}E{sub g2}; {delta}E{sub g1

  2. Effect of Liquid Phase Content on Thermal Conductivity of Hot-Pressed Silicon Carbide Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kwang-Young; Jang, Hun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for Particle-Based Accident Tolerant (PBAT) fuel, fission, and fusion power applications due to its superior physical and thermal properties such as low specific mass, low neutron cross section, excellent radiation stability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity of PBAT fuel is one of very important factors for plant safety and energy efficiency of nuclear reactors. In the present work, the effect of Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 content on the microstructure and thermal properties of the hot pressed SiC ceramics have been investigated. Suppressing the β to α phase transformation of SiC ceramics is beneficial in increasing the thermal conductivity of liquid-phase sintered SiC ceramics. Developed SiC ceramics with Y 2 O 3 -Sc 2 O 3 additives are very useful for thermal conductivity on matrix material of the PBAT fuel

  3. Anodic behavior of Mg in acidic AlCl3–1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bajin; Qu, Rui; Ling, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A viscous layer formed at Mg/ionic liquid interface after the dissolution of Mg. • As direct evidence, photo of viscous layer at the interface was presented. • Viscous layer was resulted from accumulation of dissolved Mg(II) at interface. • Formation of viscous layer resulted in a homogenous etched Mg surface. • Dissolution model of Mg and formation mechanism of viscous layer was discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, anodic behavior of Mg in acidic AlCl 3 –1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl 3 –EMIC) ionic liquid was investigated by conducting linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chonopotentiometry. The viscosity of Mg dissolved ionic liquid and the surface morphologies of Mg were characterized using an Ostwald viscometer and a scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that the oxide film on the surface of Mg had great effects on the anodic behavior. The dissolution of Mg under anodic polarization occurred after the breakdown of oxide film. A viscous layer was observed forming at the interface of Mg/ionic liquid during the dissolution process. The formation of viscous layer was attributed to the accumulation of Mg dissolved AlCl 3 –EMIC ionic liquid at the interface, which was of high viscosity. With a viscous layer formed in the anodic process, the etched surface of Mg anode was homogeneous and flat without any etching pits. Otherwise, the Mg showed a morphology of pitting on the surface

  4. The Effect of H2SO4 Concentration on the Ionic Conductivity of Liquid PMMA Oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri; Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri

    2015-01-01

    To date gel and film type polymer electrolytes have been widely synthesized due to their wide range of electrical properties. However these types of polymer electrolytes exhibit poor mechanical stability and poor electrode-electrolyte contact hence deprive the overall performance of a battery system. Therefore, in order to indulge the advantages of polymer as electrolyte, a new class of polymer electrolyte was synthesized and investigated. In this study, liquid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrolyte was synthesized using the simplest free radical polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. At this stage, it was found that this liquid PMMA oligomer (MW=3000 g/ mole) has a potential as electrolyte in electrochemical devices. It was found that an ionic conductivity of ∼10 -7 S/ cm at room temperature can be achieved when only small volume of high molarity of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) was doped in the liquid PMMA oligomer. The properties of this liquid PMMA oligomer were further investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  5. Sub-μL measurements of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bueno, C; Bugallo, D; Leborán, V; Rivadulla, F

    2018-03-07

    We present the analysis of the thermal conductivity, κ, and heat capacity, C p , of a wide variety of liquids, covering organic molecular solvents, ionic liquids and water-polymer mixtures. These data were obtained from ≈0.6 μL samples, using an experimental development based on the 3ω method, capable of the simultaneous measurement of κ and C p . In spite of the different type and strength of interactions, expected in a priori so different systems, the ratio of κ to the sound velocity is approximately constant for all of them. This is the consequence of a similar atomic density for all these liquids, notwithstanding their different molecular structures. This was corroborated experimentally by the observation of a C p /V ≈ 1.89 × 10 6 J K -1 m -3 (≈3R/2 per atom), for all liquids studied in this work. Finally, the very small volume of the sample required in this experimental method is an important advantage for the characterization of systems like nanofluids, in which having a large amount of the dispersed phase is sometimes extremely challenging.

  6. Thermal conductivity of Glycerol's liquid, glass, and crystal states, glass-liquid-glass transition, and crystallization at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ove; Johari, G P

    2016-02-14

    To investigate the effects of local density fluctuations on phonon propagation in a hydrogen bonded structure, we studied the thermal conductivity κ of the crystal, liquid, and glassy states of pure glycerol as a function of the temperature, T, and the pressure, p. We find that the following: (i) κcrystal is 3.6-times the κliquid value at 140 K at 0.1 MPa and 2.2-times at 290 K, and it varies with T according to 138 × T(-0.95); (ii) the ratio κliquid (p)/κliquid (0.1 MPa) is 1.45 GPa(-1) at 280 K, which, unexpectedly, is about the same as κcrystal (p)/κcrystal (0.1 MPa) of 1.42 GPa(-1) at 298 K; (iii) κglass is relatively insensitive to T but sensitive to the applied p (1.38 GPa(-1) at 150 K); (iv) κglass-T plots show an enhanced, pressure-dependent peak-like feature, which is due to the glass to liquid transition on heating; (v) continuous heating cold-crystallizes ultraviscous glycerol under pressure, at a higher T when p is high; and (vi) glycerol formed by cooling at a high p and then measured at a low p has a significantly higher κ than the glass formed by cooling at a low p. On heating at a fixed low p, its κ decreases before its glass-liquid transition range at that p is reached. We attribute this effect to thermally assisted loss of the configurational and vibrational instabilities of a glass formed at high p and recovered at low p, which is different from the usual glass-aging effect. While the heat capacity, entropy, and volume of glycerol crystal are less than those for its glass and liquid, κcrystal of glycerol, like its elastic modulus and refractive index, is higher. We discuss these findings in terms of the role of fluctuations in local density and structure, and the relations between κ and the thermodynamic quantities.

  7. A molecular dynamics study of liquid layering and thermal conductivity enhancement in nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J.; Madhu, A. K.; Jayadeep, U. B.; Sobhan, C. B.; Peterson, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Liquid layering is considered to be one of the factors contributing to the often anomalous enhancement in thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. The extent of this layering was found to be significant at lower particle sizes, as reported in an earlier work by the authors. In continuation to that work, an investigation was conducted to better understand the fundamental parameters impacting the reported anomalous enhancement in thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids), utilizing equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations in a copper-argon system. Nanofluids containing nanoparticles of size less than 6 nm were investigated and studied analytically. The heat current auto-correlation function in the Green-Kubo formulation for thermal conductivity was decomposed into self-correlations and cross-correlations of different species and the kinetic, potential, collision and enthalpy terms of the dominant portion of the heat current vector. The presence of liquid layering around the nanoparticle was firmly established through simulations that show the dominant contribution of Ar-Ar self-correlation and the trend displayed by the kinetic-potential cross-correlation within the argon species.

  8. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...

  9. Temperature Dependence on Density, Viscosity, and Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengguo Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are considered environmentally friendly media for various industrial applications. Basic data on physicochemical properties are significant for a new material, in terms of developing its potential applications. In this work, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium fluoride ([EMIm]F ionic liquid was synthesized via an anion metathesis process. Physical properties including the density, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability of the product were measured. The results show that the density of [EMIm]F decreases linearly with temperature increases, while dynamic viscosity decreases rapidly below 320 K and the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity is in accordance with the VFT (Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann equation. The temperature dependence of the density, conductivity, and viscosity of [EMIm]F can be expressed via the following equations: ρ = 1.516 − 1.22 × 10−3 T, σm = 4417.1exp[−953.17/(T − 166.65] and η = 2.07 × 10−7exp(−5.39 × 104/T, respectively. [EMIm]F exhibited no clear melting point. However, its glass transition point and decomposition temperature are −71.3 °C and 135 °C, respectively.

  10. A reversible conductivity modulation of azobenzene-based ionic liquids in aqueous solutions using UV/vis light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Feng, Ying; Chen, Yongkui; Zhao, Yuling; Wang, Huiyong; Xu, Qingli; Wang, Jianji

    2018-05-09

    Photo-induced conductivity modulation of stimuli-responsive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of fundamental research and technology. In this work, 5 new kinds of azobenzene-based photo-responsive ionic liquids were synthesized and characterized, and UV/vis light modulation of their conductivity was investigated in an aqueous solution. The factors affecting the conductivity modulation of the photo-responsive fluids, such as photo-isomerization efficiency, photo-regulation aggregation, concentration and chemical structure of the ionic liquids, were examined systematically. It was found that the conductivity of the ionic liquids in water exhibited a significant increase upon UV light irradiation and the ionic liquids with a shorter alkyl spacer in the cation showed a more remarkable photo-induced conductivity enhancement with a maximum increase of 150%. In addition, the solution conductivity was restored (or very close) to the initial value upon an alternative irradiation with visible light. Thus, the solution conductivity can be modulated using alternative irradiation with UV and visible light. Although the reversible photo-isomerization of the azobenzene group under UV/vis irradiation is the origin of the conductivity modulation, the photo-regulated aggregation of the ionic liquid in water is indispensable for the maximum degree of conductivity modulation because UV irradiation can weaken, even break the aggregated cis-isomers of the ionic liquids in an aqueous solution.

  11. Screening for High Conductivity/Low Viscosity Ionic Liquids Using Product Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shawn; Pratt, Harry D; Anderson, Travis M

    2017-07-01

    We seek to optimize Ionic liquids (ILs) for application to redox flow batteries. As part of this effort, we have developed a computational method for suggesting ILs with high conductivity and low viscosity. Since ILs consist of cation-anion pairs, we consider a method for treating ILs as pairs using product descriptors for QSPRs, a concept borrowed from the prediction of protein-protein interactions in bioinformatics. We demonstrate the method by predicting electrical conductivity, viscosity, and melting point on a dataset taken from the ILThermo database on June 18 th , 2014. The dataset consists of 4,329 measurements taken from 165 ILs made up of 72 cations and 34 anions. We benchmark our QSPRs on the known values in the dataset then extend our predictions to screen all 2,448 possible cation-anion pairs in the dataset. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microjet Generator for Highly Viscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Hajime; Oi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a simple system for generating a highly viscous microjet. The jet is produced inside a wettable thin tube partially submerged in a liquid. The gas-liquid interface inside the tube, which is initially concave, is kept much deeper than that outside the tube. An impulsive force applied at the bottom of a liquid container leads to significant acceleration of the liquid inside the tube followed by flow focusing due to the concave interface. The jet generation process can be divided into two parts that occur in different time scales, i.e., the impact interval [impact duration ≤O (10-4) s ] and the focusing interval [focusing duration ≫O (10-4) s ]. During the impact interval, the liquid accelerates suddenly due to the impact. During the focusing interval, the microjet emerges due to flow focusing. In order to explain the sudden acceleration inside the tube during the impact interval, we develop a physical model based on a pressure impulse approach. Numerical simulations confirm the proposed model, indicating that the basic mechanism of the acceleration of the liquid due to the impulsive force is elucidated. Remarkably, the viscous effect is negligible during the impact interval. In contrast, during the focusing interval, the viscosity plays an important role in the microjet generation. We experimentally and numerically investigate the velocity of microjets with various viscosities. We find that higher viscosities lead to reduction of the jet velocity, which can be described by using the Reynolds number (the ratio between the inertia force and the viscous force). This device may be a starting point for next-generation technologies, such as high-viscosity inkjet printers including bioprinters and needle-free injection devices for minimally invasive medical treatments.

  13. Thermally conductive of nanofluid from surfactant doped polyaniline nanoparticle and deep eutectic ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Chew Tze; Daik, Rusli; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-size particles in a fluid. Spherical shape dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid doped polyaniline (DBSA-PANI) nanoparticles were synthesized via reverse micellar polymerization in isooctane with average size of 50 nm- 60 nm. The aim of study is to explore the possibility of using deep eutectic ionic liquid (DES) as a new base fluid in heat transfer application. DES was prepared by heating up choline chloride and urea with stirring. DES based nanofluids containing DBSA-PANI nanoparticles were prepared using two-step method. Thermal conductivity of nanofluids was measured using KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer. When incorporated with DBSA-PANI nanoparticles, DES with water was found to exhibit a bigger increase in thermal conductivity compared to that of the pure DES. The thermal conductivity of DES with water was increased by 4.67% when incorporated with 0.2 wt% of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles at 50°C. The enhancement in thermal conductivity of DES based nanofluids is possibly related to Brownian motion of nanoparticles as well as micro-convection of base fluids and also interaction between dopants and DES ions.

  14. Highly stretchable and conductive fibers enabled by liquid metal dip-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Roach, Devin J.; Geng, Luchao; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have been fabricated by dip-coating of a layer of liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) on printed silicone elastomer filaments. This fabrication method exploits a nanolayer of oxide skin that rapidly forms on the surface of EGaIn when exposed to air. Through dip-coating, the sticky nature of the oxide skin leads to the formation of a thin EGaIn coating (˜5 μm thick) on the originally nonconductive filaments and renders these fibers excellent conductivity. Electrical characterization shows that the fiber resistance increases moderately as the fiber elongates but always maintains conductivity even when stretched by 800%. Besides this, these fibers possess good cyclic electrical stability with little degradation after hundreds of stretching cycles, which makes them an excellent candidate for stretchable conductors. We then demonstrate a highly stretchable LED circuit as well as a conductive stretchable net that extends the 1D fibers into a 2D configuration. These examples demonstrate potential applications for topologically complex stretchable electronics.

  15. Conductive composites of tapioca based bioplastic and electrochemical-mechanical liquid exfoliation (emle) graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, A.; Rahmana, H.; Utami, S. P.; Iriyanti, R. S.; Jiang, Z. T.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    The conductive composites of tapioca based bioplastic and the electrochemical- mechanical liquid exfoliation (EMLE) graphene have been successfully synthesized via the solution intercalation method for conductive bioplastic applications. The synthesized EMLE graphene quality, the mechanical properties, the functional group interactions and the conductivity of bioplastic composites, respectively, were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine (UTM) via ASTM D882-92, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Multitester via Four Probe Method. Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed that the graphene used is multi layer graphene (~ 3-10 layer) with deffects and minor impurity of graphene oxide (EMLE graphene). The tensile strength and the Young’s modulus increased with the increasing of the EMLE graphene content in the composites, while the elongation decreased. The bioplastic synthesized using the 9% EMLE graphene content and the mixing time of 50 minutes exhibited the best mechanical properties with the tensile strength of 4.116 Mpa, the Young’s modulus of 75.476 Mpa, and the elongation of 5.453%. The FTIR spectra indicated that there was a good interactions of EMLE graphene in the bioplastic matrix due to the hydrophylic properties and the secondary bonds between the EMLE graphene and the starch and glycerol plasticizer. The higher amount of graphene added, the higher conductivity of bioplastic would be, and vice versa for the resistivity. The best electrical properties of 1.57 x10‑1/ohm.cm (conductivity) and 6.34 ohm.cm (resistivity) was reached by the bioplastic synthesized with addition of 9% EMLE graphene and 50 minutes stirring time. EMLE Graphene is the promissing filler for further development of Tapioca based conductive bioplastics.

  16. Conductive Hybrid Crystal Composed from Polyoxomolybdate and Deprotonatable Ionic-Liquid Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo8 isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo8 monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure was compared with polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals comprising 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium surfactant, which preferred β-type Mo8 isomer. The less bulky hydrophilic moiety of the 1-dodecylimidazolium interacted with the δ-Mo8 anion by N–H···O hydrogen bonds, which presumably induced the formation of the δ-Mo8 anion. Anhydrous conductivity of the hybrid crystal was estimated to be 5.5 × 10−6 S·cm−1 at 443 K by alternating current (AC impedance spectroscopy.

  17. Viscous fingering effects in solvent displacement of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthiell, D. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Kissel, G.; Jackson, C.; Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Fisher, D. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based process that is analogous to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for the recovery of heavy oil. A cyclic solvent process is preferred for thin reservoirs, particularly primary-depleted reservoirs. In a cyclic steam stimulation process, a solvent is injected into the reservoir for a period of time before oil is produced from the well. Viscous fingering is a phenomena that characterizes several solvent-based processes for the recovery of heavy oil. A combined experimental and simulation study was conducted to characterize viscous fingering under heavy oil recovery conditions (high ratio of oil to solvent viscosity). Four experiments were conducted in heavy oil-saturated sand packs. Three involved injection of a miscible, liquid solvent at the bottom of the sand pack. The heavy oil in these experiments was displaced upwardly. The fourth experiment involved top-down injection of a gaseous solvent. The miscible liquid displacement was dominated by one solvent finger which broke through to a producing well at the other end of the sand pack. Breakthrough times were similar to that at lower viscosity. The fourth experiment showed fingering along with features of a gravity-driven VAPEX process. Key features of the experiment and realistic fingering patterns were numerically simulated using a commercial reservoir simulator. It was emphasized that accurate modelling of dispersion is necessary in matching the observed phenomena. The simulations should include the capillary effects because of their significance for gaseous fingering and the VAPEX processes. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  18. Viscous Ricci dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chaojun; Li Xinzhou

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the viscous Ricci dark energy (RDE) model by assuming that there is bulk viscosity in the linear barotropic fluid and the RDE. In the RDE model without bulk viscosity, the universe is younger than some old objects at certain redshifts. Since the age of the universe should be longer than any objects living in the universe, the RDE model suffers the age problem, especially when we consider the object APM 08279+5255 at z=3.91 with age t=2.1 Gyr. In this Letter, we find that once the viscosity is taken into account, this age problem is alleviated.

  19. Analytical model for the effects of wetting on thermal boundary conductance across solid/classical liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, Matthew E.; Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    We develop an analytical model for the thermal boundary conductance between a solid and a liquid. By infusing recent developments in the phonon theory of liquid thermodynamics with diffuse mismatch theory, we derive a closed form model that can predict the effects of wetting on the thermal boundary conductance across an interface between a solid and a classical liquid. We account for the complete wetting (hydrophilicity), or lack thereof (hydrophobicity), of the liquid to the solid by considering varying contributions of transverse mode interactions between the solid and liquid interfacial layers; this transverse coupling relationship is determined with local density of states calculations from molecular dynamics simulations between Lennard-Jones solids and a liquids with different interfacial interaction energies. We present example calculations for the thermal boundary conductance between both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces of Al/water and Au/water, which show excellent agreement with measured values reported by Ge et al. [Z. Ge, D. G. Cahill, and P. V. Braun, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186101 (2006)]. Our model does not require any fitting parameters and is appropriate to model heat flow across any planar interface between a solid and a classical liquid.

  20. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  1. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  2. Heat conduction in chain polymer liquids: molecular dynamics study on the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Taku; Yuan, Tan Chia; Torii, Daichi; Kikugawa, Gota; Kosugi, Naohiro

    2011-07-21

    In this paper, the molecular mechanisms which determine the thermal conductivity of long chain polymer liquids are discussed, based on the results observed in molecular dynamics simulations. Linear n-alkanes, which are typical polymer molecules, were chosen as the target of our studies. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of bulk liquid n-alkanes under a constant temperature gradient were performed. Saturated liquids of n-alkanes with six different chain lengths were examined at the same reduced temperature (0.7T(c)), and the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer to heat conduction flux, which were identified as components of heat flux by the authors' previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044504 (2008)], were observed. The present study compared n-alkane liquids with various molecular lengths at the same reduced temperature and corresponding saturated densities, and found that the contribution of intramolecular energy transfer to the total heat flux, relative to that of intermolecular energy transfer, increased with the molecular length. The study revealed that in long chain polymer liquids, thermal energy is mainly transferred in the space along the stiff intramolecular bonds. This finding implies a connection between anisotropic thermal conductivity and the orientation of molecules in various organized structures with long polymer molecules aligned in a certain direction, which includes confined polymer liquids and self-organized structures such as membranes of amphiphilic molecules in water.

  3. Skylab viscous damper study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The proposed magnetically anchored viscous fluid damper can maintain the Skylab in a gravity-gradient stabilized mode at the anticipated reboost altitudes. The parameters influencing damper performance (and thereby affecting the degree of risk) are: (1) amount of skylab pitch bias in the orbit plane which will result from aerodynamic trim conditions of the post-reboost configuration Skylab; (2) the lowest altitude to which the post-reboost Skylab will be allowed to decay prior to the next rendezvous; (3) maximum allowable weight and size of the proposed damper in order to match shuttle/TRS mission constraints; (4) the amount of magnetic materials expected to be in the vicinity of the damper.

  4. Slow viscous flow

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, William E

    2014-01-01

    Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." -    from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...

  5. Proton-conducting ionic liquid-based proton exchange membrane fuel cell membranes: The key role of ionomer-ionic liquid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Cointeaux, Laure; Iojoiu, Cristina; Lepretre, Jean-Claude; Sanchez, Jean-Yves [LEPMI, UMR 5631, CNRS-INP-UJF, PHELMA-Campus, BP.75, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France); Molmeret, Yannick; El Kissi, Nadia [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSHMG, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France); Judeinstein, Patrick [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay (UMR 8182), Batiment 410, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    The paper deals with the synthesis and characterisation of proton-conducting ionic liquids (PCILs) and their polymer electrolytes obtained by blending modified Nafion membranes with different concentrations of PCILs. The PCILs are obtained by the neutralization of triethylamine with different organic acids. The first part of the paper studies the influence of acidity and acid structure on PCIL thermal and electrochemical performance, while the second part examines membrane conductivity and reveals it to depend more on PCIL structure than on its intrinsic conductivity. At 130 C, conductivities exceeding 10 mS cm{sup -1} were obtained in fully anhydrous conditions. (author)

  6. Criteria for disintegration of an uncharged conducting liquid jet in a transverse electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubareva, O. V.; Zubarev, N. M.; Volkov, N. B.

    2018-01-01

    An uncharged conducting liquid cylindrical column (a jet for applications) placed between a pair of flat electrodes is considered. In the trivial case, when the electric field is absent, the jet with circular cross-section is the only possible equilibrium configuration of the system. In the presence of a potential difference between the electrodes, the jet is deformed by the electrostatic forces: its cross-section stretches along the electric field lines. In the case of the mutual compensation of the electrostatic and capillary forces, a new equilibrium configuration of the jet can appear. In a sufficiently strong field, the balance of the forces becomes impossible, and the jet disintegrates (splits into two separate jets). In the present work, we find the range of the parameters (the applied potential difference and the interelectrode distance), where the problem of finding the equilibrium configurations of the jet has solutions. Also we obtain the conditions under which the solutions do not exist and, consequently, the jet splits. The results are compared with the previously studied limiting case of infinite interelectrode distance.

  7. Electrohydrostatic and electrohydrodynamic theories of equilibrium shapes and stability of electrically stressed conducting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This work represents an initial attempt at a systematic and rigorous study of the static and dynamic equilibrium shapes and stability of electrically stressed conducting fluids. The ultimate objective of the research is to explain the basic mechanism(s) describing the operation of a field emission liquid metal ion source. The variational procedure is used to obtain a set of equations whose solutions describe the static fluid shape as a function of applied field. Using an iterative procedure to solve Laplace's equation for an arbitrary geometry, a sequence of profiles is calculated that shows the evolution of the deformed fluid surface with applied field. A systematic study of stability is made by applying the Taylor and Zeleny criteria to quasi-statistically stressed fluids. To formulate a realistic and accurate description of the onset of instability, is is necessary to introduce fluid flow, which requires a dynamical analysis. To maintain contact with the LMIS configuration, the approach to instability is studied in axially symmetric fluids using a linearized set of electrohydrodynamic equations. The analysis is applied to different coordinate surfaces, which are used to model fluid shapes, which are observed, or assumed to exist, in an operating LMIS just prior to or at the onset of emission. Results suggest a new interpretation of the onset of instability

  8. Development of a general model for determination of thermal conductivity of liquid chemical compounds at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani‐Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a general model for representation/presentation of the liquid thermal conductivity of chemical compounds (mostly organic) at 1 atm pressure for temperatures below normal boiling point and at saturation pressure for temperatures above the normal boiling point is developed...... using the Gene Expression Programming algorithm. Approximately 19,000 liquid thermal conductivity data at different temperatures related to 1636 chemical compounds collected from the DIPPR 801 database are used to obtain the model as well as to assess its predictive capability. The parameters...

  9. The possibility for formation of macro-cell corrosion in a liquid with low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, M.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel at the rate of 3.25 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 in water was examined under the conditions present during an accidental pipe rupture at the Mihama nuclear power plant: liquid conductivity, 7.5 μS/cm; dissolved oxygen concentration, 5 ppb or less; pH 8.6∝9.3; ferrous ion concentration, 20 ppb or less; temperature, 142 C. The corrosion rate of iron in a micro-cell with a dissolved oxygen reduction cathode was estimated to be only 1/400 of the preceding rate. On the other hand, that in a micro-cell with a hydrogen ion reduction cathode was estimated to be as high as 1/10 of the preceding rate, that is, 3.25 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 . Two important factors may have influenced the corrosion rate: the remarkable wall thinning, which must have been the direct cause of the rupture of the pipe, was located close to, and downstream from, an orifice; and, the water temperature was in the range at which carbon steel makes a transition from the active to the passive state. Taking these facts into consideration, it appears possible that micro-cells with different corrosion rates might be generated and integrated into a macro-cell, where the iron dissolution rate might be accelerated to as much as 10 times that of the micro-cell. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C 4 H 8 ) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10 -4 to 7 x 10 1 Ω -1 cm -1 over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D2O by the transient hot-wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Y.; Hiraiwa, H.; Nagashima, A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D 2 O (heavy water) started in 1951. Since then, many researchers have measured the thermal conductivity of heavy water mainly with the aid of steady-state methods such as the parallel plate method and the concentric cylinder method. It should be noted here that even in the case of pure H 2 O or D 2 O enclosed in metallic vessel for a couple of days, the electrical conductivity seems to be not low enough for precise transient hot-wire measurements. The purpose of this paper is to obtain precise thermal conductivity data of liquid D 2 O which can be the reference standard values by the transient hot-wire method. The temperature range covered was 4 degrees C to 80 degrees C with pressure up to 40 MPa and the experimental data have an estimated accuracy of ±0.5%

  12. Gold-ionic liquid nanofluids with preferably tribological properties and thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Baogang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gold/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Au/[Bmim][PF6] nanofluids containing different stabilizing agents were fabricated by a facile one-step chemical reduction method, of which the nanofluids stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr exhibited ultrahighly thermodynamic stability. The transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron characterizations were conducted to reveal the stable mechanism. Then, the tribological properties of these ionic liquid (IL-based gold nanofluids were first investigated in more detail. In comparison with pure [Bmim][PF6] and the nanofluids possessing poor stability, the nanofluids with high stability exhibited much better friction-reduction and anti-wear properties. For instance, the friction coefficient and wear volume lubricated by the nanofluid with rather low volumetric concentration (1.02 × 10-3% stabilized by CTABr under 800 N are 13.8 and 45.4% lower than that of pure [Bmim][PF6], confirming that soft Au nanoparticles (Au NPs also can be excellent additives for high performance lubricants especially under high loads. Moreover, the thermal conductivity (TC of the stable nanofluids with three volumetric fraction (2.55 × 10-4, 5.1 × 10-4, and 1.02 × 10-3% was also measured by a transient hot wire method as a function of temperature (33 to 81°C. The results indicate that the TC of the nanofluid (1.02 × 10-3% is 13.1% higher than that of [Bmim][PF6] at 81°C but no obvious variation at 33°C. The conspicuously temperature-dependent and greatly enhanced TC of Au/[Bmim][PF6] nanofluids stabilized by CTABr could be attributed to micro-convection caused by the Brownian motion of Au NPs. Our results should open new avenues to utilize Au NPs and ILs in tribology and the high-temperature heat transfer field.

  13. Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.

  14. Singular behavior of the mass conductivity of liquid 4He in a superleak at the superfluid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, A.; Bagley, M.

    1977-01-01

    From measurements of the damping of sound in liquid 4 He caused by fluid penetration into a porous medium at the superfluid transition T/sub lambda/s/, we have deduced a critical temperature dependence of the mass conductivity sigma of the form sigmainfinity (T-T/sub lambda s/)/sup -0.31 +- 0.03/

  15. Nanoscale fabrication and characterization of chemically modified silicon surfaces using conductive atomic force microscopy in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Christopher Reagan

    This dissertation examines the modification and characterization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in organic liquids. Conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) lithography is used to fabricate structures with sub-100 nm line width on H:Si(111) in n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanes. Nanopatterning is accomplished by applying a positive (n-alkanes and 1-alkenes) or a negative (1-alkanes) voltage pulse to the silicon substrate with the cAFM tip connected to ground. The chemical and kinetic behavior of the patterned features is characterized using AFM, lateral force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS), and chemical etching. Features patterned in hexadecane, 1-octadecene, and undecylenic acid methyl ester exhibited chemical and kinetic behavior consistent with AFM field induced oxidation. The oxide features are formed due to capillary condensation of a water meniscus at the AFM tip-sample junction. A space-charge limited growth model is proposed to explain the observed growth kinetics. Surface modifications produced in the presence of neat 1-dodecyne and 1-octadecyne exhibited a reduced lateral force compared to the background H:Si(111) substrate and were resistant to a hydrofluoric acid etch, characteristics which indicate that the patterned features are not due to field induced oxidation and which are consistent with the presence of the methyl-terminated 1-alkyne bound directly to the silicon surface through silicon-carbon bonds. In addition to the cAFM patterned surfaces, full monolayers of undecylenic acid methyl ester (SAM-1) and undec-10-enoic acid 2-bromoethyl ester (SAM-2) were grown on H:Si(111) substrates using ultraviolet light. The structure and chemistry of the monolayers were characterized using AFM, TOF SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing waves (XSW), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These combined analyses provide evidence that SAM-1 and SAM-2 form dense monolayers

  16. Self-Assembled Polymeric Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulose Nano-crystals: Constructing 3D Ion-conducting Channels Within Ionic Liquid-based Composite Polymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing Xuan; Xia, Qing; Xiang, Xiao; Ye, Yun Sheng; Peng, Hai Yan; Xue, Zhi Gang; Xie, Xiao Lin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2017-09-04

    Composite polymeric and ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes are some of the most promising electrolyte systems for safer battery technology. Although much effort has been directed towards enhancing the transport properties of polymer electrolytes (PEs) through nanoscopic modification by incorporating nano-fillers, it is still difficult to construct ideal ion conducting networks. Here, a novel class of three-dimensional self-assembled polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-functionalized cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) confining ILs in surface-grafted PIL polymer chains, able to form colloidal crystal polymer electrolytes (CCPE), is reported. The high-strength CNC nano-fibers, decorated with PIL polymer chains, can spontaneously form three-dimensional interpenetrating nano-network scaffolds capable of supporting electrolytes with continuously connected ion conducting networks with IL being concentrated in conducting domains. These new CCPE have exceptional ionic conductivities, low activation energies (close to bulk IL electrolyte with dissolved Li salt), high Li + transport numbers, low interface resistances and improved interface compatibilities. Furthermore, the CCPE displays good electrochemical properties and a good battery performance. This approach offers a route to leak-free, non-flammable and high ionic conductivity solid-state PE in energy conversion devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of a Monolayer of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Prepared by Liquid-Liquid Interfacial Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglei Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A monolayer film composed of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs was extracted from a chloroform-water interface and supported on a glass substrate. The nanoplatelets are interconnected at the edges without overlapping forming a very densely packed structure with uniform thickness. Micro-Raman spectroscopy with a 50 mW 532 nm laser generating heat at the center of a xGnP sample was used to probe the thermal conductivity of the xGnP monolayer at different power levels. The Raman G peak shift of graphite was used to record the local temperature rise in the monolayer. The cross-sectional area of heat conduction is determined by the thickness of individual nanoplatelets. A UV-Vis spectrometer was used to measure the absorption of light by the monolayer. Depending on the interface density, the thermal conductivities are around 380 W/m K and 290 W/m K for monolayers with average particle size of 10 μm and 5 μm, respectively.

  18. Microphase separation and the formation of ion conductivity channels in poly(ionic liquid)s: A coarse-grained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyman, Alexander; Bier, Markus; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2018-05-01

    We study generic properties of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in bulk solution and under confinement. The influence of different side chain lengths on the spatial properties of the PIL systems and on the ionic transport mechanism is investigated in detail. Our results reveal the formation of apolar and polar nanodomains with increasing side chain length in good agreement with previous results for molecular ionic liquids. The ion transport numbers are unaffected by the occurrence of these domains, and the corresponding values highlight the potential role of PILs as single-ion conductors in electrochemical devices. In contrast to bulk behavior, a pronounced formation of ion conductivity channels in confined systems is initiated in close vicinity to the boundaries. We observe higher ion conductivities in these channels for increasing PIL side chain lengths in comparison with bulk values and provide an explanation for this effect. The appearance of these domains points to an improved application of PILs in modern polymer electrolyte batteries.

  19. Electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity of two aqueous solutions of ionic liquids at room-temperature: Measurements and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Peiyin; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li Menghui

    2010-01-01

    As part of our systematic study on physicochemical characterization of ionic liquids, in this work, we report new measurements of electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity for aqueous solutions of two 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate, at normal atmospheric condition and for temperatures up to 353.2 K. The electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity were measured by a commercial conductivity meter and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The estimated experimental uncertainties for the electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity measurements were ±1% and ±2%, respectively. The property data are reported as functions of temperature and composition. A modified empirical equation from another researcher was used to correlate the temperature and composition dependence of the our electrolytic conductivity results. An excess molar heat capacity expression derived using a Redlich-Kister type equation was used to represent the temperature and composition dependence of the measured molar heat capacity and calculated excess molar heat capacity of the solvent systems considered. The correlations applied represent the our measurements satisfactorily as shown by an acceptable overall average deviation of 6.4% and 0.1%, respectively, for electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity.

  20. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  1. Relic gravitons and viscous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Mella, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    Previously it was shown that there exists a class of viscous cosmological models which violate the dominant energy condition for a limited amount of time after which they are smoothly connected to the ordinary radiation era (which preserves the dominant energy conditions). This violation of the dominant energy condition at an early cosmological epoch may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons that might be of experimental relevance. However, the bulk viscosity coefficient of these cosmologies became negative during the ordinary radiation era, and then the entropy of the sources driving the geometry decreases with time. We show that in the presence of viscous sources with a linear barotropic equation of state p=γρ we get viscous cosmological models with positive bulk viscous stress during all their evolution, and hence the matter entropy increases with the expansion time. In other words, in the framework of viscous cosmologies, there exist isotropic models compatible with the standard second law of thermodynamics which also may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons

  2. Continuous sheathless microparticle and cell patterning using CL-SSAWs (conductive liquid-based standing surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghun Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present continuous, sheathless microparticle patterning using conductive liquid (CL-based standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs. Conventional metal electrodes patterned on a piezoelectric substrate were replaced with electrode channels filled with a CL. The device performance was evaluated with 5-μm fluorescent polystyrene particles at different flow rate and via phase shifting. In addition, our device was further applied to continuous concentration of malaria parasites at the sidewalls of the fluidic channel.

  3. Transient Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid-Metal Flows in a Rectangular Channel with a Moving Conducting Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    use of liquid metals for current collectors in homopolar motors and generators has led to the design of machines of superior performance. The steady...In some applications of homopolar generators it becomes necessary not only to start and stop the machines but also to operate them under oscillating...conditions. This could be the case in an application where a homopolar generator behaves as an extremely high energy capacitor. Therefore, one is

  4. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  5. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxyphenyl]propane (BAPP, sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanced conductivity. A PIL, 1-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate ([VIm][OTf], was utilized. [VIm][OTf] offered better conductivity, which can be attributed to its vinyl chemical structure attached to an imidazolium ring that contributed to ionomer-PIL interactions. We prepared sulfonated polyimide/ionic liquid (SPI/IL composite PEMs using 50 wt% [VIm][OTf] with a conductivity of 7.17 mS/cm at 100 °C, and in an anhydrous condition, 3,3',4,4'-diphenyl sulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA was used in the synthesis of SPIs, leading to several hundred-times improvement in conductivity compared to pristine SPIs.

  6. The material combining conducting polymer and ionic liquid: hydrogen bonding interactions between polyaniline and imidazolium salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 197, November (2014), s. 168-174 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * imidazolium salt Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2014

  7. Heat transfer within hydrodissection fluids: An analysis of thermal conduction and convection using liquid and gel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander; Brace, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Interventional oncology procedures such as thermal ablation are becoming widely used for many tumours in the liver, kidney and lung. Thermal ablation refers to the focal destruction of tissue by generating cytotoxic temperatures in the treatment zone. Hydrodissection - separating tissues with fluids - protects healthy tissues adjacent to the ablation treatment zone to improve procedural safety, and facilitate more aggressive power application or applicator placement. However, fluids such as normal saline and 5% dextrose in water (D5W) can migrate into the peritoneum, reducing their protective efficacy. As an alternative, a thermo-gelable poloxamer 407 (P407) solution has been recently developed to facilitate hydrodissection procedures. We hypothesise that the P407 gel material does not provide convective heat dissipation from the ablation site, and therefore may alter the heat transfer dynamics compared to liquid materials during hydrodissection-assisted thermal ablation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the heat dissipation mechanics within D5W, liquid P407 and gel P407 hydrodissection barriers. Overall it was shown that the gel P407 dissipated heat primarily through conduction, whereas the liquid P407 and D5W dissipated heat through convection. Furthermore, the rate of temperature change within the gel P407 was greater than liquid P407 and D5W. Testing to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the fluids with different modes of heat dissipation seems warranted for further study.

  8. Difference in x-ray scattering between metallic and non-metallic liquids due to conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Junzo

    1987-01-01

    X-ray scattered intensity from a liquid metal as an electron-ion mixture is described using the structure factors, which are exactly expressed in terms of the static and dynamic direct correlation functions. This intensity for a metal is shown to differ from the usual scattered intensity from a non-metal in two points: the atomic form factor and the incoherent (Compton) scattering factor. It is shown that the valence electron form factor, which constitutes the atomic form factor in a liquid metal, leads to a determination of the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors by combining the ionic structure factor. It is also shown that a part of the electron structure factor, which appears as the incoherent x-ray scattering, is usually approximated as the electron structure factor of the jellium model in the case of a simple metal. As a by-product, the x-ray scattered intensity from a crystalline metal and the inelastic scattering from a liquid metal are given by taking account of the presence of conduction electrons. In this way, we clarify some confusion which appeared in the proposal by Egelstaff et al for extracting the electron-electron correlation function in a metal from x-ray and neutron scattering experiments. A procedure to extract the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors in a liquid metal is proposed on the basis of formula for scattered intensity derived here. (author)

  9. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  10. Thermal conductivity coefficients of water and heavy water in the liquid state up to 3700C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Neindre, B.; Bury, P.; Tufeu, R.; Vodar, B.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal conductivity coefficients of water and heavy water of 99.75 percent isotopic purity were measured using a coaxial cylinder apparatus, covering room temperature to their critical temperatures, and pressures from 1 to 500 bar for water, and from 1 to 1000 bar for heavy water. Following the behavior of the thermal conductivity coefficient of water, which shows a maximum close to 135 0 C, the thermal conductivity coefficient of heavy water exhibits a maximum near 95 0 C and near saturation pressures. This maximum is displaced to higher temperatures when the pressure is increased. Under the same temperature and pressure conditions the thermal conductivity coefficient of heavy water was lower than for water. The pressure effect was similar for water and heavy water. In the temperature range of our experiments, isotherms of thermal conductivity coefficients were almost linear functions of density

  11. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  12. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-10-08

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffres, Scott N; Malen, Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    A novel 3ω thermal conductivity measurement technique called metal-coated 3ω is introduced for use with liquids, gases, powders, and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3ω exceeds alternate 3ω based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases), using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques, including transient hot-wire, steady-state methods, and solid-wire 3ω are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3ω was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  14. Comments on the effect of liquid layering on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroodchi, Elham; Evans, Thomas Michael; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2009-01-01

    This article provides critical examinations of two mathematical models that have been developed in recent years to describe the impact of nano-layering on the enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Discrepancy between the two models is found to be an artefact of an incorrect derivation used in one of the models. With correct formulation, both models predict effective thermal conductivity enhancements that are not significantly greater than those predicted by classical Maxwell theory. This study indicates that nano-layering by itself is unable to account for the effective thermal conductivity enhancements observed in nanofluids.

  15. High thermal conductivity in soft elastomers with elongated liquid metal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Michael D.; Kazem, Navid; Powell-Palm, Matthew J.; Huang, Xiaonan; Sun, Wenhuan; Malen, Jonathan A.; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal transport is critical for applications ranging from electronics and energy to advanced manufacturing and transportation; it is essential in emerging domains like wearable computing and soft robotics, which require thermally conductive materials that are also soft and stretchable. However, heat transport within soft materials is limited by the dynamics of phonon transport, which results in a trade-off between thermal conductivity and compliance. We overcome this by engineerin...

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - The TPRC Data Series. Volume 3. Thermal Conductivity - Nonmetallic Liquids and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    tivities, who compare and tabulate the results of these calculations with ISO experimental values for 70 liquids and obtain a mean difference of...1.563 0. 7748 1.297 793.2 0.7640 0.8015 1.372 0.6169 1. 606 0. 8583 1.315 291.2 0. 2280 0.7931 1.500 0. 6006 1.727 0.8547 1.446 308. 2 0. 5580 0...0. 8583 0.4396 0.1654 0.1072 1.671 1.348 0. 8960 0.4564 0,1738 0.1114 He:spectroscoplcally pure.Kr; 99-100% pure, balance xenon; thick hot

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  18. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU(reg s ign) reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition

  19. Resveratrol enhances airway surface liquid depth in sinonasal epithelium by increasing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator open probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis engenders enormous morbidity in the general population, and is often refractory to medical intervention. Compounds that augment mucociliary clearance in airway epithelia represent a novel treatment strategy for diseases of mucus stasis. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The objectives of the present study were to test resveratrol, a strong potentiator of CFTR channel open probability, in preparation for a clinical trial of mucociliary activators in human sinus disease.Primary sinonasal epithelial cells, immortalized bronchoepithelial cells (wild type and F508del CFTR, and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous human CFTR were investigated by Ussing chamber as well as patch clamp technique under non-phosphorylating conditions. Effects on airway surface liquid depth were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Impact on CFTR gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Resveratrol is a robust CFTR channel potentiator in numerous mammalian species. The compound also activated temperature corrected F508del CFTR and enhanced CFTR-dependent chloride secretion in human sinus epithelium ex vivo to an extent comparable to the recently approved CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor. Using inside out patches from apical membranes of murine cells, resveratrol stimulated an ~8 picosiemens chloride channel consistent with CFTR. This observation was confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous CFTR. Treatment of sinonasal epithelium resulted in a significant increase in airway surface liquid depth (in µm: 8.08+/-1.68 vs. 6.11+/-0.47,control,p<0.05. There was no increase CFTR mRNA.Resveratrol is a potent chloride secretagogue from the mucosal surface of sinonasal epithelium, and hydrates airway surface liquid by increasing CFTR channel open probability. The foundation for a

  20. NON-LINEAR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS OF INSULATION WALL OF TANK FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LIQUID ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transient nonlinear heat conduction through the insulation wall of the tank for transportation of liquid aluminum. Tanks designed for this purpose must satisfy certain requirements regarding temperature of loading and unloading, during transport. Basic theoretical equations are presented, which describe the problem of heat conduction finite element (FE analysis, starting from the differential equation of energy balance, taking into account the initial and boundary conditions of the problem. General 3D problem for heat conduction is considered, from which solutions for two- and one-dimensional heat conduction can be obtained, as special cases. Forming of the finite element matrices using Galerkin method is briefly described. The procedure for solving equations of energy balance is discussed, by methods of resolving iterative processes of nonlinear transient heat conduction. Solution of this problem illustrates possibilities of PAK-T software package, such as materials properties, given as tabular data, or analytical functions. Software also offers the possibility to solve nonlinear and transient problems with incremental methods. Obtained results for different thicknesses of the tank wall insulation materials enable its comparison in regards to given conditions

  1. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale

  3. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  4. Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Dochan

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...

  5. Scaling the viscous circular hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Mederic; Cerda, Enrique; Duchesne, Alexis; Limat, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    The formation mechanism of hydraulic jumps has been proposed by Belanger in 1828 and rationalised by Lord Rayleigh in 1914. As the Froude number becomes higher than one, the flow super criticality induces an instability which yields the emergence of a steep structure at the fluid surface. Strongly deformed liquid-air interface can be observed as a jet of viscous fluid impinges a flat boundary at high enough velocity. In this experimental setup, the location of the jump depends on the viscosity of the liquid, as shown by T. Bohr et al. in 1997. In 2014, A. Duchesne et al. have established the constancy of the Froude number at jump. Hence, it remains a contradiction, in which the radial hydraulic jump location might be explained through inviscid theory, but is also viscosity dependent. We present a model based on the 2011 Rojas et al. PRL, which solves this paradox. The agreement with experimental measurements is excellent not only for the prediction of the position of the hydraulic jump, but also for the determination of the fluid thickness profile. We predict theoretically the critical value of the Froude number, which matches perfectly to that measured by Duchesne et al. We acknowledge the support of the CNRS and the Universit Cte d'Azur, through the IDEX funding.

  6. A Self-Oscillating System to Measure the Conductivity and the Permittivity of Liquids within a Single Triangular Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Druart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology and a circuit to extract liquid resistance and capacitance simultaneously from the same output signal using interdigitated sensing electrodes. The principle consists in the generation of a current square wave and its application to the sensor to create a triangular output voltage which contains both the conductivity and permittivity parameters in a single periodic segment. This concept extends the Triangular Waveform Voltage (TWV signal generation technique and is implemented by a system which consists in a closed-loop current-controlled oscillator and only requires DC power to operate. The system interface is portable and only a small number of electrical components are used to generate the expected signal. Conductivities of saline NaCl and KCl solutions, being first calibrated by commercial equipment, are characterized by a system prototype. The results show excellent linearity and prove the repeatability of the measurements. Experiments on water-glycerol mixtures validate the proposed sensing approach to measure the permittivity and the conductivity simultaneously. We discussed and identified the sources of measurement errors as circuit parasitic capacitances, switching clock feedthrough, charge injection, bandwidth, and control-current quality.

  7. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  8. Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

    2008-01-01

    Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

  9. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei

    2009-08-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard conducting ceramic material often used as a coating for titanium alloys as well as steel and aluminum components to improve their surface properties. In this study, conducting ceramic nanoparticles (CCNPs) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached 1.68%, which was higher than that without adding TiC (1.18%); however, cell efficiency decreased when the TiC content reached 1.0 wt%. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was employed to analyze the interfacial resistance in DSSCs, and it was found that the resistance of the charge-transfer process at the Pt counter electrode (Rct1) decreased when up to 1.0 wt% TiC was added. Presumably, this was due to the formation of the extended electron transfer surface (EETS) which facilitates electron transfer to the bulk electrolyte, resulting in a decrease of the dark current, whereby the open-circuit potential (VOC) could be improved. Furthermore, a significant increase in the fill factor (FF) for all TiC additions was related to the decrease in the series resistance (RS) of the DSSCs. However, at 1.0 wt% TiC, the largest charge-transfer resistance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface was observed and resulted from the poor penetration of the electrolyte into the porous TiO2. The long-term stability of DSSCs with a binary ionic liquid electrolyte, which is superior to that of an organic solvent-based electrolyte, was also studied. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of a viscous binder during high shear granulation--sensitivity to the method of delivery and its impact on product properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Loh, Zhi Hui; Soh, Josephine Lay Peng; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-01-02

    Binder distribution in the powder mass during high shear granulation is especially critical with the use of viscous liquid binders and with short processing times. A viscous liquid binder was delivered into the powder mass at two flow rates using three methods: pouring, pumping and spraying from a pressure pot. Binder content analyses at the scale of individual granules were conducted to investigate the impact of different delivery conditions on the homogeneity of binder distribution. There was clear evidence of non-uniformity of binder content among individual granules across all delivery conditions, particularly for the fast rates of delivery. Poorer reproducibility values of tablet thickness and disintegration time were observed when binder was poured but this may be overcome by pumping or spraying from the pressure pot. Greater homogeneity of binder distribution occurred with the slow rates of delivery and led to the earlier onset of granule growth and a consequent increase in granule size. Larger granule size and lower proportion of fines were in turn associated with increased granule bulk density and improvement of granule flow. In conclusion, delivery of a viscous binder at a slow rate either by pumping or via a pressure pot was most desirable during granulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New and Simple Approach for Preventing Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions: Do not Touch the Peritoneum without Viscous Liquid—A Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Aysan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPAs are an unsolved and serious problem in abdominal surgery. Method. Viscous liquids of soybean oil, octyl methoxycinnamate, flax oil, aloe vera gel, and glycerol were used in five experiments, using the same methodology for each. Liquids were applied in the peritoneal cavity before and after mechanical peritoneal trauma. Results were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results. Compared with the control group, macroscopic and microscopic adhesion values before (P<.001 and after (P<.05 application of viscous liquids significantly reduced PPAs. Values were significantly lower when liquids were applied before rather than after peritoneal trauma (P<.0001. Discussion. Viscous liquids injected into the peritoneal cavity before or after mechanical peritoneal trauma decrease PPA. Injection before trauma was more effective than after trauma. In surgical practice, PPA formation may be prevented or decreased by covering the peritoneal cavity with an appropriate viscous liquid before abdominal surgery.

  12. Numerical analysis for conductance probes, for the measurement of liquid film thickness in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Mayinger, F.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical tool is developed to calculate the potential distribution, electric field, and conductance for any types of conductance probes immersed in the wavy liquid film with various shapes of its free surface. The tool is validated against various analytical solutions. It is applied to find out the characteristics of the wire-wire probe, the flush-wire probe and the flush-flush probe in terms of resolution, linearity, and sensitivity. The wire-wire probe shows high resolution and excellent linearity for various film thickness, but comparably low sensitivity for low film thickness fixed. The flush-wire probe shows good linearity and high sensitivity for varying film thickness, but resolution degrading with an increase in film thickness. In order to check the applicability of the three types of probes in the real situation, the Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) two-dimensional solitary wave is simulated. The wire-wire probe is strongly affected by the installation direction of the two wires; when the wires are installed perpendicularly to the flow direction, the wire-wire probe shows large distortion of the solitary wave. In order to measure the transverse profile of waves, the wire-wire probes and the flush-wire probes are required to be separately installed 2mm and 2mm, respectively

  13. Study of interaction between ionic liquids and orange G in aqueous solution with UV-vis spectroscopy and conductivity meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Ting; Qin, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2018-05-05

    The interactions between Orange G (OG) with three kinds of ionic liquid surfactants (C 10 mimBF 4 , C 12 mimBF 4 , C 16 mimBF 4 ) and CTAB were studied with UV-Vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The systematic changes in UV-Vis spectra with an increase of carbon-chain length may be observed in presence of OG. They correspond to CMC of every system, respectively, and the CMCs of four systems have exhibit the decrease of CMCs compared to pure surfactant. The binding constants are calculated from the results of conductivity measurements in the order of C 16 mimBF 4 >CTAB>C 12 mimBF 4 >C 10 mimBF 4 . Furthermore, system behaviors presented significant association of complex formation and micelles formation, i.e. the change in UV-Vis spectra before and after the formation of micelles in mixed systems. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analysis further confirmed that the complexes are formed by hydrogen bond and van der Waal force. These findings could provide scientific guidance for extraction and separation of dyes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  15. Study of interaction between ionic liquids and orange G in aqueous solution with UV-vis spectroscopy and conductivity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Ting; Qin, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2018-05-01

    The interactions between Orange G (OG) with three kinds of ionic liquid surfactants (C10mimBF4, C12mimBF4, C16mimBF4) and CTAB were studied with UV-Vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The systematic changes in UV-Vis spectra with an increase of carbon-chain length may be observed in presence of OG. They correspond to CMC of every system, respectively, and the CMCs of four systems have exhibit the decrease of CMCs compared to pure surfactant. The binding constants are calculated from the results of conductivity measurements in the order of C16mimBF4 > CTAB > C12mimBF4 > C10mimBF4. Furthermore, system behaviors presented significant association of complex formation and micelles formation, i.e. the change in UV-Vis spectra before and after the formation of micelles in mixed systems. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1H NMR analysis further confirmed that the complexes are formed by hydrogen bond and van der Waal force. These findings could provide scientific guidance for extraction and separation of dyes.

  16. Mathematical models of viscous friction

    CERN Document Server

    Buttà, Paolo; Marchioro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph we present a review of a number of recent results on the motion of a classical body immersed in an infinitely extended medium and subjected to the action of an external force. We investigate this topic in the framework of mathematical physics by focusing mainly on the class of purely Hamiltonian systems, for which very few results are available. We discuss two cases: when the medium is a gas and when it is a fluid. In the first case, the aim is to obtain microscopic models of viscous friction. In the second, we seek to underline some non-trivial features of the motion. Far from giving a general survey on the subject, which is very rich and complex from both a phenomenological and theoretical point of view, we focus on some fairly simple models that can be studied rigorously, thus providing a first step towards a mathematical description of viscous friction. In some cases, we restrict ourselves to studying the problem at a heuristic level, or we present the main ideas, discussing only some as...

  17. A study of new anhydrous, conducting membranes based on composites of aprotic ionic liquid and cross-linked SPEEK for fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Rajender Singh; Verma, Pawan; Choudhary, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New composite membranes based on SPEEK/EG/IL were fabricated. • Composite membranes exhibit good thermal stability than neat SPEEK and XSPEEK membrane. • Proton conductivity of all composite membranes increased with temperature and amount of ionic liquid. • Proton conductivity was measured under anhydrous condition in the temperature ranging from 30–140 °C. - Abstract: The present study describe the preparation and characterisation of anhydrous proton conducting composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) [SPEEK–degree of sulfonation 70–72%]/ethylene glycol [EG]/ionic liquid by solution casting method using water: ethanol (50:50) as solvent. For this purpose several composite membranes were prepared by mixing solution of SPEEK/ethylene glycol (67:33 wt %) in water:ethanol with varying amounts of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluromethanesulfonate [bmim][OTf] ionic liquid. The cross-linking of SPEEK was carried out by thermal treatment i.e. by heating in vacuum oven at 80 °C (2 h), 100 °C (2 h), 120 °C (2 h) and 135 °C for 16 h. Ethylene glycol was used as a cross-linker for SPEEK to reduce the leaching out of ionic liquid and enhance the mechanical strength of SPEEK membranes. The membranes were characterized for thermal [thermogravimetry analysis], structural [FTIR–ATR], proton conductivity, morphology (XRD, SEM) and leaching out of ionic liquid with water. FTIR studies clearly showed the interactions between SPEEK, EG and ionic liquid. The proton conductivity and dynamic mechanical properties of the composite membranes were investigated at elevated temperature and under anhydrous conditions. Proton conductivity of all the membranes measured in the temperature range of 30–140 °C under anhydrous conditions was in the range of 10 −3 Scm −1 which showed an increase with increase in temperature and amount of ionic liquid

  18. Viscous forces and bulk viscoelasticity near jamming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgarten, K.; Tighe, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    When weakly jammed packings of soft, viscous, non-Brownian spheres are probed mechanically, they respond with a complex admixture of elastic and viscous effects. While many of these effects are understood for specific, approximate models of the particles' interactions, there are a number of proposed

  19. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  20. Behavior of conducting solid or liquid jet moving in magnetic field: (1) paraxial; (2) transverse; (3) oblique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    When a conductor moves through a nonuniform magnetic field, eddy currents flow that interact with the field to decelerate the conductor and perhaps change its trajectory, orientation and, if a liquid, shape. A rod of radius a 1 cm and the density and electrical conductivity of melted gallium (γ 6.1 g/cm 3 , ρ = 26 microΩ cm) will decelerate 6.3 m/s in a 0.5 m ramp of paraxial field with a constant gradient g of 40 T/m (ΔB = 20 T). The deceleration is proportional to a 2 gΔB/γρ, independent of the velocity. The bar decelerates about twice as much in a 20 T, 0.5 m ramp of transverse field. A bar traveling at a shallow angle to such a field decelerates about 6.3 m/s. If the bar is 0.25 m long and moves at 20 m/s, it aligns with the field in ∼10 ms, during which time it advances ∼0.2 m

  1. Real-time measurement of gas and liquid flow rates in two-phase slug flow by an advanced electromagnetic flowmeter and conductance probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jongrok; Ahn Yeh-Chan; Oh Byung Do; Kang Deok-Hong; Kim Moo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to measure the liquid mean velocity (cross-sectional average) in two-phase flow with an electromagnetic flowmeter, each flow pattern must be considered separately because of their different flow characteristics. Since bubbly flow can be approximated as a homogeneous mixture of gas and liquid at the same velocity, there are no additional measurement difficulties compared to single-phase flow. Cha et al. (2002) and Knoll (1991) reported that this approximation gives rise to no more than a 5% error in the liquid flow rate when the void fraction is less than 0.25. Annular flow measurements are also similar to those of single-phase flow if the film is assumed to be uniform and smooth, and the gas core is located at the center of the flow tube. Slug flow, however, is the most complicated, since the liquid axial velocity over a slug unit experiences considerable acceleration or deceleration. Therefore an electromagnetic flowmeter with high temporal resolution is needed. In slug flow, film velocity measurements are also difficult to perform because the liquid film is very thin and can be easily disturbed, thus altering the flow field. Only two experimental results for liquid film velocity measurement could be found. They were performed using photo-chromic dye method (DeJesus, 1997) and PIV technique (Polonsky et al., 1999). In this study, an advanced electromagnetic flow-metry was developed to measure liquid mean velocity with high transients. In addition, two ring-type conductance meters were manufactured to measure void fraction and its propagation speed in slug flow. The signal of conductance meter with two rings depends on liquid temperature. Therefore a conductance meter with three rings designed by Coney (1973), which is independent of liquid temperature, was used and experimentally proved. The manufactured conductance meters showed a good repeatability and agreement with the analytical solution by Coney (1973). From the

  2. Viscous shear in the Kerr metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.R.; Lemos, J.P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Models of viscous flows on to black holes commonly assume a zero-torque boundary condition at the radius of the last stable Keplerian orbit. It is here shown that this condition is wrong. The viscous torque is generally non-zero at both the last stable orbit and the horizon itself. The existence of a non-zero viscous torque at the horizon does not require the transfer of energy or angular momentum across any spacelike distance, and so does not violate causality. Further, in comparison with the viscous torque in the distant, Newtonian regime, the viscous torque on the horizon is often reversed, so that angular momentum is viscously advected inwards rather than outwards. This phenomenon is first suggested by an analysis of the quasi-stationary case, and then demonstrated explicitly for a series of cold, dynamical flows which fall freely from the last stable orbit in the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. In the steady flows constructed here, the net torque on the hole is always directed in the usual sense; any reversal in the viscous torque is offset by an increase in the convected flux of angular momentum. (author)

  3. Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…

  4. Can confinement-induced variations in the viscous dissipation be measured?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; den Otter, Wouter K.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Briels, Willem J.; Mugele, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Liquids confined to molecular scales become anisotropic and often show pronounced self-organization such as layering. Although this effect is well accepted, it is still debated if confinement induces measurable changes of viscous friction. We use molecular dynamics to address this issue by

  5. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  6. Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....

  7. Singular limits in thermodynamics of viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    This book is about singular limits of systems of partial differential equations governing the motion of thermally conducting compressible viscous fluids. "The main aim is to provide mathematically rigorous arguments how to get from the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system several less complex systems of partial differential equations used e.g. in meteorology or astrophysics. However, the book contains also a detailed introduction to the modelling in mechanics and thermodynamics of fluids from the viewpoint of continuum physics. The book is very interesting and important. It can be recommended not only to specialists in the field, but it can also be used for doctoral students and young researches who want to start to work in the mathematical theory of compressible fluids and their asymptotic limits." Milan Pokorný (zbMATH) "This book is of the highest quality from every point of view. It presents, in a unified way, recent research material of fundament al importance. It is self-contained, thanks to Chapt...

  8. The measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flows in a small diameter pipe using a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Bian, Peng; Han, Yun-Feng; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-01-01

    We design a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe to measure the flow parameters of gas–liquid two-phase flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 20 mm. The designed conductance probe consists of a phase volume fraction sensor (PVFS) and a cross-correlation velocity sensor (CCVS). Through inserting an insulated flow deflector in the central part of the pipe, the gas–liquid two-phase flows are forced to pass through an annual space. The multiple electrodes of the PVFS and the CCVS are flush-mounted on the inside of the pipe wall and the outside of the flow deflector, respectively. The geometry dimension of the PVFS is optimized based on the distribution characteristics of the sensor sensitivity field. In the flow loop test of vertical upward gas–liquid two-phase flows, the output signals from the dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe are collected by a data acquisition device from the National Instruments (NI) Corporation. The information transferring characteristics of local flow structures in the annular space are investigated using the transfer entropy theory. Additionally, the kinematic wave velocity is measured based on the drift velocity model to investigate the propagation behavior of the stable kinematic wave in the annular space. Finally, according to the motion characteristics of the gas–liquid two-phase flows, the drift velocity model based on the flow patterns is constructed to measure the individual phase flow rate with higher accuracy. (paper)

  9. Impact of ultra-viscous drops: air-film gliding and extreme wetting

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth

    2017-01-23

    A drop impacting on a solid surface must push away the intervening gas layer before making contact. This entails a large lubricating air pressure which can deform the bottom of the drop, thus entrapping a bubble under its centre. For a millimetric water drop, the viscous-dominated flow in the thin air layer counteracts the inertia of the drop liquid. For highly viscous drops the viscous stresses within the liquid also affect the interplay between the drop and the gas. Here the drop also forms a central dimple, but its outer edge is surrounded by an extended thin air film, without contacting the solid. This is in sharp contrast with impacts of lower-viscosity drops where a kink in the drop surface forms at the edge of the central disc and makes a circular contact with the solid. Larger drop viscosities make the central air dimple thinner. The thin outer air film subsequently ruptures at numerous random locations around the periphery, when it reaches below 150 nm thickness. This thickness we measure using high-speed two-colour interferometry. The wetted circular contacts expand rapidly, at orders of magnitude larger velocities than would be predicted by a capillary-viscous balance. The spreading velocity of the wetting spots is independent of the liquid viscosity. This may suggest enhanced slip of the contact line, assisted by rarefied-gas effects, or van der Waals forces in what we call extreme wetting. Myriads of micro-bubbles are captured between the local wetting spots.

  10. Penetration of gas discharge through the gas–liquid interface into the bulk volume of conductive aqueous solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Koláček, Karel; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Lukeš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 11 (2015), s. 3868-3875 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : atmospheric - pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.958, year: 2015

  11. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chen, Po-Yen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    ) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached

  12. DYNAMICS OF THIN VISCOUS LAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS, NICOLAS

    2011-01-01

    As Isaac Newton discovered in Mechanics, and published in his Principia Mathematica in 1687, inertial effects are essential to describe natural phenomena. In the case of Fluid Dynamics, inertia was included by Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes almost two centuries after in 1822 when calculating the mass and momentum conservation of au infinitesimal fluid elemeut. Although Navier-Stokes equations are very useful for describing any event of any liquid or gas and there...

  13. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  14. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  15. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)

  16. Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs

  17. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  18. Optimization of multiple coils immersed in a conducting liquid for half-hemisphere or whole-brain deep transcranial magnetic stimulation: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sónia C P; Almeida, Jorge; Cavaleiro Miranda, Pedro; Salvador, Ricardo; Silvestre, João; Simões, Hugo; Crespo, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was proposed in 1985. Nevertheless, its wider use in the treatment of several neurologic diseases has been hindered by its inability to stimulate deep-brain regions. This is mainly due to the physical limiting effect arising from the presence of surface discontinuities, particularly between the scalp and air. Here, we present the optimization of a system of large multiple coils for whole-brain and half-hemisphere deep TMS, termed orthogonal configuration. COMSOL(®)-based simulations show that the system is capable of reaching the very center of a spherical brain phantom with 58% induction relative to surface maximum. Such penetration capability surpasses to the best of our knowledge that of existing state of the art TMS systems. This induction capability strongly relies on the immersion of the stimulating coils and part of the head of the patient in a conducting liquid (e.g. simple saline solution). We show the impact of the presence of this surrounding conducting liquid by comparing the performance of our system with and without such liquid. In addition, we also compare the performance of the proposed coil with that of a circular coil, a figure-eight coil, and the H-coil. Finally, in addition to its whole-brain stimulation capability (e.g. potentially useful for prophylaxis of epileptic patients) the system is also able to stimulate mainly one brain hemisphere, which may be useful in stroke rehabilitation, among other applications.

  19. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  20. Performance of a viscous damper using electro-rheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Tadaishi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A new damper has been developed that suppresses small-amplitude vibrations over a wide frequency range. The damper has been tested using both an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) and a highly viscous liquid, which are enclosed in the damper's casing (a metal bellows). The apparent viscosity of the ERF can be changed by varying the strength of the applied electrical field. Initially, a simple L-shaped piping model excited by a rotary-type exciter was used to investigate the performance of the damper, utilizing both fluids. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the passive damper. Based on the experimental results, application of the damper to an actual piping system with a big pump was carried out analytical

  1. Kinetics of crystal growth in amorphous solid and supercooled liquid TeSe20 using DTA and d.c. conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotkata, M.F.; Mahmoud, E.A.; El-Mously, M.K.

    1979-07-01

    Curves of reaction rate versus temperature for constant heating rates (phi=1-10 0 C/min) constructed by analytical methods have been used to demonstrate the crystallization kinetics of amorphous solid TeSe 20 . The devitrification process takes place with predominance of random nucleation and one-dimensional growth, and is limited by combined switching and splitting of the chemical bonds. The mean value for the activation energy of the amorphous-crystal transformation, average E, is found to be 64 Kcal/mole. While, the quantity E calculated on the basis of d.c. conductivity changes during different isothermal crystallization (120-175 0 C) in supercooled liquid TeSe 20 , amounts to 11.5 Kcal/mole and suggests the existence of mixed chains in the liquid alloys. (author)

  2. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M

    2015-05-01

    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Influence of ionic conductivity on in-phase and anti-phase motions of antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Majumder, T.P.; Ghosh, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The in-phase and anti-phase motions of antiferroelectric liquid crystals were changed due to the influence of charge density associated with the layer modulation modifying the elastic behaviour. The elastic constant was changed because of the coupling between charge density variation and variation of azimuthal angle (ϕ). We obtained theoretically a modified elastic constant depending on the variation of charge density in both in-phase and anti-phase motions. The theoretically elastic constant decreases with the increase of the coupling coefficient between charge density and in-phase azimuthal angle (ϕ a ). We theoretically accounted the dependence of dielectric strength for both relaxations depending on the effective elastic constant influenced by the presence of charge density and discussed the results with experimental observations

  4. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…

  5. Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet

  6. Dilepton production in schematic causal viscous hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that in the hot dense matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the energy density, entropy density, and pressure as well as the azimuthal and space-time rapidity components of the shear tensor are uniform in the direction transversal to the reaction plane, we derive a set of schematic equations from the Isreal-Stewart causal viscous hydrodynamics. These equations are then used to describe the evolution dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions by taking the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of 1/4π for the initial quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and of 10 times this value for the later hadron-gas (HG) phase. Using the production rate evaluated with particle distributions that take into account the viscous effect, we study dilepton production in central heavy-ion collisions. Compared with results from the ideal hydrodynamics, we find that although the dilepton invariant mass spectra from the two approaches are similar, the transverse momentum spectra are significantly enhanced at high transverse momenta by the viscous effect. We also study the transverse momentum dependence of dileptons produced from QGP for a fixed transverse mass, which is essentially absent in the ideal hydrodynamics, and find that this so-called transverse mass scaling is violated in the viscous hydrodynamics, particularly at high transverse momenta.

  7. A Highly Viscous Imidazolium Ionic Liquid inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohba, T.; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2014-01-01

    We report a combined experimental (X-ray diffraction) and theoretical (molecular dynamics, hybrid density functional theory) study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C2C1MIM][Cl], inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We show that despite its huge viscosity [C2C1MIM][Cl] readily penetrates into 1...... adsorption of [C2C1MIM][Cl] on the inner sidewalls of 1-3 nm carbon nanotubes....

  8. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Leinweber, G.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and for various gas flow rates

  9. Conductivity of Langmuir-Blodgett films of a disk-shaped liquid-crystalline molecule-DNA complex studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Suresh, K. A.

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the electrical conductivity in monolayer films of an ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecule, pyridinium tethered with hexaalkoxytriphenylene (PyTp), and its complex with DNA by current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). The pure PyTp and PyTp-DNA complex monolayer films were first formed at the air-water interface and then transferred onto conducting substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to study the nanoscale electron transport through these films. The conductive tip of CS-AFM, the LB film, and the metal substrate form a nanoscopic metal-LB film-metal (M-LB-M) junction. We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the M-LB-M junction using CS-AFM and have analyzed the data quantitatively. We find that the I-V curves fit well to the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) model, suggesting electron tunneling to be a possible mechanism for electron transport in our system. Further, analysis of the I-V curves based on the FN model yields the barrier heights of PyTp-DNA complex and pure PyTp films. Electron transport studies of films of ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecules and their complex with DNA are important from the point of view of their applications in organic electronics.

  10. Volumetric, viscosity, and electrical conductivity properties of aqueous solutions of two n-butylammonium-based protic ionic liquids at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of N4AC + water and N4NO 3 + water mixtures were measured. • Volumetric and viscosity properties were calculated. • Redlich–Kister equation was used to correlate the excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations. • Electrical conductivity was fitted according to the empirical Casteel–Amis equation. • The interactions and structural effects of N4AC or N4NO 3 with water were analyzed. -- Abstract: Densities and viscosities of (n-butylammonium acetate (N4AC) protic ionic liquid + water) and (n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO 3 ) protic ionic liquid + water) mixtures were measured at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K under atmospheric pressure. Electrical conductivities of the above-mentioned systems were determined at 298.15 K. Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were obtained from the experimental results and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation with satisfactory results. Other volumetric properties, such as apparent molar volumes, partial molar volumes, and excess partial molar volumes were also calculated. The concentration dependence of electrical conductivity was fitted according to the empirical Casteel–Amis equation. Based on the measured and derived properties, the molecular interactions and structural factors in the above-mentioned systems were discussed

  11. Lithium-modulated conduction band edge shifts and charge-transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a dicyanamide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2011-04-19

    Lithium ions are known for their potent function in modulating the energy alignment at the oxide semiconductor/dye/electrolyte interface in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), offering the opportunity to control the associated multichannel charge-transfer dynamics. Herein, by optimizing the lithium iodide content in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide-based ionic liquid electrolytes, we present a solvent-free DSC displaying an impressive 8.4% efficiency at 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G conditions. We further scrutinize the origins of evident impacts of lithium ions upon current density-voltage characteristics as well as photocurrent action spectra of DSCs based thereon. It is found that, along with a gradual increase of the lithium content in ionic liquid electrolytes, a consecutive diminishment of the open-circuit photovoltage arises, primarily owing to a noticeable downward movement of the titania conduction band edge. The conduction band edge displacement away from vacuum also assists the formation of a more favorable energy offset at the titania/dye interface, and thereby leads to a faster electron injection rate and a higher exciton dissociation yield as implied by transient emission measurements. We also notice that the adverse influence of the titania conduction band edge downward shift arising from lithium addition upon photovoltage is partly compensated by a concomitant suppression of the triiodide involving interfacial charge recombination. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  13. An analysis of the vapor flow and the heat conduction through the liquid-wick and pipe wall in a heat pipe with single or multiple heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ming; Faghri, Amir

    1990-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented for the overall performance of heat pipes with single or multiple heat sources. The analysis includes the heat conduction in the wall and liquid-wick regions as well as the compressibility effect of the vapor inside the heat pipe. The two-dimensional elliptic governing equations in conjunction with the thermodynamic equilibrium relation and appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically. The solutions are in agreement with existing experimental data for the vapor and wall temperatures at both low and high operating temperatures.

  14. High conductive, long-term durable, anhydrous proton conductive solid-state electrolyte based on a metal-organic framework impregnated with binary ionic liquids: Synthesis, characteristic and effect of anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Han, Shu-Yan; Liu, Rui-Heng; Chen, Teng-Fei; Bi, Kai-Lun; Liang, Jian-Bo; Deng, Yu-Heng; Wan, Chong-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating ionic liquids (abbreviated as ILs) into porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to obtain ILs@MOF nanocomposites is documented as a feasible method to achieve new type of anhydrous proton conductor with high performance. We newly synthesized a series of ILs with different acid counter anions (R-SO3-) and their ILs@MOF hybrid materials, i.e. SA-EIMS@MIL-101, MSA-EIMS@MIL-101 and PTSA-EIMS@MIL-101 (SA = sulfate acid, MSA = methanesulfonate acid, PTSA = p-toluenesulfonate acid, EIMS = 1-(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium)propane-3-sulfonate). Such hybrid materials displayed as anhydrous proton conduction with long-term durability even heated at 150 °C open to air. σ value of SA-EIMS@MIL-101 is up to 1.89 × 10-3 S cm-1, being in the range of the most conductive MOF-based materials. MOF support exhibited favorable proton transport and long-term retention for ILs. Anion volumes of R-SO3- displayed significant effects on the proton conductivity of such hybrid ILs@MOF materials. The smaller the van der Waals volume of R-SO3- is, the higher the conductivity of ILs@MOF is. This work suggests that the combination of a variety of the incorporated ILs and a MOF framework would afford high proton transport and gives an idea to explore the safe, anhydrous, solid-state electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  15. Evaluation of thermal conductivity for liquid lead lithium alloys at various Li concentrations based on measurement and evaluation of density, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nakajima, Yuu; Tsuji, Mitsuyo [Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasyo-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li). - Highlights: • The densities and specific heats of liquid Pb–Li alloys are evaluated based on the previous studies, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal diffusivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys (i.e., Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li) are obtained by laser flash method, and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. • The thermal conductivities of liquid Pb–Li alloys were evaluated and mathematically expressed in the equations with the functions of temperature and Li concentration. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties of lead lithium alloy (Pb–Li) are essential for the design of liquid Pb–Li blanket system. The purpose of the present study is to make clear the density, the thermal diffusivity and the heat conductivity of the alloys as functions of temperature and Li concentration. The densities of the solid alloys were measured by means of the Archimedean method. The densities of the alloys at 300 K as a function of Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 28 at%) were obtained in the equation as ρ{sub (300} {sub K)} [g/cm{sup 3}] = −6.02 × 10{sup −2} × χ{sub Li} + 11.3. The density of the liquid alloys was formulated as functions of temperature and Li concentration (0 at% < χ{sub Li} < 30 at%), and expressed in the equation as ρ [g/cm{sup 3}] = (9.00 × 10{sup −6} × T − 7.01 × 10{sup −2}) × χ{sub Li} + 11.4 − 1.19 × 10{sup −3}T. The thermal diffusivity of Pb, Pb–5Li, Pb–11Li and Pb–17Li were measured by means of laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity of Pb–17Li was obtained in the equation as α{sub Pb–17Li} [cm{sup 2}/s] = 3.46 × 10{sup −4}T + 1.05 × 10{sup −1} for the temperature range between 573 K and 773 K. The thermal conductivity of

  16. Long-wave analysis and control of the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability with electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpeanu, Radu; Anderson, Thomas; Petropoulos, Peter; Papageorgiou, Demetrios

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a solid surface in the presence of a horizontally acting electric field. The competition between gravity, surface tension and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semi-spectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization at the target finite wavelengths occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior in the context of increasing liquid film heights, with agreement found to be excellent even beyond the target lengthscales. Regimes in which the thin film assumption is no longer valid and droplet pinch-off occurs are then analyzed. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are used in conjunction to identify efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  17. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in MHD 3D flow with heat and mass fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research explores the three-dimensional stretched flow of viscous fluid in the presence of prescribed heat (PHF) and concentration (PCF) fluxes. Mathematical formulation is developed in the presence of chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations yield the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the temperature and concentration distributions. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed.

  18. MHD flow and heat transfer of a viscous reacting fluid over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a boundary layer flow analysis for a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting reacting fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field. It is shown that the Hartmann, Prandtl and the Eckert numbers have effect on the velocity and temperature fields. Journal of the Nigerian ...

  19. Nonmonotonic magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional viscous electron-hole fluid in a confined geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. S.; Dmitriev, A. P.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.; Narozhny, B. N.; Titov, M.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrapure conductors may exhibit hydrodynamic transport where the collective motion of charge carriers resembles the flow of a viscous fluid. In a confined geometry (e.g., in ultra-high-quality nanostructures), the electronic fluid assumes a Poiseuille-type flow. Applying an external magnetic field tends to diminish viscous effects leading to large negative magnetoresistance. In two-component systems near charge neutrality, the hydrodynamic flow of charge carriers is strongly affected by the mutual friction between the two constituents. At low fields, the magnetoresistance is negative, however, at high fields the interplay between electron-hole scattering, recombination, and viscosity results in a dramatic change of the flow profile: the magnetoresistance changes its sign and eventually becomes linear in very high fields. This nonmonotonic magnetoresistance can be used as a fingerprint to detect viscous flow in two-component conducting systems.

  20. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  1. Design method for fluid viscous dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Jiuhong; Hua, Hongxing [Shanghai Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai (China); Du, Jianye; Wang, Yu [Naval Arming Academy, Institute of Naval Vessels, Beijing (China)

    2008-09-15

    A basic design method of doubly acting fluid viscous dampers with double guide bars is presented. The flow of the viscoelastic fluid between two parallel plates, one of which is started suddenly and the other of which is still, is analyzed. According to this solution, the velocity and the shear stress of the fluid at the fringe of the piston are solved approximately. A mathematical model of viscous dampers is derived, and the shock test is carried out. From experimental results, the parameters of the mathematical model are determined. Consequently, a semi-empirical design equation is obtained. Applying this equation to a certain practical damper, the damping material is chosen and the physical dimensions of the damper are determined. Shock tests using this damper are performed. Theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results, which validates the reliability of the calculated physical dimensions of the specimen damper and the validity of the basic design equation. (orig.)

  2. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, Oliver F.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10 −11 || cb 2 ∼ −8

  3. Newton solution of inviscid and viscous problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations is examined. Spatial discretization is performed using upwind differences with split fluxes. The system of linear equations which arises as a result of linearization in time is solved directly using either a banded matrix solver or a sparse matrix solver. In the latter case, the solver is used in conjunction with the nested dissection strategy, whose implementation for airfoil calculations is discussed. The boundary conditions are also implemented in a fully implicit manner, thus yielding quadratic convergence. Complexities such as the ordering of cell nodes and the use of a far field vortex to correct freestream for a lifting airfoil are addressed. Various methods to accelerate convergence and improve computational efficiency while using Newton iteration are discussed. Results are presented for inviscid, transonic nonlifting and lifting airfoils and also for laminar viscous cases. 17 references

  4. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  5. The viscous dynamics of a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Simpson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The rotational velocity of a high-density, partially-ionized neon plasma has been calculated as a function of time using a dynamical model in which J x B and viscous forces act on the plasma. The calculation of appropriate transport coefficients is discussed in detail. The model is used to predict measured voltages in a plasma centrifuge experiment. Observations of neon isotope separation in this experiment have been reported in a previous paper (James and Simpson 1976). (author)

  6. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  7. Mechanics of liquids and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Loitsyanskii, L G; Jones, W P

    1966-01-01

    Mechanics of Liquids and Gases, Second Edition is a 10-chapter text that covers significant revisions concerning the dynamics of an ideal gas, a viscous liquid and a viscous gas.After an expanded introduction to the fundamental properties and methods of the mechanics of fluids, this edition goes on dealing with the kinetics and general questions of dynamics. The next chapters describe the one-dimensional pipe flow of a gas with friction, the elementary theory of the shock tube; Riemann's theory of the wave propagation of finite intensity, and the theory of plane subsonic and supersonic flows.

  8. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  9. Imbalance of the liquid-metal flow and heat extraction in a manifold with sub-channels having locally different eletric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Wen, Meimei; Kim, Chang Nyung; Yang, Shangjing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and convective heat transfer in a manifold with three sub-channels having locally different electric conductivity are investigated with the use of commercial code CFX, allowing an imbalance in flow rate among the sub-channels, which can be used for intensive cooling of the region with higher heat load in the blanket. In a manifold with co-flow multiple sub-channels, the electrical current can cross the fluid regions and channel walls, thus influencing the flow distribution in each sub-channel. In the present study, cases with various arrangements of the electric conductivity in different parts of the channel walls are investigated, yielding different distributions of the current and fluid flow in different cases. Here, the mechanism governing the imbalance in mass flow rate among the sub-channels is discussed. The interdependency of the fluid velocity, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows in the three sub-channels are analyzed in detail. The results show that, in the sub-channel surrounded by the walls with lower electric conductivity, higher axial velocity and superior heat extraction can be obtained, with an effective cooling associated with higher velocity, where the higher velocity is closely related to the distribution of the electromotive component of the current in the flow field.

  10. Imbalance of the liquid-metal flow and heat extraction in a manifold with sub-channels having locally different eletric conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yang; Wen, Meimei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nyung, E-mail: cnkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Shangjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, the characteristics of liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and convective heat transfer in a manifold with three sub-channels having locally different electric conductivity are investigated with the use of commercial code CFX, allowing an imbalance in flow rate among the sub-channels, which can be used for intensive cooling of the region with higher heat load in the blanket. In a manifold with co-flow multiple sub-channels, the electrical current can cross the fluid regions and channel walls, thus influencing the flow distribution in each sub-channel. In the present study, cases with various arrangements of the electric conductivity in different parts of the channel walls are investigated, yielding different distributions of the current and fluid flow in different cases. Here, the mechanism governing the imbalance in mass flow rate among the sub-channels is discussed. The interdependency of the fluid velocity, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows in the three sub-channels are analyzed in detail. The results show that, in the sub-channel surrounded by the walls with lower electric conductivity, higher axial velocity and superior heat extraction can be obtained, with an effective cooling associated with higher velocity, where the higher velocity is closely related to the distribution of the electromotive component of the current in the flow field.

  11. Effect of graphene layer thickness and mechanical compliance on interfacial heat flow and thermal conduction in solid-liquid phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J; Fleischer, Amy S

    2014-08-13

    Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage and electronics cooling applications but have limited applicability in state-of-the-art technologies due to their low intrinsic thermal conductivities. Recent efforts to incorporate graphene and multilayer graphene into PCMs have led to the development of thermal energy storage materials with remarkable values of bulk thermal conductivity. However, the full potential of graphene as a filler material for the thermal enhancement of PCMs remains unrealized, largely due to an incomplete understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern thermal transport within graphene-based nanocomposites. In this work, we show that the number of graphene layers (n) within an individual graphene nanoparticle has a significant effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of an organic PCM. Results indicate that the bulk thermal conductivity of PCMs can be tuned by over an order of magnitude simply by adjusting the number of graphene layers (n) from n = 3 to 44. Using scanning electron microscopy in tandem with nanoscale analytical techniques, the physical mechanisms that govern heat flow within a graphene nanocomposite PCM are found to be nearly independent of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the graphene nanoparticle itself and are instead found to be dependent on the mechanical compliance of the graphene nanoparticles. These findings are critical for the design and development of PCMs that are capable of cooling next-generation electronics and storing heat effectively in medium-to-large-scale energy systems, including solar-thermal power plants and building heating and cooling systems.

  12. Rapid analysis of ethanol and water in commercial products using ionic liquid capillary gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detection and/or barrier discharge ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Woods, Ross M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-02-26

    Analysis of ethanol and water in consumer products is important in a variety of processes and often is mandated by regulating agencies. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of ethanol and water that is simple, accurate, precise, rapid, and cost-effective is demonstrated. This approach requires no internal standard for the quantitation of both ethanol and water at any/all levels in commercial products. Ionic liquid based gas chromatography (GC) capillary columns are used to obtain a fast analysis with high selectivity and resolution of water and ethanol. Typical run times are just over 3 min. Examination of the response range of water and ethanol with GC, thermal conductivity detection (TCD), and barrier ionization detection (BID) is performed. Quantitation of both ethanol and water in consumer products is accomplished with both TCD and BID GC detectors using a nonlinear calibration. Validation of method accuracy is accomplished by using standard reference materials.

  13. Quasi Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporating Highly Conducting Polythiophene-Coated Carbon Nanotube Composites in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polythiophene (PTh composites with the host filler multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT have been used, for the first time, in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. A quasi solid-state DSCs with the hybrid MWNT-PTh composites, an ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (PMII, was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and higher cell efficiency (4.76% was achieved, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.29%. The MWNT-PTh nanoparticles are exploited as the extended electron transfer materials and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I−3.

  14. The Kubo-Greenwood calculation of conductivity of the simple and non-simple liquid metals in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A N; Mirzoev, A A

    2008-01-01

    We calculated the temperature dependences of electroconductivity for the different metals, such as alkalis (caesium), transition metals (iron), and mercury by Kubo-Greenwood formula. Atomic models of 1000-4000 atoms were obtained by Shommers method using the data of diffractional experiments for the wide temperature range. The electronic structure and interaction parameters for supercells of 30-50 atoms were got by LMTO method. The recursion method was used for the calculation of DOS and diffusivity quotients. The lowering of the DOS at the Fermi level was carefully examined. The results obtained are in good agreement with other authors' in views on the nature of the metal-nonmetal transition in different liquid metals. The calculated DOS and conductivity for all metals match the experimental data well

  15. Boundary layers in turbulent convection for air, liquid gallium and liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Janet; Schumacher, Joerg

    2017-11-01

    The scaling of physical quantities that characterize the shape and dynamics of the viscous and thermal boundary layers with respect to the Rayleigh number will be presented for three series of three-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio one. The simulations have been conducted for convection in air at a Prandtl number Pr = 0.7, in liquid gallium at Pr = 0.021 and in liquid sodium at Pr = 0.005. Then we discuss three statistical analysis methods which have been developed to predict the transition of turbulent RBC into the ultimate regime. The methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. All three methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  16. A Thermodynamical Theory with Internal Variables Describing Thermal Effects in Viscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Vincenzo; Palumbo, Annunziata

    2018-04-01

    In this paper the heat conduction in viscous fluids is described by using the theory of classical irreversible thermodynamics with internal variables. In this theory, the deviation from the local equilibrium is characterized by vectorial internal variables and a generalized entropy current density expressed in terms of so-called current multipliers. Cross effects between heat conduction and viscosity are also considered and some phenomenological generalizations of Fourier's and Newton's laws are obtained.

  17. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  18. One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. II. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrou, Cyril

    2018-04-01

    In a companion paper [Phys. Rev. E 97, 043115 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043115], a formalism allowing to describe viscous fibers as one-dimensional objects was developed. We apply it to the special case of a viscous fluid torus. This allows to highlight the differences with the basic viscous string model and with its viscous rod model extension. In particular, an elliptic deformation of the torus section appears because of surface tension effects, and this cannot be described by viscous string nor viscous rod models. Furthermore, we study the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for periodic deformations around the perfect torus, and we show that the instability is not sufficient to lead to the torus breakup in several droplets before it collapses to a single spherical drop. Conversely, a rotating torus is dynamically attracted toward a stationary solution, around which the instability can develop freely and split the torus in multiple droplets.

  19. The migration and monitoring of viscous NAPLs (coal tar and creosote) in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Heidelberg, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The high viscosity of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as creosote and coal tar complicates efforts to monitor their mobility at contaminated sites. Viscous NAPLs can remain mobile for many decades after their application as a wood preservative, or after the closure of the facilities in which they were generated. NAPL-wet pathways in the subsurface can also lead to errors in residual saturation measurements. This abstract discussed issues related to creeping flow and the low seepage rates that are not accounted for using traditional measuring methods. Examples of creeping flow and the monitoring techniques used to assess it were presented for sites in British Columbia and Florida. The drainage of viscous NAPLs during water table declines was also considered, and a case study of a coal tar-removal procedures using polymer surfactant flooding was presented.

  20. Viscous flows the practical use of theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.

  1. Variational form for a viscous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, A.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Berk, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    The variational formulation for a fluid plasma including the parallel and gyroviscosities is developed using the basic approach of Berk et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 2245 (1981)]. The equivalence of the variational problem to the original viscous fluid equations of motion is shown. The theory is developed for an axisymmetric plasma with no magnetic field in the azimuthal direction and therefore applies to field-reversed configurations and axisymmetric mirrors. This theory offers the advantage of describing both parallel and transverse ion kinetic effects within the simplicity afforded by a variational fluid model

  2. Association of ionic liquids in solution: a combined dielectric and conductivity study of [bmim][Cl] in water and in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Stoppa, Alexander; Hunger, Johannes; Hefter, Glenn; Buchner, Richard

    2011-10-21

    Ion association of the ionic liquid [bmim][Cl] in acetonitrile and in water was studied by dielectric spectroscopy for salt concentrations c ≤ 1.3 M at 298.15 K and by measurement of molar electrical conductivities, Λ, of dilute solutions (c ≤ 0.006 M) in the temperature range 273.15 ≲ T/K ≤ 313.15. Whilst acetonitrile solutions of [bmim][Cl] exhibit moderate ion pairing, with an association constant of K°(A) ≈ 60 M(-1) and increasing with temperature, [bmim][Cl] is only weakly associated in water (K°(A) ≈ 6 M(-1)) and ion pairing decreases with rising temperature. Only contact ion pairs were detected in both solvents. Standard-state enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes of ion association were derived, as well as the activation enthalpy of charge transport and the limiting conductivity of the cation, λ(∞) ([bmim](+)). These data, in conjunction with effective solvation numbers obtained from the dielectric spectra, suggest that the solvation of [bmim](+) is much weaker in water than in acetonitrile. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  3. Formation of conductive and reflective silver nanolayers on plastic films via ion doping and solid–liquid interfacial reduction at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Guanghui; Wu, Dezhen; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Conductive and reflective silver layers on both sides of polyimide films have been prepared by doping silver–ammonia ions into the surfaces of polyimide film, and subsequent solid–liquid interfacial reduction, during which double diffusion of silver ions and newly formed silver crystals occurred between the interfaces of polyimide films and the aqueous reducing surroundings. The newly formed silver nanoparticles could migrate and aggregate onto both sides of substrate films, forming continuous and compact silver layers that result in excellent conductivity, i.e. ∼0.6 and 0.5 Ω/sq on the upside and downside surfaces, respectively. The surface reflectivity could be detected up to 80% on the downside and 90% on the upside surface as well. The effects of the silver contents and reducing conditions on the morphologies and properties have been investigated comprehensively, and the two-side properties differences were discussed. A convictive relationship between the morphologies and properties has been established, providing reliable and general guidance in terms of preparation of inorganic nanoparticles on plastic substrates. This novel and simple strategy can be extended to fabricate many other metal, metal oxide and metal sulfide nanoparticles on plastic substrates, using proper oxidants or sulfions to replace the diverse reductants. The films were characterized by inductively coupled plasma, contact angle measurement, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, four-point probe instrument and ultraviolet spectrophotometry

  4. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  5. Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V

    2006-01-01

    The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids. The Efficient Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-12-09

    Dec 9, 2008 ... Volatile organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol and THF are often used for the ... remained consistently high and only declined markedly on the fifth cycle. ... transferral of the viscous liquid from the hydrogenation reactor.

  7. Investigation of Factors Influencing Dispersion of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ali Baker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work has been done to study the major factors that affect the axial dispersion of some hydrocarbons during liquid-liquid miscible displacement. Kerosene and gas oil are used as displacing phase while seven liquid hydrocarbons of high purity represent the displaced phase, three of the liquids are aromatics and the rest are of paraffinic base. In conducting the experiments, two packed beds of different porosity and permeability are used as porous media. The results showed that the displacement process is not a piston flow, breakthrough of displacing fluids are shown before one pore volume has been injected. The processes are stable with no evidence of viscous fingering. Dispersion model as adapted by Brigham et.al (1961 is used to determine the axial dispersion coefficient of displacing fluid. The results show an increasing in dispersion coefficient as the interstitial velocity and viscosity ratio increases.

  8. Turbulent flow through channels in a viscously deforming matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Colin; Hewitt, Ian; Neufeld, Jerome

    2017-11-01

    Channels of liquid melt form within a surrounding solid matrix in a variety of natural settings, for example, lava tubes and water flow through glaciers. Channels of water on the underside of glaciers, known as Rothlisberger (R-) channels, are essential components of subglacial hydrologic systems and can control the rate of glacier sliding. Water flow through these channels is turbulent, and dissipation melts open the channel while viscous creep of the surrounding closes the channel leading to the possibility of a steady state. Here we present an analogous laboratory experiment for R-channels. We pump warm water from the bottom into a tank of corn syrup and a channel forms. The pressure is lower in the water than in the corn syrup, therefore the syrup creeps inward. At the same time, the water ablates the corn syrup through dissolution and shear erosion, which we measure by determining the change in height of the syrup column over the course of the experiment. We find that the creep closure is much stronger than turbulent ablation which leads to traveling solitary waves along the water-syrup interface. These waves or `magmons' have been previously observed in experiments and theory for laminar magma melt conduits. We compliment our experiments with numerical simulations. David Crighton Fellowship.

  9. Direct verification of the lubrication force on a sphere travelling through a viscous film upon approach to a solid wall

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2010-05-21

    Experiments were performed to observe the motion of a solid sphere approaching a solid wall through a thin layer of a viscous liquid. We focus mainly on cases where the ratio of the film thickness, ℘, to the sphere diameter, D, is in the range 0.03 ℘viscous forces, is below a critical level Stc so that the spheres do not rebound and escape from the liquid layer. This provides us with the scope to verify the force acting on the sphere, derived from lubrication theory. Using high-speed video imaging we show, for the first time, that the equations of motion based on the lubrication approximation correctly describe the deceleration of the sphere when St < Stc. Furthermore, we show that the penetration depth at which the sphere motion is first arrested by the viscous force, which decreases with increasing Stokes number, matches well with theoretical predictions. An example for a shear-thinning liquid is also presented, showing that this simple set-up may be used to deduce the short-time dynamical behaviour of non-Newtonian liquids. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model

  11. Diffusion on Viscous Fluids, Existence and Asymptotic Properties of Solutions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). 11.* P. Secchi "On the Initial Value ProbleM for the Nquations of Notion of Viscous Incompressible Fluids In...of two viscous Incompressible Fluids’, preprint DepartLmento dl matematica - Politecuico di Milano (1982). -15- 11. P. Secchi 00n the XnitiaI Value

  12. Poloidal variation of viscous forces in the banana collisionality regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.P.; Callen, J.D.

    1992-12-01

    The poloidal variation of the parallel viscous and heat viscous forces are determined for the first time using a rigorous Chapman- Enskog-like approach that has been developed recently. It is shown that the poloidal variation is approximately proportional to the poloidal distribution of the trapped particles, which are concentrated on the outer edge (large major radius side) of the tokamak

  13. Equivalent viscous damping procedure for multi-material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.

    1979-01-01

    The inclusion of accurate viscous damping effects in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants is discussed. A procedure to evaluate and use equivalent viscous damping coefficients in conjunction with the substructure method of finite element analysis is outlined in detail

  14. Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the null controllability of the viscous Camassa–. Holm equation on the one-dimensional torus. By using a moving distributed control, we obtain that the system is null controllable for a given data with certain regularity. Keywords. Viscous Camassa–Holm equation; null controllability; moving control;.

  15. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ...

  16. Influence of viscous dissipation and radiation on MHD Couette flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall analysis of the study of these parameters in various degrees show an increase in the velocity profile of the fluid, while radiation parameter decreases the temperature profile; viscous dissipation and Reynolds number increase the temperature profile of the fluid. Key word: Couette flow, viscous dissipation, ...

  17. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.

  18. Multidomain spectral solution of compressible viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopriva, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a nonoverlapping mutidomain spectral collocation method to solve compressible viscous flows. At the interfaces, the advection terms are treated with a characteristic correction method. The diffusion terms are treated with a penalty method. Spectral accuracy is demonstrated on linear model problems in one and two space dimensions. The method is applied to a subsonic and supersonic flow over a flat plate. The results are compared to solutions of the boundary-layer equations which show that two digit accuracy in the adiabatic plate temperature is obtained with 16 points in the boundary layer for a freestream Mach number of two. A second application is to a transonic flow in a two-dimensional converging-diverging nozzle, where the computed results are compared to experimental data

  19. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  20. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  1. Formulating viscous hydrodynamics for large velocity gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Viscous corrections to relativistic hydrodynamics, which are usually formulated for small velocity gradients, have recently been extended from Navier-Stokes formulations to a class of treatments based on Israel-Stewart equations. Israel-Stewart treatments, which treat the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor τ ij as dynamical objects, introduce new parameters, such as the relaxation times describing nonequilibrium behavior of the elements τ ij . By considering linear response theory and entropy constraints, we show how the additional parameters are related to fluctuations of τ ij . Furthermore, the Israel-Stewart parameters are analyzed for their ability to provide stable and physical solutions for sound waves. Finally, it is shown how these parameters, which are naturally described by correlation functions in real time, might be constrained by lattice calculations, which are based on path-integral formulations in imaginary time

  2. Studies on polymer electrolyte poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with ionic liquid: Effect of complexation on thermal stability, conductivity and relaxation behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroj, A.L. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Chandra, S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVP + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared and studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexation/interaction of PVP with IL has been confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity and relaxation frequency increases with increasing IL content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two relaxation peaks for complexed and uncomplexed PVP with IL have been observed. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte films of PVP + x wt% ionic liquid (IL) (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF{sub 4}]) for x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 wt% have been prepared using solution cast technique. These films were characterized by TGA, DSC, FT-IR and ac impedance spectroscopy techniques. From XRD studies it is found that the inclusion of IL increases the amorphocity of polymeric membranes. DSC thermograms show that the glass transition (T{sub g}) and melting temperatures (T{sub m}) of PVP shift upon complexation with IL. FT-IR analysis shows the complexation of PVP with IL. Thermogravimetric studies show that PVP decomposes in a single step while PVP/IL membranes exhibit two step decomposition; lower value of decomposition temperature corresponds to the decomposition of PVP/IL complex while the higher decomposition temperature has been attributed to the decomposition of PVP. The decomposition temperature of PVP/IL complex decreases with the increasing amount of IL in the PVP membrane. Temperature dependence of conductivity and dielectric relaxation frequencies have also been studied for PVP and PVP/IL membranes. Both show thermally activated Arrhenius behaviour.

  3. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  4. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Casson Liquid Film Towards an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mostafa A. A.; Megahed, Ahmed M.

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical and numerical outcomes of the non-Newtonian Casson liquid thin film fluid flow owing to an unsteady stretching sheet which exposed to a magnetic field, Ohmic heating and slip velocity phenomena is reported here. The non-Newtonian thermal conductivity is imposed and treated as it vary with temperature. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the non-Newtonian Casson thin film fluid are simplified into a group of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using an adequate dimensionless transformations. With this in mind, the numerical solutions for the ordinary conservation equations are found using an accurate shooting iteration technique together with the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The lineaments of the thin film flow and the heat transfer characteristics for the pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs. The results obtained here detect many concern for the local Nusselt number and the local skin-friction coefficient in which they may be beneficial for the material processing industries. Furthermore, in some special conditions, the present problem has an excellent agreement with previously published work.

  5. Electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop with inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganguia, H; Young, Y-N; Layton, A T; Lai, M-C; Hu, W-F

    2016-05-01

    Most of the existing numerical and theoretical investigations on the electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop have focused on the creeping Stokes flow regime, where nonlinear inertia effects are neglected. In this work we study the inertia effects on the electrodeformation of a viscous drop under a DC electric field using a novel second-order immersed interface method. The inertia effects are quantified by the Ohnesorge number Oh, and the electric field is characterized by an electric capillary number Ca_{E}. Below the critical Ca_{E}, small to moderate electric field strength gives rise to steady equilibrium drop shapes. We found that, at a fixed Ca_{E}, inertia effects induce larger deformation for an oblate drop than a prolate drop, consistent with previous results in the literature. Moreover, our simulations results indicate that inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation are dictated by the direction of normal electric stress on the drop interface: Larger drop deformation is found when the normal electric stress points outward, and smaller drop deformation is found otherwise. To our knowledge, such inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation has not been reported in the literature. Above the critical Ca_{E}, no steady equilibrium drop deformation can be found, and often the drop breaks up into a number of daughter droplets. In particular, our Navier-Stokes simulations show that, for the parameters we use, (1) daughter droplets are larger in the presence of inertia, (2) the drop deformation evolves more rapidly compared to creeping flow, and (3) complex distribution of electric stresses for drops with inertia effects. Our results suggest that normal electric pressure may be a useful tool in predicting drop pinch-off in oblate deformations.

  6. Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.

  7. Damage in agitated vessels of large visco-elastic particles dispersed in a highly viscous fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Laurent; Moreau, Anne; Line, Alain; Fatah, Nouria; Delaplace, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Many food recipes entail several homogenization steps for solid particles in hot or cold viscous liquids, such as pureed fruit and sugar, jam or sauce with mushroom pieces. Unfortunately, these unavoidable processes induce damage to the solid particles. To date, little is known of the extent and nature of the damage caused. Consequently, few clear guidelines are available for monitoring solid particle integrity when mixing solid/liquid suspensions in an agitated tank. In this study, an attempt is made to quantify the impact of various physical parameters including the influence of the rotational speed of the impeller and the processing time on particle attrition, when a suspension of large visco-elastic particles in a highly viscous fluid is mixed under isothermal condition. Pectin gel particles were immerged in a viscous liquid and homogenized for various times and rotational speeds, while the evolution of the particle's morphological parameters was monitored. Then, a set of dimensionless numbers governing the attrition mechanism is established and some empirical process relationships are proposed to correlate these numbers to the morphological characteristics and mass balance ratios. From the conditions observed, it is clear that 2 dimensionless ratios could be responsible for a change in the damaging mechanisms. These 2 ratios are the Froude and impeller rotation numbers. Finally, in the conditions tested, mass balance ratios appear to be mainly sensitive to the impeller rotational number, while the shape ratios are both impacted by the Froude and impeller rotational numbers. Damage to solid particles suspended in a stirred vessel reduce the final product quality in industrial cooking processes. Examples of this are fruit in jam or sauces with mushroom pieces. The attrition phenomenon was measured and the influences of the impeller rotational speed and processing time were evaluated quantitatively in function of dimensionless numbers. This study contributes key

  8. Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leinweber, G.

    1986-01-01

    During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and various gas flow rates. The results of this study clearly show that the rate of gas injection is not the only parameter controlling the mixing of the liquid-liquid system. The effect of non-uniform gas injection is important at high gas flow rates. Within the present experimental conditions, the reduction in the overall mixing rate can be as large as a factor of three

  9. Inhibition of ice crystallisation in highly viscous aqueous organic acid droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous nucleation of ice within aqueous solution droplets and their subsequent crystallisation is thought to play a significant role in upper tropospheric ice cloud formation. It is normally assumed that homogeneous nucleation will take place at a threshold supersaturation, irrespective of the identity of the solute, and that rapid growth of ice particles will follow immediately after nucleation. However, it is shown here through laboratory experiments that droplets may not readily freeze in the very cold tropical tropopause layer (TTL, typical temperatures of 186–200 K. In these experiments ice crystal growth in citric acid solution droplets did not occur when ice nucleated below 197±6 K. Citric acid, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxyllic acid, is a molecule with similar functionality to oxygenated organic compounds which are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosol. It is therefore thought to be a sensible proxy for atmospheric organic material. Evidence is presented that suggests citric acid solution droplets become ultra-viscous and form glassy solids under atmospherically relevant conditions. Diffusion of liquid water molecules to ice nuclei is expected to be very slow in ultra-viscous solution droplets and nucleation is negligible in glassy droplets; this most likely provides an explanation for the experimentally observed inhibition of ice crystallisation. The implications of ultra-viscous and glassy solution droplets for ice cloud formation and supersaturations in the TTL are discussed.

  10. Visualization of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oil, SUPRI TR-126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.S.; Kovscek, A.R.

    2001-07-23

    Several experimental studies of solution gas drive are available in this report. Almost all of the studies have used light oil. Solution gas drive behavior, especially in heavy oil reservoirs, is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in which pore-scale solution gas drive phenomena were viewed in water/carbon dioxide and viscous oil/carbon dioxide systems. A new pressure vessel was designed and constructed to house silicon-wafer micromodels that previously operated at low (<3 atm) pressure. The new apparatus is used for the visual studies. Several interesting phenomena were viewed. The repeated nucleation of gas bubbles was observed at a gas-wet site occupied by dirt. Interestingly, the dissolution of a gas bubble into the liquid phase was previously recorded at the same nucleation site. Gas bubbles in both systems grew to span one ore more pore bodies before mobilization. Liquid viscosity affected the ease with which gas bubbles coalesced. More viscous solutions result in slower rates of coalescence. The transport of solid particles on gas-liquid interfaces was also observed.

  11. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2017-12-15

    The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ{sup 1/2}. We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)

  12. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe based on causal viscous theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.D.J.; Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the bulk viscous matter dominated universe has been analysed using the full causal theory for the evolution of the viscous pressure in the context of the recent acceleration of the universe. The form of the viscosity is taken as ξ = αρ 1/2 . We obtained analytical solutions for the Hubble parameter and scale factor of the universe. The model parameters have been computed using the observational data. The evolution of the prominent cosmological parameters was obtained. The age of the universe for the best estimated model parameters is found to be less than observational value. The viscous matter behaves like a stiff fluid in the early phase and evolves to a negative pressure fluid in the later phase. The equation of state is found to be stabilised with value ω > -1. The local as well as generalised second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. The statefinder diagnostic shows that this model is distinct from the standard ΛCDM. One of the marked deviations seen in this model to be compared with the corresponding model using the Eckart approach is that in this model the bulk viscosity decreases with the expansion of the universe, while in the Eckart formalism it increases from negative values in the early universe towards positive values. (orig.)

  13. Ionic Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Leslie; Earle, Martyn J; Gilea, Manuela; Plechkova, Natalia V; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide range of ionic liquids that can by synthesised, with specifically tailored properties, represents a new philosophy for the separation of organic, inorganic and bio-based materials. A customised countercurrent chromatograph has been designed and constructed specifically to allow the more viscous char...

  14. Preparation and use of viscous-elastic clay-polymer mixtures in drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V K; Tyurin, I P

    1979-01-01

    A highly viscous-elastic mixture (VUS) has been widely used as a buffer liquid. It consists of a weakly concentrated aqueous polyacrylamide solute with additives of small quantities of an aqueous hexaresorcin tar and formalin solution. Laboratory tests have shown that when this mixture is prepared, a bentonite suspension is required with a pH 7, containing minimum 10% solid phase and an aqueous polyacrylamide solution with concentration of no less than 1%. Tests have shown that the effect of this formula varies according to proportions in the mixture. Temperature and selection of the formula must be made on an individual basis.

  15. Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego

    1987-01-01

    A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.

  16. Nonlinear roll damping of a barge with and without liquid cargo in spherical tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping plays a significant role on the maximum amplitude of a vessel's roll motion, in particular near the resonant frequency. It is a common practice to predict roll damping using a linear radiation–diffraction code and add that to a linearized viscous damping component, which can be obtained through empirical, semi-empirical equations or free decay tests in calm water. However, it is evident that the viscous roll damping is nonlinear with roll velocity and amplitude. Nonlinear liquid cargo motions inside cargo tanks also contribute to roll damping, which when ignored impedes the accurate prediction of maximum roll motions. In this study, a series of free decay model tests is conducted on a barge-like vessel with two spherical tanks, which allows a better understanding of the nonlinear roll damping components considering the effects of the liquid cargo motion. To examine the effects of the cargo motion on the damping levels, a nonlinear model is adopted to calculate the damping coefficients. The liquid cargo motion is observed to affect both the linear and the quadratic components of the roll damping. The flow memory effect on the roll damping is also studied. The nonlinear damping coefficients of the vessel with liquid cargo motions in spherical tanks are obtained, which are expected to contribute in configurations involving spherical tanks.

  17. Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.

  18. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  19. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  20. Nonlinear waves in bipolar complex viscous astroclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Haloi, A.

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical evolutionary model to analyze the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in inhomogeneous complex astrophysical viscous clouds on the gravito-electrostatic scales of space and time is procedurally set up. It compositionally consists of warm lighter electrons and ions (Boltzmanian); and cold massive bi-polar dust grains (inertial fluids) alongside vigorous neutral dynamics in quasi-neutral hydrodynamic equilibrium. Application of the Sagdeev pseudo-potential method reduces the inter-coupled structure equations into a pair of intermixed forced Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (f-KdVB) equations. The force-terms are self-consistently sourced by inhomogeneous gravito-electrostatic interplay. A numerical illustrative shape-analysis based on judicious astronomical parametric platform shows the electrostatic waves evolving as compressive dispersive shock-like eigen-modes. A unique transition from quasi-monotonic to non-monotonic oscillatory compressive shock-like patterns is found to exist. In contrast, the self-gravitational and effective perturbations grow purely as non-monotonic compressive oscillatory shock-like structures with no such transitory features. It is seen that the referral frame velocity acts as amplitude-reducing agent (stabilizing source) for the electrostatic fluctuations solely. A comparison in the prognostic light of various earlier satellite-based observations and in-situ measurements is presented. The paper ends up with synoptic highlights on the main implications and non-trivial applications in the interstellar space and cosmic plasma environments leading to bounded structure formation.

  1. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  2. Can the scaling behavior of electric conductivity be used to probe the self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure? The case of [C8MIM][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Marian; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan; Pionteck, Jürgen; Hensel-Bielowka, Stella

    2015-08-28

    Electrical conductivity of the supercooled ionic liquid [C8MIM][NTf2], determined as a function of temperature and pressure, highlights strong differences in its ionic transport behavior between low and high temperature regions. To date, the crossover effect which is very well known for low molecular van der Waals liquids has been rarely described for classical ionic liquids. This finding highlights that the thermal fluctuations could be dominant mechanisms driving the dramatic slowing down of ion motions near Tg. An alternative way to analyze separately low and high temperature dc-conductivity data using a density scaling approach was then proposed. Based on which a common value of the scaling exponent γ = 2.4 was obtained, indicating that the applied density scaling is insensitive to the crossover effect. By comparing the scaling exponent γ reported herein along with literature data for other ionic liquids, it appears that γ decreases by increasing the alkyl chain length on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids. This observation may be related to changes in the interaction between ions in solution driven by an increase in the van der Waals type interaction by increasing the alkyl chain length on the cation. This effect may be related to changes in the ionic liquid nanostructural organization with the alkyl chain length on the cation as previously reported in the literature based on molecular dynamic simulations. In other words, the calculated scaling exponent γ may be then used as a key parameter to probe the interaction and/or self-organizational changes in solution with respect to the ionic liquid structure.

  3. The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Sinha

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaotic ... However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specific .... Although chaos is a general man-.

  4. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  5. Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem

    2016-01-01

    The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r_i. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number

  6. Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, T. M. Yunus, E-mail: yunus.tatagar@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BVB College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli (India); Azeem [Dept. of Computer System & Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-06-21

    The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.

  7. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: weibc@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  8. Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.

  9. Computational model for speed of efflux in liquids | Ikata | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have looked at the efflux of a viscous liquid from an orifice. Assuming the steady flow of a Newtonian fluid, a model for the energy loss due to viscous shearing stress is derived, and a first-order non-linear ordinary differential equation of second degree is obtained for the speed of efflux. Numerically, the equation is ...

  10. Vortex-induced buckling of a viscous drop impacting a pool

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2017-07-20

    We study the intricate buckling patterns which can form when a viscous drop impacts a much lower viscosity miscible pool. The drop enters the pool by its impact inertia, flattens, and sinks by its own weight while stretching into a hemispheric bowl. Upward motion along the outer bottom surface of this bowl produces a vortical boundary layer which separates along its top and rolls up into a vortex ring. The vorticity is therefore produced in a fundamentally different way than for a drop impacting a pool of the same liquid. The vortex ring subsequently advects into the bowl, thereby stretching the drop liquid into ever thinner sheets, reaching the micron level. The rotating motion around the vortex pulls in folds to form multiple windings of double-walled toroidal viscous sheets. The axisymmetric velocity field thereby stretches the drop liquid into progressively finer sheets, which are susceptible to both axial and azimuthal compression-induced buckling. The azimuthal buckling of the sheets tends to occur on the inner side of the vortex ring, while their folds can be stretched and straightened on the outside edge. We characterize the total stretching from high-speed video imaging and use particle image velocimetry to track the formation and evolution of the vortex ring. The total interfacial area between the drop and the pool liquid can grow over 40-fold during the first 50 ms after impact. Increasing pool viscosity shows entrapment of a large bubble on top of the drop, while lowering the drop viscosity produces intricate buckled shapes, appearing at the earliest stage and being promoted by the crater motions. We also present an image collage of the most intriguing and convoluted structures observed. Finally, a simple point-vortex model reproduces some features from the experiments and shows variable stretching along the wrapping sheets.

  11. Experimental investigation of the brittle-viscous transition in mafic rocks - Interplay between fracturing, reaction, and viscous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2017-12-01

    Rock deformation experiments are performed on fault gouge fabricated from 'Maryland Diabase' rock powder to investigate the transition from dominant brittle to dominant viscous behaviour. At the imposed strain rates of γ˙ = 3 ·10-5 - 3 ·10-6 s-1, the transition is observed in the temperature range of (600 °C < T < 800 °C) at confining pressures of (0.5 GPa ≤ Pc ≤ 1.5 GPa). The transition thereby takes place by a switch from brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow to viscous dissolution-precipitation creep and grain boundary sliding. Mineral reactions and resulting grain size refinement by nucleation are observed to be critical processes for the switch to viscous deformation, i.e., grain size sensitive creep. In the transitional regime, the mechanical response of the sample is a mixed-mode between brittle and viscous rheology and microstructures associated with both brittle and viscous deformation are observed. As grain size reduction by reaction and nucleation is a time dependent process, the brittle-viscous transition is not only a function of T but to a large extent also of microstructural evolution.

  12. Entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow in thermal non-equilibrium porous media with thermal asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Yi Shen; Ting, Tiew Wei; Hung, Yew Mun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of thermal asymmetrical boundaries on entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow of forced convection in thermal non-equilibrium porous media is analytically studied. The two-dimensional temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analysed comprehensively to provide insights into the underlying physical significance of the effect on entropy generation. By incorporating the effects of viscous dissipation and thermal non-equilibrium, the first-law and second-law characteristics of porous-medium flow are investigated via various pertinent parameters, i.e. heat flux ratio, effective thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number, Biot number and averaged fluid velocity. For the case of symmetrical wall heat flux, an optimum condition with a high Nusselt number and a low entropy generation is identified at a Darcy number of 10 −4 , providing an ideal operating condition from the second-law aspect. This type of heat and fluid transport in porous media covers a wide range of engineering applications, involving porous insulation, packed-bed catalytic process in nuclear reactors, filtration transpiration cooling, and modelling of transport phenomena of microchannel heat sinks. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal asymmetries on convection in porous-medium are studied. • Exergetic effectiveness of porous media with thermal asymmetries is investigated. • 2-D temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analyzed. • Significance of viscous dissipation in entropy generation is scrutinized. • Significance of thermal non-equilibrium in entropy generation is studied

  13. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection: A universal tool for the determination of supported liquid membrane selectivity in electromembrane extraction of complex samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 96-101 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : supported liquid membranes * selectivity measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  14. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jacob, Eshel Ben [School of Physics and Astronomy, 69978 Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)], E-mail: aranson@msd.anl.gov

    2008-04-15

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 {sup 0}C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

  15. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S; Jacob, Eshel Ben

    2008-01-01

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 0 C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets

  16. Cavitation structures formed during the collision of a sphere with an ultra-viscous wetted surface

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2016-05-05

    We investigate the inception of cavitation and resulting structures when a sphere collides with a solid surface covered with a layer of non-Newtonian liquid having a kinematic viscosity of up to (Formula presented.) cSt. We show the existence of shear-stress-induced cavitation during sphere approach towards the base wall (i.e. the pressurization stage) in ultra-viscous films using a synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging system. For the experimental parameters employed, liquids having viscoelastic properties of (Formula presented.) are shown to enable sphere rebound without any prior contact with the solid wall. Cavitation by depressurization (i.e. during rebound) in such non-contact cases is observed to onset after a noticeable delay from when the minimum gap distance is reached. Also, the cavities created originate from remnant bubbles, being the remains of the primary bubble entrapment formed by the lubrication pressure of the air during film entry. Cases where physical contact occurs (contact cases) in 10 000 cSt (Formula presented.) cSt films produce cavities attached to the base wall, which extend into an hourglass shape. In contrast, strikingly different structures occur in the most viscous liquids due to the disproportionality in radial expansion and longitudinal extension along the cavity length. Horizontal shear rates calculated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements show the apparent fluid viscosity to vary substantially as the sphere approaches and rebounds away from the base wall. A theoretical model based on the lubrication assumption is solved for the squeeze flow in the regime identified for shear-induced cavity events, to investigate the criterion for cavity inception in further detail. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  17. Cavitation structures formed during the collision of a sphere with an ultra-viscous wetted surface

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Marston, J. O.; Uddin, J.; Christopher, G.; Zhang, Z.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the inception of cavitation and resulting structures when a sphere collides with a solid surface covered with a layer of non-Newtonian liquid having a kinematic viscosity of up to (Formula presented.) cSt. We show the existence of shear-stress-induced cavitation during sphere approach towards the base wall (i.e. the pressurization stage) in ultra-viscous films using a synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging system. For the experimental parameters employed, liquids having viscoelastic properties of (Formula presented.) are shown to enable sphere rebound without any prior contact with the solid wall. Cavitation by depressurization (i.e. during rebound) in such non-contact cases is observed to onset after a noticeable delay from when the minimum gap distance is reached. Also, the cavities created originate from remnant bubbles, being the remains of the primary bubble entrapment formed by the lubrication pressure of the air during film entry. Cases where physical contact occurs (contact cases) in 10 000 cSt (Formula presented.) cSt films produce cavities attached to the base wall, which extend into an hourglass shape. In contrast, strikingly different structures occur in the most viscous liquids due to the disproportionality in radial expansion and longitudinal extension along the cavity length. Horizontal shear rates calculated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements show the apparent fluid viscosity to vary substantially as the sphere approaches and rebounds away from the base wall. A theoretical model based on the lubrication assumption is solved for the squeeze flow in the regime identified for shear-induced cavity events, to investigate the criterion for cavity inception in further detail. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  18. Negative wake behind bubbles in non-newtonian liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    1979-01-01

    Gas bubbles rising by gravity in non-Newtonian elastic liquids are different to gas bubbles in viscous Newtonian fluids in at least two ways. First, the bubbles in the non-Newtonian liquids often have a peculiar tip at the rear pole, and second, the terminal rise velocity versus volume curve ofte...

  19. Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.

    1988-09-01

    Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs

  20. Development of a design package for a viscous barrier at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes elements of a design for a pilot-scale field demonstration of a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), which uses a new generation of barrier liquids for permeation grouting. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS), originally built to control contaminated runoff for the H Reactor, and which has been contaminated mainly by radionuclides. The LBNL viscous barrier technology employs barrier liquids which, when injected into the subsurface, produce chemically benign nearly impermeable barriers through a very large increase in viscosity. The initially low-viscosity liquids are emplaced through multiple injection points in the subsurface and the intersecting plumes merge and completely surround the contaminant source and/or plume. Once in place, they gel or cure to form a nearly impermeable barrier. The barrier liquid to be used in this application is Colloidal Silica (CS), an aqueous suspension of silica microspheres in a stabilizing electrolyte. It has excellent durability characteristics, poses no health hazard, is practically unaffected by filtration, and is chemically and biologically benign

  1. Thermal radiation from an evolving viscous quark gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Mohanty, Payal; Sarkar, Sourav; Alam, Jan-E

    2013-01-01

    The effects of viscosity on the space-time evolution of quark gluon plasma produced in nuclear collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies have been studied. The entropy generated due to the viscous motion of the fluid has been taken into account in constraining the initial temperature by the final multiplicity (measured at the freeze-out point). The viscous effects on the photon spectra has been introduced consistently through the evolution dynamics and phase space factors of all the participating partons/hadrons in the production process. In contrast to some of the recent calculations the present work includes the contribution from the hadronic phase. A small change in the transverse momentum (p T ) distribution of photons is observed due to viscous effects. (author)

  2. Manipulation of viscous fingering in a radially tapered cell geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongrand, Grégoire; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2018-06-01

    When a more mobile fluid displaces another immiscible one in a porous medium, viscous fingering propagates with a partial sweep, which hinders oil recovery and soil remedy. We experimentally investigate the feasibility of tuning such fingering propagation in a nonuniform narrow passage with a radial injection, which is widely used in various applications. We show that a radially converging cell can suppress the common viscous fingering observed in a uniform passage, and a full sweep of the displaced fluid is then achieved. The injection flow rate Q can be further exploited to manipulate the viscous fingering instability. For a fixed gap gradient α , our experimental results show a full sweep at a small Q but partial displacement with fingering at a sufficient Q . Finally, by varying α , we identify and characterize the variation of the critical threshold between stable and unstable displacements. Our experimental results reveal good agreement with theoretical predictions by a linear stability analysis.

  3. One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets. I. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrou, Cyril

    2018-04-01

    We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections, we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast rotating frame, we find that the dominant effects induced by inertial and Coriolis forces should be correctly described by rod models. For completeness, we also recover the constitutive relations for forces and torques in rod models and exhibit a missing term in the lowest order expression of viscous torque. Given that our method is based on tensors, the complexity of all computations has been beaten down by using an appropriate tensor algebra package such as xAct, allowing us to obtain a one-dimensional description of curved viscous jets with all the first order corrections consistently included. Finally, we find a description for straight fibers with elliptic sections as a special case of these results, and recover that ellipticity is dynamically damped by surface tension. An application to toroidal viscous fibers is presented in the companion paper [Pitrou, Phys. Rev. E 97, 043116 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.043116].

  4. Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.

  5. Void fraction for gas bubbling in shallow viscous pools-application to molten core concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Haquet, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    During Molten Core-Concrete Interaction, the concrete will release gases (mainly steam and carbon oxides) that will flow through the corium pool. To obtain reliable heat transfer prediction, it is necessary to model the void fraction in the pool as a function of the gas mass flow (or superficial velocity at the interface). A series of simulant-materials have been performed with water-air and sugar syrup-air in order to study how the drift model could be applied to a shallow pool (where the bubbly flow is not fully developed) and to liquids which are more viscous (with higher Morton numbers) than water. The bubble average diameter was estimated around 3 mm with spherical to ellipsoidal shapes. For all the configurations, even with the shallowest pools (6 cm height for 38 cm diameter) the experimental void fractions follow the drift-model relationship. In water, the distribution coefficient C 0 tends to the classical value of 1.2 while the drift velocity V jg tends to the 23 cm/s predicted by Ishii (1975) model for churn flows. For the more viscous syrup, the drift velocity tends to 13 cm/s which is significantly lower than the value obtained from the Ishii correlation for bubbly or churn flows (established for water). These results are then applied to MCCI experimental configurations. (authors)

  6. Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.

    2017-07-01

    In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.

  7. Growth Kinetics and Size Distribution Dynamics of Viscous Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Liu, Jiumeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. of Atmospheric Chemistry; D’Ambro, Emma L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences and Dept. of Chemistry; Gaston, Cassandra J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Thornton, Joel A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences and Dept. of Chemistry; Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lin, Peng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental & Climate Sciences Dept.; Bertram, Allan K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Martin, Scot T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Div. of Engineering and Applied Science; Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry

    2017-12-15

    Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration time scale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. In this article, we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or α-pinene SOA) mode particles. Aerosol composition measurements and evaporation kinetics indicate that isoprene SOA is composed of several semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), with some reversibly reacting to form oligomers. Model analysis shows that liquid-like bulk diffusivities can be used to fit the observed evaporation kinetics of accumulation mode particles but fail to explain the growth kinetics of bimodal aerosol by significantly under-predicting the evolution of the Aitken mode. In contrast, the semisolid scenario successfully reproduces both evaporation and growth kinetics, with the interpretation that hindered partitioning of SVOCs into large viscous particles effectively promotes the growth of smaller particles that have shorter diffusion time scales. This effect has important implications for the growth of atmospheric ultrafine particles to climatically active sizes.

  8. Ionic Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leslie; Earle, Martyn J; Gîlea, Manuela A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2017-08-10

    Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide range of ionic liquids that can by synthesised, with specifically tailored properties, represents a new philosophy for the separation of organic, inorganic and bio-based materials. A customised countercurrent chromatograph has been designed and constructed specifically to allow the more viscous character of ionic liquid-based solvent systems to be used in a wide variety of separations (including transition metal salts, arenes, alkenes, alkanes, bio-oils and sugars).

  9. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T{sub h} and inside cold T{sub c} temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  10. Experimental demonstration of the Rayleigh acoustic viscous boundary layer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; Tovar, R

    2006-03-01

    Amplitude and phase velocity measurements on the laminar oscillatory viscous boundary layer produced by acoustic waves are presented. The measurements were carried out in acoustic standing waves in air with frequencies of 68.5 and 114.5 Hz using laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The results obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement with the predictions made by the Rayleigh viscous boundary layer theory and confirm the existence of a local maximum of the velocity amplitude and its expected location.

  11. Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.

  12. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T h and inside cold T c temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  13. Computationally Efficient Prediction of Ionic Liquid Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to fundamental differences, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are significantly more viscous than conventional molecular liquids and require long simulation times. At the same time, RTILs remain in the liquid state over a much broader temperature range than the ordinary liquids. We exploit...... to ambient temperatures. We numerically prove the validity of the proposed concept for density and ionic diffusion of four different RTILs. This simple method enhances the computational efficiency of the existing simulation approaches as applied to RTILs by more than an order of magnitude....

  14. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-20

    liquid oligomeric analogue PEODME (ε = 8, dioxane:CH3CN mass ratio 48:7). The choice of the solvent mixture was a compromise between the...trifluoride – a derivative of Lewis acid properties. An increase in the degree of dissociation, decrease in the share of ionic associates and increase in...diphenylphosphinate this product is a solid, and in reaction with lithium diphenylphosphate the second fraction is a viscous, light-brown liquid , and

  15. Ionic conduction o phosphonium-based ionic liquids and their application in nanocrystalline solar cells; Conduccion ionica en liquidos ionicosbasados en fsfonios y sus aplicacion em celdas solares nanocristalinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Rosa E.; Torres-Gonzalez, Luis; Sanchez, Eduardo M. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza NL (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas. Lab. de Investigacion del Vidrio], e-mail: info_labiv@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    Ionic liquids are molten salts formed by organic cations as imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, picolinium and phosphonium in combination with several inorganic and organic anions. A new systematic series of phosphonium iodides (PI's) with low melting points have been prepared and properly characterized. Ionic conductivity was determined by impedance spectroscopy on molten salts as well as electrolytic solutions prepared by a mixture of PI's with low vapor pressure solvents. The conductivity dependence vs solvent concentration was interpreted in terms of the Fuoss-Krauss ion association theory. The conductivity did increased dramatically when small quantities of iodine were added, this phenomenon is explained in terms of the Grotthus charge transfer mechanism. Finally, several nanocrystalline solar cells were assembled with electrolytic solutions performing an efficiency up to 5.9% under an illuminance of 27 000 lux. (author)

  16. Viscous dissipation of energy at the stage of accumulation of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurie Khachay, Professor; Olga Hachay, Professor; Antipin, Alexandr

    2017-04-01

    In the papers [1,2] it is published the differentiation model of the proto planet cloud during the accumulation of the Earth's group planets. In [2] it was shown that the energy released during the decay of short-lived radioactive elements in the small size more than 50 km, it is enough that the temperature inside of the protoplanet becomes larger than the temperature of iron melting. It provides a realization of the matter differentiation process and convection development inside the inner envelopes. With increasing of the Earth, the forming region of the outer core remains in a molten state, although the power and viscosity of the layer changed. In [3] it is shown that during the sequence of growth changes of accumulated protoplanets, the main contribution of heat is provided first by radioactive sources, and then heated from above by converting the kinetic energy during the growing impact inside the Earth, and finally heated from below. That provides three types of driving mechanisms of convection: internal heat sources; heated top; heated from bottom and chemical-thermal convection. At all stages of proto Earth's development the convective heat-mass transfer becomes a most significant factor in the dynamics of the planet. However, the heat release due to friction in the viscous liquid of the outer core up to now was not still considered, or it was considered only for the formed planetary envelopes with a constant radius. In this paper we present the first results of thermal evolution numerical modeling of 3D spherical segment for a protoplanet with increasing radius and accounting random falling of bodies and particles. To describe the planetary accumulation Safronov equation is used [4]. For the quantitative account of the released heat by viscous friction a system of hydro dynamic equations for a viscous liquid is used. The obtained results show that the heat input due to viscous friction heat release at the early stage of planetary accumulation was very

  17. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  18. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon

    2017-11-01

    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the evolution of the flow, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in the study of Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As shown in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Anisotropic plastic deformation by viscous flow in ion tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T; Polman, A; Onck, PR; van der Giessen, E

    2005-01-01

    A model describing the origin of ion beam-induced anisotropic plastic deformation is derived and discussed. It is based on a viscoelastic thermal spike model for viscous flow in single ion tracks derived by Trinkaus and Ryazanov. Deviatoric (shear) stresses, brought about by the rapid thermal

  20. Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...

  1. Viscous modes, isocurvature perturbations and CMB initial conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    When the predecoupling plasma is thermodinamically reversible its fluctuations are classified in terms of the adiabatic and entropic modes. A different category of physical solutions, so far unexplored, arises when the inhomogeneities of the viscosity coefficients induce computable curvature perturbations. The viscous modes are explicitly illustrated and compared with the conventional isocurvature solutions.

  2. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...

  3. Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  4. Spatiotemporal resonances in mixing of open viscous fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Tabeling, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, we reveal a new dynamical phenomenon, called "spatiotemporal resonance," which is expected to take place in a broad range of viscous, periodically forced, open systems. The observation originates from a numerical and theoretical analysis of a micromixer, and is supported...

  5. Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in closed...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....

  6. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  7. Three-dimensional MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] flows in rectangular ducts of liquid-metal-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.; Walker, J.S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.

    1988-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls in the presence of strong nonuniform transverse magnetic fields are examined. The interaction parameter and Hartmann number are assumed to be large, whereas the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Under these assumptions, viscous and inertial effects are confined in very thin boundary layers adjacent to the walls. A significant fraction of the fluid flow is concentrated in the boundary layers adjacent to the side walls which are parallel to the magnetic field. This paper describes the analysis and numerical methods for obtaining 3-D solutions for flow parameters outside these layers, without solving explicitly for the layers themselves. Numerical solutions are presented for cases which are relevant to the flows of liquid metals in fusion reactor blankets. Experimental results obtained from the ALEX experiments at Argonne National Laboratory are used to validate the numerical code. In general, the agreement is excellent. 5 refs., 14 figs

  8. Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eames, I; Klettner, C A

    2017-01-01

    Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8–106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem. (paper)

  9. Air-driven viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrosky, H. Reed; Camassa, Roberto; Olander, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    We discuss a model for the flow of a viscous liquid film coating the interior of a vertical tube when the film is driven upwards against gravity by airflow through the center of the tube. The model consists of two components: (i) a nonlinear model, exploiting the slowly-varying liquid-air interface, for the interfacial stresses created by the airflow, and (ii) a long-wave asymptotic model for the air-liquid interface. The stability of small interfacial disturbances is studied analytically, and it is shown that the modeled free surface stresses contribute to both an increased upwards disturbance velocity and a more rapid instability growth than those of a previously developed model. Numerical solutions to the long-wave model exhibit saturated waves whose profiles and velocities show improvement, with respect to the previous model, in matching experiments. The model results are then compared with additional experiments for a slightly modified version of the problem. We gratefully acknowledge funding from NSF DMS-0509423, DMS-0908423, DMS-1009750, DMS-1517879, RTG DMS-0943851, CMG ARC-1025523 and NIEHS 534197-3411.

  10. Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Field Measurement of Liquid Viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field measurement of liquid viscosities, especially the high viscous liquids, is challenging and often requires expensive equipment, long processing time, and lots of reagent. We use quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs operating in solution which are also sensitive to the viscosity and density of the contacting solution. QCMs are typically investigated for sensor applications in which one surface of QCM completely immersed in Newtonian liquid, but the viscous damping in liquids would cause not only large frequency shifts but also large losses in the quality factor Q leading to instability and even cessation of oscillation. A novel mass-sensitivity-based method for field measurement of liquid viscosities using a QCM is demonstrated in this paper and a model describing the influence of the liquid properties on the oscillation frequency is established as well. Two groups of verified experiments were performed and the experimental results show that the presented method is effective and possesses potential applications.

  11. Dynamic thermal expansivity of liquids near the glass transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Kristine; Gundermann, Ditte; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2012-01-01

    Based on previous works on polymers by Bauer et al. [ Phys. Rev. E 61 1755 (2000)], this paper describes a capacitative method for measuring the dynamical expansion coefficient of a viscous liquid. Data are presented for the glass-forming liquid tetramethyl tetraphenyl trisiloxane (DC704) in the ......Based on previous works on polymers by Bauer et al. [ Phys. Rev. E 61 1755 (2000)], this paper describes a capacitative method for measuring the dynamical expansion coefficient of a viscous liquid. Data are presented for the glass-forming liquid tetramethyl tetraphenyl trisiloxane (DC704...... the liquid contracts when cooling from room temperature down to around the glass-transition temperature, which is relevant when measuring on a molecular liquid rather than a polymer....

  12. An MCBJ case study : The influence of π-conjugation on the single-molecule conductance at a solid/liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Wenjing; Valkenier, Hennie; Meszaros, Gabor; Manrique, David Zsolt; Mishchenko, Artem; Putz, Alexander; Garcia, Pavel Moreno; Lambert, Colin J.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    π-Conjugation plays an important role in charge transport through single molecular junctions. We describe in this paper the construction of a mechanically controlled break-junction setup (MCBJ) equipped with a highly sensitive log I–V converter in order to measure ultralow conductances of molecular

  13. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  14. Maximum spreading of liquid drop on various substrates with different wettabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Raihan; Choi, Junho; Yang, Sangsun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Donggeun

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a novel model developed for a priori prediction of the maximal spread of a liquid drop on a surface. As a first step, a series of experiments were conducted under precise control of the initial drop diameter, its falling height, roughness, and wettability of dry surfaces. The transient liquid spreading was recorded by a high-speed camera to obtain its maximum spreading under various conditions. Eight preexisting models were tested for accurate prediction of the maximum spread; however, most of the model predictions were not satisfactory except one, in comparison with our experimental data. A comparative scaling analysis of the literature models was conducted to elucidate the condition-dependent prediction characteristics of the models. The conditioned bias in the predictions was mainly attributed to the inappropriate formulations of viscous dissipation or interfacial energy of liquid on the surface. Hence, a novel model based on energy balance during liquid impact was developed to overcome the limitations of the previous models. As a result, the present model was quite successful in predicting the liquid spread in all the conditions.

  15. Effect of minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (Bmin) on production of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (RAMSES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hideyuki; Imanaka, Masashi; Lee, S.-M.Sang-Moo; Higurashi, Yoshihide; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kase, Masayuki; Yano, Yasushige; Aihara, Toshimitsu

    2002-01-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions (O, Ar and Kr ions) as a function of the minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B min ) of the RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. In this experiment, we found that the optimum value of B min exists to maximize the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and the value was almost the same (∼0.49 T) for various charge state heavy ions

  16. Simulations of the Yawed MEXICO Rotor Using a Viscous-Inviscid Panel Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the viscous-inviscid interactive model MIRAS is used to simulate flows past the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions. The solver is based on an unsteady three-dimensional free wake panel method which uses a strong viscous-inviscid interaction technique to account for the viscous...

  17. [The physics of pattern formation at liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses pattern formation at liquid interfaces and interfaces within disordered materials. The particular topics discussed are: a racetrack for competing viscous fingers; an experimental realization of periodic boundary conditions; what sets the length scale for patterns between miscible liquids; the fractal dimension of radial Hele-Shaw patterns; detailed analyses of low-contrast Saffman-Taylor flows; and the wetting/absorption properties of polystyrene spheres in binary liquid mixtures

  18. Modeling of brittle-viscous flow using discrete particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Barabasch, Jessica; Virgo, Simon; Souche, Alban; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    Many geological processes involve both viscous flow and brittle fractures, e.g. boudinage, folding and magmatic intrusions. Numerical modeling of such viscous-brittle materials poses challenges: one has to account for the discrete fracturing, the continuous viscous flow, the coupling between them, and potential pressure dependence of the flow. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a numerical technique, widely used for studying fracture of geomaterials. However, the implementation of viscous fluid flow in discrete element models is not trivial. In this study, we model quasi-viscous fluid flow behavior using Esys-Particle software (Abe et al., 2004). We build on the methodology of Abe and Urai (2012) where a combination of elastic repulsion and dashpot interactions between the discrete particles is implemented. Several benchmarks are presented to illustrate the material properties. Here, we present extensive, systematic material tests to characterize the rheology of quasi-viscous DEM particle packing. We present two tests: a simple shear test and a channel flow test, both in 2D and 3D. In the simple shear tests, simulations were performed in a box, where the upper wall is moved with a constant velocity in the x-direction, causing shear deformation of the particle assemblage. Here, the boundary conditions are periodic on the sides, with constant forces on the upper and lower walls. In the channel flow tests, a piston pushes a sample through a channel by Poisseuille flow. For both setups, we present the resulting stress-strain relationships over a range of material parameters, confining stress and strain rate. Results show power-law dependence between stress and strain rate, with a non-linear dependence on confining force. The material is strain softening under some conditions (which). Additionally, volumetric strain can be dilatant or compactant, depending on porosity, confining pressure and strain rate. Constitutive relations are implemented in a way that limits the

  19. Effect of Structure on Transport Properties (Viscosity, Ionic Conductivity, and Self-Diffusion Coefficient) of Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion (AHA) Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. 1. Variation of Anionic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyuan; Morales-Collazo, Oscar; Xia, Han; Brennecke, Joan F

    2015-12-03

    A series of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim](+)) with different aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) were synthesized and characterized as potential electrolyte candidates for lithium ion batteries. The density and transport properties of these ILs were measured over the temperature range between 283.15 and 343.15 K at ambient pressure. The temperature dependence of the transport properties (viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and molar conductivity) is fit well by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The best-fit VFT parameters, as well as linear fits to the density, are reported. The ionicity of these ILs was quantified by the ratio of the molar conductivity obtained from the ionic conductivity and molar concentration to that calculated from the self-diffusion coefficients using the Nernst-Einstein equation. The results of this study, which is based on ILs composed of both a planar cation and planar anions, show that many of the [emim][AHA] ILs exhibit very good conductivity for their viscosities and provide insight into the design of ILs with enhanced dynamics that may be suitable for electrolyte applications.

  20. Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.

  1. Diffusive wave in the low Mach limit for non-viscous and heat-conductive gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yechi

    2018-06-01

    The low Mach number limit for one-dimensional non-isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes system without viscosity is investigated, where the density and temperature have different asymptotic states at far fields. It is proved that the solution of the system converges to a nonlinear diffusion wave globally in time as Mach number goes to zero. It is remarked that the velocity of diffusion wave is proportional with the variation of temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes system also has the same phenomenon when Mach number is suitably small.

  2. On the Motion of a Viscous, Compressible, and Meat Conducting Fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2004), s. 1707-1740 ISSN 0022-2518 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes equations * temperature dependent viscosity * global existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2004

  3. A semi-elliptic analysis of internal viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, U.; Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demands placed presently on the performance of compressors and turbines of gas-turbine engines have, for some time, pointed the need for accurate analysis of viscous flows in turbomachinery. With the recent developments of advanced computational facilities, much effort has been made to respond to this need. Various mathematical formulations, grid systems and numerical techniques have been developed for the numerical solution of the viscous flow equations (Refs. 1-4). The full Navier-Stokes equations as well as their corresponding thin-layer approximate form have been employed in H- as well as C-grids, using explicit or implicit methods, including convergence enhancement techniques based on multi-grid methodology. Nevertheless, obtaining converged solutions for general geometries on acceptably refined grids remains a computationally demanding task. The present paper discusses a reduced form on the governing equations which can capture much of the physics, while requiring less computer resources than the full Navier-Stokes equations

  4. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinchon, J A; Harko, T; Mak, M K

    2002-01-01

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor

  5. Spectral analysis of viscous static compressible fluid equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-05-25

    It is generally assumed that the study of the spectrum of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations around a static state will provide information about the stability of the equilibrium. This is obvious for inviscid barotropic compressible fluids by the self-adjoint character of the relevant operator, and rather easy for viscous incompressible fluids by the compact character of the resolvent. The viscous compressible linearized system, both for periodic and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary problems, satisfies neither condition, but it does turn out to be the generator of an immediately continuous, almost stable semigroup, which justifies the analysis of the spectrum as predictive of the initial behaviour of the flow. As for the spectrum itself, except for a unique negative finite accumulation point, it is formed by eigenvalues with negative real part, and nonreal eigenvalues are confined to a certain bounded subset of complex numbers. (author)

  6. Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.

  7. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  8. IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...

  9. Accelerated Testing of UH-60 Viscous Bearings for Degraded Grease Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Brian; Hood, Adrian; Krantz, Timothy; Klemmer, Marko

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated aging investigation of critical aviation bearings lubricated with MIL-PRF- 81322 grease was conducted to derive an understanding of the mechanisms of grease degradation and loss of lubrication over time. The current study focuses on UH-60 Black Hawk viscous damper bearings supporting the tail rotor driveshaft, which were subjected to more than 5800 hours of testing in a heated environment to accelerate the deterioration of the grease. The mechanism of grease degradation is a reduction in the oil/thickener ratio rather than the expected chemical degradation of grease constituents. Over the course of testing, vibration and temperature monitoring of bearings was conducted and trends for failing bearings are presented.

  10. Quasi-neutral limit for a model of viscous plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Zhang, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 197, č. 1 (2010), s. 271-295 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes- Poisson system * quasi-neutral limit * viscous plasma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-010-0317-7

  11. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  12. Viscous Regularization of the Euler Equations and Entropy Principles

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-11

    This paper investigates a general class of viscous regularizations of the compressible Euler equations. A unique regularization is identified that is compatible with all the generalized entropies, à la [Harten et al., SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 35 (1998), pp. 2117-2127], and satisfies the minimum entropy principle. A connection with a recently proposed phenomenological model by [H. Brenner, Phys. A, 370 (2006), pp. 190-224] is made. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.

  14. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  15. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, S.; Tetradis, N.; Wiedemann, U.A.

    2016-10-28

    Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory.

  16. Mathematical theory of viscous fluids: retrospective and future perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2010), s. 533-555 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * global-intime solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4942

  17. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bastelberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.

  18. A Thermodynamically Consistent Approach to Phase-Separating Viscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Denis; Weinberg, Kerstin

    2018-04-01

    The de-mixing properties of heterogeneous viscous fluids are determined by an interplay of diffusion, surface tension and a superposed velocity field. In this contribution a variational model of the decomposition, based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible laminar flow and the extended Korteweg-Cahn-Hilliard equations, is formulated. An exemplary numerical simulation using C1-continuous finite elements demonstrates the capability of this model to compute phase decomposition and coarsening of the moving fluid.

  19. Effective description of dark matter as a viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2016-01-01

    Treating dark matter at large scales as an effectively viscous fluid provides an improved framework for the calculation of the density and velocity power spectra compared to the standard assumption of an ideal pressureless fluid. We discuss how this framework can be made concrete through an appropriate coarse-graining procedure. We also review results that demonstrate that it improves the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory

  20. Aircraft crash survivability from viscous injury in vertical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated viscous injury from vertical impact loading to determine if it is critical to survivability of aircraft accidents. A unique database was built from autopsy reports and accident investigations combining injury data with the vehicle impact data. Computer models were created and used to assess injury potential. Common design limits and actual crash data from full scale research experiments were used as inputs. The results were analyzed according to publi...

  1. Handbook of mathematical analysis in mechanics of viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Novotný, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics has always played a key role for researches in fluid mechanics. The purpose of this handbook is to give an overview of items that are key to handling problems in fluid mechanics. Since the field of fluid mechanics is huge, it is almost impossible to cover many topics. In this handbook, we focus on mathematical analysis on viscous Newtonian fluid. The first part is devoted to mathematical analysis on incompressible fluids while part 2 is devoted to compressible fluids.

  2. Viscous potential flow analysis of magnetohydrodynamic interfacial stability through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obied Allah, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    In the view of viscous potential flow theory, the hydromagnetic stability of the interface between two infinitely conducting, incompressible plasmas, streaming parallel to the interface and subjected to a constant magnetic field parallel to the streaming direction will be considered. The plasmas are flowing through porous media between two rigid planes and surface tension is taken into account. A general dispersion relation is obtained analytically and solved numerically. For Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem, the stability criterion is given by a critical value of the relative velocity. On the other hand, a comparison between inviscid and viscous potential flow solutions has been made and it has noticed that viscosity plays a dual role, destabilizing for Rayleigh-Taylor problem and stabilizing for Kelvin-Helmholtz. For Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a new dispersion relation has been obtained in terms of a critical wave number. It has been found that magnetic field, surface tension, and rigid planes have stabilizing effects, whereas critical wave number and porous media have destabilizing effects. (author)

  3. Alternating currents and shear waves in viscous electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyakin, M.; Falkovich, G.

    2018-02-01

    Strong interaction among charge carriers can make them move like viscous fluid. Here we explore alternating current (ac) effects in viscous electronics. In the Ohmic case, incompressible current distribution in a sample adjusts fast to a time-dependent voltage on the electrodes, while in the viscous case, momentum diffusion makes for retardation and for the possibility of propagating slow shear waves. We focus on specific geometries that showcase interesting aspects of such waves: current parallel to a one-dimensional defect and current applied across a long strip. We find that the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the strip respectively increases/decreases with the frequency for no-slip/no-stress boundary conditions. This is so because when the frequency or strip width goes to zero (alternatively, viscosity go to infinity), the wavelength of the current pattern tends to infinity in the no-stress case and to a finite value in a general case. We also show that for dc current across a strip with a no-stress boundary, there are only one pair of vortices, while there is an infinite vortex chain for all other types of boundary conditions.

  4. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices

  5. Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in the direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. This paper introduces a definition of the shed circulation at all times and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. During a large initial time period, the shed circulation satisfies the scaling laws predicted for self-similar inviscid separation. Various contributions to the circulation shedding rate are presented. The results show that during this initial time period, viscous diffusion of vorticity out of the vortex is significant but appears to be independent of the value of the Reynolds number. At later times, the departure of the shed circulation from its large Reynolds number behaviour is significantly affected by diffusive loss of vorticity through the symmetry axis. A timescale is proposed that describes when the viscous loss through the axis becomes relevant. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included. (paper)

  6. Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.

  7. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  8. Testing of viscous anti-HIV microbicides using Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Rohan, L C; Yang, H

    2012-02-01

    The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive briefly, about 2s, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation of swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2006-11-01

    In nature, many phenomena involve interactions between flexible bodies and their surrounding viscous fluid, such as a swimming fish or a flapping flag. The intrinsic dynamics is complicate and not well understood. A flexible string can be regarded as a one-dimensional flag model. Many similarities can be found between the flapping string and swimming fish, although different wake speed results in a drag force for the flapping string and a propulsion force for the swimming fish. In the present study, we propose a mathematical formulation for swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow. Fluid motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and a momentum forcing is added in order to bring the fluid to move at the same velocity with the immersed surface. A flexible inextensible string model is described by another set of equations with an additional momentum forcing which is a result of the fluid viscosity and the pressure difference across the string. The momentum forcing is calculated by a feedback loop. Simulations of several numerical examples are carried out, including a hanging string which starts moving under gravity without ambient fluid, a swinging string immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid, a string swimming within a uniform surrounding flow, and flow over two side-by-side strings. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis and previous experimental observations. Further simulation of a swimming fish is under consideration.

  10. Viscous dissipation and radiation effects on MHD natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sameh E., E-mail: sameh_sci_math@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, Qena (Egypt); Hussein, Ahmed Kadhim, E-mail: ahmedkadhim7474@gmail.com [College of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Babylon University, Babylon City—Hilla (Iraq); Mohammed, H.A. [Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Adegun, I.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin (Nigeria); Zhang, Xiaohui [School of Physics Science and Technology, School of Energy—Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, Jiangsu (China); Kolsi, Lioua [Unite de Metrologie en Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d’Ingenieurs, Monastir (Tunisia); Hasanpour, Arman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, PO Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sivasankaran, S. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ha decelerates the flow field. • Ha enhances conduction. • Magnetic field orientation is important. • Radiation parameter important. • Nu decreases as Ha increases. -- Abstract: Numerical two-dimensional analysis using finite difference approach with “line method” is performed on the laminar magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium to investigate the effects of viscous dissipation and radiation. The enclosure heated from left vertical sidewall and cooled from an opposing right vertical sidewall. The top and bottom walls of the enclosure are considered adiabatic. The flow in the square enclosure is subjected to a uniform magnetic field at various orientation angles (φ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°). Numerical computations occur at wide ranges of Rayleigh number, viscous dissipation parameter, magnetic field orientation angles, Hartmann number and radiation parameter. Numerical results are presented with the aid of tables and graphical illustrations. The results of the present work explain that the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot and cold sidewalls increase with increasing the radiation parameter. From the other side, the role of viscous dissipation parameter is to reduce the local and average Nusselt numbers at the hot left wall, while it improves them at the cold right wall. The results are compared with another published results and it found to be in a good agreement.

  11. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1990-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1991-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Effects of causality on the fluidity and viscous horizon of quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mahfuzur; Alam, Jan-e.

    2018-05-01

    The second-order Israel-Stewart-M u ̈ller relativistic hydrodynamics was applied to study the effects of causality on the acoustic oscillation in relativistic fluid. Causal dispersion relations have been derived with nonvanishing shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, and thermal conductivity at nonzero temperature and baryonic chemical potential. These relations have been used to investigate the fluidity of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at finite temperature (T ). Results of the first-order dissipative hydrodynamics have been obtained as a limiting case of the second-order theory. The effects of the causality on the fluidity near the transition point and on the viscous horizon are found to be significant. We observe that the inclusion of causality increases the value of fluidity measure of QGP near Tc and hence makes the flow strenuous. It was also shown that the inclusion of the large magnetic field in the causal hydrodynamics alters the fluidity of QGP.

  14. MHD free convection and mass transfer flow over an infinite vertical porous plate with viscous dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonia Hemant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar mixed convective boundary layer flow of an incompressible and electrically-conducting fluid along an infinite vertical plate embedded in the porous medium with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer are discussed. The results show that increased cooling (Gr > 0 of the plate and the Eckert number leads to a rise in the velocity profile. Also, an increase in Eckert number leads to an increase in the temperature. Effects of Sc on velocity and concentration are discussed and shown graphically.

  15. The Effects of Viscous Dissipation on Convection in a Porus Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Raja Rani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the effects of variable physical properties and viscous dissipation on a free convective flow over a vertical plate with a variable temperature embedded in a porous medium. We study the effects of varying physical properties on heat transfer and on flow when the medium is filled with some commonly used experimental fluids, in particular, Glycerin, Water and Methyl chloride (a commonly refrigerant. A similarity transformation technique is used to reduce the partial differential equations governing the flow. The resulting system of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Gill method coupled with a shooting technique. Using this approach, a study is conducted on both hot and cold plates and results presented using a combination of graphical illustrations and tables of the effect of changing a variety of physical parameters, in particular, the temperature and viscosity of the fluid.

  16. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2015-07-15

    We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)

  17. Viscous and thermal modelling of thermoplastic composites forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Eduardo; Liang, Biao; Hamila, Nahiene; Boisse, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process. It is suitable for automotive composite parts manufacturing. The simulation of thermoplastic prepreg forming is achieved by alternate thermal and mechanical analyses. The thermal properties are obtained from a mesoscopic analysis and a homogenization procedure. The forming simulation is based on a viscous-hyperelastic approach. The thermal simulations define the coefficients of the mechanical model that depend on the temperature. The forming simulations modify the boundary conditions and the internal geometry of the thermal analyses. The comparison of the simulation with an experimental thermoforming of a part representative of automotive applications shows the efficiency of the approach.

  18. Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula in viscous cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, I.; Odintsov, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a paper by Verlinde (hep-th/0008140), discussing the holographic principle in a radiation dominated universe, are extended when allowing the cosmic fluid to possess a bulk viscosity. This corresponds to a nonconformally invariant theory. The generalization of the Cardy-Verlinde entropy formula to the case of a viscous universe seems from a formal point of view to be possible, although we question on physical grounds some elements of this kind of theory, especially the manner in which the Casimir energy is evaluated. Our discussion suggests that for nonconformally invariant theories the holographic definition of Casimir energy should be modified

  19. Improvements for rotary viscous dampers used in spacecraft deployment mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Powers, Charles; Lyons, Ron

    1998-01-01

    During component level thermal-vacuum deployment testing of eight rotary viscous dampers for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, all the dampers failed to provide damping during a region of the deployment. Radiographic examination showed that air in the damping fluid caused the undamped motion when the dampers were operated in a vacuum environment. Improvements in the procedure used to fill the dampers with damping fluid, the installation of a Viton vacuum seal in the damper cover, and improved screening techniques eliminated the problem.

  20. ΛCDM model with dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, H. S.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Silva, R.

    2018-03-01

    Many models in cosmology typically assume the standard bulk viscosity. We study an alternative interpretation for the origin of the bulk viscosity. Using nonadditive statistics proposed by Tsallis, we propose a bulk viscosity component that can only exist by a nonextensive effect through the nonextensive/dissipative correspondence (NexDC). In this paper, we consider a ΛCDM model for a flat universe with a dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter component, following the Eckart theory of bulk viscosity, without any perturbative approach. In order to analyze cosmological constraints, we use one of the most recent observations of Type Ia Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background data.

  1. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...

  2. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  3. Crossflow and water banks in viscous dominant regimes of waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the crossflow in multilayered reservoirs is of great importance for designing mobility control methods for enhanced oil recovery. The authors reveal saturation profiles in stratified reservoirs to study the interlayer communication in the viscous dominant regime. The displacement...... profiles are more even and smoother in a communicating layer-cake reservoir than in a noncommunicating one. Water banks and transition zones may be observed. Analysis indicates that the phenomena are attributed to the enhanced crossflow due to large mobility ratios (water-oil). The mobility control...

  4. Emulsifying property of a viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtaputre, A A; Shah, A K

    1995-03-01

    A viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis-GS1, emulsified xylene, benzene, 2-methylnaphthalene, hexadecane, hexane, kerosene and paraffin oil as well as castor, coconut and olive oils when used at 1 mg/ml. It stabilized the emulsions more efficiently than commercial gums such as arabic, tragacanth, karaya and xanthan. Emulsions were stable for 6 months, from 4 to 40°C and pH 4 to 10 and in the presence of NaCl up to 50 g/l. The polysaccharide had no discernible toxicity towards mice when tested using World Health Organization guidelines.

  5. Study of pattern formation at liquid interfaces: Progress report, November 1986-October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    This paper summarizes the work done on the following topics at the University of Pittsburgh: the behavior of a tip-splitting, viscous-fingering system and the role of interfacial noise in pattern formation on planar interfaces; the search for instability on a quenched liquid interface; and binary liquid gels and polymer solutions

  6. Thermal conductivity of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-04-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37°C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, i.e., the ratio of the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. However, while the thermal conductivity is known to diverge at the vapor-liquid critical point due to critical density fluctuations, the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity and heat capacity, does not show any sign of such an anomaly. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water and found that indeed any critical thermal-conductivity enhancement would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. Moreover, the behavior of thermal conductivity can be explained by the observed anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. In particular, we show that thermal conductivity should go through a minimum when temperature is decreased, as Kumar and Stanley observed in the TIP5P model of water. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the behavior of thermal conductivity in water near the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points.

  7. Industrial solid and liquid waste treatment processes; Les procedes de traitement des dechets industriels solides et liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    This catalogue gives information on 68 chemical, mechanical, magnetic, electrical, thermal, etc. techniques for the processing of solid, viscous and liquid, common or special, industrial wastes. The various processes are presented as files, which are easily retrievable through keywords, waste type or industry codes, processing types, distributors. Technologies, performances and applications of each techniques are presented, together with references and company contacts

  8. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  9. Nepem-211 ion exchange conductive membrane immobilized tris(2,2´-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) electrogenerated chemiluminescence flow sensor for high-performance liquid chromatography and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbo; Zhang, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    We developed a sensitive and robust electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) flow sensor based on Ru(bpy)3(2+) immobilized with a Nepem-211 perfluorinated ion exchange conductance membrane, which has robustness and stability under a wide range of chemical and physical conditions, good electrical conductivity, isotropy and a high exchange capacity for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+). The flow sensor has been used as a post-column detector in high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of erythromycin and clarithromycin in honey and pork, and tricyclic antidepressant drugs in human urine. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges were 0.03-26 ng/μL and 0.01-1 ng/μL for macrolides and tricyclic antidepressant drugs, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.06 and 0.003 ng/μL for erythromycin, clarithromycin, doxepin, amitriptyline and clomipramine, respectively. There is no post-column reagent addition. In addition to the conservation expensive reagents, the experimental setup was simplified. The flow sensor was used for 2 years with high sensitivity and stability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...

  11. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Sobreiro, Octavio A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field comprising baryons and dark matter. The constituents are assumed to interact with each other, and a non-equilibrium pressure is introduced to account for irreversible processes. We take the nonequilibrium pressure to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first-order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which depend on the ratio between their energy densities. We adjust the free parameters of the model to optimize the fits to the Hubble parameter data. We compare the viscous model with the non-viscous one, and show that the irreversible processes cause the dark-energy and matter-density parameters to become equal and the decelerated-accelerated transition to occur at earlier times. Furthermore, the density and deceleration parameters and the distance modulus have the correct behavior, consistent with a viable scenario of the present status of the Universe . (author)

  12. Rheology of granular flows immersed in a viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarsid, Lhassan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid by means of extensive simulations based on the Discrete Element Method for particle dynamics coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid. We show that, for a broad range of parameters such as shear rate, confining stress and viscosity, the internal friction coefficient and packing fraction are well described by a single 'visco-inertial' dimensionless parameter combining inertial and Stokes numbers. The frictional behavior under constant confining pressure is mapped into a viscous behavior under volume-controlled conditions, leading to the divergence of the effective normal and shear viscosities in inverse square of the distance to the critical packing fraction. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of Boyer et al. (2011). The evolution of the force network in terms of connectivity and anisotropy as a function of the visco-inertial number, indicates that the increase of frictional strength is a direct consequence of structural anisotropy enhanced by both fluid viscosity and grain inertia. In view of application to a potential nuclear accident, we also study the fragmentation and flow of confined porous aggregates in a fluid under the action of local overpressures and pressure gradients as well as gravity-driven flow of immersed particles in an hourglass. (author)

  13. Dynamics of flexible fibers transported in confined viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Jean; Duprat, Camille; Du Roure, Olivia; Nagel, Mathias; Gallaire, François; Lindner, Anke

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of elongated objects has been extensively studied in unbounded media as for example the sedimentation of fibers at low Reynolds numbers. It has recently been shown that these transport dynamics are strongly modified by bounding walls. Here we focus on the dynamics of flexible fibers confined by the top and bottom walls of a microchannel and transported in pressure-driven flows. We combine well-controlled microfluidic experiments and simulations using modified Brinkmann equations. We control shape, orientation, and mechanical properties of our fibers using micro-fabrication techniques and in-situ characterization methods. These elastic fibers can be deformed by viscous and pressure forces leading to very rich transport dynamics coupling lateral drift with shape evolution. We show that the bending of a perpendicular fiber is proportional to an elasto-viscous number and we fully characterize the influence of the confinement on the deformation of the fiber. Experiments on parallel flexible fibers reveal the existence of a buckling threshold. The European Research Council is acknowledged for funding the work through a consolidator Grant (ERC PaDyFlow 682367).

  14. Shear-Induced Membrane Fusion in Viscous Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim

    2014-05-06

    Large unilamellar lipid vesicles do not normally fuse under fluid shear stress. They might deform and open pores to relax the tension to which they are exposed, but membrane fusion occurring solely due to shear stress has not yet been reported. We present evidence that shear forces in a viscous solution can induce lipid bilayer fusion. The fusion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes is observed in Couette flow with shear rates above 3000 s-1 provided that the medium is viscous enough. Liposome samples, prepared at different viscosities using a 0-50 wt % range of sucrose concentration, were studied by dynamic light scattering, lipid fusion assays using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Liposomes in solutions with 40 wt % (or more) sucrose showed lipid fusion under shear forces. These results support the hypothesis that under suitable conditions lipid membranes may fuse in response to mechanical-force- induced stress. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.

  16. Non self-propelled swimmer in a confined viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Priyanka; Mandal, Subhayan

    2018-05-01

    As we know that in a low Reynolds number regime, the swimming strategies that are used in high Reynolds number swimming are inefficient because of the dominating viscous forces. Therefore, micro-swimmers have developed different moving strategies that have fruitfully overcome and have exploited drag. Hydrodynamic interactions due to the objects in the vicinity are also one of the ingredients that can make a micro-swimmer motile. To show the importance of such kind of hydrodynamic interactions, here we investigate a 2-D scallop near no-slip boundaries in a viscous fluid using bead spring model together with multi-particle collision dynamics. Here, we show that if we place a scallop near a wall, it gets rotated and the direction of rotation depends upon the orientation of the scallop as expected. Instead of one wall, if we place the scallop between two closely spaced walls, initially it rotates and then slowly starts moving in backward direction due to the hydrodynamic interaction with the walls. Then we show that how the speed of the scallop is affected as we change the width of the channel. Our results can endue important guidance in the construction of robotic micro-swimmers.

  17. Viscous self interacting dark matter and cosmic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Arvind

    2018-02-01

    Self interacting dark matter (SIDM) provides us with a consistent solution to certain astrophysical observations in conflict with collision-less cold DM paradigm. In this work we estimate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) of SIDM, within kinetic theory formalism, for galactic and cluster size SIDM halos. To that extent we make use of the recent constraints on SIDM cross-section for the dwarf galaxies, LSB galaxies and clusters. We also estimate the change in solution of Einstein's equation due to these viscous effects and find that σ/m constraints on SIDM from astrophysical data provide us with sufficient viscosity to account for the observed cosmic acceleration at present epoch, without the need of any additional dark energy component. Using the estimates of dark matter density for galactic and cluster size halo we find that the mean free path of dark matter ~ few Mpc. Thus the smallest scale at which the viscous effect start playing the role is cluster scale. Astrophysical data for dwarf, LSB galaxies and clusters also seems to suggest the same. The entire analysis is independent of any specific particle physics motivated model for SIDM.

  18. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  19. Performance test of a ceramic turbo-viscous pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Murakami, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Shigeyuki; Totoura, Sadayuki; Ohtaki, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    In the special fields of nuclear fusion facilities and semiconductor production installation, the development of new vacuum pumps which can cope with strong magnetic fields, high temperature gas and corrosive gas is demanded. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has advanced the development of ceramic turbo-molecular pumps and ceramic turbo-viscous pumps, which use ceramic rotors and gas bearings since 1985. The evaluation test of the ceramic turbo-viscous vacuum pump CT-3000H which can evacuate from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum with one pump was carried out, and the experimental results on the performance and the reliability were obtained, therefore, those are reported in this paper. The structure, specification and features of the CT-3000H are shown. The exhaust performance test of the pump was carried out in conformity with the standard of the Vacuum Society of Japan, JVIS 005 'Method of performance test for turbo-molecular pumps'. The gases used were nitrogen and helium. The results are shown. The exhaust test from atmospheric pressure was carried out by two methods, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  20. Effect of external viscous load on head movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL NON-ISOTHERMAL FLOW HIGHLY VISCOUS MEDIA CHANNELS MATRIX EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sidorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional steady flow of highly viscous medium in a cylindrical channel with Dissipation and dependence of the viscosity on the temperature. It is assumed that a relatively small intervals of temperature variation of the dynamic viscosity with a sufficient degree of accuracy can be assumed to be linear. The model was based on the equations of hydrodynamics and the heat transfer fluid. In the task channel wall temperature is assumed constant. An approximate solution of the problem, according to which the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature is sought in the form of an expansion in powers of the dimensionless transverse coordinates. A special case, when the ratio of the velocity distribution, pressure and temperature is allowed to restrict the number of terms in the expansion as follows: for speed - the first 3 to the pressure - the first two for the temperature - the first 5. The expressions to determine the temperature profile of the medium in the channel and characterization dissipative heating. To simulate the process of heat transfer highly viscous media developed a program for personal electronic computers. The calculation was performed using experimental research data melt flow grain mixture of buckwheat and soybeans for the load speed of 0.08 mm / s. The method of computer simulation carried out checks on the adequacy of the solutions to the real process of heat transfer. Analysis of the results indicates that for small values of the length of the channel influence dissipation function appears mainly at the wall. By increasing the reduced length of this phenomenon applies to all section of the channel. At high temperature profile along the channel length is determined entirely by dissipation. In the case of heat transfer due to frictional heat only, the form of curves of temperature distribution is a consequence of the interaction effects of heating due to viscous shear effects cooling by conduction. The

  2. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  3. Liquid phase and supercooled liquid phase welding of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress on welding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has been reviewed. BMGs have been successfully welded to BMGs or crystalline metals by liquid phase welding using explosion, pulse-current and electron-beam methods, and by supercooled liquid phase welding using friction method. Successful welding of the liquid phase methods was due to the high glass-forming ability of the BMGs and the high concentration of welding energy in these methods. In contrast, the supercooled liquid phase welding was successful due to the thermally stable supercooled liquid state of the BMGs and the superplasticity and viscous flow of the supercooled liquid. The successful welding of BMGs to BMGs and crystalline materials is promising for the future development of BMGs as engineering materials

  4. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs

  5. Two-point active microrheology in a viscous medium exploiting a motional resonance excited in dual-trap optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shuvojit; Kumar, Randhir; Banerjee, Ayan

    2018-04-01

    Two-point microrheology measurements from widely separated colloidal particles approach the bulk viscosity of the host medium more reliably than corresponding single-point measurements. In addition, active microrheology offers the advantage of enhanced signal to noise over passive techniques. Recently, we reported the observation of a motional resonance induced in a probe particle in dual-trap optical tweezers when the control particle was driven externally [Paul et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 050102(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.050102]. We now demonstrate that the amplitude and phase characteristics of the motional resonance can be used as a sensitive tool for active two-point microrheology to measure the viscosity of a viscous fluid. Thus, we measure the viscosity of viscous liquids from both the amplitude and phase response of the resonance, and demonstrate that the zero crossing of the phase response of the probe particle with respect to the external drive is superior compared to the amplitude response in measuring viscosity at large particle separations. We compare our viscosity measurements with those using a commercial rheometer and obtain an agreement ˜1 % . The method can be extended to viscoelastic material where the frequency dependence of the resonance may provide further accuracy for active microrheological measurements.

  6. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.

  7. Numerical Investigation on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çilingir Süngü İnci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to examine the steady two dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a continuous surface. In this study DTM-Padé method is used to solve which is a combination of differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximant. Comparisons between the solutions obtained by DTM and DTM-Padé and are shown that DTM-Padé is the completely powerful method then DTM for solving the problems in which boundary conditions at infinity. Also in this study the effect of Magnetic and Radiation parameters, Prandtl number and Eckert number for velocity and temperature distributions are investigated.

  8. Comparison of elastic-viscous-plastic and viscous-plastic dynamics models using a high resolution Arctic sea ice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, E.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A nonlinear viscous-plastic (VP) rheology proposed by Hibler (1979) has been demonstrated to be the most suitable of the rheologies commonly used for modeling sea ice dynamics. However, the presence of a huge range of effective viscosities hinders numerical implementations of this model, particularly on high resolution grids or when the ice model is coupled to an ocean or atmosphere model. Hunke and Dukowicz (1997) have modified the VP model by including elastic waves as a numerical regularization in the case of zero strain rate. This modification (EVP) allows an efficient, fully explicit discretization that adapts well to parallel architectures. The authors present a comparison of EVP and VP dynamics model results from two 5-year simulations of Arctic sea ice, obtained with a high resolution sea ice model. The purpose of the comparison is to determine how differently the two dynamics models behave, and to decide whether the elastic-viscous-plastic model is preferable for high resolution climate simulations, considering its high efficiency in parallel computation. Results from the first year of this experiment (1990) are discussed in detail in Hunke and Zhang (1997).

  9. Numerical analysis of the influence of liquid on propagation of a rolling contact fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olzak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigations of the propagation of rolling contact fatigue crack filled by the liquid have been conducted. Two models of fluid crack interaction have been considered. In the first model called 䖓hydrostatic� the assumption of incompressible, inviscid and weightless liquid was accepted. It was also assumed that due to the wheel load the trapped liquid could not get outside the crack and its volume remained constant until the rising pressure would open up the crack mouth again. On this assumption the analysis has a steady-state character. In the second model it has been assumed that the crack is filled by the viscous, incompressible fluid and the fluid motion as well as the resulting pressure distribution can be represented by one-dimensional form of the Reynolds equation. The method for solving the problem of the coupled motion of liquid and crack faces has been developed and series of calculation were made. The method has been employed for the predicting of crack deformation in the course of wheel rolling

  10. The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J; Jonathan, Melliana C; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Mars, Monica; Schols, Henk A; Feskens, Edith J M; de Graaf, Cees

    2013-04-14

    The objective was to determine the effects of dietary fibre with bulking, viscous and gel-forming properties on satiation, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a randomised crossover study with 121 men and women. Subjects were healthy, non-restrained eaters, aged 18-50 years and with normal BMI (18.5-25 kg/m²). Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1.25 g/100 g and 2.5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2.5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g). Physico-chemical properties of the test products were confirmed in simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. In a cinema setting, ad libitum intake of the test products was measured concurrently with oral exposure time per cookie by video recording. In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by ¹³C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3.1 (sd 1.6) MJ) compared to control (4.0 (sd 2.2) MJ, P< 0.001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2.3 (sd 1.9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1.6 (sd 0.9) min, P= 0.01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P< 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time.

  11. Stability of horizontal viscous fluid layers in a vertical arbitrary time periodic electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    The stability of a horizontal interface between two viscous fluids, one of which is conducting and the other is dielectric, acted upon by a vertical time-periodic electric field is considered theoretically. The two fluids are bounded by electrodes separated by a finite distance. For an applied ac electric field, the unstable interface deforms in a time periodic manner, owing to the time dependent Maxwell stress, and is characterized by the oscillation frequency which may or may not be the same as the frequency of the ac electric field. The stability curve, which relates the critical voltage, manifested through the Mason number—the ratio of normal electric stress and viscous stress, and the instability wavenumber at the onset of the instability, is obtained by means of the Floquet theory for a general arbitrary time periodic electric field. The limit of vanishing viscosities is shown to be in excellent agreement with the marginal stability curves predicted by means of a Mathieu equation. The influence of finite viscosity and electrode separation is discussed in relation to the ideal case of inviscid fluids. The methodology to obtain the marginal stability curves developed here is applicable to any arbitrary but time periodic signal, as demonstrated for the case of a signal with two different frequencies, and four different frequencies with a dc offset. The mode coupling in the interfacial normal stress leads to appearance of harmonic and subharmonic modes, characterized by the frequency of the oscillating interface at an integral or half-integral multiple of the applied frequency, respectively. This is in contrast to the application of a voltage with a single frequency which always leads to a harmonic mode oscillation of the interface. Whether a harmonic or subharmonic mode is the most unstable one depends on details of the excitation signal.

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. The effect of inertially viscous interphase interaction on the acoustic characteristics of disperse media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir S Fedotovsky; Tatiana N Vereshchagina; Alexey V Derbenev

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The vibratory-wave dynamics of disperse media with uniformly distributed spherical and ellipsoidal inclusions is considered on the basis of the concept of effective dynamic properties. The notions of effective dynamic density and translation viscosity taking account of the effects of the inertial and viscous interaction of liquid and disperse inclusions are introduced. The effective dynamic properties governing the process of wave propagation in disperse media depend both on the density, viscosity and concentration of components and on the form and orientation of inclusions. It is shown that for disperse media with inclusions as oblate ellipsoids of rotation the effective dynamic density takes the maximum value, whereas for the medium with inclusions as extended ellipsoids - the minimum one. The dynamic density of the medium with spherical inclusions takes the intermediate value. Based on the offered concept, the relations for sound velocity and attenuation in disperse media are derived. It is shown that the acoustic characteristics of disperse media essentially depend on the form of the ellipsoidal inclusions and their orientation relative to the direction of wave propagation. (authors)

  14. Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure

  15. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  16. Rotational friction coefficient of a permeable cylinder in a viscous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegel, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    An exact expression is derived for the rotational friction coefficient of a cylinder of infinite length and constant permeability immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. An asymptotic expression for the translational friction coefficient of a permeable cylinder moving in a sheet of viscous

  17. Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin : Extending Taylor’s problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, P.C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model

  18. Quasi-Simultaneous Viscous-Inviscid Interaction for Transonic Airfoil Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Following Prandtl, a viscous-inviscid interaction (VII) method is presented, where the flow field is divided into a viscous shear layer and an inviscid outer region. Their coupling is performed with the quasi-simultaneous approach, making use of an appropriately chosen interaction law. Firstly, an

  19. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We simulate viscous fingering generated by separating two plates with a constant force, in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell. Variation in the patterns for different fluid viscosity and lifting force is studied. Viscous fingering is strongly affected by anisotropy. We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or ...

  20. The constancy of the contact angle in viscous liquid motions with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2-D case where the analysis is simpler; the general 3-D case is dealt with in §2.3. ... Equation (2.3a) is a statement of the interface integrity; material particles ..... Thanks are also due to the Indian Space Research Organization for financial.

  1. On the Impact of Spheres onto Liquid Pools and Ultra-viscous Films

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The free-surface impact of spheres is important to several applications in the military, industry and sports such as the water-entry of torpedoes, dip-coating procedures and slamming of boats. This two-part thesis attempts to explore this field

  2. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  3. Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.

  4. Study of MRI in stratified viscous plasma configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Renzi, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the morphology of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) for a stratified viscous plasma disk configuration in differential rotation, taking into account the so-called corotation theorem for the background profile. In order to select the intrinsic Alfvénic nature of MRI, we deal with an incompressible plasma and we adopt a formulation of the local perturbation analysis based on the use of the magnetic flux function as a dynamical variable. Our study outlines, as consequence of the corotation condition, a marked asymmetry of the MRI with respect to the equatorial plane, particularly evident in a complete damping of the instability over a positive critical height on the equatorial plane. We also emphasize how such a feature is already present (although less pronounced) even in the ideal case, restoring a dependence of the MRI on the stratified morphology of the gravitational field.

  5. Fully-developed heat transfer in annuli with viscous dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, P.M. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia; Pinho, F.T. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia

    2006-09-15

    For Newtonian concentric annular flows analytical solutions are obtained under imposed asymmetric constant wall heat fluxes as well as under imposed asymmetric constant wall temperatures, taking into account viscous dissipation and for fluid dynamic and thermally fully-developed conditions. Results for the special case of the heat flux ratio for identical wall temperatures and the critical Brinkman numbers marking changes of sign in wall heat fluxes are also derived. Equations are presented for the Nusselt numbers at the inner and outer walls, bulk temperature and normalised temperature distribution as a function of all relevant non-dimensional numbers. Given the complexity of the derived equations, simpler exact expressions are presented for the Nusselt numbers for ease of use, with their coefficients given in tables as a function of the radius ratio. (author)

  6. Two-particle microrheology of quasi-2D viscous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V; Koehler, S A; Weeks, Eric R

    2006-10-27

    We study the spatially correlated motions of colloidal particles in a quasi-2D system (human serum albumin protein molecules at an air-water interface) for different surface viscosities eta s. We observe a transition in the behavior of the correlated motion, from 2D interface dominated at high eta s to bulk fluid dependent at low eta s. The correlated motions can be scaled onto a master curve which captures the features of this transition. This master curve also characterizes the spatial dependence of the flow field of a viscous interface in response to a force. The scale factors used for the master curve allow for the calculation of the surface viscosity eta s that can be compared to one-particle measurements.

  7. Bounds on fluid permeability for viscous flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    General properties of variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow viscous flow through porous media are studied. The bounds are also evaluated numerically for the penetrable sphere model. The bound of Doi depending on two-point correlations and the analytical bound of Weissberg and Prager give comparable results in the low density limit but the analytical bound is superior for higher densities. Prager's bound depending on three-point correlation functions is worse than the analytical bound at low densities but better (although comparable to it) at high densities. A procedure for methodically improving Prager's three point bound is presented. By introducing a Gaussian trial function, the three-point bound is improved by an order of magnitude for moderate values of porosity. The new bounds are comparable in magnitude to the Kozeny--Carman empirical relation for porous materials

  8. Constraining viscous dark energy models with the latest cosmological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He

    2017-10-01

    Based on the assumption that the dark energy possessing bulk viscosity is homogeneously and isotropically permeated in the universe, we propose three new viscous dark energy (VDE) models to characterize the accelerating universe. By constraining these three models with the latest cosmological observations, we find that they just deviate very slightly from the standard cosmological model and can alleviate effectively the current H_0 tension between the local observation by the Hubble Space Telescope and the global measurement by the Planck Satellite. Interestingly, we conclude that a spatially flat universe in our VDE model with cosmic curvature is still supported by current data, and the scale invariant primordial power spectrum is strongly excluded at least at the 5.5σ confidence level in the three VDE models as the Planck result. We also give the 95% upper limits of the typical bulk viscosity parameter η in the three VDE scenarios.

  9. Constraining viscous dark energy models with the latest cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-10-15

    Based on the assumption that the dark energy possessing bulk viscosity is homogeneously and isotropically permeated in the universe, we propose three new viscous dark energy (VDE) models to characterize the accelerating universe. By constraining these three models with the latest cosmological observations, we find that they just deviate very slightly from the standard cosmological model and can alleviate effectively the current H{sub 0} tension between the local observation by the Hubble Space Telescope and the global measurement by the Planck Satellite. Interestingly, we conclude that a spatially flat universe in our VDE model with cosmic curvature is still supported by current data, and the scale invariant primordial power spectrum is strongly excluded at least at the 5.5σ confidence level in the three VDE models as the Planck result. We also give the 95% upper limits of the typical bulk viscosity parameter η in the three VDE scenarios. (orig.)

  10. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J.

    1990-01-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14 C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs

  11. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J. (Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated {sup 14}C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

  12. Mathematical theory of compressible viscous fluids analysis and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard; Pokorný, Milan

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an essential introduction to the mathematical theory of compressible viscous fluids. The main goal is to present analytical methods from the perspective of their numerical applications. Accordingly, we introduce the principal theoretical tools needed to handle well-posedness of the underlying Navier-Stokes system, study the problems of sequential stability, and, lastly, construct solutions by means of an implicit numerical scheme. Offering a unique contribution – by exploring in detail the “synergy” of analytical and numerical methods – the book offers a valuable resource for graduate students in mathematics and researchers working in mathematical fluid mechanics. Mathematical fluid mechanics concerns problems that are closely connected to real-world applications and is also an important part of the theory of partial differential equations and numerical analysis in general. This book highlights the fact that numerical and mathematical analysis are not two separate fields of mathematic...

  13. A three-dimensional viscous topography mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J; Flender, M; Kandlbinder, T; Panhans, W G; Trautmann, T; Zdunkowski, W G [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Cui, K; Ries, R; Siebert, J; Wedi, N

    1997-11-01

    This study describes the theoretical foundation and applications of a newly designed mesoscale model named CLIMM (climate model Mainz). In contrast to terrain following coordinates, a cartesian grid is used to keep the finite difference equations as simple as possible. The method of viscous topography is applied to the flow part of the model. Since the topography intersects the cartesian grid cells, the new concept of boundary weight factors is introduced for the solution of Poisson`s equation. A three-dimensional radiosity model was implemented to handle radiative transfer at the ground. The model is applied to study thermally induced circulations and gravity waves at an idealized mountain. Furthermore, CLIMM was used to simulate typical wind and temperature distributions for the city of Mainz and its rural surroundings. It was found that the model in all cases produced realistic results. (orig.) 38 refs.

  14. Lectures on Mathematical Foundation of Turbulent Viscous Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Miyakawa, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    Five leading specialists reflect on different and complementary approaches to fundamental questions in the study of the Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics equations. Constantin presents the Euler equations of ideal incompressible fluids and discusses the blow-up problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous fluids, describing some of the major mathematical questions of turbulence theory. These questions are connected to the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg theory of singularities for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is explained in Gallavotti's lectures. Kazhikhov introduces the theory of strong approximation of weak limits via the method of averaging, applied to Navier-Stokes equations. Y. Meyer focuses on several nonlinear evolution equations - in particular Navier-Stokes - and some related unexpected cancellation properties, either imposed on the initial condition, or satisfied by the solution itself, whenever it is localized in space or in time variable. Ukai presents the asymptotic analysis th...

  15. Entropy-based viscous regularization for the multi-dimensional Euler equations in low-Mach and transonic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc O Delchini; Jean E. Ragusa; Ray A. Berry

    2015-07-01

    We present a new version of the entropy viscosity method, a viscous regularization technique for hyperbolic conservation laws, that is well-suited for low-Mach flows. By means of a low-Mach asymptotic study, new expressions for the entropy viscosity coefficients are derived. These definitions are valid for a wide range of Mach numbers, from subsonic flows (with very low Mach numbers) to supersonic flows, and no longer depend on an analytical expression for the entropy function. In addition, the entropy viscosity method is extended to Euler equations with variable area for nozzle flow problems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using various 1-D and 2-D benchmark tests: flow in a converging–diverging nozzle; Leblanc shock tube; slow moving shock; strong shock for liquid phase; low-Mach flows around a cylinder and over a circular hump; and supersonic flow in a compression corner. Convergence studies are performed for smooth solutions and solutions with shocks present.

  16. Chemical stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride from an elixir and lidocaine hydrochloride from a viscous solution when mixed together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishnu D

    2006-01-01

    The stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (from an elixir) and lidocaine hydrochloride (from a viscous solution) in a mixture (1:1) was studied using a stability-indicating high-peformance liquid chromatographic assay method. The concentrations of the drugs were related directly to peak heights and the percent relative standard deviations based on five injections were 1.4 for diphenhydramine and 1.3 for lidocaine. The products of hydrolysis from the both the drugs and a number of excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the developed assay procedure. The mixture was stable for at least 21 days when stored in amber-colored bottles at room temperature. The pH value of the mixture remained constant, and the physical appearance did not change during the study period.

  17. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Gravitational waves from remnant massive neutron stars of binary neutron star merger: Viscous hydrodynamics effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2017-06-01

    Employing a simplified version of the Israel-Stewart formalism of general-relativistic shear-viscous hydrodynamics, we explore the evolution of a remnant massive neutron star of binary neutron star merger and pay special attention to the resulting gravitational waveforms. We find that for the plausible values of the so-called viscous alpha parameter of the order 10-2 the degree of the differential rotation in the remnant massive neutron star is significantly reduced in the viscous time scale, ≲5 ms . Associated with this, the degree of nonaxisymmetric deformation is also reduced quickly, and as a consequence, the amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves emitted also decays in the viscous time scale. Our results indicate that for modeling the evolution of the merger remnants of binary neutron stars we would have to take into account magnetohydrodynamics effects, which in nature could provide the viscous effects.

  19. Numerical simulation of energy equation with viscous dissipation for compressible flow over cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Chughtai, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    A finite volume discretization technique has been used to solve the energy equation with viscous dissipation. The effects of viscous heat dissipation for Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0, at an angle of attack of 0 degree, over sharp and blunt cones have been studied. Algebraic equations have been solved using line-by-line Tda method. Supersonic flow over cones has been analyzed and discussed with and without considering the viscous dissipation effects. It has been found that the effects of viscous dissipation increase with the increase in Mach number. Viscous dissipation affects the temperature distribution of the body. However, the temperature difference in these cases was insignificant. This may be due to the fact that these analysis have been done at 0 km altitude. (author)

  20. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, M J; Schmid, H -J; Peukert, W

    2009-08-01

    The viscous-flow sintering of different agglomerate particle morphologies is studied by three-dimensional computer simulations based on the concept of fractional volume of fluid. For a fundamental understanding of particle sintering characteristics, the neck growth kinetics in agglomerate chains and in doublets consisting of differently sized primary particles is investigated. Results show that different sintering contacts in agglomerates even during the first stages are not completely independent from each other, even though differences are small. The neck growth kinetics of differently sized primary particles is determined by the smaller one up to a size difference by a factor of approximately 2, whereas for larger size differences, the kinetics becomes faster. In particular, the agglomerate sintering kinetics is investigated for particle chains of different lengths and for different particle morphologies each having ten primary particles and nine initial sintering contacts. For agglomerate chains, the kinetics approximately can be normalized by using the radius of the fully coalesced sphere. In general, different agglomerate morphologies show equal kinetics during the first sintering stages, whereas during advanced stages, compact morphologies show significantly faster sintering progress than more open morphologies. Hence, the overall kinetics cannot be described by simply using constant morphology correction factors such as fractal dimension or mean coordination number which are used in common sintering models. However, for the first stages of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering, which are the most important for many particle processes, a sintering equation is presented. Although we use agglomerates consisting of spherical primary particles, our methodology can be applied to other aggregate geometries as well.

  2. Dynamics of two coaxial cylindrical shells containing viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, T.T.; Chen, S.S.

    1976-09-01

    This study was motivated by the need to design the thermal shield in reactor internals and other system components to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibrations. The system component is modeled as two coaxial shells separated by a viscous fluid. In the analysis, Flugge's shell equations of motion and linearized Navier-Stokes equation for viscous fluid are employed. First, a traveling-wave type solution is taken for shells and fluid. Then, from the interface conditions between the shells and fluid, the solution for the fluid medium is expressed in terms of shell displacements. Finally, using the shell equations of motion gives the frequency equation, from which the natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio of coupled modes can be calculated. The analytical results show a fairly good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. Some important conclusions are as follows: (1) In computing the natural frequencies and mode shapes of uncoupled modes and coupled modes, the fluid may be considered inviscid and incompressible. (2) There exists out-of-phase and in-phase modes. The lowest natural frequency is always associated with the out-of-phase mode. (3) The lowest natural frequency of coupled modes is lower than the uncoupled modes. (4) The fluid viscosity contributes significantly to damping, in particular, the modal damping of the out-of-phase modes isrelatively large for small gaps. (5) If the fluid gap is small, or the fluid viscosity is relatively high, the simulation of the vibration Reynolds number should be included to ensure that modal damping of the model is properly accounted for. With the presented analysis and results, the frequency and damping characteristics can be analyzed and design parameters can be related to frequency and damping

  3. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  4. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  5. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  6. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  7. Laboratory simulation of heat exchange for liquids with Pr > 1: Heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Zakharova, O. D.; Krasnoshchekova, T. E.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sukomel, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid metals are promising heat transfer agents in new-generation nuclear power plants, such as fast-neutron reactors and hybrid tokamaks—fusion neutron sources (FNSs). We have been investigating hydrodynamics and heat exchange of liquid metals for many years, trying to reproduce the conditions close to those in fast reactors and fusion neutron sources. In the latter case, the liquid metal flow takes place in a strong magnetic field and strong thermal loads resulting in development of thermogravitational convection in the flow. In this case, quite dangerous regimes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat exchange not known earlier may occur that, in combination with other long-known regimes, for example, the growth of hydraulic drag in a strong magnetic field, make the possibility of creating a reliable FNS cooling system with a liquid metal heat carrier problematic. There exists a reasonable alternative to liquid metals in FNS, molten salts, namely, the melt of lithium and beryllium fluorides (Flibe) and the melt of fluorides of alkali metals (Flinak). Molten salts, however, are poorly studied media, and their application requires detailed scientific substantiation. We analyze the modern state of the art of studies in this field. Our contribution is to answer the following question: whether above-mentioned extremely dangerous regimes of MHD heat exchange detected in liquid metals can exist in molten salts. Experiments and numerical simulation were performed in order to answer this question. The experimental test facility represents a water circuit, since water (or water with additions for increasing its electrical conduction) is a convenient medium for laboratory simulation of salt heat exchange in FNS conditions. Local heat transfer coefficients along the heated tube, three-dimensional (along the length and in the cross section, including the viscous sublayer) fields of averaged temperature and temperature pulsations are studied. The probe method for measurements in

  8. Interacting viscous ghost tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K; Fahimi, K

    2013-01-01

    We study the correspondence between the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model with the tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models in the framework of Einstein gravity. We consider a spatially non-flat FRW universe filled with interacting viscous ghost dark energy and dark matter. We reconstruct both the dynamics and potential of these scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model, which can describe the accelerated expansion of the universe. Our numerical results show that the interaction and viscosity have opposite effects on the evolutionary properties of the ghost scalar field models. (paper)

  9. Establishment of the technical basis to apply the viscous damper in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, J.; Suezono, N.; Higuchi, T. [Toshiba Corp., Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Isogo-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Katayama, H. [Toshiba Corp., Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Isogo-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the technical development of the damper using viscous fluid (hereinafter called 'the viscous damper') for the structures, bridges and components in the general industrial field is remarkable, and the experiences of the application to mitigate influence in an earthquake is being gathered now. In this paper, purpose of the whole activity, schedule, the research and test results carried out so far, and future plan to establish the technical basis to apply the viscous damper in nuclear power plant are reported. (author)

  10. The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Li Tong; Shi Zhongke

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.

  11. The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lei, E-mail: yuleijk@126.co [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China); Li Tong [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Shi Zhongke [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China)

    2010-05-10

    In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.

  12. Optimal contant time injection policy for enhanced oil recovery and characterization of optimal viscous profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-11-01

    We numerically investigate the optimal viscous profile in constant time injection policy of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, we investigate the effect of a combination of interfacial and layer instabilities in three-layer porous media flow on the overall growth of instabilities and thereby characterize the optimal viscous profile. Results based on monotonic and non-monotonic viscous profiles will be presented. Time permitting. we will also present results on multi-layer porous media flows for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and compare the results. The support of Qatar National Fund under a QNRF Grant is acknowledged.

  13. Establishment of the technical basis to apply the viscous damper in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, J.; Suezono, N.; Higuchi, T.; Katayama, H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the technical development of the damper using viscous fluid (hereinafter called 'the viscous damper') for the structures, bridges and components in the general industrial field is remarkable, and the experiences of the application to mitigate influence in an earthquake is being gathered now. In this paper, purpose of the whole activity, schedule, the research and test results carried out so far, and future plan to establish the technical basis to apply the viscous damper in nuclear power plant are reported. (author)

  14. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  15. Evolutionary pulsational mode dynamics in nonthermal turbulent viscous astrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Dutta, Pranamika

    2017-11-01

    The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in a partially ionized self-gravitating inhomogeneous viscous nonthermal nonextensive astrofluid in the presence of turbulence pressure is illustratively analyzed. The constitutive thermal species, lighter electrons and ions, are thermostatistically treated with the nonthermal κ-distribution laws. The inertial species, such as identical heavier neutral and charged dust microspheres, are modelled in the turbulent fluid framework. All the possible linear processes responsible for dust-dust collisions are accounted. The Larson logatropic equations of state relating the dust thermal (linear) and turbulence (nonlinear) pressures with dust densities are included. A regular linear normal perturbation analysis (local) over the complex astrocloud ensues in a generalized quartic dispersion relation with unique nature of plasma-dependent multi-parametric coefficients. A numerical standpoint is provided to showcase the basic mode features in a judicious astronomical paradigm. It is shown that both the kinematic viscosity of the dust fluids and nonthermality parameter (kappa, the power-law tail index) of the thermal species act as stabilizing (damping) agent against the gravity; and so forth. The underlying evolutionary microphysics is explored. The significance of redistributing astrofluid material via waveinduced accretion in dynamic nonhomologic structureless cloud collapse leading to hierarchical astrostructure formation is actualized.

  16. Instability of a cantilevered flexible plate in viscous channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, T. S.; Lucey, A. D.

    2005-10-01

    The stability of a flexible cantilevered plate in viscous channel flow is studied as a representation of the dynamics of the human upper airway. The focus is on instability mechanisms of the soft palate (flexible plate) that cause airway blockage during sleep. We solve the Navier Stokes equations for flow with Reynolds numbers up to 1500 fully coupled with the dynamics of the plate motion solved using finite-differences. The study is 2-D and based upon linearized plate mechanics. When both upper and lower airways are open, the plate is found to lose its stability through a flutter mechanism and a critical Reynolds number exists. When one airway is closed, the plate principally loses its stability through a divergence mechanism and a critical flow speed exists. However, below the divergence-onset flow speed, flutter can exist for low levels of structural damping in the flexible plate. Our results serve to extend understanding of flow-induced instability of cantilevered flexible plates and will ultimately improve the diagnosis and treatment of upper-airway disorders.

  17. Observational constraints on Hubble parameter in viscous generalized Chaplygin gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P.

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological model with viscous generalized Chaplygin gas (in short, VGCG) is considered here to determine observational constraints on its equation of state parameters (in short, EoS) from background data. These data consists of H(z)-z (OHD) data, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations peak parameter, CMB shift parameter and SN Ia data (Union 2.1). Best-fit values of the EoS parameters including present Hubble parameter (H0) and their acceptable range at different confidence limits are determined. In this model the permitted range for the present Hubble parameter and the transition redshift (zt) at 1σ confidence limits are H0= 70.24^{+0.34}_{-0.36} and zt=0.76^{+0.07}_{-0.07} respectively. These EoS parameters are then compared with those of other models. Present age of the Universe (t0) have also been determined here. Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion for the model selection have been adopted for comparison with other models. It is noted that VGCG model satisfactorily accommodates the present accelerating phase of the Universe.

  18. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2008-01-08

    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  19. A dynamic counterpart of Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L Q; Wu, J Z; Shi, Y P; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The Lamb vector is known to play a key role in incompressible fluid dynamics and vortex dynamics. In particular, in low-speed steady aerodynamics it is solely responsible for the total force acting on a moving body, known as the vortex force, with the classic two-dimensional (exact) Kutta–Joukowski theorem and three-dimensional (linearized) lifting-line theory as the most famous special applications. In this paper we identify an innovative dynamic counterpart of the Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics, which we call the compressible Lamb vector. Mathematically, we present a theorem on the dynamic far-field decay law of the vorticity and dilatation fields, and thereby prove that the generalized Lamb vector enjoys exactly the same integral properties as the Lamb vector does in incompressible flow, and hence the vortex-force theory can be generalized to compressible flow with exactly the same general formulation. Moreover, for steady flow of polytropic gas, we show that physically the force exerted on a moving body by the gas consists of a transverse force produced by the original Lamb vector and a new longitudinal force that reflects the effects of compression and irreversible thermodynamics. (paper)

  20. Multiscale Behavior of Viscous Fluids Dynamics: Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts (10-1000 Pa s) during slow decompression present multi-time scale processes. To observe these processes we have performed several experiments on silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours, in a Plexiglas autoclave. The slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acting as the excitation mechanism, triggered several processes with their own distinct timescales. These processes generate complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit flanked by high-speed video recordings. The analysis in time and frequency of these time series and their correlation with the associated high-speed imaging enables the characterization of distinct phases and the extraction of the individual processes during the evolution of decompression of these viscous fluids. We have observed fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the conduit system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and volcanic seismicity.