Sample records for viscoelastic flow computation

  1. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C


    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  2. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using a generalized molecular stress function model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    A new finite element technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. It represents a further development of the 3D Lagrangian integral method (3D-LIM) from a Rivlin–Sawyers...

  3. Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole


    The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...... is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem, and an extension of the problem to transient flow is proposed....

  4. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D time-dependent viscoelastic flow computation using integral constitutive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    A new technique for the numerical 3D simulation of time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The fluid is described by the Rivlin Sawyer integral constitutive equation. The method (referred to as the 3D...

  5. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D Time-Dependent Viscoelastic Flow Computations using Integral Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    The 3D-LIM has as yet been used to simulate the following two three-dimensional problems. First, the method has been used to simulete for viscoelastic end-plate instability that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus for pressure sensitive adhesives...

  6. Viscoelastic flow simulations in model porous media (United States)

    De, S.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Padding, J. T.


    We investigate the flow of unsteadfy three-dimensional viscoelastic fluid through an array of symmetric and asymmetric sets of cylinders constituting a model porous medium. The simulations are performed using a finite-volume methodology with a staggered grid. The solid-fluid interfaces of the porous structure are modeled using a second-order immersed boundary method [S. De et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 232, 67 (2016), 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2016.04.002]. A finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive model with Peterlin closure is used to model the viscoelastic part. By means of periodic boundary conditions, we model the flow behavior for a Newtonian as well as a viscoelastic fluid through successive contractions and expansions. We observe the presence of counterrotating vortices in the dead ends of our geometry. The simulations provide detailed insight into how flow structure, viscoelastic stresses, and viscoelastic work change with increasing Deborah number De. We observe completely different flow structures and different distributions of the viscoelastic work at high De in the symmetric and asymmetric configurations, even though they have the exact same porosity. Moreover, we find that even for the symmetric contraction-expansion flow, most energy dissipation is occurring in shear-dominated regions of the flow domain, not in extensional-flow-dominated regions.

  7. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David


    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    superposed flow condition on viscoelastic properties of LLDPE, Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and hybrid of short glass fibre and Kev- lar fibre reinforced LLDPE. Parallel-plate rheometer was employed for these tests. Rheological parameters.

  9. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory......” of their past deformations. This generates some numerical difficulties which are addressed with the log-conformation transformation. The main novelty of this work lies on the use of the volume-of-fluid method to track the free surfaces of the viscoelastic flows. We present some preliminary results of test case...... simulations where the different features of the model are tested independently....

  10. Simulation of viscoelastic flow through constrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J. M.; Hinch, E. J.


    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method.In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears.The steady pressure drop...

  11. Simulation of transient viscoelastic flow with second order time integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole


    The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem.......The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem....

  12. Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos de Oliveira, I.S.


    In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the

  13. Modeling viscoelastic flow in a multiflux static mixer (United States)

    Köpplmayr, T.; Miethlinger, J.


    We present a numerical and experimental study of the polymer flow in a multiflux static mixer. Various geometrical configurations are compared in terms of layer homogeneity. To evaluate the layer-forming process in different geometries, we applied a general and precise approach based on trajectory calculations for a large set of material points, followed by a statistical analysis. A simulation of viscous flow using the Carreau-Yasuda constitutive equation produced results which deviated from our experimental findings. Therefore, we used the Giesekus constitutive equation, taking into account viscoelastic effects, such as extrudate swell and secondary motions inside the mixer. Parallel plate rheometry was employed to collect dynamic mechanical data in the linear viscoelastic flow regime. Weissenberg numbers were calculated, and the maximum relaxation time in the obtained spectrum was limited to avoid divergence issues. The results of our study provide deeper insights into the layerforming process of viscoelastic melts in a multiflux static mixer.

  14. Growth of viscoelastic wings and the reduction of particle mobility in a viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Murch, William L.; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    The motion of a rigid spherical particle in a sheared polymeric fluid is studied via experiments and numerical simulations. We study particle mobility in highly elastic fluids, where the deformation due to the sphere's movement and the shear flow both result in significant stretching of the polymer. The shear flow is imposed in a plane perpendicular to the sphere's movement, resulting in regions of high polymer tension in the wake of the sphere that can extend well into the shear flow and gradient directions. We observe that these viscoelastic wake structures, resembling wings, are linked to an increase in the form drag, providing a mechanism for a dramatic decrease in the particle mobility.

  15. Spherical particle sedimenting in weakly viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Mehlig, Bernhard


    We consider the dynamics of a small spherical particle driven through an unbounded viscoelastic shear flow by an external force. We give analytical solutions to both the mobility problem (the velocity of a forced particle) and the resistance problem (the force on a fixed particle), valid to second order in the dimensionless Deborah and Weissenberg numbers, which represent the elastic relaxation time of the fluid relative to the rate of translation and the imposed shear rate. We find a shear-induced lift at O (Wi ) , a modified drag at O (De2) and O (Wi2) , and a second lift that is orthogonal to the first, at O (Wi2) . The relative importance of these effects depends strongly on the orientation of the forcing relative to the shear. We discuss how these forces affect the terminal settling velocity in an inclined shear flow. We also describe a basis set of symmetric Cartesian tensors and demonstrate how they enable general tensorial perturbation calculations such as the present theory. In particular, this scheme allows us to write down a solution to the inhomogeneous Stokes equations, required by the perturbation expansion, by a sequence of algebraic manipulations well suited to computer implementation.

  16. Modeling 3D viscoelastic secondary flows in extrusion (United States)

    Holmes, Lori T.

    Two numerical techniques were successfully applied to capture viscoelastic flows and were used to model flows during extrusion. The Radial Functions Method (RFM) was implemented to simulate flow patterns in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D), and correctly predicts secondary flows in fully developed non-circular ducts [34]. Validation was completed to implement a newly developed viscoelastic solver supplied by Favero et al. [42]. Numerical simulations of 2D viscoelastic entry flows were performed using a Finite Volume Method (FVM) with a stress-splitting technique. A planar abrupt contraction was chosen as the test geometry and numerical results were compared with past experimental and other numerical simulation results using a Giesekus model. Limits of stability were inspected where Weissenberg numbers on the order of 240 were successfully simulated. The single and multi-mode Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) shear-thinning models were then implemented to reproduce full 3D flows through a planar abrupt contraction. Results obtained within this work show excellent qualitative agreement with experimental observations made by Quinzani et al. [85] and simulation results of Azaiez et al. [6]. Comparison studies with work by other researchers, for both a 2D and 3D geometry with aspect ratios up to 10, were also found to be in agreement. As part of this work, viscoelastic secondary flows in a 3D non-circular duct were simulated using a FVM approach. Single and multi-mode Giesekus and linear-PTT models were implemented. Results are in agreement with experiments [38] as well as numerical results using RFM and FEM [112]. This is an important step toward modeling and simulating flow in an extruder channel. Exploratory FVM simulations were carried out beginning from an unwrapped screw channel to a full 3D single screw under isothermal conditions. The shear thinning characteristics of the Giesekus model were able to capture the polymer's relaxation time under high Weissenberg

  17. An improved weakly compressible SPH method for simulating free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Deng, Xiao-Long


    In this paper, an improved weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is proposed to simulate transient free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids. The improved SPH algorithm includes the implementation of (i) the mixed symmetric correction of kernel gradient to improve the accuracy and stability of traditional SPH method and (ii) the Rusanov flux in the continuity equation for improving the computation of pressure distributions in the dynamics of liquids. To assess the effectiveness of the improved SPH algorithm, a number of numerical examples including the stretching of an initially circular water drop, dam breaking flow against a vertical wall, the impact of viscous and viscoelastic fluid drop with a rigid wall, and the extrudate swell of viscoelastic fluid have been presented and compared with available numerical and experimental data in literature. The convergent behavior of the improved SPH algorithm has also been studied by using different number of particles. All numerical results demonstrate that the improved SPH algorithm proposed here is capable of modeling free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids accurately and stably, and even more important, also computing an accurate and little oscillatory pressure field.

  18. A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.

  19. Near critical swirling flow of a viscoelastic fluid (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen; Rusak, Zvi; Tichy, John; Wang, Shixiao


    The interaction between flow inertia and elasticity in high Re, axisymmetric, and near-critical swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid in a finite-length straight circular pipe is studied. The viscous stresses are described by the Giesekus constitutive model. The application of this model to columnar streamwise vortices is first investigated. Then, a nonlinear small-disturbance analysis is developed from the governing equations of motion. It explores the complicated interactions between flow inertia, swirl, and fluid viscosity and elasticity. An effective Re that links between steady states of swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid and those of a Newtonian fluid is revealed. The effects of the fluid viscosity, relaxation time, retardation time and mobility parameter on the flow development and on the critical swirl for the appearance of vortex breakdown are explored. Decreasing the ratio of the viscoelastic characteristic times from one increases the critical swirl for breakdown. Increasing the Weissenberg number from zero or increasing the fluid mobility parameter from zero cause a similar effect. Results may explain changes in the appearance of breakdown zones as a function of swirl level that were observed in Stokes et al. (2001) experiments, where Boger fluids were used.

  20. A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Flow in Microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Miller, G; Liepmann, D


    The authors present a numerical method to model non-Newtonian, viscoelastic flow at the microscale. The equations of motion are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This constitutive equation is chosen to model a Boger fluid which is representative of complex biological solutions exhibiting elastic behavior due to macromolecules in the solution (e.g., DNA solution). The numerical approach is a projection method to impose the incompressibility constraint and a Lax-Wendroff method to predict velocities and stresses while recovering both viscous and elastic limits. The method is second-order accurate in space and time, free-stream preserving, has a time step constraint determined by the advective CFL condition, and requires the solution of only well-behaved linear systems amenable to the use of fast iterative methods. They demonstrate the method for viscoelastic incompressible flow in simple microchannels (2D) and microducts (3D).

  1. A stable and convergent scheme for viscoelastic flow in contraction channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, David; Colella, Phillip; Miller, Gregory


    We present a new algorithm to simulate unsteady viscoelastic flows in abrupt contraction channels. In our approach we split the viscoelastic terms of the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation using Duhamel's formula and discretize the resulting PDEs using a semi-implicit finite difference method based on a Lax-Wendroff method for hyperbolic terms. In particular, we leave a small residual elastic term in the viscous limit by design to make the hyperbolic piece well-posed. A projection method is used to impose the incompressibility constraint. We are able to compute the full range of elastic flows in an abrupt contraction channel--from the viscous limit to the elastic limit--in a stable and convergent manner for elastic Mach numbers less than one. We demonstrate the method for unsteady Oldroyd-B and Maxwell fluids in planar contraction channels.

  2. Prediction of Viscoelastic Behavior of Blood Flow in Plaque Deposited Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Solangi


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the viscoelastic behaviour of blood over low value of elasticity, to analyse the influence of inertia in the presence of elasticity. For viscoelastic fluids shear-thinning and strainsoftening PTT (Phan-Thien/Tanner constitutive model is employed to identify the influence of elasticity. The computational method adopted is based on a finite element semi-implicit time stepping Taylor- Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme. Simulations are conducted via atherosclerotic vessels along with various percentages of deposition at distinct values of Reynolds numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for recirculation flow structure and development of recirculation length to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on partially blocked plaque deposited vessels.

  3. Mixed Convection Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid by a Stretching Cylinder with Heat Transfer (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Anwar, Muhammad Shoaib; Farooq, Muhammad; Alsaedi, Ahmad


    Flow of viscoelastic fluid due to an impermeable stretching cylinder is discussed. Effects of mixed convection and variable thermal conductivity are present. Thermal conductivity is taken temperature dependent. Nonlinear partial differential system is reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential system. Resulting nonlinear system is computed for the convergent series solutions. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and discussed. The results obtained with the current method are in agreement with previous studies using other methods as well as theoretical ideas. Physical interpretation reflecting the contribution of influential parameters in the present flow is presented. It is hoped that present study serves as a stimulus for modeling further stretching flows especially in polymeric and paper production processes. PMID:25775032

  4. Resonance of Brownian vortices in viscoelastic shear flows (United States)

    Laas, K.; Mankin, R.


    The dynamics of a Brownian particle in an oscillatory viscoelastic shear flow is considered using the generalized Langevin equation. The interaction with fluctuations of environmental parameters is modeled by an additive external white noise and by an internal Mittag-Leffer noise with a finite memory time. Focusing on the mean angular momentum of particles it is shown that the presence of memory has a profound effect on the behavior of the Brownian vortices. Particularly, if an external noise dominates over the internal noise, a resonance-like dependence of the mean angular momentum of "free" particles, trapped due to the cage effect, on the characteristic memory time is observed. Moreover, it is established that memory effects can induce two kinds of resonance peaks: one resonance peak is related to the presence of external noise and the other is related to the initial positional distribution of particles. The bona fide resonance versus the shear frequency is also discussed.

  5. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabaud


    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  6. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Maqsood

    Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet

  7. Stability of plane Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifdi Ahmed


    Full Text Available The linear stability of plan Poiseuille flow of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically. The fourth-order Sommerfeld equation governing the stability analysis is solved by spectral method with expansions in lagrange’s polynomials, based on collocation points of Gauss-Lobatto. The critical values of Reynolds number, wave number and wave speed are computed. The results are shown through the neutral curve. The main purpose of this work is to check the combined effect of magnetic field and fluid’s elasticity on the stability of the plane Poiseuille flow. Based on the results obtained in this work, the magnetic field is predicted to have a stabilizing effect on the Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids. Hence, it will be shown that for second-order fluids (K 0 is that the critical Reynolds numbers Rec increase when the Hartman number M increases for certain value of elasticity number K and decrease for others. The latter result is in contrast to previous studies.

  8. Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Munawar


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0≤τ<∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs.

  9. Influence Study of the Viscoelastic Fluids Features in Drag Reduction in Laminar Regime Flow in Pipeline


    Vilalta Guillermo; Silva Mário; Blanco Alejandro


    The drag reduction by polymer addition is wide interest in several areas. It has been shown that the polymer addition cushions the dissipative effects in turbulent flows. The main objective of this work is to establish a methodology for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluid through internal subroutines implemented in the Fluent code, via UDF. The validation of this methodology is made for the laminar flow regime case in pipeline. To describe the viscoelastic effect, it was used the F...

  10. Model and Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  11. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M REZA


    Nov 9, 2017 ... increasing lateral interface velocity. It is observed that lateral interface velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic parameter for fixed values of density and viscosity ratio of the two fluids. The convective heat transfer is investigated base on the similarity solutions for the temperature distribution of the two ...

  12. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical study is made in the region near the stagnation point when a lighter incompressible viscoelastic fluids impinges orthogonally on the surface of another quiescent heavier incompressible viscous fluid. Similarity solutions of the momentum balance equations for both fluids are equalized at the interface. It isnoted ...

  13. A viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction model for carotid arteries under pulsatile flow. (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjie; Wood, Nigel B; Xu, Xiao Yun


    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction model (FSI) incorporating viscoelastic wall behaviour is developed and applied to an idealized model of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow. The shear and bulk moduli of the arterial wall are described by Prony series, where the parameters can be derived from in vivo measurements. The aim is to develop a fully coupled FSI model that can be applied to realistic arterial geometries with normal or pathological viscoelastic wall behaviour. Comparisons between the numerical and analytical solutions for wall displacements demonstrate that the coupled model is capable of predicting the viscoelastic behaviour of carotid arteries. Comparisons are also made between the solid only and FSI viscoelastic models, and the results suggest that the difference in radial displacement between the two models is negligible. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becherer, Paul


    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelastic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite-amplitude) instabilities in parallel

  15. Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model-B) stratified fluid in porous medium under variable viscosity. Om Prakash ... Expressions for the velocity of fluid and particle phases, temperature field, Nusselt number, skin friction and flow flux are obtained within the channel. The effects of various ...

  16. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stability of the flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a deformable elastic solid medium is reviewed focusing on the role played by the fluid elasticity on the earlier known instability modes for the Newtonian fluids. In particular, two classes of modes are emphasized: the viscous mode for the creeping flow, and the wall mode for ...

  17. Effect of Ratio of Visco-Elastic Material Viscosity to Fluid Viscosity on Stability of Flexible Pipe Flow (United States)



    In the present study, a flexible pipe has been considered to study the effect of ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity on the stability of flexible laminar pipe flow with axi-symmetric disturbances. The effect of thickness of visco-elastic material on the stability of flexible pipe flow with outer rigid shroud has also been studied. The stability curves are drawn for various values of the ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity. It is observed that stability of flow is increasing by decreasing the ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity.

  18. Study on Mechanism of Viscoelastic Polymer Transient Flow in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhong


    Full Text Available Oil recovery, including conventional and viscous oil, can be improved significantly by flooding with polymer solutions. This chemical flooding method can increase oil production, and it can improve the macrodisplacement efficiency and microsweep efficiencies. In this study, we establish physical models that include the dead-end and complex models based on the pore-network pattern etched into glass, using the snappyHexMesh solver in OpenFOAM. These models capture the complexity and topology of porous media geometry. We establish a mathematical model for transient flows of viscoelastic polymers using computational fluid dynamics simulations, and we study the distributions of pressure and velocity for different elasticity scenarios and different flooding process. The results demonstrate that the pressure difference increases as the relaxation time decreases, before the flow reaches its steady state. For a steady flow, elasticity can give rise to an additional pressure difference, which increases with increasing elasticity. Thus, the characteristics of pressure difference vary before and after the flow becomes steady; this phenomenon is very important. Velocity contours become more widely spaced with elasticity increase. This suggests that elasticity of the polymer solutions contributes to the microsweep efficiency. The results of the study provide the necessary theoretical foundation for laboratory experiments and development of methods for polymer flooding and can be helpful for the design and selection of polymers for polymer flooding.

  19. Heat Transfer to MHD Oscillatory Viscoelastic Flow in a Channel Filled with Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Choudhury


    Full Text Available The combined effect of a transverse magnetic field and radiative heat transfer on unsteady flow of a conducting optically thin viscoelastic fluid through a channel filled with saturated porous medium and nonuniform walls temperature has been discussed. It is assumed that the fluid has small electrical conductivity and the electromagnetic force produced is very small. Closed-form analytical solutions are constructed for the problem. The effects of the radiation and the magnetic field parameters on velocity profile and shear stress for different values of the viscoelastic parameter with the combination of the other flow parameters are illustrated graphically, and physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  20. Emergence of a limit cycle for swimming microorganisms in a vortical flow of a viscoelastic fluid (United States)

    Ardekani, A. M.; Gore, E.


    We propose that the rheological properties of background fluid play an important role in the interaction of microorganisms with the flow field. The viscoelastic-induced migration of microorganisms in a vortical flow leads to the emergence of a limit cycle. The shape and formation rate of patterns depend on motility, vorticity strength, and rheological properties of the background fluid. Given the inherent viscoelasticity of exopolysaccharides secreted by microorganisms, our results can suggest new mechanisms leading to the vital behavior of microorganisms such as bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation.

  1. Investigation of particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid. (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua


    In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Transient flows of Newtonian viscous fluids in a tube extended by a viscoelastic vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennis, S.; Ly, D.; Bellet, D. (C.N.R.S., 31 - Toulouse (France))


    A resolution method based on symbolical calculation is finalized and applied to the determination of fields of velocity and power load, in Newtonian transient flows in a rigid tube one end of which is extended by a viscoelastic vessel and the other subjected to variable pressures.

  3. Local strong solution to the compressible viscoelastic flow with large data (United States)

    Hu, Xianpeng; Wang, Dehua

    The existence and uniqueness of local in time strong solution with large initial data for the three-dimensional compressible viscoelastic flow is established. The strong solution has weaker regularity than the classical solution. The Lax-Milgram theorem and the Schauder-Tychonoff fixed-point argument are applied.

  4. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium. (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer


    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  5. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiong Yap Gan


    Full Text Available Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  6. Simulations of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows past a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository



    The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects of polymer extensibility are studied as well as the role of viscoelasticity during three-dimensional cylinder wake transition. Simulations at two distinct Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 and Re = 300) revealed dramatic differences based on the choice of the polymer extensibility (L2 in the FENE-P model), as well as a stabilizing tendency of viscoelasticity. For the Re = 100 case, attention was focused on the effects of increasing polymer extensibility, which included a lengthening of the recirculation region immediately behind the cylinder and a sharp increase in average drag when compared to both the low extensibility and Newtonian cases. For Re = 300, a suppression of the three-dimensional Newtonian mode B instability was observed. This effect is more pronounced for higher polymer extensibilities where all three-dimensional structure is eliminated, and mechanisms for this stabilization are described in the context of roll-up instability inhibition in a viscoelastic shear layer. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid with thermal radiation and convective conditions. (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab


    The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.

  8. A New Method to Simulate Free Surface Flows for Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao


    Full Text Available Free surface flows arise in a variety of engineering applications. To predict the dynamic characteristics of such problems, specific numerical methods are required to accurately capture the shape of free surface. This paper proposed a new method which combined the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE technique with the Finite Volume Method (FVM to simulate the time-dependent viscoelastic free surface flows. Based on an open source CFD toolbox called OpenFOAM, we designed an ALE-FVM free surface simulation platform. In the meantime, the die-swell flow had been investigated with our proposed platform to make a further analysis of free surface phenomenon. The results validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method for free surface simulation in both Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic fluid.

  9. Viscoelastic computational modeling of the human head-neck system: Eigenfrequencies and time-dependent analysis. (United States)

    Boccia, E; Gizzi, A; Cherubini, C; Nestola, M G C; Filippi, S


    A subject-specific 3-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model of the human head-neck system is presented and investigated based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance biomedical images. Ad hoc imaging processing tools are developed for the reconstruction of the simulation domain geometry and the internal distribution of bone and soft tissues. Material viscoelastic properties are characterized point-wise through an image-based interpolating function used then for assigning the constitutive prescriptions of a heterogenous viscoelastic continuum model. The numerical study is conducted both for modal and time-dependent analyses, compared with similar studies and validated against experimental evidences. Spatiotemporal analyses are performed upon different exponential swept-sine wave-localized stimulations. The modeling approach proposes a generalized, patient-specific investigation of sound wave transmission and attenuation within the human head-neck system comprising skull and brain tissues. Model extensions and applications are finally discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Elasto-inertial particle focusing under the viscoelastic flow of DNA solution in a square channel. (United States)

    Kim, Bookun; Kim, Ju Min


    Particle focusing is an essential step in a wide range of applications such as cell counting and sorting. Recently, viscoelastic particle focusing, which exploits the spatially non-uniform viscoelastic properties of a polymer solution under Poiseuille flow, has attracted much attention because the particles are focused along the channel centerline without any external force. Lateral particle migration in polymer solutions in square channels has been studied due to its practical importance in lab-on-a-chip applications. However, there are still many questions about how the rheological properties of the medium alter the equilibrium particle positions and about the flow rate ranges for particle focusing. In this study, we investigated lateral particle migration in a viscoelastic flow of DNA solution in a square microchannel. The elastic property is relevant due to the long relaxation time of a DNA molecule, even when the DNA concentration is extremely low. Further, the shear viscosity of the solution is essentially constant irrespective of shear rate. Our current results demonstrate that the particles migrate toward the channel centerline and the four corners of a square channel in the dilute DNA solution when the inertia is negligible (elasticity-dominant flow). As the flow rate increases, the multiple equilibrium particle positions are reduced to a single file along the channel centerline, due to the elasto-inertial particle focusing mechanism. The current results support that elasto-inertial particle focusing mechanism is a universal phenomenon in a viscoelastic fluid with constant shear viscosity (Boger fluid). Also, the effective flow rate ranges for three-dimensional particle focusing in the DNA solution were significantly higher and wider than those for the previous synthetic polymer solution case, which facilitates high throughput analysis of particulate systems. In addition, we demonstrated that the DNA solution can be applied to focus a wide range of

  11. Influence Study of the Viscoelastic Fluids Features in Drag Reduction in Laminar Regime Flow in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilalta Guillermo


    Full Text Available The drag reduction by polymer addition is wide interest in several areas. It has been shown that the polymer addition cushions the dissipative effects in turbulent flows. The main objective of this work is to establish a methodology for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluid through internal subroutines implemented in the Fluent code, via UDF. The validation of this methodology is made for the laminar flow regime case in pipeline. To describe the viscoelastic effect, it was used the Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic model closing with Peterlin model. To taking in account the viscous effects 50≤Re≤2000 values were used. In addition, for the polymer concentration analysis it was used values which depend on the polymers molecular weight and the solution concentration that ranged from 0≤Cw≤20. The molecular elasticity and extensibility were maintained at constant values. The results showed that the addition of polymers regardless of their molecular weight in laminar flow regime causes no change in power dissipation. This result, which is consistent with the literature, is a significant advance in defining a credible and appropriate methodology to viscoelastic fluid flow study by UDF implementation of constituent models that characterize these fluids.

  12. Robust simulations of viscoelastic flows at high Weissenberg numbers with the streamfunction/log-conformation formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    A new streamfunction/log-conformation formulation of incompressible viscoelastic flows is presented. The log-conformation representation guaranties the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor and obviates the high Weissenberg number problem. The streamfunction is defined as a vector...... data from the literature for Weissenberg number 3 and below. Finally, the simulations at higher Weissenberg numbers 5 and 10 reveal a structural mechanism that sustains quasi-periodic elastic instabilities arising at the upstream corner of the moving lid....

  13. Numerical and experimental investigation of leaks in viscoelastic pressurized pipe flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meniconi


    Full Text Available This paper extends the analysis concerning the importance in numerical models of unsteady friction and viscoelasticity to transients in plastic pipes with an external flow due to a leak. In fact recently such a benchmarking analysis has been executed for the cases of a constant diameter pipe (Duan et al., 2010, a pipe with a partially closed in-line valve (Meniconi et al., 2012a, and a pipe with cross-section changes in series (Meniconi et al., 2012b. Tests are based on laboratory experiments carried out at the Water Engineering Laboratory (WEL of the University of Perugia, Italy, and the use of different numerical models. The results show that it is crucial to take into account the viscoelasticity to simulate the main characteristics of the examined transients.

  14. Oscillatory squeeze flow for the study of linear viscoelastic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole


    of molten polymers and suspensions. The principal advantage of squeeze flow rheometer over rotational devices is the simplicity of the apparatus. It has no air bearing and is much less expensive and easier to use. Accuracy may be somewhat reduced, but for quality control purposes, it could be quite useful....... It might also find application as the central component of a high-throughput rheometer for evaluating experimental materials. The deformation is not simple shear, but equations have been derived to show that the oscillatory compressive (normal) force that is measured can serve as a basis for calculating...

  15. Migration of rigid particles in two-phase viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Anderson, Patrick; Jaensson, Nick; Hulsen, Martien


    We present simulations of particle migration in two-phase flows, where one of the fluids is viscoelastic, whereas the other is Newtonian. The fluid-fluid interface is assumed to be diffuse, and is described using Cahn-Hilliard theory. The equations are solved using the finite element method on moving meshes that are aligned with the particle boundary. The meshes used are highly refined in the interfacial region between the fluids and near the particle boundary, which allows us to perform simulations with a small interfacial thickness. Four regimes of particle migration are observed. The first regime, migration away from the interface, occurs if normal stresses in the viscoelastic fluid are absent, i.e. a Newtonian fluid. Due to the deformation of the interface, as Laplace pressure is build up, effectively pushing the particle away from the interface. The second regime, halted migration, occurs if the particle migrates toward the interface, but the migration is halted due to the Laplace pressure. In the third regime, interface penetration, the interfacial tension is not large enough to halt the migration, and the particle moves into the Newtonian fluid, encapsulated by a film of viscoelastic fluid. In the final fourth regime the particles are adsorbed at the interface.

  16. Numerical study of viscoelastic polymer flow in simplified pore structures using stabilised finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at

  17. Johnson-Segalman -- Saint-Venant equations for viscoelastic shallow flows in the elastic limit


    Boyaval, Sébastien


    The shallow-water equations of Saint-Venant, often used to model the long-wave dynamics of free-surface flows driven by inertia and hydrostatic pressure, can be generalized to account for the elongational rheology of non-Newtonian fluids too. We consider here the $4 \\times 4$ shallow-water equations generalized to viscoelastic fluids using the Johnson-Segalman model in the elastic limit (i.e. at infinitely-large Deborah number, when source terms vanish). The system of nonlinear first-order eq...

  18. Scaling of energy amplification in the weak and strong elastic limits of viscoelastic shear flows (United States)

    Hameduddin, Ismail; Zaki, Tamer; Gayme, Dennice


    We investigate energy amplification in viscoelastic parallel shear flows in terms of the steady-state variance maintained in the velocity and polymer stresses when either quantity is excited with white noise. We derive analytical expressions that show how this amplification scales with both Reynolds (Re) and Weissenberg (Wi) numbers. The analysis focuses on the streamwise-constant fields in the limits of high and low elasticity. By introducing stochastic forcing in both the velocity and the polymer stress dynamics, we show that at low elasticity the scaling retains a form similar to the well-known O(Re3) relationship but with an added elastic correction. At high elasticity, however, the scaling is O(Wi3) with a viscous correction. Our results demonstrate that energy amplification in a viscoelastic flow can be considerable even at low Re, correlating well with recent observations of elastic turbulence in creeping flows. We also note that forcing in the polymer stress dynamics can contribute significantly to the energy amplification.

  19. Steady flow and viscoelastic properties of lubricating grease containing various thickener concentrations. (United States)

    Yeong, S K; Luckham, P F; Tadros, Th F


    The flow and viscoelastic properties of a lubricating grease formed from a thickener composed of lithium hydroxystearate and a high-boiling-point mineral oil were investigated as a function of thickener concentration. The flow properties of grease were measured using continuous shear rheometry, while the viscoelastic properties were measured using oscillatory shear measurements. The flow properties show that grease is a shear-thinning fluid with a yield stress that increases with thickener concentration. At concentrations of lithium hydroxystearate greater than 5% by volume, the storage modulus, G', was found to be greater than the loss modulus, G", with both moduli increasing with increasing thickener concentration, below this critical concentration G" was greater than G'. Slip at the wall of the measuring platens was a major problem encountered during the rheological measurement of grease, this is hardly surprising, and greases are designed to slip in their lubricating functions. Therefore the measuring platens were roughened by sandblasting and significantly higher yield values were recorded with the roughened geometries. Creep experiments were also performed. In the creep test, yield stresses of greases could be obtained. Zero shear viscosity was also calculated from the creep experiment and as a result viscosities over nine orders of magnitude were obtained. The power law index of the scaling law of the elastic modulus and yield stress with increasing volume fraction was found to be 4.7+/-0.2 suggesting that the flocculation of the particles that compose the grease is likely to be of the chemically limited aggregation variety.

  20. Pure axial flow of viscoelastic fluids in rectangular microchannels under combined effects of electro-osmosis and hydrodynamics (United States)

    Reshadi, Milad; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Abbas


    This paper presents an analysis of the combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven axial flows of viscoelastic fluids in a rectangular microchannel with arbitrary aspect ratios. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the complete form of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model with the Gordon-Schowalter convected derivative which covers the upper convected Maxwell, Johnson-Segalman and FENE-P models. Our numerical simulation is based on the computation of 2D Poisson-Boltzmann, Cauchy momentum and PTT constitutive equations. The solution of these governing nonlinear coupled set of equations is obtained by using the second-order central finite difference method in a non-uniform grid system and is verified against 1D analytical solution of the velocity profile with less than 0.06% relative error. Also, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of channel aspect ratio (width to height), wall zeta potential and the Debye-Hückel parameter on 2D velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and the Poiseuille number in the mixed EO/PD flows of viscoelastic fluids with different Weissenberg numbers. Our results show that, for low channel aspect ratios, the previous 1D analytical models underestimate the velocity profile at the channel half-width centerline in the case of favorable pressure gradients and overestimate it in the case of adverse pressure gradients. The results reveal that the inapplicability of the Debye-Hückel approximation at high zeta potentials is more significant for higher Weissenberg number fluids. Also, it is found that, under the specified values of electrokinetic parameters, there is a threshold for velocity scale ratio in which the Poiseuille number is approximately independent of channel aspect ratio.

  1. A computational model for optimal muscle activity considering muscle viscoelasticity in wrist movements (United States)

    Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu


    To understand the mechanism of neural motor control, it is important to clarify how the central nervous system organizes the coordination of redundant muscles. Previous studies suggested that muscle activity for step-tracking wrist movements are optimized so as to reduce total effort or end-point variance under neural noise. However, since the muscle dynamics were assumed as a simple linear system, some characteristic patterns of experimental EMG were not seen in the simulated muscle activity of the previous studies. The biological muscle is known to have dynamic properties in which its elasticity and viscosity depend on activation level. The motor control system is supposed to consider the viscoelasticity of the muscles when generating motor command signals. In this study, we present a computational motor control model that can control a musculoskeletal system with nonlinear dynamics. We applied the model to step-tracking wrist movements actuated by five muscles with dynamic viscoelastic properties. To solve the motor redundancy, we designed the control model to generate motor commands that maximize end-point accuracy under signal-dependent noise, while minimizing the squared sum of them. Here, we demonstrate that the muscle activity simulated by our model exhibits spatiotemporal features of experimentally observed muscle activity of human and nonhuman primates. In addition, we show that the movement trajectories resulting from the simulated muscle activity resemble experimentally observed trajectories. These results suggest that, by utilizing inherent viscoelastic properties of the muscles, the neural system may optimize muscle activity to improve motor performance. PMID:23324321

  2. Analysis of Blood Flow Through a Viscoelastic Artery using the Cosserat Continuum with the Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedaghatizadeh, N.; Atefi, G.; Fardad, A. A.


    In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite difference...

  3. A new mixed subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulation of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids (United States)

    Li, Feng-Chen; Wang, Lu; Cai, Wei-Hua


    A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2011M500652), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51276046 and 51206033), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020).

  4. Numerical study of Dean vortices in developing Newtonian and viscoelastic flows through a curved duct of square cross-section (United States)

    Boutabaa, Mohammed; Helin, Lionel; Mompean, Gilmar; Thais, Laurent


    This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids through a curved duct of square cross-section. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model is used to represent viscoelastic effects. The numerical method uses a finite volume discretization with a staggered grid, and the equations are written in general orthogonal coordinates. The numerical simulations produced for 3 different Dean numbers (125, 137 and 150) show clearly the presence of two steady Dean cells and the upstream development of a four-cell pattern when the centrifugal forces become significant. The comparison between Newtonian and PTT flows shows that the transition from twin-cells to four-cells is anticipated for the viscoelastic fluid. To cite this article: M. Boutabaa et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  5. Chemically reacting dusty viscoelastic fluid flow in an irregular channel with convective boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivaraj


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the combined effects of free convective heat and mass transfer on an unsteady MHD dusty viscoelastic (Walters liquid model-B fluid flow between a vertical long wavy wall and a parallel flat wall saturated with porous medium subject to the convective boundary condition. The coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically using perturbation technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been studied for various combinations of physical parameters such as magnetic field, heat absorption, thermal radiation, radiation absorption, Biot number and chemical reaction parameters. The skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also presented and displayed graphically. Further, it is observed that the velocity profiles of dusty fluid are higher than the dust particles.

  6. Slip flow on stagnation point over a stretching sheet in a viscoelastic nanofluid (United States)

    Mohamed, M. K. A.; Noar, N. A. Z.; Salleh, M. Z.; Ishak, A.


    In this study, the numerical investigation of stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet immersed in a viscoelastic (Walter's liquid-B model) nanofluid with velocity slip condition and constant wall temperature is considered. The governing equations for the model which is non linear partial differential equations are first transformed by using similarity transformation. Then, the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is employed to solve the transformed ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number, the Sherwood number and the skin friction coefficient. Further, the effects of slip parameter on the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the heat and mass transfer rate is higher for the Walter's fluid compared to the classical viscous fluid and the presence of the velocity slip reduces the effects of the stretching parameter on the skin friction coefficient.

  7. Modeling Asymmetric Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in Symmetric Planar Sudden Expansion Geometry Based on User-Defined Function in FLUENT CFD Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Zheng


    Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.

  8. Elastic Deformation Analysis on MHD Viscous Dissipative Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid: An Exact Approach (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar


    This communication is devoted to analyze elastic deformation on electrically conducted viscoelastic fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation effects. Non-linear analysis is computed through exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Special emphasis is provided for elastic deformation in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics effects. Concentration profile is discussed significantly in the presence constructive and destructive chemical reaction. Results are displayed through graphs and discussed for physical parameters that are used in present analysis. Notable findings include that temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of Prandtl number and a decreasing function of elastic deformation. In addition, heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing the conjugate parameter (γ) which measures the strength of surface heating.

  9. Simultaneous Measurements of Geometric and Viscoelastic Properties of Hydrogel Microbeads Using Continuous-Flow Microfluidics with Embedded Electrodes. (United States)

    Niu, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Si, Ting; Zhang, Yuntian; Qi, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Ronald X; He, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yi


    Geometric and mechanical characterizations of hydrogel materials at the microscale are attracting increasing attention due to their importance in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications. Contemporary approaches for measuring the these properties of hydrogel microbeads suffer from low-throughput, complex system configuration, and measurement inaccuracy. In this work, a continuous-flow device is developed to measure geometric and viscoelastic properties of hydrogel microbeads by flowing the microbeads through a tapered microchannel with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes patterned underneath the channel. The viscoelastic properties are derived from the trajectories of microbeads using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. The measurement is independent of the applied volumetric flow rate. The results show that the geometric and viscoelastic properties of Ca-alginate hydrogel microbeads can be determined independently and simultaneously. The bulky high-speed optical systems are eliminated, simplifying the system configuration and making it a truly miniaturized device. A throughput of up to 394 microbeads min-1 is achieved. This study may provide a powerful tool for mechanical profiling of hydrogel microbeads to support their wide applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Time-dependent finite-element method for the simulation of three-dimensional viscoelastic flow with integral models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    A new technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematic description of the fluid flow and represent a further development of the 2D Lagrangian integral method (LIM). The convergence of the method...... is demonstrated on the problem of a sphere moving in a cylinder filled with an upper convected Maxwell fluid....

  11. Investigation of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena effects on heat transfer of viscoelastic flow inside a symmetric sudden expansion (United States)

    Shahbani-Zahiri, A.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Shahmardan, M. M.; Norouzi, M.


    In this paper, the inertial and non-isothermal flows of the viscoelastic fluid through a planar channel with symmetric sudden expansion are numerically simulated. Effects of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena on the heat transfer rate are examined for the thermally developing and fully developed flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the planar channel with an expansion ratio of 1:3. The rheological model of exponential Phan Thien-Tanner is used to include both the effects of shear-thinning and elasticity in fluid viscosity. The properties of fluids are temperature-dependent, and the viscous dissipation and heat stored by fluid elasticity are considered in the heat transfer equation. For coupling the governing equations, the PISO algorithm (Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operator) is applied and the system of equations is linearized using the finite volume method on the collocated grids. The main purpose of this study is to examine the pitchfork bifurcation phenomena and its influences on the temperature distribution, the local and mean Nusselt numbers, and the first and second normal stress differences at different Reynolds, elasticity, and Brinkman numbers. The results show that by increasing the Brinkman number for the heated flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the channel, the value of the mean Nusselt number is almost linearly decreased. Also, the maximum values of the local Nusselt number for the thermally developing flow and the local Nusselt number of the thermally fully developed flow are decremented by enhancing the Brinkman number.

  12. Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Walter's liquid model-B; stratified fluid; porous medium; variable viscosity. PACS Nos 47; 47.10.A−;; 47.10.−g. 1. Introduction. There are many viscoelastic fluids that cannot be characterized by Maxwell's or Oldroyd's constitutive relations. One such fluid is Walters' (model B) viscoelastic fluid which is ...

  13. Mixed convection boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid past a horizontal circular cylinder: Case of constant heat flux (United States)

    Mahat, Rahimah; Afiqah Rawi, Noraihan; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Shafie, Sharidan


    The steady of two-dimensional convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid over a circular cylinder is investigated in this paper. Carboxymethyl cellulose solution (CMC) is chosen as the base fluid and copper as a nanoparticle with the Prandtl number Pr = 6.2. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless forms. Then they are solved numerically by using the Keller-Box method. This paper focus on the effects of selected parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics and be presented in graphs. The results show that, the velocity profiles and the temperature profiles are increased by increasing the values of nanoparticles volume fraction. While velocity profile decreases when viscoelastic parameter is increase. The reverse trend is observed for the temperature profiles. Also, the values of reduced skin friction are increased by increasing mixed convection parameter, but the values of heat transfer coefficient produce an opposite behaviour with an increasing in mixed convection parameter.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics effect on convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic micropolar fluid past a sphere (United States)

    Amera Aziz, Laila; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Syahidah Yusoff, Nur; Shafie, Sharidan


    The main interest of this study is to investigate the effect of MHD on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic micropolar fluid. Governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form in order to reduce their complexity. Then, the stream function is applied to the dimensionless equations to produce partial differential equations which are then solved numerically using the Keller-box method in Fortran programming. The numerical results are compared to published study to ensure the reliability of present results. The effects of selected physical parameters such as the viscoelastic parameter, K, micropolar parameter, K1 and magnetic parameter, M on the flow and heat transfer are discussed and presented in tabular and graphical form. The findings from this study will be of critical importance in the fields of medicine, chemical as well as industrial processes where magnetic field is involved.

  15. Heat Transfer of Viscoelastic Fluid Flow due to Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat Source (United States)

    Nandeppanavar, M. M.; Siddalingappa, M. N.; Jyoti, H.


    In the present paper, a viscoelastic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially stretching continuous sheet in the presence of a heat source/sink has been examined. Loss of energy due to viscous dissipation of the non-Newtonian fluid has been taken into account in this study. Approximate analytical local similar solutions of the highly non-linear momentum equation are obtained for velocity distribution by transforming the equation into Riccati-type and then solving this sequentially. Accuracy of the zero-order analytical solutions for the stream function and velocity are verified by numerical solutions obtained by employing the Runge-Kutta fourth order method involving shooting. Similarity solutions of the temperature equation for non-isothermal boundary conditions are obtained in the form of confluent hypergeometric functions. The effect of various physical parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. It is seen that the rate of heat transfer from the stretching sheet to the fluid can be controlled by suitably choosing the values of the Prandtl number Pr and local Eckert number E, local viscioelastic parameter k*1 and local heat source/ sink parameter β*

  16. Real-time hybrid simulation of structures equipped with viscoelastic-plastic dampers using a user-programmable computational platform (United States)

    Guo, Jack Wen Wei; Ashasi-Sorkhabi, Ali; Mercan, Oya; Christopoulos, Constantin


    A user-programmable computational/control platform was developed at the University of Toronto that offers real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) capabilities. The platform was verified previously using several linear physical substructures. The study presented in this paper is focused on further validating the RTHS platform using a nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic damper that has displacement, frequency and temperature-dependent properties. The validation study includes damper component characterization tests, as well as RTHS of a series of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems equipped with viscoelastic-plastic dampers that represent different structural designs. From the component characterization tests, it was found that for a wide range of excitation frequencies and friction slip loads, the tracking errors are comparable to the errors in RTHS of linear spring systems. The hybrid SDOF results are compared to an independently validated thermalmechanical viscoelastic model to further validate the ability for the platform to test nonlinear systems. After the validation, as an application study, nonlinear SDOF hybrid tests were used to develop performance spectra to predict the response of structures equipped with damping systems that are more challenging to model analytically. The use of the experimental performance spectra is illustrated by comparing the predicted response to the hybrid test response of 2DOF systems equipped with viscoelastic-plastic dampers.

  17. Turbulent flow computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard


    ... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...

  18. Hall effect on MHD flow of visco-elastic micro-polar fluid layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0. (0,0, ). H. = H о is applied along z-axis. Fig. 1: Geometry of the problem. Here, we have taken Rivlin-Ericksen visco-elastic fluid in which when the fluid permeates a porous medium, the gross effect is represented by Darcy's law and the usual viscous term in the momentum equation is replaced by the resistance term. 1.

  19. Boundary layer flow of three-dimensional viscoelastic nanofluid past a bi-directional stretching sheet with Newtonian heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramzan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with steady three dimensional boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscoelastic nanofluid flow in the presence of Newtonian heating. An appropriate transformation is employed to convert the highly non linear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Homotopy Analysis method (HAM is used to find series solution of the obtained coupled highly non linear differential equations. The convergence of HAM solutions is discussed via h-curves. Graphical illustrations displaying the influence of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are given. It is observed that γ the conjugate parameter for Newtonian heating show increasing behavior on both temperature and concentration profiles. However, the temperature and concentration profiles are increasing and decreasing functions of Brownian motion parameter Nb respectively.

  20. Numerical simulation of FENE-P viscoelastic fluids flow and heat transfer in grooved channel with rectangular cavities (United States)

    Filali, Abdelkader; Khezzar, Lyes; Alshehhi, Mohamed Saeed


    The forced convection heat transfer for non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids obeying the FENE-P model in a parallel-plate channel with transverse rectangular cavities is carried out numerically using ANSYS-POLYFLOW code. The flow investigated is assumed to be two-dimensional, incompressible, laminar and steady. The flow behavior and temperature distribution influenced by the re-circulation caused by the variation of cross-section area along the stream wise direction have been studied. The constant heat flux condition has been applied and the effects of the different parameters, such as the aspect ratio of channel cavities (AR = 0.25, 0.5), the Reynolds number ( Re = 25, 250, and 500), the fluid elasticity defined by the Weissenberg number ( We), and the extensibility parameter of the model ( L 2), on heat transfer characteristics have been explored for channels of three successive cavities configuration. Different levels of heat transfer enhancement were obtained and discussed.

  1. Parallel computation of rotating flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Lars Kristian; Barker, Vincent A.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper deals with the simulation of 3‐D rotating flows based on the velocity‐vorticity formulation of the Navier‐Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are discretized by a finite difference method. The solution is advanced to a new time level by a two‐step process....... In the first step, the vorticity at the new time level is computed using the velocity at the previous time level. In the second step, the velocity at the new time level is computed using the new vorticity. We discuss here the second part which is by far the most time‐consuming. The numerical problem...

  2. Computational Protocols for Viscoelastic Material Property Characterizations without the Use of Poisson's Ratios (United States)

    Michaeli, Michael; Shtark, Abraham; Grossbein, Hagay; Hilton, Harry H.


    The objective of this work is to present the numerical implementation for the alternative determination of vis-coelastic material properties without using Poisson's ratios as presented in [1]-[3]. The presented method is based on the 3-D generalized constitutive relations viscoelastic materials with hereditary integrals. The numerical procedures are based on experiments using photogrammetric and tensile testing instrumentation, which provide stress data in the 1-D loaded direction and strains in both longitudinal (loaded) and transverse directions. Measurements and data analyses include both starting transient and steady-state loading conditions. The paper presents the implementation of solutions for the linear case, where the relaxation time values are prescribed according to to the scheme presented in [1] and [3]. Convergence of the Prony series representations is evaluated.

  3. A primer on experimental and computational rheology with fractional viscoelastic constitutive models (United States)

    Ferrás, Luís Lima; Ford, Neville John; Morgado, Maria Luísa; Rebelo, Magda; McKinley, Gareth Huw; Nóbrega, João Miguel


    This work presents a brief introduction to fractional calculus and its application to some problems in rheology. We present two different viscoelastic models based on fractional derivatives (the Fractional Maxwell Model - FMM and the Fractional Viscoelastic Fluid - FVF) and discuss their reduction to the classical Newtonian and Maxwell fluids. A third model is also studied (an extension of the FMM to an invariant form), being given by a combination of the K-BKZ integral model with a fractional memory function which we denote the Fractional K-BKZ model. We discuss and illustrate the ability of these models to fit experimental data, and present numerical results for simple stress relaxation following step strain and steady shearing.

  4. A Computational Model with Experimental Validation for DNA Flow in Microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, A; Gulati, S; Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Muller, S J; Liepmann, D


    The authors compare a computational model to experimental data for DNA-laden flow in microchannels. The purpose of this work in progress is to validate a new numerical algorithm for viscoelastic flow using the Oldroyd-B model. The numerical approach is a stable and convergent polymeric stress-splitting scheme for viscoelasticity. They treat the hyperbolic part of the equations of motion with an embedded boundary method for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in irregular domains. They enforce incompressibility and evolve velocity and pressure with a projection method. The experiments are performed using epifluorescent microscopy and digital particle image velocimetry to measure velocity fields and track the conformation of biological macromolecules. They present results comparing velocity fields and the observations of computed fluid stress on molecular conformation in various microchannels.

  5. Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Dochan


    This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...

  6. Pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood fluid inside stenosed arteries: Investigating the effects of viscoelastic and elastic walls, arteriosclerosis, and polycythemia diseases. (United States)

    Nejad, A Abbas; Talebi, Z; Cheraghali, D; Shahbani-Zahiri, A; Norouzi, M


    In this study, the interaction of pulsatile blood flow with the viscoelastic walls of the axisymmetric artery is numerically investigated for different severities of stenosis. The geometry of artery is modeled by an axisymmetric cylindrical tube with a symmetric stenosis in a two-dimensional case. The effects of stenosis severity on the axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall shear stress, and wall radial displacement for the viscoelastic artery are also compared to the elastics artery. Furthermore, the effects of atherosclerosis and polycythemia diseases on the hemodynamics and the mechanical behavior of arterial walls are investigated. The pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood is simulated inside the viscoelastic artery using the COMSOL Multiphysics software (version 5) and by employing the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Moreover, finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the governing equations on the unstructured grids. For modeling the non-Newtonian blood fluid and the viscoelastic arterial wall, the modified Casson model, and generalized Maxwell model are used, respectively. According to the results, with stenosis severity increasing from 25% to 75% at the time of maximum volumetric flow rate, the maximum value of axial velocity and its gradient increase 7.9 and 19.6 times, and the maximum wall shear stress of viscoelastic wall increases 24.2 times in the constriction zone. With the progression of the atherosclerosis disease (fivefold growth of arterial elastic modulus), the wall radial displacement of viscoelastic arterial walls decreases nearly 40%. In this study, axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall radial displacement, and wall shear stress were examined for different percentages of stenosis (25%, 50%, and 75%). The atherosclerosis disease was investigated by the fivefold growth of viscoelastic arterial elastic modulus and polycythemia

  7. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Media over a Shrinking Sheet (United States)

    Bhukta, D.; Dash, G. C.; Mishra, S. R.


    An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a shrinking sheet subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source. Effects of radiation, viscous dissipation, and uniform heat sink on the heat transfer have been considered. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations representing momentum, concentration, and nonhomogenous heat equation are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved by applying Kummer's function. The exact solution of temperature field is obtained for power-law surface temperature (PST) as well as power-law heat flux (PHF) boundary condition. The interaction of magnetic field is proved to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution, whereas presence of porous matrix reduces the temperature field at all points. PMID:27379316

  9. Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Media over a Shrinking Sheet. (United States)

    Bhukta, D; Dash, G C; Mishra, S R


    An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a shrinking sheet subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source. Effects of radiation, viscous dissipation, and uniform heat sink on the heat transfer have been considered. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations representing momentum, concentration, and nonhomogenous heat equation are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved by applying Kummer's function. The exact solution of temperature field is obtained for power-law surface temperature (PST) as well as power-law heat flux (PHF) boundary condition. The interaction of magnetic field is proved to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution, whereas presence of porous matrix reduces the temperature field at all points.

  10. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah


    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Viscoelasticity of liquid organic foam: Relaxations, temporal dependence, and bubble loading effects on flow behavior (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie M.; Celina, Mathew


    Liquid organic foams are prepared using a new blowing process based on the chemical generation of carbon dioxide. The foams are volumetrically stable for periods up to hours and can be fabricated with gas volume fractions ranging from 0.10 to 0.95. Both the "fresh" and temporal dependences of the linear viscoelastic response of these materials are evaluated. The organic foams exhibit rheological behavior characteristic of their aqueous counterparts: a weak dependence of the shear moduli over an extended frequency/time regime that is bounded by both a fast and slow relaxation. The onset of the fast mechanical response of the organic foams occurs at approximately the same frequency as in aqueous foams despite the continuous phase viscosity differing by orders of magnitude between the systems. This suggests that the viscosity does not affect the time scale of the "anomalous" viscous loss characteristic of these materials, which challenges currently proposed mechanisms for this dissipation and leaves the origin of the loss behavior unclear. The relative contribution of cell growth and bubble motion to the slow relaxation is also discerned by evaluating the relation between the transient and dynamic responses of the foam. Finally, the development of elasticity in the foam due to bubble interactions is analyzed and a bubble slip process is postulated to account for the lack of a true elastic response of the foam at intermediate time scales (between the fast and slow mechanical response) when gas fractions exceed 0.64.

  12. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton


    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  13. Proposal of Damping Function for Low-Reynolds-Number k-ε Model Applicable in Prediction of Turbulent Viscoelastic-Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukahara


    Full Text Available A low-Reynolds-number k-ε model applicable for viscoelastic fluid was proposed to predict the frictional-drag reduction and the turbulence modification in a wall-bounded turbulent flow. In this model, an additional damping function was introduced into the model of eddy viscosity, while the treatment of the turbulent kinetic energy (k and its dissipation rate (ε is an extension of the model for Newtonian fluids. For constructing the damping function, we considered the influence of viscoelasticity on the turbulent eddy motion and its dissipative scale and investigated the frequency response for the constitutive equation based on the Giesekus fluid model. Assessment of the proposed model’s performance in several rheological conditions for drag-reduced turbulent channel flows demonstrated good agreement with DNS (direct numerical simulation data.

  14. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve (United States)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee


    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  15. Time-domain seismic modeling in viscoelastic media for full waveform inversion on heterogeneous computing platforms with OpenCL (United States)

    Fabien-Ouellet, Gabriel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Giroux, Bernard


    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) aims at recovering the elastic parameters of the Earth by matching recordings of the ground motion with the direct solution of the wave equation. Modeling the wave propagation for realistic scenarios is computationally intensive, which limits the applicability of FWI. The current hardware evolution brings increasing parallel computing power that can speed up the computations in FWI. However, to take advantage of the diversity of parallel architectures presently available, new programming approaches are required. In this work, we explore the use of OpenCL to develop a portable code that can take advantage of the many parallel processor architectures now available. We present a program called SeisCL for 2D and 3D viscoelastic FWI in the time domain. The code computes the forward and adjoint wavefields using finite-difference and outputs the gradient of the misfit function given by the adjoint state method. To demonstrate the code portability on different architectures, the performance of SeisCL is tested on three different devices: Intel CPUs, NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon PHI. Results show that the use of GPUs with OpenCL can speed up the computations by nearly two orders of magnitudes over a single threaded application on the CPU. Although OpenCL allows code portability, we show that some device-specific optimization is still required to get the best performance out of a specific architecture. Using OpenCL in conjunction with MPI allows the domain decomposition of large models on several devices located on different nodes of a cluster. For large enough models, the speedup of the domain decomposition varies quasi-linearly with the number of devices. Finally, we investigate two different approaches to compute the gradient by the adjoint state method and show the significant advantages of using OpenCL for FWI.

  16. Turbulence patterns of visco-elastic inlet flow; Auffaelligkeiten im Turbulenzverhalten viskoelastischer Einlaufstroemungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, B.; Hahn, H.; Braemer, T. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Angewandte Mechanik


    Flow experiments were carried out with aqueous polymer solutions in a circulating system in a square duct. Inlet flow and full flow were investigated by LDA for Reynolds numbers of 15,000 - 50,000. It was found that lateral momentum transfer is characterised by the solution structure and considerably affects the inlet flow patterns. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden stroemungsmechanische Experimente waessriger Polymerloesungen in einem Umlaufsystem mit quadratischem Kanal durchgefuehrt. Dabei wurde das Einlaufverhalten und der Bereich der vollausgebildeten Stroemung mit Hilfe der Laser-Doppler-Anemometrie fuer die Loesungsmittel Reynolds-Zahlen von 15.000 bis 50.000 untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass der Querimpulsaustausch durch die Loesungsstruktur charakterisiert ist und das Einlaufverhalten massgeblich beeinflusst. (orig.)

  17. Computational model on pulsatile flow of blood through a tapered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 2, 2017 ... pension of nanoparticles. Phys. Lett. A 378: 2973–2980. [46] Ponnalagarsamy R and Kawahara M 1989 A finite element analysis of laminar unsteady flows of viscoelastic fluids through channels with non-uniform cross-sections. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 9: 1487–1501. [47] Haynes R H 1960 Physical ...

  18. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GR), exceeds a certain critical ... the viscous instability is driven by a discontinuity in the strain rate across the fluid–solid inter- face. ...... Kumaran V 1998a Stability of fluid flow through a flexible tube at intermediate Reynolds number. J. Fluid.

  19. Unequal diffusivities case of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions within viscoelastic fluid flow in the presence of induced magnetic-field and nonlinear thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Animasaun


    Full Text Available This article presents the effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and induced magnetic field on viscoelastic fluid flow toward a stagnation point. It is assumed that there exists a kind of chemical reaction between chemical species A and B. The diffusion coefficients of the two chemical species in the viscoelastic fluid flow are unequal. Since chemical species B is a catalyst at the horizontal surface, hence homogeneous and heterogeneous schemes are of the isothermal cubic autocatalytic reaction and first order reaction respectively. The transformed governing equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta integration scheme along with Newton’s method. Good agreement is obtained between present and published numerical results for a limiting case. The influence of some pertinent parameters on skin friction coefficient, local heat transfer rate, together with velocity, induced magnetic field, temperature, and concentration profiles is illustrated graphically and discussed. Based on all of these assumptions, results indicate that the effects of induced magnetic and viscoelastic parameters on velocity, transverse velocity and velocity of induced magnetic field are almost the same but opposite in nature. The strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter is very helpful to reduce the concentration of bulk fluid and increase the concentration of catalyst at the surface.

  20. Numerical computations of swirling recirculating flow (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Mongia, H. C.


    Swirling, recirculating, nonreacting flows were computed using a 2D elliptic program consisting of three tasks. The computations in Task 1 and 2 were made using an independent analysis for the two coaxial swirling flows. The Task 2 computations were made using the measured profiles of the mixing region. In Task 3, a modified 2D elliptic program was employed to include the effects of interaction between the inner and outer streams.

  1. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.


    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  2. Polymer Mechanics as a Model for Short-Term and Flow-Independent Cartilage Viscoelasticity (United States)

    June, R. K.; Neu, C. P.; Barone, J. R.; Fyhrie, D. P.


    Articular cartilage is the load bearing soft tissue that covers the contacting surfaces of long bones in articulating joints. Healthy cartilage allows for smooth joint motion, while damaged cartilage prohibits normal function in debilitating joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Knowledge of cartilage mechanical function through the progression of osteoarthritis, and in response to innovative regeneration treatments, requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular nature of interacting extracellular matrix constituents and interstitial fluid. The objectives of this study were therefore to (1) examine the timescale of cartilage stress-relaxation using different mechanistic models and (2) develop and apply a novel (termed “sticky”) polymer mechanics model to cartilage stress-relaxation based on temporary binding of constituent macromolecules. Using data from calf cartilage samples, we found that different models captured distinct timescales of cartilage stress-relaxation: monodisperse polymer reptation best described the first second of relaxation, sticky polymer mechanics best described data from ∼1-100 seconds of relaxation, and a model of inviscid fluid flow through a porous elastic matrix best described data from 100 seconds to equilibrium. Further support for the sticky polymer model was observed using experimental data where cartilage stress-relaxation was measured in either low or high salt concentration. These data suggest that a complete understanding of cartilage mechanics, especially in the short time scales immediately following loading, requires appreciation of both fluid flow and the polymeric behavior of the extracellular matrix. PMID:21552375

  3. Visco-elastic and flow properties of gelatin from the bone of freshwater fish (Cirrhinus mrigala). (United States)

    Chandra, M V; Shamasundar, B A; Kumar, P Ramesh


    The average yield of gelatin from the bone of freshwater fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) was 6.13%. The fluorescence spectra revealed maximum emission at 303 nm indicating the exposure of chromophores to bulk solvent. The amino acid profile of gelatin revealed a higher proportion of glycine and imino acids. The bloom strength of gelled gelatin was 159.8 g. The average molecular weight of fish bone gelatin was 281 kDa as determined by gel filtration technique. The dynamic oscillatory test of gelatin solution as a function of time and temperature revealed gelling and melting temperatures of 8.0 °C and 17.0 °C, respectively. The flow behavior of gelatin solution as a function of concentrations and temperatures revealed non-Newtonian behavior with pseudo-plastic phenomenon. The Herschel-Bulkley and Casson models were found suitable to study the flow behavior. The emulsion capacity (EC) of gelatin was inversely proportional to its concentration. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields (United States)

    Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.


    Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.

  5. Mixed Convection Flow of Magnetic Viscoelastic Polymer from a Nonisothermal Wedge with Biot Number Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar


    Full Text Available Magnetic polymers are finding increasing applications in diverse fields of chemical and mechanical engineering. In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of such fluids from a nonisothermal wedge. The incompressible Eyring-Powell non-Newtonian fluid model is employed and a magnetohydrodynamic body force is included in the simulation. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a second-order accurate implicit finite difference Keller Box technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging nondimensional parameters, namely, the Eyring-Powell rheological fluid parameter (ε, local non-Newtonian parameter based on length scale (δ, Prandtl number (Pr, Biot number (γ, pressure gradient parameter (m, magnetic parameter (M, mixed convection parameter (λ, and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ, on velocity and temperature evolution in the boundary layer regime is examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate and local skin friction are also investigated.

  6. Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    instantaneous How solution is employed as input for the acoustic part. At low Mach numbers, the differences in scales and propagation speed between the flow and the acoustic field are quite large, and hence different meshes and time steps can be used for the two parts. The model is applied to compute flows past......The How-acoustic splitting technique for aeroacoustic computations is extended to simulate the propagation of acoustic waves generated by three-dimensional turbulent flows. In the flow part, a subgrid-scale turbulence model (the mixed model) is employed for large-eddy simulations. The obtained...... a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10(5) for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreements between the computed and measured airfoil lift...

  7. Optical flow computation using extended constraints. (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C


    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  8. Computational modeling of concrete flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roussel, Nicolas; Geiker, Mette Rica; Dufour, Frederic


    particle flow, and numerical techniques allowing the modeling of particles suspended in a fluid. The general concept behind each family of techniques is described. Pros and cons for each technique are given along with examples and references to applications to fresh cementitious materials....

  9. Flow simulation and high performance computing (United States)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.


    Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.

  10. Dual solutions of magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with thermal radiation (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.


    The present study is intended to encompass the stagnation point flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic nanofluid with the presence of thermal radiation. The viscous incompressible electrically conducting and Jeffrey fluid model is taken into account. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by using the appropriate similarity variables. The resulting differential equations are solved numerically using the built in bvp4c function in Matlab. Dual solutions are discovered for a certain range of the governing parameters. Numerical results for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are elucidated through tables and graphs.

  11. Analysis of Magneto-hydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium in Wire Coating Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan


    Full Text Available Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. Nylon, polysulfide, low/high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE and plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC are the common and important plastic resin used for wire coating. In the current study, wire coating is performed using viscoelastic third grade fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field and porous medium. The governing equations are first modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. A numerical technique called ND-solve method is used for comparison and found good agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters on the velocity field and temperature profile is shown with the help of graphs. It is observed that the velocity profiles increase as the value of viscoelastic third grade parameter β increase and decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. It is also observed that the temperature profiles increases as the Brinkman number B r , permeability parameter K , magnetic parameter M and viscoelastic third grade parameter (non-Newtonian parameter β increase.

  12. Viscoelastic Waves Simulation in a Blocky Medium with Fluid-Saturated Interlayers Using High-Performance Computing (United States)

    Sadovskii, Vladimir; Sadovskaya, Oxana


    A thermodynamically consistent approach to the description of linear and nonlinear wave processes in a blocky medium, which consists of a large number of elastic blocks interacting with each other via pliant interlayers, is proposed. The mechanical properties of interlayers are defined by means of the rheological schemes of different levels of complexity. Elastic interaction between the blocks is considered in the framework of the linear elasticity theory [1]. The effects of viscoelastic shear in the interblock interlayers are taken into consideration using the Pointing-Thomson rheological scheme. The model of an elastic porous material is used in the interlayers, where the pores collapse if an abrupt compressive stress is applied. On the basis of the Biot equations for a fluid-saturated porous medium, a new mathematical model of a blocky medium is worked out, in which the interlayers provide a convective fluid motion due to the external perturbations. The collapse of pores is modeled within the generalized rheological approach, wherein the mechanical properties of a material are simulated using four rheological elements. Three of them are the traditional elastic, viscous and plastic elements, the fourth element is the so-called rigid contact [2], which is used to describe the behavior of materials with different resistance to tension and compression. Thermodynamic consistency of the equations in interlayers with the equations in blocks guarantees fulfillment of the energy conservation law for a blocky medium in a whole, i.e. kinetic and potential energy of the system is the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the blocks and interlayers. As a result of discretization of the equations of the model, robust computational algorithm is constructed, that is stable because of the thermodynamic consistency of the finite difference equations at a discrete level. The splitting method by the spatial variables and the Godunov gap decay scheme are used in the blocks, the

  13. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  14. Aeroacoustic computation of low mach number flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver Dahl, K. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)


    The possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines is explored. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound fields are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the charcteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solution for the problem of the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. (au)

  15. Optimization of Bistable Viscoelastic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    the critical pressure gives rise to increased hydraulic resistance. We have combined a state-of-the-art implementation for viscoelastic flow modeling with topology optimization in a high level finite element package (COMSOL). We use this framework on the cross geometry with the aim to reduce the critical...

  16. Numerical Study of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for Viscoelastic Flow Due to an Exponentially Stretching Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Ahmad Khan

    Full Text Available This work deals with the flow and heat transfer in upper-convected Maxwell fluid above an exponentially stretching surface. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is employed for the formulation of the energy equation. This model can predict the effects of thermal relaxation time on the boundary layer. Similarity approach is utilized to normalize the governing boundary layer equations. Local similarity solutions are achieved by shooting approach together with fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and Newton's method. Our computations reveal that fluid temperature has inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation time. Further the fluid velocity is a decreasing function of the fluid relaxation time. A comparison of Fourier's law and the Cattaneo-Christov's law is also presented. Present attempt even in the case of Newtonian fluid is not yet available in the literature.

  17. Optimal homotopy asymptotic method for flow and heat transfer of a viscoelastic fluid in an axisymmetric channel with a porous wall. (United States)

    Mabood, Fazle; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md


    In this article, an approximate analytical solution of flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall is presented. The solution is obtained through the use of a powerful method known as Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). We obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless velocity and temperature for various parameters. The influence and effect of different parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, friction factor, and rate of heat transfer are presented graphically. We also compared our solution with those obtained by other methods and it is found that OHAM solution is better than the other methods considered. This shows that OHAM is reliable for use to solve strongly nonlinear problems in heat transfer phenomena.

  18. Multigrid, Fractional-Step Computation Of Flow (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe


    Speed of computer code solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of flow of incompressible fluid by fractional-step method increased significantly by use of multigrid procedures. In method, equations solved on general nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate grid, using volume fluxes. At each time step, computations performed in two fractional steps. In first step, equations of conservation of momentum solved by use of gradient of pressure from previous time step via explicit approximate-factorization method, yielding approximate flow field that does not satisfy equation of conservation of mass. In second step, discrete Poisson-like equation with Neumann-type boundary conditions, formed by combining equations of conservation of momentum and mass, solved iteratively.

  19. Modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Fogwell, T.W.; Tompson, A.F.B.


    The authors will explore the numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. An interdisciplinary team of mathematicians, computer scientists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers is developing a sophisticated simulation code for use on workstation clusters and MPPs. To date, they have concentrated on modeling flow in the saturated zone (single phase), which requires the solution of a large linear system. they will discuss their implementation of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers. The preconditioners under consideration include simple diagonal scaling, s-step Jacobi, adaptive Chebyshev polynomial preconditioning, and multigrid. They will present some preliminary numerical results, including simulations of groundwater flow at the LLNL site. They also will demonstrate the code`s scalability.

  20. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, Cheng Yuan [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea Wales (United Kingdom)


    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system.

  1. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern


    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Numerical simulation of the planar extrudate swell of pseudoplastic and viscoelastic fluids with the streamfunction and the VOF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Pimenta, Francisco; Hattel, Jesper H.


    , as well as with numerical simulations performed with the open-source rheoTool toolbox in OpenFOAM®. While the simulations of the generalized Newtonian fluids achieved mesh independence for all the methods tested, the flow simulations of the viscoelastic fluids are more sensitive to mesh refinement......Abstract We present an Eulerian free-surface flow solver for incompressible pseudoplastic and viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids. The free-surface flow solver is based on the streamfunction flow formulation and the volume-of-fluid method. The streamfunction solver computes the vector potential...... of a solenoidal velocity field, which ensures by construction the mass conservation of the solution, and removes the pressure unknown. Pseudoplastic liquids are modelled with a Carreau model. The viscoelastic fluids are governed by differential constitutive models reformulated with the log-conformation approach...

  3. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using the Rivlin-Sawyers constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    convected Maxwell fluid to a fluid described by an integral constitutive equation of the Rivlin-Sawyers type. This includes the K-BKZ model. The convergence of the method is demonstrated on the axisymmetric problem of the inflation of a polymeric membrane only restricted by a clamping ring....

  4. Visualization of vortical flows in computational fluid dynamics (United States)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.; Yakovchuk, M. S.


    The concepts and methods of the visual representation of fluid dynamics computations of vortical flows are studied. Approaches to the visualization of vortical flows based on the use of various definitions of a vortex and various tests for its identification are discussed. Examples of the visual representation of solutions to some fluid dynamics problems related to the computation of vortical flows in jets, channels, and cavities and of the computation of separated flows occurring in flows around bodies of various shapes are discussed.

  5. The Computation of Global Viscoelastic Co- and Post-seismic Displacement in a Realistic Earth Model by Straightforward Numerical Inverse Laplace Integration (United States)

    Tang, H.; Sun, W.


    The theoretical computation of dislocation theory in a given earth model is necessary in the explanation of observations of the co- and post-seismic deformation of earthquakes. For this purpose, computation theories based on layered or pure half space [Okada, 1985; Okubo, 1992; Wang et al., 2006] and on spherically symmetric earth [Piersanti et al., 1995; Pollitz, 1997; Sabadini & Vermeersen, 1997; Wang, 1999] have been proposed. It is indicated that the compressibility, curvature and the continuous variation of the radial structure of Earth should be simultaneously taken into account for modern high precision displacement-based observations like GPS. Therefore, Tanaka et al. [2006; 2007] computed global displacement and gravity variation by combining the reciprocity theorem (RPT) [Okubo, 1993] and numerical inverse Laplace integration (NIL) instead of the normal mode method [Peltier, 1974]. Without using RPT, we follow the straightforward numerical integration of co-seismic deformation given by Sun et al. [1996] to present a straightforward numerical inverse Laplace integration method (SNIL). This method is used to compute the co- and post-seismic displacement of point dislocations buried in a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating viscoelastic and multilayered earth model and is easy to extended to the application of geoid and gravity. Comparing with pre-existing method, this method is relatively more straightforward and time-saving, mainly because we sum associated Legendre polynomials and dislocation love numbers before using Riemann-Merlin formula to implement SNIL.

  6. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert


    conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic...

  7. Computational analysis of heat flow in computer casing (United States)

    Nor Azwadi, C. S.; Goh, C. K.; Afiq Witri, M. Y.


    Reliability of a computer system is directly related to thermal management system. This is due to the fact that poor thermal management led to high temperature distribution throughout hardware components and resulting poor performance and reducing fatigue life of the package. Therefore, good cooling solutions (heat sink, fan) and proper form factor design (expandability, interchangeable of parts) is necessary to provide good thermal management in computer system. The performance of Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) and its purposed successor, Balanced Technology Extended (BTX) were compared to investigate the aforementioned factors. Simulations were conducted by using ANSYS software. Results obtained from simulations were compared with values in the datasheet obtained from manufacturers for validation purposes and it was discovered that there are more chaos region in the flow profile for ATX form factor. In contrast, BTX form factor yields a straighter flow profile. Based on the result, we can conclude that BTX form factor has better cooling capability compared to its predecessor, ATX due to the improvement of layout made in the BTX form factor. With this change, it enabled BTX form factor to be used with more advanced components which dissipate more amount of heat and also improves the acoustic performance of BTX by reducing the number of fan needed to just one unit for BTX.

  8. Computation of turbulent flows over backward-facing step (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moin, P.


    A numerical method for computing incompressible turbulent flows is presented. The method is tested by calculating laminar recirculating flows and is applied in conjunction with a modified Kappa-epsilon model to compute the flow over a backward-facing step. In the laminar regime, the computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The turbulent flow study shows that the reattachment length is underpredicted by the standard Kappa-epsilon model. The addition of a term to the standard model that accounts for the effects of rotation on turbulent flow improves the results in the recirculation region and increases the computed reattachment length.

  9. Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.

  10. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  11. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kajishima, Takeo


    This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...

  13. 3D Viscoelastic Finite Element Modelling of Polymer Flow in the Fiber Drawing Process for Microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Marín, J. M. R.


    The process of drawing an optical fiber from a polymer preform is still not completely understood,although it represents one of the most critical steps in the process chain for the fabrication of microstructuredpolymer optical fibers (mPOFs). Here we present a new approach for the numerical...... the numerical modelling of mPOF drawing has mainly beenbased on principles, such as generalized Newtonian fluid dynamics, which are not able to cope with the elasticcomponent in polymer flow. In the present work, we employ the K-BKZ constitutive equation, a non-linearsingle-integral model that combines both...

  14. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David


    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  15. Ligament Mediated Fragmentation of Viscoelastic Liquids (United States)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; Houze, Eric C.; Moore, John R.; Koerner, Michael R.; McKinley, Gareth H.


    The breakup and atomization of complex fluids can be markedly different than the analogous processes in a simple Newtonian fluid. Atomization of paint, combustion of fuels containing antimisting agents, as well as physiological processes such as sneezing are common examples in which the atomized liquid contains synthetic or biological macromolecules that result in viscoelastic fluid characteristics. Here, we investigate the ligament-mediated fragmentation dynamics of viscoelastic fluids in three different canonical flows. The size distributions measured in each viscoelastic fragmentation process show a systematic broadening from the Newtonian solvent. In each case, the droplet sizes are well described by Gamma distributions which correspond to a fragmentation-coalescence scenario. We use a prototypical axial step strain experiment together with high-speed video imaging to show that this broadening results from the pronounced change in the corrugated shape of viscoelastic ligaments as they separate from the liquid core. These corrugations saturate in amplitude and the measured distributions for viscoelastic liquids in each process are given by a universal probability density function, corresponding to a Gamma distribution with nmin=4 . The breadth of this size distribution for viscoelastic filaments is shown to be constrained by a geometrical limit which can not be exceeded in ligament-mediated fragmentation phenomena.

  16. 3D time-dependent flow computations using a molecular stress function model with constraint release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    The numerical simulation of time dependent viscoelastic flow (in three dimensions) is of interest in connection with a variety of polymer processing operations. The application of the numerical simulation techniques is in the analysis and design of polymer processing problems. This is operations,......, such as thermoforming, blow moulding, compression moulding, gas-assisted injection moulding, simultaneous multi-component injection moulding....

  17. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart And Valve (United States)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee


    NASA technical memorandum discusses computations of flow of blood through artificial heart and through tilting-disk artificial heart valve. Represents further progress in research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478). One purpose of research to exploit advanced techniques of computational fluid dynamics and capabilities of supercomputers to gain understanding of complicated internal flows of viscous, essentially incompressible fluids like blood. Another to use understanding to design better artificial hearts and valves.

  18. Numerical computations of the unsteady flow in a radial turbine


    Hellström, Fredrik


    Non-pulsatile and pulsatile flow in bent pipes and radial turbine has been assessed with numerical simulations. The flow field in a single bent pipe has been computed with different turbulence modelling approaches. A comparison with measured data shows that Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) gives the best agreement in terms of mean flow quantities. All computations with the different turbulence models qualitatively capture the so called Dean vortices. The Dean vortices are a pair of count...

  19. Computational methods for two-phase flow and particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wen Ho


    This book describes mathematical formulations and computational methods for solving two-phase flow problems with a computer code that calculates thermal hydraulic problems related to light water and fast breeder reactors. The physical model also handles the particle and gas flow problems that arise from coal gasification and fluidized beds. The second part of this book deals with the computational methods for particle transport.

  20. Rheological modeling of viscoelastic passive dampers (United States)

    Park, Sunwoo


    An efficient method of modeling the rheological behavior of viscoelastic dampers is discussed and illustrated. The method uses the standard mechanical model composed of linear springs and dashpots, which leads to a Prony series representation of the corresponding material function in the time domain. The computational procedure used is simple and straightforward and allows the linear viscoelastic material functions to be readily determined from experimental data in the time or frequency domain. Some existing models including the fractional derivative model and modified power-law are reviewed and compared with the standard mechanical model. It is found the generalized Maxwell and generalized Voigt model accurately describe the broadband rheological behavior of viscoelastic dampers commonly used in structural and vibration control. While a cumbersome nonlinear fitting technique is required for other models, a simple collocation or least-squares method can be used to fit the standard mechanical model to experimental data. The remarkable computational efficiency associated with the exponential basis functions of the Prony series greatly facilitates fitting of the model and interconversion between linear viscoelastic material functions. A numerical example on a viscoelastic fluid damper demonstrates the advantages of the use of the standard mechanical model over other existing models. Details of the computational procedures for fitting and inter-conversion are discussed and illustrated.

  1. An Improved SIMPLEC Method for Steady and Unsteady Flow Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, N. N.


    A modified SIMPLEC scheme for flow computations on collocated grids has been developed. It is demonstrated that the standard SIMPLEC scheme (1) is inconsistent when applied on collocated grids. Hence, for steady computations the computed solution depends on the velocity underrelaxation parameter fu......, whereas the solutions of unsteady computations for small time steps are polluted by unphysical wiggles. A revised scheme is proposed that extends the capability of th SIMPLEC method to cope with collocated grids in a general and consistent way.The efficiency of the new scheme is demonstrated by computing...... flows past a circular cylinder and an airfoil....

  2. Uma nova metodologia para a simulação de escoamentos de fluidos viscoelásticos A new approach for simulation of viscoelastic fluid flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Muniz


    Full Text Available É proposta neste trabalho uma nova metodologia para resolução das equações governantes de fluidos viscoelásticos, baseada no método dos volumes finitos, usando o arranjo co-localizado para as variáveis e malhas estruturadas. São utilizadas aproximações de alta ordem para os fluxos lineares e não-lineares médios nas interfaces dos volumes, e para os termos não-lineares que surgem da discretização das equações constitutivas. Nesta metodologia, os valores médios das variáveis nos volumes são usados durante todo o procedimento de resolução, e os valores pontuais são obtidos ao final, através da deconvolução dos valores médios. O sistema de equações discretizadas é resolvido de forma simultânea, pelo método de Newton. A metodologia é exemplificada para um problema clássico em mecânica de fluidos computacional, o escoamento stick-slip, usando como equação constitutiva o modelo de Oldroyd-B. As soluções obtidas apresentaram boa precisão, sendo livres de oscilações mesmo em regiões de grandes gradientes das variáveis.In this work, a new methodology to solve the governing equations of viscoelastic fluid flows is proposed. This methodology is based on the finite-volume method with co-located arrangement of the variables, using high-order approximations for the linear and nonlinear average fluxes in the interfaces and for the nonlinear terms resulting from the discretization of the constitutive equations. In this methodology, the average values of the variable in the volumes are used during the resolution, and the point values are recovered in the post-processing step by deconvolution of the average values. The nonlinear equations, resulting from the discretization technique, are solved simultaneously, using the Newton's method. The solutions obtained are oscillation-free and accurate, as can be seen in the solution of the stick-slip flow, used as an illustrative example.

  3. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning


    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  4. MHD free convection flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshiniski type dusty gas through a semi infinite plate moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time and radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash


    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the study of MHD free convective flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshinski type dusty gas through a porous medium induced by the motion of a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of radiative heat transfer moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time. The expressions for velocity distribution of a dusty gas and dust particles, concentration profile and temperature field are obtained. The effect of Schmidt number (Sc, Magnetic field parameter (M and Radiation parameter (N on velocity distribution of dusty gas and dust particles, concentration and temperature distribution are discussed graphically.

  5. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. (United States)

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M


    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer modelling of turbulent recirculating flows in engineering applications (United States)

    Khalil, E. E.; Assaf, H. M. W.

    A numerical computation procedure for solving the partial differential equations governing turbulent flows is presented, with an emphasis on swirling flows. The conservation equations for mass and momentum are defined, noting the inclusion of turbulence characteristics in Reynolds stress terms. A two-dimensional turbulence model is used, based on an eddy viscosity concept, with the Reynolds stress described in terms of the mean velocity gradient and the eddy viscosity. The model is used for the flow in a rotary air garbage classifier and the flow in a vortex tube. The flexibility of the technique is demonstrated through variations of the initial flow parameters.

  7. Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter


    A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point ...

  8. Use of computer graphics for visualization of flow fields (United States)

    Watson, Val; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Bancroft, Gordon; Merritt, Fergus; Rogers, Stuart


    A high-performance graphics workstation has been combined with software developed for flow-field visualization to yield a highly effective tool for analysis of fluid-flow dynamics. After the flow fields are obtained from experimental measurements or computer simulations, the workstation permits one to interactively view the dynamics of the flow fields; e.g., the viewer can zoom into a region or rotate his viewing position about the region to study it in more detail. Several techniques for visualization of flow fields with this workstation are described in this paper and illustrated with a videotape available from the authors. The computer hardware and software required to create effective flow visualization displays are discussed. Additional software and hardware required to create videotapes or 16mm movies are also described. Limitations imposed by current workstation performance is addressed and future workstation performance is forecast.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of hot air flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of air flow distribution, air velocity and pressure field pattern as it will affect moisture transient in a cabinet tray dryer is performed using SolidWorks Flow Simulation (SWFS) 2014 SP 4.0 program. The model used for the drying process in this experiment was designed with Solid ...

  10. Fractional-Step, Finite-Volume Computation Of Flow (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Vinokur, Marcel


    Method of solving Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flow in general nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates incorporates fractional-step and finite-volume approaches. Developed in continuing effort to achieve accuracy without need for excessive computation time in numerical simulation of time-dependent, three-dimensional flows bounded by surfaces of complicated shape.

  11. Particle sedimentation in a sheared viscoelastic fluid (United States)

    Murch, William L.; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    Particle suspensions are ubiquitous in engineered processes, biological systems, and natural settings. For an engineering application - whether the intent is to suspend and transport particles (e.g., in hydraulic fracturing fluids) or allow particles to sediment (e.g., in industrial separations processes) - understanding and prediction of the particle mobility is critical. This task is often made challenging by the complex nature of the fluid phase, for example, due to fluid viscoelasticity. In this talk, we focus on a fully 3D flow problem in a viscoelastic fluid: a settling particle with a shear flow applied in the plane perpendicular to gravity (referred to as orthogonal shear). Previously, it has been shown that an orthogonal shear flow can reduce the settling rate of particles in viscoelastic fluids. Using experiments and numerical simulations across a wide range of sedimentation and shear Weissenberg number, this talk will address the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the additional drag experienced by a rigid sphere settling in a confined viscoelastic fluid with orthogonal shear. We will then explore multiple particle effects, and discuss the implications and extensions of this work for particle suspensions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-114747 (WLM).

  12. Strong interseismic coupling, fault afterslip, and viscoelastic flow before and after the Oct. 9, 1995 Colima-Jalisco earthquake: continuous GPS measurements from Colima, Mexico (United States)

    Azua, B.M.; DeMets, C.; Masterlark, Timothy


    Continuous GPS measurements from Colima, Mexico during 4/93-6/01, bracketing the Oct. 9, 1995 M = 8.0 Colima-Jalisco earthquake, provide new constraints on Rivera plate subduction mechanics. Modeling of margin-normal strain accumulation before the earthquake suggests the Rivera-North America subduction interface was fully locked. Transient postseismic motion from 10/ 95-6/97 is well fit by a model that includes logarithmically-decaying fault afterslip, elastic strain from shallow fault relocking, and possibly a minor viscoelastic response, but is fit poorly by models that assume a dominant Maxwell viscoelastic response of the lower crust and upper mantle, independent of the assumed viscosities. Landward, margin-normal motion since mid-1997 is parallel to but ??? 75% slower than the pre-seismic velocity. Afterslip alone fails to account for this slowdown. The viscoelastic response predicted by a FEM correctly resolves the remaining velocity difference within the uncertainties. Both processes thus offset elastic strain accumulating from the relocked subduction interface.

  13. Interfacial Dynamics of Thin Viscoelastic Films and Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Valeria; Kondic, Lou


    We present a computational investigation of thin viscoelastic films and drops on a solid substrate subject to the van der Waals interaction force. The governing equations are obtained within a long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations with Jeffreys model for viscoelastic stresses. We investigate the effects of viscoelasticity, Newtonian viscosity, and the substrate slippage on the dynamics of thin viscoelastic films. We also study the effects of viscoelasticity on drops that spread or recede on a prewetted substrate. For dewetting films, the numerical results show the presence of multiple secondary droplets for higher values of elasticity, consistently with experimental findings. For drops, we find that elastic effects lead to deviations from the Cox-Voinov law for partially wetting fluids. In general, elastic effects enhance spreading, and suppress retraction, compared to Newtonian ones.

  14. Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.


    Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.

  15. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  16. Flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation. (United States)

    Voiskounsky, Alexander E; Smyslova, Olga V


    Hackers' psychology, widely discussed in the media, is almost entirely unexplored by psychologists. In this study, hackers' motivation is investigated, using the flow paradigm. Flow is likely to motivate hackers, according to views expressed by researchers and by hackers themselves. Taken as granted that hackers experience flow, it was hypothesized that flow increases with the increase of hackers' competence in IT use. Self-selected subjects were recruited on specialized web sources; 457 hackers filled out a web questionnaire. Competence in IT use, specific flow experience, and demographic data were questioned. An on-line research was administered within the Russian-speaking community (though one third of Ss are non-residents of Russian Federation); since hacking seems to be international, the belief is expressed that the results are universal. The hypothesis is not confirmed: flow motivation characterizes the least and the most competent hackers, and the members of an intermediate group, that is, averagely competent Ss report the "flow crisis"-no (or less) flow experience. Two differing strategies of task choice were self-reported by Ss: a step-by-step increase of the difficulty of choices leads to a match of challenges and skills (and to preserving the flow experience); putting choices irrespective of the likelihood of solution leads to a "flow crisis." The findings give productive hints on processes of hackers' motivational development. The flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation was developed. It combines both empirically confirmed and theoretically possible ways of hackers' "professional" growth.

  17. A Fractional-Step Method Of Computing Incompressible Flow (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Vinokur, Marcel


    Method of computing time-dependent flow of incompressible, viscous fluid involves numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations on two- or three-dimensional computational grid based on generalized curvilinear coordinates. Equations of method derived in primitive-variable formulation. Dependent variables are pressure at center of each cell of computational grid and volume fluxes across faces of each cell. Volume fluxes replace Cartesian components of velocity; these fluxes correspond to contravariant components of velocity multiplied by volume of computational cell, in staggered grid. Choice of dependent variables enables simple extension of previously developed staggered-grid approach to generalized curvilinear coordinates and facilitates enforcement of conservation of mass.

  18. Viscoelastic guidance of resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bleeding in trauma carries a high mortality and is increased in case of coagulopathy. Our understanding of hemostasis and coagulopathy has improved, leading to a change in the protocols for hemostatic monitoring. This review describes the current state of evidence supporting...... populations. In trauma care, viscoelastic hemostatic assays allows for rapid and timely identification of coagulopathy and individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy. As part of the resuscitation concept, viscoelastic hemostatic assays seem to improve outcome also in trauma; however, there is a need...

  19. Enabling large-scale viscoelastic calculations via neural network acceleration (United States)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Thompson, T. Ben; Meade, Brendan J.


    One of the most significant challenges involved in efforts to understand the effects of repeated earthquake cycle activity is the computational costs of large-scale viscoelastic earthquake cycle models. Computationally intensive viscoelastic codes must be evaluated at thousands of times and locations, and as a result, studies tend to adopt a few fixed rheological structures and model geometries and examine the predicted time-dependent deformation over short (learn a computationally efficient representation of viscoelastic solutions, at any time, location, and for a large range of rheological structures, allows these calculations to be done quickly and reliably, with high spatial and temporal resolutions. We demonstrate that this machine learning approach accelerates viscoelastic calculations by more than 50,000%. This magnitude of acceleration will enable the modeling of geometrically complex faults over thousands of earthquake cycles across wider ranges of model parameters and at larger spatial and temporal scales than have been previously possible.

  20. Flow Ambiguity: A Path Towards Classically Driven Blind Quantum Computation (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Demarie, Tommaso F.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.


    Blind quantum computation protocols allow a user to delegate a computation to a remote quantum computer in such a way that the privacy of their computation is preserved, even from the device implementing the computation. To date, such protocols are only known for settings involving at least two quantum devices: either a user with some quantum capabilities and a remote quantum server or two or more entangled but noncommunicating servers. In this work, we take the first step towards the construction of a blind quantum computing protocol with a completely classical client and single quantum server. Specifically, we show how a classical client can exploit the ambiguity in the flow of information in measurement-based quantum computing to construct a protocol for hiding critical aspects of a computation delegated to a remote quantum computer. This ambiguity arises due to the fact that, for a fixed graph, there exist multiple choices of the input and output vertex sets that result in deterministic measurement patterns consistent with the same fixed total ordering of vertices. This allows a classical user, computing only measurement angles, to drive a measurement-based computation performed on a remote device while hiding critical aspects of the computation.

  1. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids (United States)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E.; Ahmed, Zahir U.


    The Rayleigh-Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity.

  2. Methodology for computer-assisted optimization of waste flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Cicerone Laurentiu


    Full Text Available The paper reports the development of a methodology based on computer simulations with the purpose to support decisions in designing the optimal architecture of different types of selective waste collection systems and recycling systems. The design of such systems is a complex task which involves both a very good knowledge of selective waste collection system equipment characteristics and of recycling processes, and the correct placing of the equipment along the flow so that to avoid underutilization of the structural elements and to avoid bottlenecks which generate low productivity or even blockages. The methodology is applied for three case studies in which different types of waste flow models are investigated: hybrid waste flows (windshields recycling, discrete waste flows (waste electric and electronic equipment collection and continuous flows (industrial and automotive used oil collection and recycling. The architectures of these systems are optimized using the developed methodology in order to increase usage degree and productivity.

  3. Improving flow distribution in influent channels using computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Park, No-Suk; Yoon, Sukmin; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Seungjae


    Although the flow distribution in an influent channel where the inflow is split into each treatment process in a wastewater treatment plant greatly affects the efficiency of the process, and a weir is the typical structure for the flow distribution, to the authors' knowledge, there is a paucity of research on the flow distribution in an open channel with a weir. In this study, the influent channel of a real-scale wastewater treatment plant was used, installing a suppressed rectangular weir that has a horizontal crest to cross the full channel width. The flow distribution in the influent channel was analyzed using a validated computational fluid dynamics model to investigate (1) the comparison of single-phase and two-phase simulation, (2) the improved procedure of the prototype channel, and (3) the effect of the inflow rate on flow distribution. The results show that two-phase simulation is more reliable due to the description of the free-surface fluctuations. It should first be considered for improving flow distribution to prevent a short-circuit flow, and the difference in the kinetic energy with the inflow rate makes flow distribution trends different. The authors believe that this case study is helpful for improving flow distribution in an influent channel.

  4. IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, R. W.


    This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

  5. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ashkan; Min, James; Achenbach, Stephan


    AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography (FFRCT) has high diagnostic performance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic performance of FFRCT in patients with hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM), who are at risk of microvascular impairment...... risk for microvascular disease....

  6. Computer-Aided Test Flow in Core-Based Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    This paper copes with the efficient test-pattern generation in a core-based design. A consistent Computer-Aided Test (CAT) flow is proposed based on the required core-test strategy. It generates a test-pattern set for the embedded cores with high fault coverage and low DfT area overhead. The CAT

  7. Computational Flow Modeling of Human Upper Airway Breathing (United States)

    Mylavarapu, Goutham

    Computational modeling of biological systems have gained a lot of interest in biomedical research, in the recent past. This thesis focuses on the application of computational simulations to study airflow dynamics in human upper respiratory tract. With advancements in medical imaging, patient specific geometries of anatomically accurate respiratory tracts can now be reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans, with better and accurate details than traditional cadaver cast models. Computational studies using these individualized geometrical models have advantages of non-invasiveness, ease, minimum patient interaction, improved accuracy over experimental and clinical studies. Numerical simulations can provide detailed flow fields including velocities, flow rates, airway wall pressure, shear stresses, turbulence in an airway. Interpretation of these physical quantities will enable to develop efficient treatment procedures, medical devices, targeted drug delivery etc. The hypothesis for this research is that computational modeling can predict the outcomes of a surgical intervention or a treatment plan prior to its application and will guide the physician in providing better treatment to the patients. In the current work, three different computational approaches Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Flow-Structure Interaction (FSI) and Particle Flow simulations were used to investigate flow in airway geometries. CFD approach assumes airway wall as rigid, and relatively easy to simulate, compared to the more challenging FSI approach, where interactions of airway wall deformations with flow are also accounted. The CFD methodology using different turbulence models is validated against experimental measurements in an airway phantom. Two case-studies using CFD, to quantify a pre and post-operative airway and another, to perform virtual surgery to determine the best possible surgery in a constricted airway is demonstrated. The unsteady

  8. Numerical Analysis of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid Over A Stretching Sheet by Using the Homotopy Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Barari, Amin


    equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the Homotopy Analysis Method in comparison with the numerical method in solving this problems. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. A clear...... conclusion can be drawn from the numerical method results that the HAM provides highly accurate solutions for nonlinear differential equations. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper a study of the flow and heat transfer of an incompressible homogeneous second grade fluid past a stretching sheet channel...... is presented and the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the Homotopy Analysis Method in comparison...

  9. The computation of three-dimensional flows using unstructured grids (United States)

    Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.; Hassan, O.


    A general method is described for automatically discretizing, into unstructured assemblies of tetrahedra, the three-dimensional solution domains of complex shape which are of interest in practical computational aerodynamics. An algorithm for the solution of the compressible Euler equations which can be implemented on such general unstructured tetrahedral grids is described. This is an explicit cell-vertex scheme which follows a general Taylor-Galerkin philosophy. The approach is employed to compute a transonic inviscid flow over a standard wing and the results are shown to compare favorably with experimental observations. As a more practical demonstration, the method is then applied to the analysis of inviscid flow over a complete modern fighter configuration. The effect of using mesh adaptivity is illustrated when the method is applied to the solution of high speed flow in an engine inlet.

  10. Numerical simulation of a viscoelastic flow through a concentric annular with BSD scheme, influence of the Deborah number; Simulacao numerica do escoamento laminar de fluido viscoelastico PTT (Phan-Thien-Tanner) em tubo anular concentrico - influencia do numero de Deborah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambros, Alder C.; Vitorassi, Pedro H.; Franco, Admilson T.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Matins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Perfuracao


    The success of oil well drilling process depends on the correct prediction of the velocities and stresses fields inside the gap between the drill string and the rock formation. Using CFD is possible to predict the behavior of the drilling fluid flow along the annular space, from the bottom to the top of the well. Commonly the drilling fluid is modeled as a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. An alternative is to employ a non-linear viscoelastic model, like the one developed by Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT). In the present work the PTT constitutive equation is used to model the drilling fluid flow along the annular space. Thus, this work investigates the influence of the Deborah number on the laminar flow pattern through the numerical solution of the equations formed by the coupled velocity-pressure-stress fields. The results are analyzed and validated against the analytical solution for the fully developed annular pipe flow. The relation between the Deborah number (De) and the entry length is investigated, along with the influence of high values of Deborah number on the friction factor, stress and velocity fields. (author)

  11. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic arterial wall models: application on animals

    CERN Document Server

    Ghigo, Arthur; Armentano, Ricardo; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria


    This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a non-linear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time-defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus-is nearly constant throughout the network. Therefore, as it is well known that smaller arteries are stiffer, the viscoelastic coefficient rises when approaching the peripheral sites to compensate the rise of the Young's modulus, resulting in a higher damping effect. We incorporated the fitted viscoelastic coefficients in a nonlinear 1D fluid model to compute the pulse waves in the network. The damping effect of viscoelasticity on the high frequency waves is clear especiall...

  12. Asymptotic ray theory of linear viscoelastic media (United States)

    Nechtschein, Stephane

    The Asymptotic Ray Theory (ART) has become a frequently used technique for the numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in complex geological models. This theory was originally developed for elastic structures with the ray amplitude computation performed in the time domain. ART is now extended to linear viscoelastic media, the linear theory of viscoelasticity being used to simulate the dispersive properties peculiar to anelastic materials. This extension of ART is based on the introduction of a frequency dependent amplitude term having the same properties as in the elastic case and on a frequency dependent complex phase function. Consequently the ray amplitude computation is now performed in the frequency domain, the final solution being obtained by carrying out an Inverse Fourier Transform. Since ART is used, the boundary conditions for the kinematic and dynamic properties of the waves only have to be satisfied locally. This results in a much simpler Snell's Law for linear viscoelastic media, which in fact turns out to be of the same form as for the elastic case. No complex angle is involved. Furthermore the rays, the ray parameters, the geometrical spreading are all real values implying that the direction of the attenuation vector is always along the ray. The reflection and transmission coefficients were therefore rederived. These viscoelastic ART coefficients behave differently from those obtained with the Plane Wave method. Their amplitude and phase curves are always close to those computed for perfectly elastic media and they smoothly approach the elastic reflection/transmission coefficients when the quality factors increase to infinity. These same ART coefficients also display some non-physical results depending on the choice of the quality factors. This last feature might be useful to determine whether or not the two media making up the interface can be regarded as linear viscoelastic. Finally the results obtained from synthetic seismogram computations

  13. Application Of Prony's Method To Data On Viscoelasticity (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.


    Prony coefficients found by computer program, without trial and error. Computational method and computer program developed to exploit full potential of Prony's interpolation method in analysis of experimental data on relaxation modules of viscoelastic material. Prony interpolation curve chosen to give least-squares best fit to "B-spline" interpolation of experimental data.

  14. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.


    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  15. Computationally efficient angles-only tracking with particle flow filters (United States)

    Costa, Russell; Wettergren, Thomas A.


    Particle filters represent the current state of the art in nonlinear, non-Gaussian filtering. They are easy to implement and have been applied in numerous domains. That being said, particle filters can be impractical for problems with state dimensions greater than four, if some other problem specific efficiencies can't be identified. This "curse of dimensionality" makes particle filters a computationally burdensome approach, and the associated re-sampling makes parallel processing difficult. In the past several years an alternative to particle filters dubbed particle flows has emerged as a (potentially) much more efficient method to solving non-linear, non-Gaussian problems. Particle flow filtering (unlike particle filtering) is a deterministic approach, however, its implementation entails solving an under-determined system of partial differential equations which has infinitely many potential solutions. In this work we apply the filters to angles-only target motion analysis problems in order to quantify the (if any) computational gains over standard particle filtering approaches. In particular we focus on the simplest form of particle flow filter, known as the exact particle flow filter. This form assumes a Gaussian prior and likelihood function of the unknown target states and is then linearized as is standard practice for extended Kalman filters. We implement both particle filters and particle flows and perform numerous numerical experiments for comparison.

  16. Numerical Models for Viscoelastic Liquid Atomization Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Qian


    Full Text Available Atomization spray of non-Newtonian liquid plays a pivotal role in various engineering applications, especially for the energy utilization. To operate spray systems efficiently and well understand the effects of liquid rheological properties on the whole spray process, a comprehensive model using Euler-Lagrangian approaches was established to simulate the evolution of the atomization spray for viscoelastic liquid. Based on the Oldroyd model, the viscoelastic linear dispersion relation was introduced into the primary atomization; an extended viscoelastic version of Taylor analogy breakup (TAB model was proposed; and the coalescence criteria was modified by rheological parameters, such as the relaxation time, the retardation time and the zero shear viscosity. The predicted results are validated with experimental data varying air-liquid mass flow ratio (ALR. Then, numerical calculations are conducted to investigate the characteristics of viscoelastic liquid atomization process. Results showed that the evolutionary trend of droplet mean diameter, Weber number and Ohnesorge number of viscoelastic liquids along with axial direction were qualitatively similar to that of Newtonian liquid. However, the mean size of polymer solution increased more gently than that of water at the downstream of the spray, which was beneficial to stable control of the desirable size in the applications. As concerned the effects of liquid physical properties, the surface tension played an important role in the primary atomization, which indicated the benefit of selecting the solvents with lower surface tension for finer atomization effects, while, for the evolution of atomization spray, larger relaxation time and zero shear viscosity increased droplet Sauter mean diameter (SMD significantly. The zero shear viscosity was effective throughout the jet region, while the effect of relaxation time became weaken at the downstream of the spray field.

  17. Computer model for selective flow measuring structures in open channels (United States)

    Hickey, M. J.


    Quantifying various pollutants in natural waterways has received increased emphasis with more stringent regulations issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.). Measuring natural stream flows presents a magnitude of problems, the most significant is the type of structure needed to measure the flows at the desired level of accuracy. A computer model designed to select a structure to best fit the engineer's needs is under development. This model, given the pertinent boundary conditions, will pinpoint the structure most suitable, if one exists. This selection process greatly facilitates the old selection process of trial and error.

  18. Computational modeling of thrombotic microparticle deposition in nonparallel flow regimes. (United States)

    Hall, Connie L; Calt, Melissa


    Thrombotic microparticles (MPs) released from cells and platelets in response to various stimuli are present in elevated numbers in various disease states that increase the risk for thrombotic events. In order to understand how particles of this size may localize in nonparallel flow regimes and increase thrombotic risk, a computational analysis of flow and MP deposition was performed for 3 deg of stenosis at moderate Reynolds number (20

  19. Using artificial intelligence to control fluid flow computations (United States)

    Gelsey, Andrew


    Computational simulation is an essential tool for the prediction of fluid flow. Many powerful simulation programs exist today. However, using these programs to reliably analyze fluid flow and other physical situations requires considerable human effort and expertise to set up a simulation, determine whether the output makes sense, and repeatedly run the simulation with different inputs until a satisfactory result is achieved. Automating this process is not only of considerable practical importance but will also significantly advance basic artificial intelligence (AI) research in reasoning about the physical world.

  20. FLASH: A finite element computer code for variably saturated flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.


    A numerical model was developed for use in performance assessment studies at the INEL. The numerical model, referred to as the FLASH computer code, is designed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow in fractured-porous media. The code is specifically designed to model variably saturated flow in an arid site vadose zone and saturated flow in an unconfined aquifer. In addition, the code also has the capability to simulate heat conduction in the vadose zone. This report presents the following: description of the conceptual frame-work and mathematical theory; derivations of the finite element techniques and algorithms; computational examples that illustrate the capability of the code; and input instructions for the general use of the code. The FLASH computer code is aimed at providing environmental scientists at the INEL with a predictive tool for the subsurface water pathway. This numerical model is expected to be widely used in performance assessments for: (1) the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and (2) compliance studies required by the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  1. Dynamics of a microorganism in a sheared viscoelastic liquid. (United States)

    De Corato, Marco; D'Avino, Gaetano


    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a model spherical microorganism, called squirmer, suspended in a viscoelastic fluid undergoing unconfined shear flow. The effect of the interplay of shear flow, fluid viscoelasticity, and self-propulsion on the orientational dynamics is addressed. In the limit of weak viscoelasticity, quantified by the Deborah number, an analytical expression for the squirmer angular velocity is derived by means of the generalized reciprocity theorem. Direct finite element simulations are carried out to study the squirmer dynamics at larger Deborah numbers. Our results show that the orientational dynamics of active microorganisms in a sheared viscoelastic fluid greatly differs from that observed in Newtonian suspensions. Fluid viscoelasticity leads to a drift of the particle orientation vector towards the vorticity axis or the flow-gradient plane depending on the Deborah number, the relative weight between the self-propulsion velocity and the flow characteristic velocity, and the type of swimming. Generally, pullers and pushers show an opposite equilibrium orientation. The results reported in the present paper could be helpful in designing devices where separation of microorganisms, based on their self-propulsion mechanism, is obtained.

  2. Computational analysis of swirling flows in a pipe (United States)

    Ochoa, Obdulio

    The vortex breakdown of a swirling jet flow entering a finite-length pipe is studied in this thesis. The theories of Rusak and co-authors which provide fundamental tools to predict the first occurrence of breakdown and simulate the flow behavior are applied. To demonstrate the ideas, the detailed experimental data of Novak and Sarpkaya (2000) are used, specifically, the upstream (inlet) axial and circumferential velocity profiles ahead of the breakdown (stagnation) point. The critical swirl ratios, o0 and o1, that respectively form the necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of breakdown in a swirling jet flow, are computed from the ordinary differential equations of the problem. It is found that for the upstream velocity profiles o0 = 0.5607 and o 1 = 1.35196. The swirl level in the experiment of Novak and Sarpkaya (2000) was o = 1, and it shows that vortex breakdown may occur downstream of the inlet in the vortex flow field, as indeed is found in the experiments. Moreover, the experiments provide flow profiles along the whole pipe which are compared with simulation results based on Granata (2014) for a swirling flow in a pipe that has the same inlet conditions. An agreement is found between the simulated results and the experimental data all along the pipe from the upstream inlet state up to the breakdown point. Behind the breakdown point, no concise agreement is found which may be due to the high turbulence in the high-Re experimental flow or a result of non-full convergence of simulated results. The present theoretical analysis and simulations shed light on the breakdown process of swirling jet flows in pipes.

  3. Computational modeling for multiphase flows with spacecraft application (United States)

    Uzgoren, Eray; Singh, Rajkeshar; Sim, Jaeheon; Shyy, Wei


    Many engineering applications involve interactions between solid, gas and liquid phases under normal or micro-gravity conditions. Numerical simulations of such fluid flows need to track the location and the shape of the fluid interface as part of the solution. The merits and basic characteristics of various approaches for numerical computations of interfacial fluid dynamics are reviewed. The computational challenges include: (i) the algorithmic complexity for handling irregularly shaped moving boundaries that can experience merger and break-up; (ii) resolution refinement techniques to maintain desirable resolution of length scales, in accordance with the evolving fluid dynamics; (iii) data structure needed to support identification of the interface and satisfaction of the physical laws in the bulk fluids as well as around the phase boundaries; and (iv) efficient parallel processing techniques required for practical engineering analysis. The present review focuses on these issues related to the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, utilizing the immersed boundary method with marker-based tracking, as the main framework for interfacial flow computations on Cartesian grids. Specifically, we offer in-depth discussion of the organization and layout of the mesh systems for both fluid and interface representations, local adaptive refinement on two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) Cartesian grids, and multi-level domain decomposition method that utilizes Hilbert space filling curves for parallel processing strategy. The effectiveness of individual components and overall algorithm are presented using various tests such as, binary drop-collision computations to highlight grid adaptation and interface tracking algorithms to handle complex interface behavior, and bubble/droplet placed in a vortex field with various density/viscosity ratios across interfaces to address load balancing and scalability aspects of parallel computing. A time-dependent draining flow problem motivated by

  4. Viscoelastic suppression of gravity-driven counterflow instability. (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Layne, D; Magee, E W; Katz, J I


    Attempts to achieve "top kill" of flowing oil wells by pumping dense drilling "muds," i.e., slurries of dense minerals, from above will fail if the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity-driven counterflow produces turbulence that breaks up the denser fluid into small droplets. Here we estimate the droplet size to be submillimeter for fast flows and suggest the addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to suppress turbulence. We find in laboratory experiments a variety of new physical effects for a viscoelastic shear-thickening liquid in a gravity-driven counterstreaming flow. There is a progression from droplet formation to complete turbulence suppression at the relevant high velocities. Thick descending columns show a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. Thinner streams form structures resembling globules on a looping filament.

  5. Multiscale gradient computation for flow in heterogeneous porous media (United States)

    Moraes, Rafael J. de; Rodrigues, José R. P.; Hajibeygi, Hadi; Jansen, Jan Dirk


    An efficient multiscale (MS) gradient computation method for subsurface flow management and optimization is introduced. The general, algebraic framework allows for the calculation of gradients using both the Direct and Adjoint derivative methods. The framework also allows for the utilization of any MS formulation that can be algebraically expressed in terms of a restriction and a prolongation operator. This is achieved via an implicit differentiation formulation. The approach favors algorithms for multiplying the sensitivity matrix and its transpose with arbitrary vectors. This provides a flexible way of computing gradients in a form suitable for any given gradient-based optimization algorithm. No assumption w.r.t. the nature of the problem or specific optimization parameters is made. Therefore, the framework can be applied to any gradient-based study. In the implementation, extra partial derivative information required by the gradient computation is computed via automatic differentiation. A detailed utilization of the framework using the MS Finite Volume (MSFV) simulation technique is presented. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the method compared to a fine-scale simulator. In addition, an asymptotic analysis is presented to provide an estimate of its computational complexity. The investigations show that the presented method casts an accurate and efficient MS gradient computation strategy that can be successfully utilized in next-generation reservoir management studies.

  6. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow (United States)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.


    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  7. Material flow analysis of used personal computers in Japan. (United States)

    Yoshida, Aya; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Terazono, Atsushi


    Most personal computers (PCs) are discarded by consumers after the data files have been moved to a new PC. Therefore, a used PC collection scheme should be created that does not depend on the distribution route of new PCs. In Japan, manufacturers' voluntary take-back recycling schemes were established in 2001 (for business PCs) and 2003 (for household PCs). At the same time, the export of used PCs from Japan increased, affecting the domestic PC reuse market. These regulatory and economic conditions would have changed the flow of used PCs. In this paper, we developed a method of minimizing the errors in estimating the material flow of used PCs. The method's features include utilization of both input and output flow data and elimination of subjective estimation as much as possible. Flow rate data from existing surveys were used for estimating the flow of used PCs in Japan for fiscal years (FY) 2000, 2001, and 2004. The results show that 3.92 million and 4.88 million used PCs were discarded in FY 2000 and 2001, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the discarded PCs were disposed of or recycled within the country, one-fourth was reused within the country, and 8% were exported. In FY 2004, 7.47 million used PCs were discarded. The ratio of domestic disposal and recycling decreased to 37% in FY 2004, whereas the domestic reuse and export ratios increased to 37% and 26%, respectively. Flows from businesses to retailers in FY 2004 increased dramatically, which led to increased domestic reuse. An increase in the flow of used PCs from lease and rental companies to secondhand shops has led to increased exports. Results of interviews with members of PC reuse companies were and trade statistics were used to verify the results of our estimation of domestic reuse and export of used PCs.

  8. Immersed boundary methods for particles in viscoelastic drilling muds (United States)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    In fracture stimulation of oil and gas wells, polymeric solution with suspended solids (proppants) are pumped to prop open the fracture. The primary aim of our work is to understand the dynamics of such proppants under various flow conditions through numerical computations. The study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all scales associated with the particle motion and the flow are resolved. The present effort is based on the algorithm proposed by Patankar (CTR Annual Research Briefs 2001:185), i.e. the Immersed Boundary (IB) methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry and for simplicity are chosen to be Cartesian. Since Cartesian grids cannot efficiently represent a fracture geometry, our focus is on the development of an IB method for viscoelastic flows in unstructured domain grids. This method is implemented in a massively parallel, unstructured finite-volume-based fluid solver developed at Stanford University. The main theme of the presentation will be the description of the algorithm, measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. A number of flow simulations will be presented, which validates the accuracy and correctness of the algorithm.

  9. Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Large-Eddy Turbulent Flow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers (United States)

    Morgan, Philip E.


    This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.

  10. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued? (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish


    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  11. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis. (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian


    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computing Programs for Determining Traffic Flows from Roundabouts (United States)

    Boroiu, A. A.; Tabacu, I.; Ene, A.; Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A.


    For modelling road traffic at the level of a road network it is necessary to specify the flows of all traffic currents at each intersection. These data can be obtained by direct measurements at the traffic light intersections, but in the case of a roundabout this is not possible directly and the literature as well as the traffic modelling software doesn’t offer ways to solve this issue. Two sets of formulas are proposed by which all traffic flows from the roundabouts with 3 or 4 arms are calculated based on the streams that can be measured. The objective of this paper is to develop computational programs to operate with these formulas. For each of the two sets of analytical relations, a computational program was developed in the Java operating language. The obtained results fully confirm the applicability of the calculation programs. The final stage for capitalizing these programs will be to make them web pages in HTML format, so that they can be accessed and used on the Internet. The achievements presented in this paper are an important step to provide a necessary tool for traffic modelling because these computational programs can be easily integrated into specialized software.

  13. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho


    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  14. Viscoelastic pulsational mode (United States)

    Dutta, Pranamika; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar


    We present a theoretical model analysis to study the linear pulsational mode dynamics in viscoelastic complex self-gravitating infinitely extended clouds in the presence of active frictional coupling and dust-charge fluctuations. The complex cloud consists of uniformly distributed lighter hot mutually thermalized electrons and ions, and heavier cold dust grains amid partial ionization in a homogeneous, quasi-neutral, hydrostatic equilibrium configuration. A normal mode analysis over the closed set of slightly perturbed cloud governing equations is employed to obtain a generalized dispersion relation (septic) of unique analytic construct on the plasma parameters. Two extreme cases of physical interest depending on the perturbation scaling, hydrodynamic limits and kinetic limits are considered. It is shown that the grain mass and viscoelastic relaxation time associated with the charged dust fluid play stabilizing roles to the fluctuations in the hydrodynamic regime. In contrast, however in the kinetic regime, the stabilizing effects are introduced by the dust mass, dust equilibrium density and equilibrium ionic population distribution. Besides, the oscillatory and propagatory features are illustrated numerically and interpreted in detail. The results are in good agreement with the previously reported findings as special corollaries in like situations. Finally, a focalized indication to new implications and applications of the outcomes in the astronomical context is foregrounded.

  15. Simulation of branching blood flows on parallel computers. (United States)

    Yue, Xue; Hwang, Feng-Nan; Shandas, Robin; Cai, Xiao-Chuan


    We present a fully parallel nonlinearly implicit algorithm for the numerical simulation of some branching blood flow problems, which require efficient and robust solver technologies in order to handle the high nonlinearity and the complex geometry. Parallel processing is necessary because of the large number of mesh points needed to accurately discretize the system of differential equations. In this paper we introduce a parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz based implicit method, and software for distributed memory parallel computers, for solving the nonlinear algebraic systems arising from a Q2-Q1 finite element discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that we use to model the blood flow in the left anterior descending coronary artery.

  16. Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O'Sullivan


    Full Text Available Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from −60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s−1 in increments of 0.5 m s−1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics using in vivo ultrasound blood flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian


    This paper presents a model environment for construction of patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models for the abdominal aorta (AA). Realistic pulsatile velocity waveforms are employed by using in vivo ultrasound blood flow measurements. Ultrasound is suitable for acquisition....... The estimated and smoothed velocity profiles were quantitatively compared. The energy contained in the velocity profile after smoothing is 65% larger relative to the noise contaminated estimated profiles. In conclusion, a model environment that produces realistic patient-specific CFD simulation models without...

  18. Direct computation of stochastic flow in reservoirs with uncertain parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dainton, M.P.; Nichols, N.K. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Goldwater, M.H. [VIPS Limited, Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)


    A direct method is presented for determining the uncertainty in reservoir pressure, flow, and net present value (NPV) using the time-dependent, one phase, two- or three-dimensional equations of flow through a porous medium. The uncertainty in the solution is modelled as a probability distribution function and is computed from given statistical data for input parameters such as permeability. The method generates an expansion for the mean of the pressure about a deterministic solution to the system equations using a perturbation to the mean of the input parameters. Hierarchical equations that define approximations to the mean solution at each point and to the field convariance of the pressure are developed and solved numerically. The procedure is then used to find the statistics of the flow and the risked value of the field, defined by the NPV, for a given development scenario. This method involves only one (albeit complicated) solution of the equations and contrasts with the more usual Monte-Carlo approach where many such solutions are required. The procedure is applied easily to other physical systems modelled by linear or nonlinear partial differential equations with uncertain data. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Direct Computation of Stochastic Flow in Reservoirs with Uncertain Parameters (United States)

    Dainton, M. P.; Goldwater, M. H.; Nichols, N. K.


    A direct method is presented for determining the uncertainty in reservoir pressure, flow, and net present value (NPV) using the time-dependent, one phase, two- or three-dimensional equations of flow through a porous medium. The uncertainty in the solution is modelled as a probability distribution function and is computed from given statistical data for input parameters such as permeability. The method generates an expansion for the mean of the pressure about a deterministic solution to the system equations using a perturbation to the mean of the input parameters. Hierarchical equations that define approximations to the mean solution at each point and to the field covariance of the pressure are developed and solved numerically. The procedure is then used to find the statistics of the flow and the risked value of the field, defined by the NPV, for a given development scenario. This method involves only one (albeit complicated) solution of the equations and contrasts with the more usual Monte-Carlo approach where many such solutions are required. The procedure is applied easily to other physical systems modelled by linear or nonlinear partial differential equations with uncertain data.

  20. Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, R


    Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str

  1. Diagnostic Performance of a Novel Method for Fractional Flow Reserve Computed from Noninvasive Computed Tomography Angiography (NOVEL-FLOW Study). (United States)

    Chung, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Nam, Chang-Wook; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Hyung Il; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Shim, Eun Bo; Shin, Eun-Seok


    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve from computed tomography (CT-FFR) may provide better diagnostic performance over CCTA alone, but the complexity of its method limits the use in clinical environment. The aim of the present study is to validate a newly developed vessel-length based computational fluid dynamics scheme for the computation of FFR based on CCTA data, compare them with invasively measured FFR, and evaluate its diagnostic performance with that of CCTA. One hundred seventeen patients from 4 medical institutions who had clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Invasive FFR measurement was performed in 218 vessels and these measurements were regarded as the reference standard. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT-FFR on a per-vessel basis were 85.8%, 86.2%, 85.5%, 79.8%, and 90.3%, respectively, for CT-FFR ≤0.80, and 66.1%, 75.9%, 59.5%, 55.5%, and 78.8%, respectively, for CCTA ≥50%. A higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CT-FFR was observed compared with CCTA (0.93 vs 0.74, p performed at a personal computer enhancing its applicability in clinical situation. The diagnostic accuracy of CT-FFR for the detection of functionally significant CAD was good and was superior to that of CCTA within a population of suspected CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypersonic flow computations around re-entry vehicles (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.; Morgan, K.; Vahdati, M.; Molina, R. C.


    The development of an algorithm for the solution of the compressible Euler equations at high Mach numbers on unstructured tetrahedral meshes is described. The basic algorithm is constructed in the form of a central difference scheme plus an explicit added artificial viscosity based upon fourth order differences of the solution. The stability of the solution in the vicinity of strong gradients is preserved by the incorporation of an additional artificial viscosity based upon a second order difference. Higher order accuracy is regained by using the ideas of flux corrected transport to limit the amount of added viscosity. The solution is advanced to steady state by means of an explicit multi-stage time-stepping method. The computational efficiency of the complete process is improved by incorporating an unstructured multigrid acceleration procedure. A number of flows of practical interest are analyzed to demonstrate the numerical performance of the proposed approach.

  3. Methods for Computationally Efficient Structured CFD Simulations of Complex Turbomachinery Flows (United States)

    Herrick, Gregory P.; Chen, Jen-Ping


    This research presents more efficient computational methods by which to perform multi-block structured Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbomachinery, thus facilitating higher-fidelity solutions of complicated geometries and their associated flows. This computational framework offers flexibility in allocating resources to balance process count and wall-clock computation time, while facilitating research interests of simulating axial compressor stall inception with more complete gridding of the flow passages and rotor tip clearance regions than is typically practiced with structured codes. The paradigm presented herein facilitates CFD simulation of previously impractical geometries and flows. These methods are validated and demonstrate improved computational efficiency when applied to complicated geometries and flows.

  4. Effects of the computational time step on numerical solutions for turbulent flow (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon; Moin, Parviz


    Effects of large computational time steps on the computed turbulence were investigated using a fully implicit method. In turbulent channel flow computations the largest computational time step in wall units which led to accurate prediction of turbulence statistics was determined. Turbulence fluctuations could not be sustained if the computational time step was near or larger than the Kolmogorov time scale.

  5. A Computational Model of Deformable Cell Rolling in Shear Flow (United States)

    Eggleton, Charles; Jadhav, Sameer


    Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. The cell rolling velocity is influenced by bond interactions on the molecular scale that oppose hydrodynamic forces at the mesoscale. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for these differences, we developed a 3-D computational model which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The average bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the cell-substrate contact area decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.

  6. New imaging tools in cardiovascular medicine: computational fluid dynamics and 4D flow MRI. (United States)

    Itatani, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Furusawa, Tokoki; Numata, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Sachiko; Morimoto, Kazuki; Makino, Rina; Morichi, Hiroko; Nishino, Teruyasu; Yaku, Hitoshi


    Blood flow imaging is a novel technology in cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Today, two types of blood flow imaging tools are available: measurement-based flow visualization including 4D flow MRI (or 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging), or echocardiography flow visualization software, and computer flow simulation modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MRI and echocardiography flow visualization provide measured blood flow but have limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, whereas CFD flow calculates the flow according to assumptions instead of flow measurement, and it has sufficiently fine resolution up to the computer memory limit, and it enables even virtual surgery when combined with computer graphics. Blood flow imaging provides profound insight into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, because it quantifies and visualizes mechanical stress on the vessel walls or heart ventricle. Wall shear stress (WSS) is a stress on the endothelial wall caused by the near wall blood flow, and it is thought to be a predictor of atherosclerosis progression in coronary or aortic diseases. Flow energy loss (EL) is the loss of blood flow energy caused by viscous friction of turbulent diseased flow, and it is expected to be a predictor of ventricular workload on various heart diseases including heart valve disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. Blood flow imaging can provide useful information for developing predictive medicine in cardiovascular diseases, and may lead to breakthroughs in cardiovascular surgery, especially in the decision-making process.

  7. Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio


    We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.

  8. Simulating Nonlinear Oscillations of Viscoelastically Damped Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Monsia


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a mathematical model in terms of an exact analytical solution that may be used in numerical simulation and prediction of oscillatory dynamics of a one-dimensional viscoelastic system experiencing large deformations response. The model is represented with the use of a mechanical oscillator consisting of an inertial body attached to a nonlinear viscoelastic spring. As a result, a second-order first-degree Painlevé equation has been obtained as a law, governing the nonlinear oscillatory dynamics of the viscoelastic system. Analytical resolution of the evolution equation predicts the existence of three solutions and hence three damping modes of free vibration well known in dynamics of viscoelastically damped oscillating systems. Following the specific values of damping strength, over-damped, critically-damped and under-damped solutions have been obtained. It is observed that the rate of decay is not only governed by the damping degree but, also by the magnitude of the stiffness nonlinearity controlling parameter. Computational simulations demonstrated that numerical solutions match analytical results very well. It is found that the developed mathematical model includes a nonlinear extension of the classical damped linear harmonic oscillator and incorporates the Lambert nonlinear oscillatory equation with well-known solutions as special case. Finally, the three damped responses of the current mathematical model devoted for representing mechanical systems undergoing large deformations and viscoelastic behavior are found to be asymptotically stable.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio


    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions

  10. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe


  11. Interferometry and computational studies of an oscillating airfoil compressible dynamic stall flow field (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.


    A unique comparison has been made between real time interferograms and full Navier-Stokes computations of the density field over an oscillating airfoil undergoing dynamic stall for compressible flow conditions. Good agreement was found until a dynamic stall vortex formed in the flow. Subsequent evolution of the flow field was found to be very different in the computations. The reasons for this difference have been explained in terms of the leading edge region flow physics and the refined flow modeling that needs to be used for the post-stall flow field.

  12. Effects of fluid viscoelasticity on the performance of an axial blood pump model. (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hui; Li, Jing-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Yuan


    An aqueous Xanthan gum solution (XGS) was used as blood analog fluid to explore the influence of fluid viscoelasticity on the performance of an axial blood pump model. For comparison, a 39 wt% Newtonian aqueous glycerin solution (GS), the common fluid in blood pump tests, was also used as a working fluid. The experimental results showed that a higher head curve was obtained using XGS in the pump than using GS. The heads of the XGS that were computed using the viscoelastic turbulence model agreed well with the measured data. In contrast, the standard k-ε turbulence model failed to provide satisfactory predictions for the XGS. The computational results revealed that in most parts of the pump model flow fields, the Reynolds shear stress values and turbulent dissipation rates of the XGS were all lower than those of the GS. The hemolysis index of the pump model using the XGS was calculated to be only one-third of that using the GS.

  13. Viscoelastic fracture of biological composites (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Brener, Efim A.


    Soft constituent materials endow biological composites, such as bone, dentin and nacre, with viscoelastic properties that may play an important role in their remarkable fracture resistance. In this paper we calculate the scaling properties of the quasi-static energy release rate and the viscoelastic contribution to the fracture energy of various biological composites, using both perturbative and non-perturbative approaches. We consider coarse-grained descriptions of three types of anisotropic structures: (i) liquid-crystal-like composites, (ii) stratified composites, (iii) staggered composites, for different crack orientations. In addition, we briefly discuss the implications of anisotropy for fracture criteria. Our analysis highlights the dominant lengthscales and scaling properties of viscoelastic fracture of biological composites. It may be useful for evaluating crack velocity toughening effects and structure-dissipation relations in these materials.

  14. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex (United States)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.


    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  15. Computational modeling of multiphase flow and transport with Python (United States)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Hines, A. M.; Howington, S. E.


    Computational flow and transport models play an important role in many hydrological investigations. Unfortunately, developing simulators that are efficient, widely applicable, and robust is a challenge. This is particularly true if the target applications include complications like multiple fluid phases with multiple components and material heterogeneity. To be specific, these problems often involve physical phenomena at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The appropriate formulation may evolve, and the systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) that arise from traditional formulations can be hard to solve efficiently at the desired resolution. Here, we discuss the development of a Python-based modeling framework for finite element approximation of systems of nonlinear PDEs with an emphasis on multiphase, multicomponent systems relevant for surface and subsurface hydrology. In addition to the overall approach and application, we consider the role of Python in managing code complexity, providing user interfaces, developing solution algorithms, and implementing numerical methods for execution on serial and parallel platforms. We evaluate trade-offs and design choices that follow from our use of Python versus other languages like C++ or Fortran and consider the impact on performance measured in terms of metrics like memory usage, execution time, and developer time.

  16. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids (United States)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles


    While swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic. We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D. A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparison to theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. NIH R01 GM072004, NIH P50GM094503.

  17. Computing and Comparing Effective Properties for Flow and Transport in Computer-Generated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca


    We compute effective properties (i.e., permeability, hydraulic tortuosity, and diffusive tortuosity) of three different digital porous media samples, including in-line array of uniform shapes, staggered-array of squares, and randomly distributed squares. The permeability and hydraulic tortuosity are computed by solving a set of rescaled Stokes equations obtained by homogenization, and the diffusive tortuosity is computed by solving a homogenization problem given for the effective diffusion coefficient that is inversely related to diffusive tortuosity. We find that hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different by up to a factor of ten in the same pore geometry, which indicates that these tortuosity terms cannot be used interchangeably. We also find that when a pore geometry is characterized by an anisotropic permeability, the diffusive tortuosity (and correspondingly the effective diffusion coefficient) can also be anisotropic. This finding has important implications for reservoir-scale modeling of flow and transport, as it is more realistic to account for the anisotropy of both the permeability and the effective diffusion coefficient.

  18. Computational Prediction of Local Distorted Flow in Turbocharger (United States)

    Yao, J.; Yao, Y. F.; Manson, P. J.; Zhang, T.; Heyes, F. J. G.; Roach, P. E.

    This paper presents numerical study by performing three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution for mixture gas flow in a typical industrial turbocharger configuration. The primary focuses are the flow distortions and behaviours in the proximity of the nozzle vanes. Numerical predictions reveal local flow distortions, shown by a considerable total pressure drop of about 7.5%. The possible reason for this is probably due to the influence of the upstream guide vane wake flow. At both design and off-design conditions considered in this study, the flow near the nozzle vanes has noticeable inhomogeneous in the circumferential direction. However, both local flow distortions and inhomogeneous in annulus are gradually reduced and the flow recovers to near uniform at the nozzle exit plane. Thus the predicted flow distortions have negligible effects on downstream turbine blades.

  19. Focusing and alignment of erythrocytes in a viscoelastic medium (United States)

    Go, Taesik; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon


    Viscoelastic fluid flow-induced cross-streamline migration has recently received considerable attention because this process provides simple focusing and alignment over a wide range of flow rates. The lateral migration of particles depends on the channel geometry and physicochemical properties of particles. In this study, digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM) is employed to investigate the lateral migration of human erythrocytes induced by viscoelastic fluid flow in a rectangular microchannel. DIHM provides 3D spatial distributions of particles and information on particle orientation in the microchannel. The elastic forces generated in the pressure-driven flows of a viscoelastic fluid push suspended particles away from the walls and enforce erythrocytes to have a fixed orientation. Blood cell deformability influences the lateral focusing and fixed orientation in the microchannel. Different from rigid spheres and hardened erythrocytes, deformable normal erythrocytes disperse from the channel center plane, as the flow rate increases. Furthermore, normal erythrocytes have a higher angle of inclination than hardened erythrocytes in the region near the side-walls of the channel. These results may guide the label-free diagnosis of hematological diseases caused by abnormal erythrocyte deformability.

  20. A Study of Flow Separation in Transonic Flow Using Inviscid and Viscous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Schemes (United States)

    Rhodes, J. A.; Tiwari, S. N.; Vonlavante, E.


    A comparison of flow separation in transonic flows is made using various computational schemes which solve the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics. The flows examined are computed using several simple two-dimensional configurations including a backward facing step and a bump in a channel. Comparison of the results obtained using shock fitting and flux vector splitting methods are presented and the results obtained using the Euler codes are compared to results on the same configurations using a code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. Adaptive remeshing for three-dimensional compressible flow computations (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.; Morgan, K.


    A practical solution algorithm for steady 3D Euler flows is presented. This algorithm employs coupling of a surface triangulator, an automatic tetrahedral mesh generator, an unstructured grid flow solver, and an error estimation procedure. The performance of the method is illustrated using a shock interaction problem in high Mach number flow over a swept circular cylinder.

  2. Coiling and Folding of Viscoelastic Jets (United States)

    Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth


    The study of fluid jets impacting on a flat surface has industrial applications in many areas, including processing of foods and consumer goods, bottle filling, and polymer melt processing. Previous studies have focused primarily on purely viscous, Newtonian fluids, which exhibit a number of different dynamical regimes including dripping, steady jetting, folding, and steady coiling. Here we add another dimension to the problem by focusing on mobile (low viscosity) viscoelastic fluids, with the study of two wormlike-micellar fluids, a cetylpyridinum-salicylic acid salt (CPyCl/NaSal) solution, and an industrially relevant shampoo base. We investigate the effects of viscosity and elasticity on the dynamics of axi-symmetric jets. The viscoelasticity of the fluids is systematically controlled by varying the concentration of salt counterions. Experimental methods include shear and extensional rheology measurements to characterize the fluids, and high-speed digital video imaging. In addition to the regimes observed in purely viscous systems, we also find a novel regime in which the elastic jet buckles and folds on itself, and alternates between coiling and folding behavior. We suggest phase diagrams and scaling laws for the coiling and folding frequencies through a systematic exploration of the experimental parameter space (height of fall, imposed flow rate, elasticity of the solution).

  3. 3D CFD computations of trasitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Zahle, Frederik


    The present article describes the application of the correlation based transition model of Menter et al. in combination with the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methodology to two cases with large degree of flow separation typically considered difficult to compute. Firstly, the flow is computed over...

  4. Mathematica numerical simulation of peristaltic biophysical transport of a fractional viscoelastic fluid through an inclined cylindrical tube. (United States)

    Tripathi, D; Anwar Bég, O


    This paper studies the peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid (with the fractional second-grade model) through an inclined cylindrical tube. The wall of the tube is modelled as a sinusoidal wave. The flow analysis is presented under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. Caputo's definition of fractional derivative is used to formulate the fractional differentiation. Analytical solutions are developed for the normalized momentum equations. Expressions are also derived for the pressure, frictional force, and the relationship between the flow rate and pressure gradient. Mathematica numerical computations are then performed. The results are plotted and analysed for different values of fractional parameter, material constant, inclination angle, Reynolds number, Froude number and peristaltic wave amplitude. It is found that fractional parameter and Froude number resist the flow pattern while material constant, Reynolds number, inclination of angle and amplitude aid the peristaltic flow. Furthermore, frictional force and pressure demonstrate the opposite behaviour under the influence of the relevant parameters emerging in the equations of motion. The study has applications in uretral biophysics, and also potential use in peristaltic pumping of petroleum viscoelastic bio-surfactants in chemical engineering and astronautical applications involving conveyance of non-Newtonian fluids (e.g. lubricants) against gravity and in conduits with deformable walls.

  5. Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Bae, Kang-Sik

    The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic

  6. Estimation of the surface velocity of debris flow with computer-based spatial filtering. (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Inaba, H; Itakura, Y; Kasahara, M


    A computer-based spatial-filtering velocimeter to measure the surface velocity of natural debris flow is described. This is a simple and interesting technique implemented with a spatial filter constructed as a software program that processes the video image of debris flow instead of a hardware implementation. The surface velocity of the debris flow at the Mt. Yakedake Volcano, Japan, was estimated by this computer-based spatial-filtering method, and the results were compared with those obtained by a hardware-based spatial-filtering method. Computer-based spatial filtering has the important advantage of a capability for tuning the spatial-filter parameters to the target flow.

  7. Effect of Fluid Viscoelasticity on Turbulence and Large-Scale Vortices behind Wall-Mounted Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukahara


    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic fluid flows in a channel with wall-mounted plates were performed to investigate the influence of viscoelasticity on turbulent structures and the mean flow around the plate. The constitutive equation follows the Giesekus model, valid for polymer or surfactant solutions, which are generally capable of reducing the turbulent frictional drag in a smooth channel. We found that turbulent eddies just behind the plates in viscoelastic fluid decreased in number and in magnitude, but their size increased. Three pairs of organized longitudinal vortices were observed downstream of the plates in both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids: two vortex pairs were behind the plates and the other one with the longest length was in a plate-free area. In the viscoelastic fluid, the latter vortex pair in the plate-free area was maintained and reached the downstream rib, but its swirling strength was weakened and the local skin-friction drag near the vortex was much weaker than those in the Newtonian flow. The mean flow and small spanwise eddies were influenced by the additional fluid force due to the viscoelasticity and, moreover, the spanwise component of the fluid elastic force may also play a role in the suppression of fluid vortical motions behind the plates.

  8. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamic problem in micropolar viscoelastic medium has been investigated by employing eigen value approach after applying Laplace and Fourier transformations. An example of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the application of the approach. The integral transforms ...

  9. A micromechanical finite element model for linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture (United States)

    Dai, Qingli; Sadd, Martin H.; You, Zhanping


    This study presents a finite element (FE) micromechanical modelling approach for the simulation of linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture. Asphalt mixture is a composite material of graded aggregates bound with mastic (asphalt and fine aggregates). The microstructural model of asphalt mixture incorporates an equivalent lattice network structure whereby intergranular load transfer is simulated through an effective asphalt mastic zone. The finite element model integrates the ABAQUS user material subroutine with continuum elements for the effective asphalt mastic and rigid body elements for each aggregate. A unified approach is proposed using Schapery non-linear viscoelastic model for the rate-independent and rate-dependent damage behaviour. A finite element incremental algorithm with a recursive relationship for three-dimensional (3D) linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour is developed. This algorithm is used in a 3D user-defined material model for the asphalt mastic to predict global linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture.For linear viscoelastic study, the creep stiffnesses of mastic and asphalt mixture at different temperatures are measured in laboratory. A regression-fitting method is employed to calibrate generalized Maxwell models with Prony series and generate master stiffness curves for mastic and asphalt mixture. A computational model is developed with image analysis of sectioned surface of a test specimen. The viscoelastic prediction of mixture creep stiffness with the calibrated mastic material parameters is compared with mixture master stiffness curve over a reduced time period.In regard to damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour, cyclic loading responses of linear and rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic materials are compared. Effects of particular microstructure parameters on the rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour are also investigated with finite element

  10. Flow in computer music: unblocking the design process


    Van der Tempel, Jan


    Flow theory describes the psychology of optimal experience, a state of consciousness which has been linked to improved creativity, performance, and satisfaction in all human activities. M. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) identified the components and conditions of this state, and showed how interactive processes can be adapted to stimulate flow. Interpreting results and data from personal projects, interviews, and supporting literature, this research links the components of flow to various parameters...

  11. Nonlinear viscoelasticity and shear localization at complex fluid interfaces. (United States)

    Erni, Philipp; Parker, Alan


    Foams and emulsions are often exposed to strong external fields, resulting in large interface deformations far beyond the linear viscoelastic regime. Here, we investigate the nonlinear and transient interfacial rheology of adsorption layers in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. As a prototypical material forming soft-solid-type interfacial adsorption layers, we use Acacia gum (i.e., gum arabic), a protein/polysaccharide hybrid. We quantify its nonlinear flow properties at the oil/water interface using a biconical disk interfacial rheometer and analyze the nonlinear stress response under forced strain oscillations. From the resulting Lissajous curves, we access quantitative measures recently introduced for nonlinear viscoelasticity, including the intracycle moduli for both the maximum and zero strains and the degree of plastic energy dissipation upon interfacial yielding. We demonstrate using in situ flow visualization that the onset of nonlinear viscoelasticity coincides with shear localization at the interface. Finally, we address the nonperiodic character of this flow transition using an experimental procedure based on opposing stress pulses, allowing us to extract additional interfacial properties such as the critical interfacial stress upon yielding and the permanent deformation.

  12. Understanding Angiography-Based Aneurysm Flow Fields through Comparison with Computational Fluid Dynamics. (United States)

    Cebral, J R; Mut, F; Chung, B J; Spelle, L; Moret, J; van Nijnatten, F; Ruijters, D


    Hemodynamics is thought to be an important factor for aneurysm progression and rupture. Our aim was to evaluate whether flow fields reconstructed from dynamic angiography data can be used to realistically represent the main flow structures in intracranial aneurysms. DSA-based flow reconstructions, obtained during interventional treatment, were compared qualitatively with flow fields obtained from patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models and quantitatively with projections of the computational fluid dynamics fields (by computing a directional similarity of the vector fields) in 15 cerebral aneurysms. The average similarity between the DSA and the projected computational fluid dynamics flow fields was 78% in the parent artery, while it was only 30% in the aneurysm region. Qualitatively, both the DSA and projected computational fluid dynamics flow fields captured the location of the inflow jet, the main vortex structure, the intrasaccular flow split, and the main rotation direction in approximately 60% of the cases. Several factors affect the reconstruction of 2D flow fields from dynamic angiography sequences. The most important factors are the 3-dimensionality of the intrasaccular flow patterns and inflow jets, the alignment of the main vortex structure with the line of sight, the overlapping of surrounding vessels, and possibly frame rate undersampling. Flow visualization with DSA from >1 projection is required for understanding of the 3D intrasaccular flow patterns. Although these DSA-based flow quantification techniques do not capture swirling or secondary flows in the parent artery, they still provide a good representation of the mean axial flow and the corresponding flow rate. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen


    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.

  14. Computational modeling of air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with flow-over and flow-through anodes (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Ye, Ding-ding; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Zhu, Xun


    A three-dimensional computational model for air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells (AMFCs) with flow-over and flow-through anodes is developed. The coupled multiphysics phenomena of fluid flow, species transport and electrochemical reactions are resolved numerically. The model has been validated against experimental data using an in-house AMFC prototype with a flow-through anode. Characteristics of fuel transfer and fuel crossover for both types of anodes are investigated. The model results reveal that the fuel transport to the flow-over anode is intrinsically limited by the fuel concentration boundary layer. Conversely, fuel transport for the flow-through anode is convectively enhanced by the permeate flow, and no concentration boundary layer is observed. An unexpected additional advantage of the flow-through anode configuration is lower parasitic (crossover) current density than the flow-over case at practical low flow rates. Cell performance of the flow-through case is found to be limited by reaction kinetics. The present model provides insights into the fuel transport and fuel crossover in air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells and provides guidance for further design and operation optimization.

  15. A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields (United States)

    Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul


    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.

  16. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric characteris- tics of the main ... continuity and energy equations can be written in terms of flow depths and flow rates for all the reaches ... 2. Methodology. The following form of the energy equation can be applied between the two ends of a reach to.

  17. Spatially modulated thermal convection of viscoelastic fluids. (United States)

    Kayodé, Séliatou; Khayat, Roger E


    The thermal convection of modulated viscoelastic flow is examined in this study. The modulation is assumed to be weak enough for a regular perturbation solution to be implemented. In addition to being more accurate, the second-order perturbation results reveal new physical phenomena that could not be predicted by the first-order analysis. Inertia was found to enhance globally the discrepancies between the first- and the second-order perturbation solution. A comparison between the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian solution is carried out and the influences of inertia, modulation amplitude, and wave number are emphasized. The present results show that elasticity has a marked effect on fluid patterns, especially regarding the roll structure and symmetry. The influence of elasticity is greater for larger Rayleigh number and aspect ratio.

  18. Deformation and buckling of microcapsules in a viscoelastic matrix (United States)

    Raffiee, Amir Hossein; Dabiri, Sadegh; Ardekani, Arezoo M.


    In this paper, we numerically study the dynamics of (1) a Newtonian liquid-filled capsule in a viscoelastic matrix and that of (2) a viscoelastic capsule in a Newtonian matrix in a linear shear flow using a front-tracking method. The numerical results for case (1) indicate that the polymeric fluid reduces the capsule deformation and aligns the deformed capsule with the flow direction. It also narrows the range of tension experienced by the deformed capsule for case (1), while the tank-treading period significantly increases. Interestingly, the polymeric fluid has an opposite effect on the tank-treading period and the orientation angle of case (2), but its effect on the deformation is similar to case (1).

  19. Neuro and Fuzzy Computing Approach for the Flow Sensorless Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar


    Full Text Available An attempt to use differential pressure induced by control valve for flow measurement has been proposed. The flow rate obtained by NFM model is closer to the actual value with the maximum error being ± 3.28 %. In NNM model, the error is 92.2% in the lower flow and 4.39 % in the higher flow rate. The air flow increases more linearly in NFM than NNM with valve position and pressure drops. ARM 7 processor used in this work is a high speed and low power consuming processor and this can be integrated with field bus, CAN bus and internet based system, which is being standardized internationally.

  20. Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models of lava flow simulation for hazard assessment, forecasting, and risk management (United States)

    Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi; Richardson, Jacob A.; Cashman, Katharine V.


    Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, designing flow mitigation measures, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, COMSOL, and MOLASSES. We model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal planes, sloping surfaces, and into topographic obstacles. We compare model results to physical observations made during well-controlled analogue and molten basalt experiments, and to analytical theory when available. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We assess the goodness-of-fit of the simulation results and the computational cost. Our results guide the selection of numerical simulation codes for different applications, including inferring emplacement conditions of past lava flows, modeling the temporal evolution of ongoing flows during eruption, and probabilistic assessment of lava flow hazard prior to eruption. Finally, we outline potential experiments and desired key observational data from future flows that would extend existing benchmarking data sets.

  1. Viscoelastic nanocapsules under flow in microdevices (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana Lucinda Teixeira

    As piroxenas sao um vasto grupo de silicatos minerais encontrados em muitas rochas igneas e metamorficas. Na sua forma mais simples, estes silicatos sao constituidas por cadeias de SiO3 ligando grupos tetrahedricos de SiO4. A formula quimica geral das piroxenas e M2M1T2O6, onde M2 se refere a catioes geralmente em uma coordenacao octaedrica distorcida (Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+), M1 refere-se a catioes numa coordenacao octaedrica regular (Al3+, Fe3+, Ti4+, Cr3+, V3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+), e T a catioes em coordenacao tetrahedrica (Si4+, Al3+, Fe3+). As piroxenas com estrutura monoclinica sao designadas de clinopiroxenes. A estabilidade das clinopyroxenes num espectro de composicoes quimicas amplo, em conjugacao com a possibilidade de ajustar as suas propriedades fisicas e quimicas e a durabilidade quimica, tem gerado um interesse mundial devido a suas aplicacoes em ciencia e tecnologia de materiais. Este trabalho trata do desenvolvimento de vidros e de vitro-cerâmicos baseadas de clinopiroxenas para aplicacoes funcionais. O estudo teve objectivos cientificos e tecnologicos; nomeadamente, adquirir conhecimentos fundamentais sobre a formacao de fases cristalinas e solucoes solidas em determinados sistemas vitro-cerâmicos, e avaliar a viabilidade de aplicacao dos novos materiais em diferentes areas tecnologicas, com especial enfase sobre a selagem em celulas de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC). Com este intuito, prepararam-se varios vidros e materiais vitro-cerâmicos ao longo das juntas Enstatite (MgSiO3) - diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) e diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) - Ca - Tschermak (CaAlSi2O6), os quais foram caracterizados atraves de um vasto leque de tecnicas. Todos os vidros foram preparados por fusao-arrefecimento enquanto os vitro-cerâmicos foram obtidos quer por sinterizacao e cristalizacao de fritas, quer por nucleacao e cristalizacao de vidros monoliticos. Estudaram-se ainda os efeitos de varias substituicoes ionicas em composicoes de diopsidio contendo Al na estrutura, sinterizacao e no comportamento durante a cristalizacao de vidros e nas propriedades dos materiais vitro-cerâmicos, com relevância para a sua aplicacao como selantes em SOFC. Verificou-se que Foi observado que os vidros/vitro-cerâmicos a base de enstatite nao apresentavam as caracteristicas necessarias para serem usados como materiais selantes em SOFC, enquanto as melhores propriedades apresentadas pelos vitro-cerâmicos a base de diopsidio qualificaram-nos para futuros estudos neste tipo de aplicacoes. Para alem de investigar a adequacao dos vitro-cerâmicos a base de clinopyroxene como selantes, esta tese tem tambem como objetivo estudar a influencia dos agentes de nucleacao na nucleacao em volume dos vitro-cerâmicos resultantes a base de diopsidio, de modo a qualifica-los como potenciais materiais hopedeiros de residuos nucleares radioactivos.

  2. A Review on the development of lattice Boltzmann computation of macro fluid flows and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arumuga Perumal


    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM is introduced in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD field as a tool for research and development, but its ultimate importance lies in various industrial and academic applications. Owing to its excellent numerical stability and constitutive versatility it plays an essential role as a simulation tool for understanding micro and macro fluid flows. The LBM received a tremendous impetus with their spectacular use in incompressible and compressible fluid flow and heat transfer problems. The applications of LBM to incompressible flows with simple and complex geometries are much less spectacular. From a computational point of view, the present LBM is hyperbolic and can be solved locally, explicitly, and efficiently on parallel computers. The present paper reviews the philosophy and the formal concepts behind the lattice Boltzmann approach and gives progress in the area of incompressible fluid flows, compressible fluid flows and free surface flows.

  3. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data. (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo


    Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible.

  4. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo


    Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834

  5. Computation of Cavitating Flows in a Diesel Injector (United States)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.


    The flow inside Diesel injectors is important because of its effect on the spray and the atomization process in the combustion chamber. Due to huge stress at the orifice entrance, cavitation occurs in high-pressure Diesel injectors. In this study, we investigate numerically the cavitating steady flow in a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid and the standard k-e turbulence model are used to simulate the multiphase turbulent flow. The effects of some geometrical parameters on both the discharge coefficient and the vapor fraction are presented.

  6. Numerical computations of the unsteady flow in turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Fredrik


    Turbocharging the internal combustion (IC) engine is a common technique to increase the power density. If turbocharging is used with the downsizing technique, the fuel consumption and pollution of green house gases can be decreased. In the turbocharger, the energy of the engine exhaust gas is extracted by expanding it through the turbine which drives the compressor by a shaft. If a turbocharged IC engine is compared with a natural aspirated engine, the turbocharged engine will be smaller, lighter and will also have a better efficiency, due to less pump losses, lower inertia of the system and less friction losses. To be able to further increase the efficiency of the IC engine, the understanding of the highly unsteady flow in turbochargers must be improved, which then can be used to increase the efficiency of the turbine and the compressor. The main objective with this thesis has been to enhance the understanding of the unsteady flow in turbocharger and to assess the sensitivity of inflow conditions on the turbocharger performance. The performance and the flow field in a radial turbocharger turbine working under both non-pulsatile and pulsatile flow conditions has been assessed by using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). To assess the effects of different operation conditions on the turbine performance, different cases have been considered with different perturbations and unsteadiness of the inflow conditions. Also different rotational speeds of the turbine wheel were considered. The results show that the turbine cannot be treated as being quasi-stationary; for example,the shaft power varies for different frequencies of the pulses for the same amplitude of mass flow. The results also show that perturbations and unsteadiness that are created in the geometry upstream of the turbine have substantial effects on the performance of the turbocharger. All this can be summarized as that perturbations and unsteadiness in the inflow conditions to the turbine affect the performance

  7. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton


    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  8. Effects of swirl in turbulent pipe flows : computational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Frode


    The primary objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the effect of swirl in steady turbulent pipe flows. The work has been carried out by a numerical approach, with direct numerical simulations as the method of choice. A key target to pursue was the effects of the swirl on the wall friction in turbulent pipe flows. The motivation came from studies of rotating pipe flows in which drag reduction was achieved. Drag reduction was reported to be due to the swirl favourably influencing the coherent turbulent structures in the near-wall region. Based on this, it was decided to investigate if similar behaviour could be obtained by inducing a swirl in a pipe with a stationary wall. To do a thorough investigation of the general three-dimensional swirl flow and particularly of the swirl effects; chosen variations of mean and turbulent flow parameters were explored together with complementary flow visualizations. Two different approaches in order to induce the swirl in the turbulent pipe flow, have been carried out. However, the present thesis might be regarded to be comprised of three parts. The first part consists of the first approach to induce the swirl. Here a prescribed circumferential force was implemented in a serial open source Navier-Stokes solver. In the second approach, the swirl was intended induced by implementing structures at the wall. Simulations of flows through a pipe with one or more helical fin(s) at the pipe wall was decided to be performed. In order to pursue this approach, it was found necessary to do a parallelization of the existing serial numerical code. The key element of this parallelization has been included as a part of the present work. Additionally, the helical fin(s) were implemented into the code by use of an immersed boundary method. A validation of this work is also documented in the thesis. The work done by parallelizing the code and implementing an immersed boundary method constitutes the second part of the present thesis. The

  9. Standardized Multi-Color Flow Cytometry and Computational Biomarker Discovery. (United States)

    Schlickeiser, Stephan; Streitz, Mathias; Sawitzki, Birgit


    Multi-color flow cytometry has become a valuable and highly informative tool for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with immune deficiencies or inflammatory disorders. However, the method complexity and error-prone conventional manual data analysis often result in a high variability between different analysts and research laboratories. Here, we provide strategies and guidelines aiming at a more standardized multi-color flow cytometric staining and unsupervised data analysis for whole blood patient samples.

  10. Applications of computational intelligence techniques for solving the revived optimal power flow problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlRashidi, M.R. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh (Kuwait); El-Hawary, M.E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3J 2X4 (Canada)


    Computational intelligence tools are attracting added attention in different research areas and research in power systems is not different. This paper provides an overview of major computational issues with regard to the optimal power flow (OPF). Then, it offers a brief summary of major computational intelligence tools. A detailed coverage of most OPF related research work that make use of modern computational intelligence techniques is presented next. (author)

  11. Viscoelastic behavior of erythrocyte membrane. (United States)

    Tözeren, A; Skalak, R; Sung, K L; Chien, S


    A nonlinear viscoelastic relation is developed to describe the viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membrane. This constitutive equation is used in the analysis of the time-dependent aspiration of an erythrocyte membrane into a micropipette. Equations governing this motion are reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of the Volterra type. A numerical procedure based on a finite difference scheme is used to solve the integral equation and to match the experimental data. The data, aspiration length vs. time, is used to determine the relaxation function at each time step. The inverse problem of obtaining the time dependence of the aspiration length from a given relaxation function is also solved. Analytical results obtained are applied to the experimental data of Chien et al. 1978. Biophys. J. 24:463-487. A relaxation function similar to that of a four-parameter solid with a shear-thinning viscous term is proposed.

  12. Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)


    To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)

  13. Modeling Subsurface Reactive Flows Using Leadership-Class Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Richard T [ORNL; Hammond, Glenn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lichtner, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sripathi, Vamsi K [ORNL; Mahinthakumar, Gnanamanika [ORNL; Smith, Barry F [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)


    We describe our experiences running PFLOTRAN - a code for simulation of coupled hydro-thermal-chemical processes in variably saturated, non-isothermal, porous media - on leadership-class supercomputers, including initial experiences running on the petaflop incarnation of Jaguar, the Cray XT5 at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PFLOTRAN utilizes fully implicit time-stepping and is built on top of the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc). We discuss some of the hurdles to 'at scale' performance with PFLOTRAN and the progress we have made in overcoming them on leadership-class computer architectures.

  14. Modeling subsurface reactive flows using leadership-class computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Richard Tran [Computational Earth Sciences Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6015 (United States); Hammond, Glenn E [Hydrology Group, Environmental Technology Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lichtner, Peter C [Hydrology, Geochemistry, and Geology Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sripathi, Vamsi [Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8206 (United States); Mahinthakumar, G [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Smith, Barry F, E-mail: rmills@ornl.go, E-mail: glenn.hammond@pnl.go, E-mail: lichtner@lanl.go, E-mail: vamsi_s@ncsu.ed, E-mail: gmkumar@ncsu.ed, E-mail: bsmith@mcs.anl.go [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4844 (United States)


    We describe our experiences running PFLOTRAN-a code for simulation of coupled hydro-thermal-chemical processes in variably saturated, non-isothermal, porous media- on leadership-class supercomputers, including initial experiences running on the petaflop incarnation of Jaguar, the Cray XT5 at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PFLOTRAN utilizes fully implicit time-stepping and is built on top of the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc). We discuss some of the hurdles to 'at scale' performance with PFLOTRAN and the progress we have made in overcoming them on leadership-class computer architectures.

  15. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  16. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars (United States)

    Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.


    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  17. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, M.C.


    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  18. Computational Flow Field in Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Moder, Jeff; Liou, Meng-Sing


    In this paper, preliminary results for the recently-updated Open National Combustion Code (Open NCC) as applied to the EEE are presented. The comparison between two different numerical schemes, the standard Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) scheme and the advection upstream splitting method (AUSM), is performed for the cold flow and the reacting flow calculations using the RANS. In the cold flow calculation, the AUSM scheme predicts a much stronger reverse flow in the central recirculation zone. In the reacting flow calculation, we test two cases: gaseous fuel injection and liquid spray injection. In the gaseous fuel injection case, the overall flame structures of the two schemes are similar to one another, in the sense that the flame is attached to the main nozzle, but is detached from the pilot nozzle. However, in the exit temperature profile, the AUSM scheme shows a more uniform profile than that of the JST scheme, which is close to the experimental data. In the liquid spray injection case, we expect different flame structures in this scenario. We will give a brief discussion on how two numerical schemes predict the flame structures inside the EEE using different ways to introduce the fuel injection.

  19. Computational flow field in energy efficient engine (EEE) (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Moder, Jeff; Liou, Meng-Sing


    In this paper, preliminary results for the recently-updated Open National Combustor Code (Open NCC) as applied to the EEE are presented. The comparison between two different numerical schemes, the standard Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) scheme and the advection upstream splitting method (AUSM), is performed for the cold flow and the reacting flow calculations using the RANS. In the cold flow calculation, the AUSM scheme predicts a much stronger reverse flow in the central recirculation zone. In the reacting flow calculation, we test two cases: gaseous fuel injection and liquid spray injection. In the gaseous fuel injection case, the overall flame structures of the two schemes are similar to one another, in the sense that the flame is attached to the main nozzle, but is detached from the pilot nozzle. However, in the exit temperature profile, the AUSM scheme shows a more uniform profile than that of the JST scheme, which is close to the experimental data. In the liquid spray injection case, we expect different flame structures in this scenario. We will give a brief discussion on how two numerical schemes predict the flame structures inside the Eusing different ways to introduce the fuel injection. Supported by NASA's Transformational Tools and Technologies project.

  20. Gas-Kinetic Computational Algorithms for Hypersonic Flows in Continuum and Transitional Regimes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project explores two gas-kinetic computational algorithms for simulation of hypersonic flows in both continuum and transitional regimes. One is the...

  1. A High Order Accuracy Computational Tool for Unsteady Turbulent Flows and Acoustics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate simulations of unsteady turbulent flows for aerodynamics applications, such as accurate computation of heat loads on space vehicles as well the interactions...

  2. A level set approach for computing solutions to incompressible two- phase flow II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fatemi, E.; Osher, S. [Univ. of California , Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Math; Smereka, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Math


    A level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number. A distance function formulation of the level set method enables one to compute flows with large density ratios (1000/1) and flows that are surface tension driven; with no emotional involvement. Recent work has improved the accuracy of the distance function formulation and the accuracy of the advection scheme. We compute flows involving air bubbles and water drops, to name a few. We validate our code against experiments and theory.

  3. Modal Decomposition of Synthetic Jet Flow Based on CFD Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš


    Full Text Available The article analyzes results of numerical simulation of synthetic jet flow using modal decomposition. The analyzes are based on the numerical simulation of axisymmetric unsteady laminar flow obtained using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. Three typical laminar regimes are compared from the point of view of modal decomposition. The first regime is without synthetic jet creation with Reynolds number Re = 76 and Stokes number S = 19.7. The second studied regime is defined by Re = 145 and S = 19.7. The third regime of synthetic jet work is regime with Re = 329 and S = 19.7. Modal decomposition of obtained flow fields is done using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD where energetically most important modes are identified. The structure of POD modes is discussed together with classical approach based on phase averaged velocities.

  4. Viscoelastic modeling of filled, crosslinked rubbers (United States)

    Joshi, Prashant G.


    Filled polymer systems have been a subject of interest for rheologists since the past many decades. Their applications range from paints and pigments to high performance composite materials. Tires come under a special class of applications wherein the type of filler used, its reinforcing abilities, traction improvement capabilities and cost effectiveness enormously control the final end use. Presently, there is lack of a complete understanding of the behavior of these materials under different load conditions. Moreover there is a lack of a comprehensive theory which can describe the rheology of filled rubbers, their chemorheology, and their behavior in the final fully cured state simultaneously. The present work is aimed at capturing a wide range of rheological/viscoelastic properties of filled rubbers with one set of constitutive/kinetic equations and a flexible relaxation spectrum. Various mechanical properties of filled, crosslinked rubbers were investigated in order to understand their analogy in the melt state. For this purpose, quasi-static hysteresis and step-strain relaxation experiments were carried out. Dynamic mechanical properties were understood in great details by using Fourier harmonic analysis to understand the time and strain non-linearities in the material. The time non-linearities arise due to thixotropic and non-isothermal effects, while the waveform distortions (strain related) occur due to non-linear viscoelastic effects. It is also very important to ensure no interference from any extraneous noise in the system during a dynamic test. Using the experimental evidences in melt rheology (creeping flow, shear start-up, and relaxation), and the kinetic mechanisms that affect chemorheology [152], an appropriate thixotropic-viscoelastic spectrum was chosen in order to describe experiments in all states of SBR rubber satisfactorily. This approach convinces that various manifestations of the filler in the melt state are preserved during crosslinking

  5. Computational and experimental investigation of flow and fluid mixing in the roller bottle bioreactor. (United States)

    Unger, D R; Muzzio, F J; Aunins, J G; Singhvi, R


    The fully three-dimensional velocity field in a roller bottle bioreactor is simulated for two systems (creeping flow and inertial flow conditions) using a control volume-finite element method, and validated experimentally using particle imaging velocimetry. The velocity fields and flow patterns are described in detail using velocity contour plots and tracer particle pathline computations. Bulk fluid mixing in the roller bottle is then examined using a computational fluid tracer program and flow visualization experiments. It is shown that the velocity fields and flow patterns are substantially different for each of these flow cases. For creeping flow conditions the flow streamlines consist of symmetric, closed three-dimensional loops; and for inertial flow conditions, streamlines consist of asymmetric toroidal surfaces. Fluid tracers remain trapped on these streamlines and are unable to contact other regions of the flow domain. As a result, fluid mixing is greatly hindered, especially in the axial direction. The lack of efficient axial mixing is verified computationally and experimentally. Such mixing limitations, however, are readily overcome by introducing a small-amplitude vertical rocking motion that disrupts both symmetry and recirculation, leading to much faster and complete axial mixing. The frequency of such motion is shown to have a significant effect on mixing rate, which is a critical parameter in the overall performance of roller bottles. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Onset of Primary and Secondary Instabilities of Viscoelastic Fluids Saturating a Porous Layer Heated from below by a Constant Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Gueye


    Full Text Available We analyze the thermal convection thresholds and linear characteristics of the primary and secondary instabilities for viscoelastic fluids saturating a porous horizontal layer heated from below by a constant flux. The Galerkin method is used to solve the eigenvalue problem by taking into account the elasticity of the fluid, the ratio between the viscosity of the solvent and the total viscosity of the fluid and the lateral confinement of the medium. For the primary instability, we found out that depending on the rheological parameters, two types of convective structures may appear when the basic conductive solution loses its stability: stationary long wavelength instability as for Newtonian fluids and oscillatory convection. The effect of the lateral confinement of the porous medium by adiabatic walls is to stabilize the oblique and longitudinal rolls and therefore selects transverse rolls at the onset of convection. In the range of the rheological parameters where stationary long wave instability develops first, we use a parallel flow approximation to determine analytically the velocity and temperature fields associated with the monocellular convective flow. The linear stability analysis of the monocellular flow is performed, and the critical conditions above which the flow becomes unstable are determined. The combined influence of the viscoelastic parameters and the lateral confinement on the characteristics of the secondary instability is quantified. The major new findings concerning the secondary instabilities may be summarized as follows: (i For concentrated viscoelastic fluids, computations showed that the most amplified mode of convection corresponds to oscillatory transverse rolls, which appears via a Hopf bifurcation. This pattern selection is independent of both the fluid elasticity and the lateral confinement of the porous medium. (ii For diluted viscoelastic fluids, the preferred mode of convection is found to be oscillatory

  7. A method for computing three-dimensional turbulent flows (United States)

    Bernard, P. S.; Berger, B. S.


    The MVC (mean vorticity and covariance) turbulence closure is derived for three-dimensional turbulent flows. The derivation utilizes Lagrangian time expansion techniques applied to the unclosed terms of the mean vorticity and covariance equations. The closed mean vorticity equation is applied to the numerical solution of fully developed three-dimensional channel flow. Anisotropies in the wall region are modelled by pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortices. The numerical results are in close agreement with experimental data. Analysis of the contributions of the terms in the mean vorticity equation gives insight into the dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer.

  8. Viscoelastic-gravitational deformation by a rectangular thrust fault in a layered Earth (United States)

    Rundle, John B.


    Previous papers in this series have been concerned with developing the numerical techniques required for the evaluation of vertical displacements which are the result of thrust faulting in a layered, elastic-gravitational earth model. This paper extends these methods to the calculation of fully time-dependent vertical surface deformation from a rectangular, dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over a viscoelastic-gravitational half space. The elastic-gravitational solutions are used together with the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity to give the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The technique used here to invert the displacements into the time domain is the Prony series technique, wherein the transformed solution is fit to the transformed representation of a truncated series of decaying exponentials. Purely viscoelastic results obtained are checked against results found previously using a different inverse transform method, and agreement is excellent. The major advantage in using the Prony series technique is that deformations can be computed for arbitrary time intervals. A series of results are obtained for a rectangular, 30° dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over viscoelastic-gravitational half space. Time-dependent displacements are calculated out to 50 half space relaxation times τa, or 100 Maxwell times 2τm = τa. Significant effects due to gravity are shown to exist in the solutions as early as several τa. The difference between the purely viscoelastic solution and the viscoelastic-gravitational solutions grows as time progresses. Typically, the solutions with gravity reach an equilibrium value after 10-20 relaxation times, when the purely viscoelastic solutions are still changing significantly. Additionally, the length scaling which was apparent in the purely viscoelastic problem breaks down in the viscoelastic-gravitational problem. Two independent length scales, one of which changes with


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag


    A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.

  10. Modelling of Rough Contact between Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Spinu


    Full Text Available The important gradients of stress arising in rough mechanical contacts due to interaction at the asperity level are responsible for damage mechanisms like rolling contact fatigue, wear, or crack propagation. The deterministic approach to this process requires computationally effective numerical solutions, capable of handling very fine meshes that capture the particular features of the investigated contacting surface. The spatial discretization needs to be supported by temporal sampling of the simulation window when time-dependent viscoelastic constitutive laws are considered in the description of the material response. Moreover, when real surface microtopography is considered, steep slopes inevitably lead to localized plastic deformation at the tip of the asperities that are first brought into contact. A computer model for the rough contact of linear viscoelastic materials, capable of handling deterministic contact geometry, complex viscoelastic models, and arbitrary loading histories, is advanced in this paper. Plasticity is considered in a simplified manner that preserves the information regarding the contact area and the pressure distribution without computing the residual strains and stresses. The model is expected to predict the contact behavior of deterministic rough surfaces as resulting from practical engineering applications, thus assisting the design of durable machine elements using elastomers or rubbers.

  11. Computer program to calculate three-dimensional boundary layer flows over wings with wall mass transfer (United States)

    Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.


    A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.

  12. Immersion in Computer Games: The Role of Spatial Presence and Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weibel


    Full Text Available A main reason to play computer games is the pleasure of being immersed in a mediated world. Spatial presence and flow are considered key concepts to explain such immersive experiences. However, little attention has been paid to the connection between the two concepts. Thus, we empirically examined the relationship between presence and flow in the context of a computer role-playing game (=70, a racing game (=120, and a jump and run game (=72. In all three studies, factor analysis revealed that presence and flow are distinct constructs, which do hardly share common variance. We conclude that presence refers to the sensation of being there in the mediated world, whereas flow rather refers to the sensation of being involved in the gaming action. Further analyses showed that flow and presence depend on motivation and immersive tendency. In addition, flow and presence enhanced performance as well as enjoyment.

  13. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in ...

  14. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CFD) analysis is one of the advanced tools used in the pump industry. A detailed CFD analysis was done to predict the flow pattern inside the impeller which is an active pump component. From the results of CFD analysis, the velocity and ...

  15. Computational model on pulsatile flow of blood through a tapered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An unsteady two-fluid model of blood flow through a tapered arterial stenosis with variable viscosity in the presence of variable magnetic field has been analysed in the present paper. In this article, blood in the core region is assumed to obey the law of Jeffrey fluid and plasma in the peripheral layer is assumed to be ...

  16. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CAD models of the mixed flow impeller with optimum inlet and outlet angles are modeled using CAD modelling software ProE WF3. To find the relationship between the vane angles and the impeller performance the optimum vane angle is achieved step by step. Three CAD models are modeled with the vane angles ...

  17. Computation of flow and thermal fields in a model CVD reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Computation of flow and thermal fields in a model CVD reactor. VISHWADEEP SAXENA, K MURALIDHAR and V ... been numerically studied. This configuration is encountered during the modelling of flow and heat transfer in CVD .... carried out on a P-III, 600 MHz machine with 512 MB RAM. Typical CPU times required.

  18. Computation of Flow around NACA0012 Airfoil at High Angle of Attack


    Shida, Yoshifumi; Kuwahara, Kunio; 信太, 良文; 桑原, 邦郎


    Transonic flow around an NACA0012 airfoil at high angle of attack is simulated by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The block pentadiagonal matrix scheme is employed. Periodic phenomena of shock-wave vortex interaction are observed. For comparison, computation of subsonic flow has been done. Small vortices are observed between the leading edge and the center of the chord.

  19. Multiscale analysis and computation for flows in heterogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efendiev, Yalchin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hou, T. Y. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Durlofsky, L. J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Tchelepi, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Our work in this project is aimed at making fundamental advances in multiscale methods for flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media. The main thrust of this research is to develop a systematic multiscale analysis and efficient coarse-scale models that can capture global effects and extend existing multiscale approaches to problems with additional physics and uncertainties. A key emphasis is on problems without an apparent scale separation. Multiscale solution methods are currently under active investigation for the simulation of subsurface flow in heterogeneous formations. These procedures capture the effects of fine-scale permeability variations through the calculation of specialized coarse-scale basis functions. Most of the multiscale techniques presented to date employ localization approximations in the calculation of these basis functions. For some highly correlated (e.g., channelized) formations, however, global effects are important and these may need to be incorporated into the multiscale basis functions. Other challenging issues facing multiscale simulations are the extension of existing multiscale techniques to problems with additional physics, such as compressibility, capillary effects, etc. In our project, we explore the improvement of multiscale methods through the incorporation of additional (single-phase flow) information and the development of a general multiscale framework for flows in the presence of uncertainties, compressible flow and heterogeneous transport, and geomechanics. We have considered (1) adaptive local-global multiscale methods, (2) multiscale methods for the transport equation, (3) operator-based multiscale methods and solvers, (4) multiscale methods in the presence of uncertainties and applications, (5) multiscale finite element methods for high contrast porous media and their generalizations, and (6) multiscale methods for geomechanics. Below, we present a brief overview of each of these contributions.

  20. The Impact of Flow in an EEG-based Brain Computer Interface


    Mladenović, Jelena; Frey, Jérémy; Bonnet-Save, Manon; Mattout, Jérémie; Lotte, Fabien


    International audience; Major issues in Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) include low usability and poor user performance. This paper tackles them by ensuring the users to be in a state of immersion, control and motivation, called state of flow. Indeed, in various disciplines, being in the state of flow was shown to improve performances and learning. Hence, we intended to draw BCI users in a flow state to improve both their subjective experience and their performances. In a Motor Imagery BCI g...

  1. Computational modeling for fluid flow and interfacial transport

    CERN Document Server

    Shyy, Wei


    Practical applications and examples highlight this treatment of computational modeling for handling complex flowfields. A reference for researchers and graduate students of many different backgrounds, it also functions as a text for learning essential computation elements.Drawing upon his own research, the author addresses both macroscopic and microscopic features. He begins his three-part treatment with a survey of the basic concepts of finite difference schemes for solving parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The second part concerns issues related to computati

  2. Viscoelastic fluids: A new challenge in heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnett, J.P. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States))


    A review of the current knowledge on the fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of viscoelastic aqueous polymer solutions in channel flow is presented. Both turbulent and laminar flow conditions are considered. For fully established turbulent channel flow, it was found that the friction factor, f, and the dimensionless heat transfer factor, j{sub H}, were functions of the Reynolds number and a dimensionless elasticity value, the Weissenberg number. For Weissenberg values greater than approximately 10 (the critical value) the friction factor was found to be a function only of the Reynolds number; for values less than 10 the friction factor was a function of both Re and Ws. For the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient j{sub H} the corresponding critical Weissenberg value was found to be about 100. The heat transfer reduction is always greater than the friction factor reduction; consequently, the heat transfer per unit pumping power decreases with increasing elasticity. For fully established laminar pipe flow of aqueous polymer solutions, the measured values of the friction factor and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient were in excellent agreement with the values predicted for a power law fluid. For laminar flow in a 2:1 rectangular channel the fully developed friction factor measurements were in agreement with the power law prediction. In contrast, the measured local heat transfer coefficients for aqueous polymer solutions in laminar flow through the 2:1 rectangular duct were two or three times the values predicted for a purely viscous power law fluid. It is hypothesized that these high heat transfer coefficients are due to secondary motions, which come about as a results of the unequal normal stresses occurring in viscoelastic fluids. The anomalous behavior of one particular aqueous polymer solution-namely, polyacrylic acid (Carbopol)-is described in some detail, raising some interesting questions as to how viscoelastic fluids should be classified.

  3. An immersed boundary method for computing heat and fluid flow in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Penha, D.J.; Ghazaryan, L.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Nordlund, Markus; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary (IB) method is presented that facilitates the computation of fluid flow in complex porous media. The computational domain is composed of a uniform Cartesian grid, and solid bodies are approximated on this grid using a series of grid cells (i.e., a ''staircase''

  4. Efficient numerical methods to compute unsteady subsonic flows on unstructured grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, P.


    Over the last four decades the increase in computer power and the advances in solver technology has resulted in an estimated reduction of 10 orders in magnitude to compute flow problems. However, to solve the instationairy Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, even today, a massive amount of

  5. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L


    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  6. Computations of incompressible fluid flow around a long square ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    laterally on decreasing gap ratio from 1 to 0.25. On increasing Re, this wake flattens along the channel wall and hence its size increases. The flow is observed to be steady for Re up to 121 at G = 0.5. The conversion to a time-periodic regime from a steady regime is presented in figure 5a–5b by providing the temporal ...

  7. Secondary Flow Patterns of Liquid Ejector with Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwisung; Yun, Jinwon; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Inseok [COAVIS, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongkyo [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    An ejector is a type of non-powered pump that is used to supply a secondary flow via the ejection of a primary flow. It is utilized in many industrial fields, and is used for fueling the vehicle because of less failures and simple structure. Since most of ejectors in industry are gas-to-gas and liquid to gas ejector, many research activities have been reported in optimization of gas ejector. On the other hand, the liquid ejector is also applied in many industry but few research has been reported. The liquid ejector occurs cavitation, and it causes damage of parts. Cavitation has bees observed at the nozzle throat at the specified pressure. In this study, a two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation of a liquid-liquid ejector was carried out using five different parameters. The angle of the nozzle plays an important role in the cavitation of a liquid ejector, and the performance characteristics of the flow ratio showed that an angle of 35° was the most advantageous. The simulation results showed that the performance of the liquid ejector and the cavitation effect have to be considered simultaneously.

  8. A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Garrido


    Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.

  9. A study of turbulent flow computations in an angled duct with a step (United States)

    Maruszewski, J. P.; Amano, R. S.


    This paper presents a method for effective computation of turbulent flows in an angled duct which has a step at the angled section by using a grid generation technique. An effect of flow curvature was analyzed on the separating and reattaching flows. The computations are based on the Reynolds averaged transport equations which are transformed for use on a generalized curvilinear coordinate system. A special care was taken on the treatment of pressure corrections. Wall function boundary conditions for k-epsilon model were developed.

  10. Simulating Nonlinear Oscillations of Viscoelastically Damped Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. D. Monsia; Y. J. F. Kpomahou


    ... viscoelastic system experiencing large deformations response. The model is represented with the use of a mechanical oscillator consisting of an inertial body attached to a nonlinear viscoelastic spring...

  11. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomases, Becca


    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in wh...

  12. Viscoelastic properties of polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites (United States)

    Ren, Jiaxiang

    Polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites offer the potential for dramatically improved mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties while keeping the material density low. Understanding the linear and non-linear viscoelastic response for such materials is crucial because of the ability of such measurements to elucidate the mesoscale dispersion of layered-silicates and changes in such dispersion to applied flows as would be encountered in processing of these materials. A series of intercalated polystyrene (and derivatives of polystyrene) layered-silicate nanocomposites are studied to demonstrate the influence of mesoscale dispersion and organic---inorganic interactions on the linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties. A layered-silicate network structure is exhibited for the nanocomposites with strong polymer-silicate interaction such as montmorillonite (2C18M) and fluorohectorite (C18F) and the percolation threshold is ˜ 6 wt % for the 2C18M based hybrids. However, the nanocomposites based on hectorite (2C18H) with weak polymer-silicate interaction exhibit liquid-like terminal zone behavior. Furthermore, the enhanced terminal zone elastic modulus and viscosity of high brominated polystyrene and high molecular weight polystyrene based 2C18M nanocomposites suggest an improved delamination and dispersion of layered-silicates in the polymer matrix. The non-linear viscoelastic properties, specifically, the non-linear stress relaxation behavior and the applicability of time---strain separability, the effect of increasing strain amplitude on the oscillatory shear flow properties, and the shear rate dependence of the steady shear flow properties are examined. The silicate sheets (or collections of sheets) exhibit the ability to be oriented by the applied flow. Experimentally, the empirical Cox - Merz rule is demonstrated to be inapplicable for the hybrids. Furthermore, the K-BKZ constitutive model is used to model the steady shear properties. While being able to

  13. Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime


    A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.

  14. Blood Flow in Idealized Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: A Review of Computational Studies. (United States)

    Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Remuzzi, Andrea


    Although our understanding of the failure mechanism of vascular access for hemodialysis has increased substantially, this knowledge has not translated into successful therapies. Despite advances in technology, it is recognized that vascular access is difficult to maintain, due to complications such as intimal hyperplasia. Computational studies have been used to estimate hemodynamic changes induced by vascular access creation. Due to the heterogeneity of patient-specific geometries, and difficulties with obtaining reliable models of access vessels, idealized models were often employed. In this review we analyze the knowledge gained with the use of computational such simplified models. A review of the literature was conducted, considering studies employing a computational fluid dynamics approach to gain insights into the flow field phenotype that develops in idealized models of vascular access. Several important discoveries have originated from idealized model studies, including the detrimental role of disturbed flow and turbulent flow, and the beneficial role of spiral flow in intimal hyperplasia. The general flow phenotype was consistent among studies, but findings were not treated homogeneously since they paralleled achievements in cardiovascular biomechanics which spanned over the last two decades. Computational studies in idealized models are important for studying local blood flow features and evaluating new concepts that may improve the patency of vascular access for hemodialysis. For future studies we strongly recommend numerical modelling targeted at accurately characterizing turbulent flows and multidirectional wall shear disturbances.

  15. Computation of flow regimes in parameter space for the AGCE (United States)

    Roberts, G. O.


    This report describes the results of a small study program in support of the design studies for NASA's proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE). The proposed experiment will model the atmosphere using a hemispherical layer of a dielectric fluid such as silicone oil, heated at the equator, and with a large radial AC electric field producing a temperature-dependent radial body force similar to radial gravity. The effect of terrestrial gravity on the experiment can be eliminated by doing the experiment in space flight. The author developed a series of three computer models to support these design studies. The first two calculate axisymmetric solutions and their stability to small non-axisymmetric perturbations. The third computes three-dimensional solutions. These codes allow the option of solving problems in a cylindrical geometry as well as a rather generally defined spherical layer.

  16. Fully consistent CFD methods for incompressible flow computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmogorov, Dmitry; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Niels N.


    -velocity coupling on collocated grids use the so-called momentum interpolation method of Rhie and Chow [1]. As known, the method and some of its widely spread modi_cations result in solutions, which are dependent of time step at convergence. In this paper the magnitude of the dependence is shown to contribute about...... 0.5% into the total error in a typical turbulent ow computation. Nevertheless if coarse grids are used, the standard interpolation methods result in much higher non-consistent behavior. To overcome the problem, a recently developed interpolation method, which is independent of time step, is used....... It is shown that in comparison to other time step independent method, the method may enhance the convergence rate of the SIMPLEC algorithm up to 25 %. The method is veri_ed using turbulent ow computations around a NACA 64618 airfoil and the roll-up of a shear layer, which may appear in wind turbine wake....

  17. Signaling networks: information flow, computation, and decision making. (United States)

    Azeloglu, Evren U; Iyengar, Ravi


    Signaling pathways come together to form networks that connect receptors to many different cellular machines. Such networks not only receive and transmit signals but also process information. The complexity of these networks requires the use of computational models to understand how information is processed and how input-output relationships are determined. Two major computational approaches used to study signaling networks are graph theory and dynamical modeling. Both approaches are useful; network analysis (application of graph theory) helps us understand how the signaling network is organized and what its information-processing capabilities are, whereas dynamical modeling helps us determine how the system changes in time and space upon receiving stimuli. Computational models have helped us identify a number of emergent properties that signaling networks possess. Such properties include ultrasensitivity, bistability, robustness, and noise-filtering capabilities. These properties endow cell-signaling networks with the ability to ignore small or transient signals and/or amplify signals to drive cellular machines that spawn numerous physiological functions associated with different cell states. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Takizawa, Kenji


    This contributed volume celebrates the work of Tayfun E. Tezduyar on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation (AFSI 2014) conference, also dedicated to Prof. Tezduyar and held at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan on March 19-21, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Organized into seven distinct parts arranged by thematic topics, the papers included cover basic methods and applications of CFD, flows with moving boundaries and interfaces, phase-field modeling, computer science and high-performance computing (HPC) aspects of flow simulation, mathematical methods, biomedical applications, and FSI. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students working on CFD, FSI, and related topics will find this collection to be a defi...

  19. ENGRID: A graphical interactive code for the computation of structured grids for blocked flow domains (United States)

    Spekreijse, S. P.


    The underlying idea of the widely used and accepted multiblock approach for flow analysis is to subdivide a geometrical complex flow domain region into several smaller, more manageable regions, referred to as blocks. Typically there are several individual blocks in a given flow domain, each block having three computational coordinates. In the present approach the grid generation process is divided into two sub-processes: (1) block decomposition, i.e., the creation of blocked flow domains; and (2) grid generation, i.e., the computation of structured grids in the blocks. The ENGRID code is a general purpose multi-block grid generation code for the computation of Euler or Navier-Stokes types of grids in flow domains which are already subdivided into blocks. The two required input files for ENGRID are a topology and a geometry file. The topology file defines the topology of a multi-block flow domain. The topology of a blocked flow domain describes how the blocks are connected to each other. The geometry file contains the geometrical information of a multi-block flow domain. The file contains the geometrical definition of all vertices, all non-default elementary edges, and all non-default elementary faces.

  20. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  1. Shape recovery of viscoelastic beams after stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai


    for the load relaxation and shape recovery of a linear viscoelastic beam subject to such time-varying constraints. It is shown that a viscoelastic beam recovers to its original shape asymptotically over time. The analytical solutions are employed to investigate the effect of temperature and stowage time...

  2. Single Integral Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids. (United States)


    Danmarks Tekniske H~jskole, DV2,00 Lyngby, Denmark Sponsored by the United States Army under Contract No. DAAG29-80-C-0041 and 1 the Danish Council for...viscoelasticity related to the linear viscoelastic relaxation modulus G as follows G(t) = f M(s)ds (1.4) * t "Instituttet for Kemiteknik, Danmarks Tekniske

  3. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  4. A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH) (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Halford, K.J.


    A new computer program, FLASH (Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes), is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs. The code is based on an analytical solution for steady-state multilayer radial flow to a borehole. The code includes options for (1) discrete fractures and (2) multilayer aquifers. Given vertical flow profiles collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping or injection) conditions, the user can estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far-field hydraulic heads. FLASH is coded in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications routines. The code supports manual and automated model calibration. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Computation of three-dimensional multiphase flow dynamics by Fully-Coupled Immersed Flow (FCIF) solver (United States)

    Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming


    This work presents a Fully-Coupled Immersed Flow (FCIF) solver for the three-dimensional simulation of fluid-fluid interaction by coupling two distinct flow solvers using an Immersed Boundary (IB) method. The FCIF solver captures dynamic interactions between two fluids with disparate flow properties, while retaining the desirable simplicity of non-boundary-conforming grids. For illustration, we couple an IB-based unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (uRANS) simulator with a depth-integrated (long-wave) solver for the application of slug development with turbulent gas and laminar liquid. We perform a series of validations including turbulent/laminar flows over prescribed wavy boundaries and freely-evolving viscous fluids. These confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of both one-way and two-way coupling in the FCIF solver. Finally, we present a simulation example of the evolution from a stratified turbulent/laminar flow through the initiation of a slug that nearly bridges the channel. The results show both the interfacial wave dynamics excited by the turbulent gas forcing and the influence of the liquid on the gas turbulence. These results demonstrate that the FCIF solver effectively captures the essential physics of gas-liquid interaction and can serve as a useful tool for the mechanistic study of slug generation in two-phase gas/liquid flows in channels and pipes.

  6. Computational physics of electric discharges in gas flows

    CERN Document Server

    Surzhikov, Sergey T


    Gas discharges are of interest for many processes in mechanics, manufacturing, materials science and aerophysics. To understand the physics behind the phenomena is of key importance for the effective use and development of gas discharge devices. This worktreats methods of computational modeling of electrodischarge processes and dynamics of partially ionized gases. These methods are necessary to tackleproblems of physical mechanics, physics of gas discharges and aerophysics.Particular attention is given to a solution of two-dimensional problems of physical mechanics of glow discharges.The use o

  7. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement under alternative torque using electromagnetically spinning method with quadruple electromagnets. (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji


    In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.

  8. Computation of transonic potential flow about 3 dimensional inlets, ducts, and bodies (United States)

    Reyhner, T. A.


    An analysis was developed and a computer code, P465 Version A, written for the prediction of transonic potential flow about three dimensional objects including inlet, duct, and body geometries. Finite differences and line relaxation are used to solve the complete potential flow equation. The coordinate system used for the calculations is independent of body geometry. Cylindrical coordinates are used for the computer code. The analysis is programmed in extended FORTRAN 4 for the CYBER 203 vector computer. The programming of the analysis is oriented toward taking advantage of the vector processing capabilities of this computer. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurements are presented to verify the analysis. Descriptions of program input and output formats are also presented.

  9. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  10. Fine-grained Information Flow for Concurrent Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng

    is an important approach to the protection of systems against such threats. Notable examples include tainting analyses in languages such as Javascript, and program transformations on cryptographic algorithms to avoid information leakage through running time. A wide variety of techniques, including type systems......” and “what” into consideration, emphasizing the importance of the integrity case where the former is more sensitive than the latter. This case captures the effect of Message Authentication Codes (MAC) and the consequence of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. It is also proved that the property degenerates...... recently been studied for sequential programs. We generalize the use and enforcement of content-dependent flow policies to concurrent, communicating processes. A security type system is developed, incorporating a Hoare logic component that provides approximations of the memory contents at different program...

  11. Selected Remarks about Computer Processing in Terms of Flow Control and Statistical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzałka


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that much has been said about processing in computer science, it seems that there is still much to do. A classical approach assumes that the computations done by computers are a kind of mathematical operation (calculations of functions values and have no special relations to energy transformation and flow. However, there is a possibility to get a new view on selected topics, and as a special case, the sorting problem is presented; we know many different sorting algorithms, including those that have complexity equal to O(n lg(n , which means that this problem is algorithmically closed, but it is also possible to focus on the problem of sorting in terms of flow control, entropy and statistical mechanics. This is done in relation to the existing definitions of sorting, connections between sorting and ordering and some important aspects of computer processing understood as a flow that are not taken into account in many theoretical considerations in computer science. The proposed new view is an attempt to change the paradigm in the description of algorithms’ performance by computational complexity and processing, taking into account the existing references between the idea of Turing machines and their physical implementations. This proposal can be expressed as a physics of computer processing; a reference point to further analysis of algorithmic and interactive processing in computer systems.

  12. Fluid Flow and Heat Transport Computation for Power-Law Scaling Poroperm Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Leary


    Full Text Available In applying Darcy’s law to fluid flow in geologic formations, it is generally assumed that flow variations average to an effectively constant formation flow property. This assumption is, however, fundamentally inaccurate for the ambient crust. Well-log, well-core, and well-flow empirics show that crustal flow spatial variations are systematically correlated from mm to km. Translating crustal flow spatial correlation empirics into numerical form for fluid flow/transport simulation requires computations to be performed on a single global mesh that supports long-range spatial correlation flow structures. Global meshes populated by spatially correlated stochastic poroperm distributions can be processed by 3D finite-element solvers. We model wellbore-logged Dm-scale temperature data due to heat advective flow into a well transecting small faults in a Hm-scale sandstone volume. Wellbore-centric thermal transport is described by Peclet number Pe ≡ a0φv0/D (a0 = wellbore radius, v0 = fluid velocity at a0, φ = mean crustal porosity, and D = rock-water thermal diffusivity. The modelling schema is (i 3D global mesh for spatially correlated stochastic poropermeability; (ii ambient percolation flow calibrated by well-core porosity-controlled permeability; (iii advection via fault-like structures calibrated by well-log neutron porosity; (iv flow Pe ~ 0.5 in ambient crust and Pe ~ 5 for fault-borne advection.

  13. Blood flow competition after aortic valve bypass: an evaluation using computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji; Kimura, Naoyuki; Komiya, Kenji; Nakamura, Masanori; Misawa, Yoshio


    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) (apico-aortic conduit) remains an effective surgical alternative for patients in whom surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not feasible. However, specific complications include thrombus formation, possibly caused by stagnation arising from flow competition between the antegrade and retrograde flow, but this has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse flow characteristics after AVB and to elucidate mechanisms of intra-aortic thrombus using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow simulation was performed on data obtained from a 73-year-old postoperative AVB patient. Three-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla was used to acquire flow data and to set up the simulation. The vascular geometry was reconstructed using computed tomography angiograms. Flow simulations were implemented at various ratios of the flow rate between the ascending aorta and the graft. Results were visualized by streamline and particle tracing. CFD demonstrated stagnation in the ascending aorta-arch when retrograde flow was dominant, indicating that the risk of thrombus formation exists in the ascending arch in cases with severe aortic stenosis and/or poor left ventricular function. Meanwhile, stagnation was observed in the proximal descending aorta when the antegrade and retrograde flow were equivalent, suggesting that the descending aorta is critical when aortic stenosis is not severe. Flow stagnation in the aorta which may cause thrombus was observed when retrograde flow was dominant and antegrade/retrograde flows were equivalent. Our results suggest that anticoagulants might be recommended even in patients who receive biological valves.

  14. Patient-specific computer modeling of blood flow in cerebral arteries with aneurysm and stent (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Schjodt, Kathleen; Puntel, Anthony; Kostov, Nikolay; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.


    We present the special arterial fluid mechanics techniques we have developed for patient-specific computer modeling of blood flow in cerebral arteries with aneurysm and stent. These techniques are used in conjunction with the core computational technique, which is the space-time version of the variational multiscale (VMS) method and is called "DST/SST-VMST." The special techniques include using NURBS for the spatial representation of the surface over which the stent mesh is built, mesh generation techniques for both the finite- and zero-thickness representations of the stent, techniques for generating refined layers of mesh near the arterial and stent surfaces, and models for representing double stent. We compute the unsteady flow patterns in the aneurysm and investigate how those patterns are influenced by the presence of single and double stents. We also compare the flow patterns obtained with the finite- and zero-thickness representations of the stent.

  15. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang


    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  16. Computational Investigation on Fully Developed Periodic Laminar Flow Structure in Baffled Circular Tube with Various BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3D numerical analysis of fully developed periodic laminar flow in a circular tube fitted with 45° inclined baffles with inline arrangement. The computations are based on a finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The characteristics of fluid flow are presented for Reynolds number, Re = 100–1000, based on the hydraulic diameter (D of the tube. The angled baffles were repeatedly inserted at the middle of the test tube with inline arrangement to generate vortex flows over the tested tube. Effects of different Reynolds numbers and blockage ratios (b/D, BR with a single pitch ratio of 1 on flow structure in the tested tube were emphasized. The flows in baffled tube show periodic flow at x/D ≈ 2-3, and become a fully developed periodic flow profiles at x/D ≈ 6-7, depending on Re, BR and transverse plane positions. The computational results reveal that the higher of BR and closer position of turbulators, the faster of fully developed periodic flow profiles.

  17. TECHNICAL NOTE: Observations on the use of a viscoelastic joint to provide noise reduced sonar domes (United States)

    House, J. R.


    This paper concerns the noise and vibration advantages of an energy absorbing composite joint and its relevance to noise reduced glass reinforced polyester (GRP) sonar domes. Once installed on an operational boat, hydrodynamic flow and supporting structural induced vibrations cause the dome to vibrate, thus radiating noise and interfering with sonar sensor response. The results of a vibration transmissibility study on a GRP - steel interface are discussed as the first step in designing a composite viscoelastic joint that can act as a vibration sink to absorb flow generated and structure borne noise within GRP sonar domes. Preliminary investigations concerning the absorption of compressional waves by use of a tapered viscoelastic interlayer are discussed. It is shown that a tapered viscoelastic interlayer placed between a GRP beam and steel supporting substrate can produce a significant absorption of vibrational energy, reducing water borne radiated noise and providing a significantly quieter noise platform than conventional sonar jointing technology.

  18. Computational issues of solving the 1D steady gradually varied flow equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artichowicz Wojciech


    Full Text Available In this paper a problem of multiple solutions of steady gradually varied flow equation in the form of the ordinary differential energy equation is discussed from the viewpoint of its numerical solution. Using the Lipschitz theorem dealing with the uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the ordinary differential equation it was shown that the steady gradually varied flow equation can have more than one solution. This fact implies that the nonlinear algebraic equation approximating the ordinary differential energy equation, which additionally coincides with the wellknown standard step method usually applied for computing of the flow profile, can have variable number of roots. Consequently, more than one alternative solution corresponding to the same initial condition can be provided. Using this property it is possible to compute the water flow profile passing through the critical stage.

  19. Computation of three-dimensional, rotational flow through turbomachinery blade rows for improved aerodynamic design studies (United States)

    Subramanian, S. V.; Bozzola, R.; Povinelli, L. A.


    The performance of a three dimensional computer code developed for predicting the flowfield in stationary and rotating turbomachinery blade rows is described in this study. The four stage Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme is used for solving the governing flow equations and yields solution to the full, three dimensional, unsteady Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates. This method is fully explicit and uses the finite volume, time marching procedure. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the code, steady solutions were obtained for several cascade geometries under widely varying flow conditions. Computed flowfield results are presented for a fully subsonic turbine stator and a low aspect ratio, transonic compressor rotor blade under maximum flow and peak efficiency design conditions. Comparisons with Laser Anemometer measurements and other numerical predictions are also provided to illustrate that the present method predicts important flow features with good accuracy and can be used for cost effective aerodynamic design studies.

  20. Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells (United States)

    Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Bacri, J.-C.


    The previously developed technique of magnetic rotational microrheology [Phys. Rev. E 67, 011504 (2003)] is proposed to investigate the rheological properties of the cell interior. An endogeneous magnetic probe is obtained inside living cells by labeling intracellular compartments with magnetic nanoparticles, following the endocytosis mechanism, the most general pathway used by eucaryotic cells to internalize substances from an extracellular medium. Primarily adsorbed on the plasma membrane, the magnetic nanoparticles are first internalized within submicronic membrane vesicles (100 nm diameter) to finally concentrate inside endocytotic intracellular compartments (0.6 μm diameter). These magnetic endosomes attract each other and form chains within the living cell when submitted to an external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that these chains of magnetic endosomes are valuable tools to probe the intracellular dynamics at very local scales. The viscoelasticity of the chain microenvironment is quantified in terms of a viscosity η and a relaxation time τ by analyzing the rotational dynamics of each tested chain in response to a rotation of the external magnetic field. The viscosity η governs the long time flow of the medium surrounding the chains and the relaxation time τ reflects the proportion of solidlike versus liquidlike behavior (τ=η/G, where G is the high-frequency shear modulus). Measurements in HeLa cells show that the cell interior is a highly heterogeneous structure, with regions where chains are embedded inside a dense viscoelastic matrix and other domains where chains are surrounded by a less rigid viscoelastic material. When one compound of the cell cytoskeleton is disrupted (microfilaments or microtubules), the intracellular viscoelasticity becomes less heterogeneous and more fluidlike, in the sense of both a lower viscosity and a lower relaxation time.

  1. A Comparison of Viscoelastic Properties of Three Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei


    Full Text Available Objective: Handling of endodontic sealers is greatly dependent on their elasticity and flow ability. We compared the viscoelastic properties of three root canal sealers.Materials and Methods: AH Plus (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany, Endofill (Dentsply Hero, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and AH26 (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The resulted pastes were placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 300, Anton-Paar, Graz, Austria. The experiments were performed at 25˚C and 37˚C. Viscoelastic properties of the sealers including loss modulus (G", storage modulus (G´ and complex viscosity (η* were studied using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. The shear module versus frequency (from 0.01 to 100 S-1 curves were gained using frequency deformation sweep test. Three samples of each material were examined at each temperature. The mean of these three measurements were recorded.Results: The storage modulus of AH plus was higher than its loss modulus at two temperatures. Endofill exhibited a crossover region in which the storage modulus crosses the loss modulus in both temperatures. At 25ºC the loss modulus of AH26 was higher than the storage modulus (G">G¢. In contrast, at 37ºC G¢was greater than G² (G¢>G². Both shear modules of AH Plus and Endofill decreased as the temperature raised from 25ºC to 37ºC. On the contrary, the loss modulus and storage modulus of AH26 increased at 37ºC.Conclusion: In both test temperatures, AH Plus behaved like viscoelastic solids and Endofill exhibited a gel-like viscoelastic behavior. AH26 at 25ºC behaved like liquids, while at 37ºC it was an elastic solid-like material

  2. Flow disturbances in stent-related coronary evaginations: a computational fluid-dynamic simulation study. (United States)

    Radu, Maria D; Pfenniger, Aloïs; Räber, Lorenz; de Marchi, Stefano F; Obrist, Dominik; Kelbæk, Henning; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W; Vogel, Rolf


    Angiographic ectasias and aneurysms in stented segments have been associated with late stent thrombosis. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), some stented segments show coronary evaginations reminiscent of ectasias. The purpose of this study was to explore, using computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) simulations, whether OCT-detected coronary evaginations can induce local changes in blood flow. OCT-detected evaginations are defined as outward bulges in the luminal vessel contour between struts, with the depth of the bulge exceeding the actual strut thickness. Evaginations can be characterised cross-sectionally by depth and along the stented segment by total length. Assuming an ellipsoid shape, we modelled 3-D evaginations with different sizes by varying the depth from 0.2-1.0 mm, and the length from 1-9 mm. For the flow simulation we used average flow velocity data from non-diseased coronary arteries. The change in flow with varying evagination sizes was assessed using a particle tracing test where the particle transit time within the segment with evagination was compared with that of a control vessel. The presence of the evagination caused a delayed particle transit time which increased with the evagination size. The change in flow consisted locally of recirculation within the evagination, as well as flow deceleration due to a larger lumen - seen as a deflection of flow towards the evagination. CFD simulation of 3-D evaginations and blood flow suggests that evaginations affect flow locally, with a flow disturbance that increases with increasing evagination size.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control (United States)


    Sciences Meeting; 2003 Jan 6– 9; Reno, NV. AIAA Paper No.: 2003-1352. 2. DeSpirito J. Transient lateral jet interaction effects on a generic fin- stabilized ...Microflaps for Flow Control by Jubaraj Sahu Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control by Jubaraj Sahu Weapons and Materials Research

  4. A Computational and Experimental Study of Fluid Flow in a De-duster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianpu Wang


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model with an RNG k-epsilon model and second upwind scheme in the Fluent package was used to simulate the flowpattern in a de-duster. The model predictions for the flow field inside the dispersion device were compared with LDA measurements. The primary objectives are to understand such complex flow fields and to guide the development and optimisation of this de-duster.

  5. Adaptive, multi-domain techniques for two-phase flow computations (United States)

    Uzgoren, Eray

    Computations of immiscible two-phase flows deal with interfaces that may move and/or deform in response to the dynamics within the flow field. As interfaces move, one needs to compute the new shapes and the associated geometric information (such as curvatures, normals, and projected areas/volumes) as part of the solution. The present study employs the immersed boundary method (IBM), which uses marker points to track the interface location and continuous interface methods to model interfacial conditions. The large transport property jumps across the interface, and the considerations of the mechanism including convection, diffusion, pressure, body force and surface tension create multiple time/length scales. The resulting computational stiffness and moving boundaries make numerical simulations computationally expensive in three-dimensions, even when the computations are performed on adaptively refined 3D Cartesian grids that efficiently resolve the length scales. A domain decomposition method and a partitioning strategy for adaptively refined grids are developed to enable parallel computing capabilities. Specifically, the approach consists of multilevel additive Schwarz method for domain decomposition, and Hilbert space filling curve ordering for partitioning. The issues related to load balancing, communication and computation, convergence rate of the iterative solver in regard to grid size and the number of sub-domains and interface shape deformation, are studied. Moreover, interfacial representation using marker points is extended to model complex solid geometries for single and two-phase flows. Developed model is validated using a benchmark test case, flow over a cylinder. Furthermore, overall algorithm is employed to further investigate steady and unsteady behavior of the liquid plug problem. Finally, capability of handling two-phase flow simulations in complex solid geometries is demonstrated by studying the effect of bifurcation point on the liquid plug, which

  6. On current aspects of finite element computational fluid mechanics for turbulent flows (United States)

    Baker, A. J.


    A set of nonlinear partial differential equations suitable for the description of a class of turbulent three-dimensional flow fields in select geometries is identified. On the basis of the concept of enforcing a penalty constraint to ensure accurate accounting of ordering effects, a finite element numerical solution algorithm is established for the equation set and the theoretical aspects of accuracy, convergence and stability are identified and quantized. Hypermatrix constructions are used to formulate the reduction of the computational aspects of the theory to practice. The robustness of the algorithm, and the computer program embodiment, have been verified for pertinent flow configurations.

  7. Navier-Stokes Equation and Computational Scheme for Non-Newtonian Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Licata


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computational approach to debris flow model. In recent years, the theoretical activity on the classical Herschel-Bulkley model (1926 has been very intense, but it was in the early 80s that the opportunity to explore the computational model has enabled considerable progress in identifying the subclasses of applicability of different sets of boundary conditions and their approximations. Here we investigate analytically the problem of the simulation of uniform motion for heterogeneous debris flow laterally confined taking into account mainly the geological data and methodological suggestions derived from simulation with cellular automata and grid systems, in order to propose a computational scheme able to operate a compromise between “global” predictive capacities and computing effort.

  8. Fast Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve Based Upon Steady-State Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Morris, PhD


    Full Text Available Fractional flow reserve (FFR-guided percutaneous intervention is superior to standard assessment but remains underused. The authors have developed a novel “pseudotransient” analysis protocol for computing virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR based upon angiographic images and steady-state computational fluid dynamics. This protocol generates vFFR results in 189 s (cf >24 h for transient analysis using a desktop PC, with <1% error relative to that of full-transient computational fluid dynamics analysis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physiological lesion significance was influenced less by coronary or lesion anatomy (33% and more by microvascular physiology (59%. If coronary microvascular resistance can be estimated, vFFR can be accurately computed in less time than it takes to make invasive measurements.

  9. Computational modelling of the gas flow from a high-enthalpy blast simulator (United States)

    Edwards, D. G.; Phan, K. C.; Hurdle, C. V.


    An Eulerian computer code based on the Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm has been develped to model the flow within and in the immediate vicinity of the RARDE (UK) High-Enthalpy Blast Simulator. The code incorporates a fully-second-order solution-scheme incorporating operator-splitting in the solution of multi-dimensional time-dependent flows. The computing mesh has been refined to make efficient use of the limited computing memory and processing power available to this project. The flow is one-dimensional in much the greater part of the facility: two-dimensional axi-symmetric flow is confined to the junctions between long tubes of constant diameter, and the computing mesh is configured accordingly. Early runs of the code have been based on a coarse computing mesh, for reasons of expedinency. Even so, results to date have confirmed may of the qualitative predictions concerning the behavior of the HEBSIM; comparisons with existing experimental data on wall-pressure histories at various stations within the facility show an encouraging measure of accord. Later runs will feature a more refined mesh, and it is hoped that design-recommendations will result from this more-realistic simulation exercise as an aid to the further developement of the HEBSIM facility.

  10. Viscoelastic Relaxation Modulus Characterization Using Prony Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana E. Lopes Pacheco

    Full Text Available AbstractThe mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials is influenced, among other factors, by parameters like time and temperature. The present paper proposes a methodology for a thermorheologically and piezorheologically simple characterization of viscoelastic materials in the time domain based on experimental data using Prony Series and a mixed optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithms and Nonlinear Programming. The text discusses the influence of pressure and temperature on the mechanical behavior of those materials. The results are compared to experimental data in order to validate the methodology. The final results are very promising and the methodology proves to be effective in the identification of viscoelastic materials.

  11. Rotating convection in a viscoelastic magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, L.M. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Díaz, P. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54 D, Temuco (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mancini, H.L. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)


    We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid under rotation. The viscoelastic properties are given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effects of the rheology and of the rotation rate on the instability thresholds for a diluted magnetic suspension are emphasized. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids. • Thermal convection. • Viscoelastic model. • Realistic boundary conditions.

  12. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman


    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  13. Validation of radiative transfer computation with Monte Carlo method for ultra-relativistic background flow (United States)

    Ishii, Ayako; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Ito, Hirotaka; Yamada, Shoichi


    We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer code for an ultra-relativistic background flow-field by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method in the context of gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. For obtaining reliable simulation results in the coupled computation of MC radiation transport with relativistic hydrodynamics which can reproduce GRB emission, we validated radiative transfer computation in the ultra-relativistic regime and assessed the appropriate simulation conditions. The radiative transfer code was validated through two test calculations: (1) computing in different inertial frames and (2) computing in flow-fields with discontinuous and smeared shock fronts. The simulation results of the angular distribution and spectrum were compared among three different inertial frames and in good agreement with each other. If the time duration for updating the flow-field was sufficiently small to resolve a mean free path of a photon into ten steps, the results were thoroughly converged. The spectrum computed in the flow-field with a discontinuous shock front obeyed a power-law in frequency whose index was positive in the range from 1 to 10 MeV. The number of photons in the high-energy side decreased with the smeared shock front because the photons were less scattered immediately behind the shock wave due to the small electron number density. The large optical depth near the shock front was needed for obtaining high-energy photons through bulk Compton scattering. Even one-dimensional structure of the shock wave could affect the results of radiation transport computation. Although we examined the effect of the shock structure on the emitted spectrum with a large number of cells, it is hard to employ so many computational cells per dimension in multi-dimensional simulations. Therefore, a further investigation with a smaller number of cells is required for obtaining realistic high-energy photons with multi-dimensional computations.

  14. Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig


    Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...... conversion is found to be directly proportional to the flow uniformity. Finally the effect of manufacturing errors is investigated. The design is shown to be robust towards deviations from design dimensions of at least ±0.1 mm which is well within obtainable tolerances....

  15. VORSTAB: A computer program for calculating lateral-directional stability derivatives with vortex flow effect (United States)

    Lan, C. Edward


    A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.

  16. Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin


    A finite difference, three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. Here, equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two.

  17. Computation of flow around a circular cylinder in a supercritical regime (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Kuwahara, K.; Kawamura, T.; Ogawa, S.; Chyu, W. J.


    Compressible flows around a circular cylinder in a supercritical regime at Mach number 0.3 have been calculated by using the Beam-Warming-Steger scheme based on the full Navier-Stokes equations with improved accuracy. The flow patterns are visualized extensively to observe the characteristics in this regime. The computations show that the flow at certain Reynolds numbers in a supercritical regime becomes rather steady and irregular with small drag coefficients. This may correspond to the experimental observations that the Strouhal number can not be measured clearly at a certain Reynolds number range in the supercritical regime.

  18. Similarity Analysis for Effects of Variable Diffusivity and Heat Generation/Absorption on Heat and Mass Transfer for a MHD Stagnation-Point Flow of a Convective Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with a Slip Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. El-Hawary


    Full Text Available A mathematical analysis has been carried out for stagnation-point heat and mass transfer of a viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with surface slip velocity, concentration dependent diffusivity, thermal convective boundary conditions, and heat source/sink. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using Lie group analysis. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations are obtained using shooting method. The influences of various parameters on velocity, temperature, and mass profiles have been studied. Also, the effects of various parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are given in graphics form and discussed.

  19. Simultaneous fluid-flow, heat-transfer and solid-stress computation in a single computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, D.B. [Concentration Heat and Momentum Ltd, London (United Kingdom)


    Computer simulation of flow- and thermally-induced stresses in mechanical-equipment assemblies has, in the past, required the use of two distinct software packages, one to determine the forces and the temperatures, and the other to compute the resultant stresses. The present paper describes how a single computer program can perform both tasks at the same time. The technique relies on the similarity of the equations governing velocity distributions in fluids to those governing displacements in solids. The same SIMPLE-like algorithm is used for solving both. Applications to 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional situations are presented. It is further suggested that Solid-Fluid-Thermal, ie SFT analysis may come to replace CFD on the one hand and the analysis of stresses in solids on the other, by performing the functions of both. (author) 7 refs.

  20. Taylor Flow in Microchannels: A Review of Experimental and Computational Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gupta


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades an enormous interest in two-phase flow in microchannels has developed because of their application in a wide range of new technologies, ranging from lab-on-a-chip devices used in medical and pharmaceutical applications to micro-structured process equipment used in many modern chemical plants. Taylor flow, in which gas bubbles are surrounded by a liquid film and separated by liquid plugs, is the most common flow regime encountered in such applications. This review introduces the important attributes of two phase flow in microchannels and then focuses on the Taylor flow regime. The existing knowledge from both experimental and computational studies is presented. Finally, perspectives for future work are suggested.

  1. A comparative study of computational solutions to flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Mizukami, M.; Georgiadis, N. J.; Cannon, M. R.


    A comparative study was conducted for computational fluid dynamic solutions to flow over a backward-facing step. This flow is a benchmark problem, with a simple geometry, but involves complicated flow physics such as free shear layers, reattaching flow, recirculation, and high turbulence intensities. Three Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solvers with k-epsilon turbulence models were used, each using a different solution algorithm: finite difference, finite element, and hybrid finite element - finite difference. Comparisons were made with existing experimental data. Results showed that velocity profiles and reattachment lengths were predicted reasonably well by all three methods, while the skin friction coefficients were more difficult to predict accurately. It was noted that, in general, selecting an appropriate solver for each problem to be considered is important.

  2. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Unidirectional Flow Through Stirling Engine Heater Head (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako


    A high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is being developed for possible use in long-duration space science missions. NASA s advanced technology goals for next generation Stirling convertors include increasing the Carnot efficiency and percent of Carnot efficiency. To help achieve these goals, a multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being developed to numerically model unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena of the oscillating working gas inside Stirling convertors. In the absence of transient pressure drop data for the zero mean oscillating multi-dimensional flows present in the Technology Demonstration Convertors on test at NASA Glenn Research Center, unidirectional flow pressure drop test data is used to compare against 2D and 3D computational solutions. This study focuses on tracking pressure drop and mass flow rate data for unidirectional flow though a Stirling heater head using a commercial CFD code (CFD-ACE). The commercial CFD code uses a porous-media model which is dependent on permeability and the inertial coefficient present in the linear and nonlinear terms of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation. Permeability and inertial coefficient were calculated from unidirectional flow test data. CFD simulations of the unidirectional flow test were validated using the porous-media model input parameters which increased simulation accuracy by 14 percent on average.

  3. Experimental and computational studies of active flow control on a model truck-trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanmiri Mohsen


    Full Text Available Active flow control is probably the most challenging research area in vehicle aerodynamics. Being able to manipulate a flow field in order to achieve desired results beneficial to engineering is the only way to meet today’s demands for competitive and efficient solutions in the automotive industry. The current work studies the flow control on a semi detailed model truck by using detached-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments aiming at reducing the aerodynamic drag. This study combines both passive and active flow control applied on the rear end of the trailer. An indigenous fluidic actuator (loudspeaker in cavity with slots is used as a synthetic jet in the experiment. Both experiments and computations demonstrate that the active flow control works successfully and results in flow reattachment to the flaps. The numerical simulations show that the drag coefficient, CD decreased by 3.9% when AFC was activated compared to the baseline case without flaps. The corresponding decrease when AFC was deactivated (with flaps was only 0.7%. The experimental results show a decrease of CD by 3.1% for the case with activated AFC compared to the baseline case. When AFC was deactivated the corresponding decrease in CD was 1.8%. A detailed flow analysis made in computations and experiments is used to explain these results.

  4. An experimental/computational approach for examining unconfined cohesive powder flow. (United States)

    Faqih, AbdulMobeen; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa; Alexander, Albert W; Davies, Clive; Muzzio, Fernando J; Silvina Tomassone, M


    This paper describes a new method to quantitatively measure the flow characteristics of unconfined cohesive powders in a rotating drum. Cohesion plays an important role, affecting flow properties/characteristics, mixing rates, and segregation tendencies. The method relies on measuring the change in center of mass of the powder bed as it avalanches in the vessel, using a load cell that is sampled continuously. Filtering and analysis of the signal is done using Fast-Fourier transform into the frequency domain, where noise is eliminated using signal processing methods. The filtered data is transformed back to the time domain by using an inverse Fast-Fourier transform to give quantitative information on the powder flow characteristics. In order to understand the nature of the forces controlling powder flow behavior, a computational model was developed to estimate the relationship between inter-particle cohesive strength and experimental measurements. A "flow index" generated by the method correlates well with the degree of bed expansion (dynamic dilation) of the cohesive powders. The flow index also predicts the dynamics of flow through hoppers. As the flow index increases it becomes increasingly difficult for the powder to flow through the hoppers.

  5. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F [Computational Fluid Dynamics Team, CERFACS, Toulouse, 31057 (France); Poinsot, T [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse, 31400 (France)], E-mail:


    Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.

  6. Linear Viscoelasticity, Reptation, Chain Stretching and Constraint Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.; Venerus, David C.


    A recently proposed self-consistent reptation model - alreadysuccessful at describing highly nonlinear shearing flows of manytypes using no adjustable parameters - is used here to interpretthe linear viscoelasticity of the same entangled polystyrenesolution. Using standard techniques, a relaxation....... The classical reptation picture,however, exhibits the opposite trend. Using the newly proposedmodel, we can switch on (or off) dynamics not included in theclassical Doi-Edwards model: chain-length fluctuations andconstraint release. We find that chain-length fluctuations areimportant to describe the plateau...

  7. Slow viscoelastic relaxation and aging in aqueous foam (United States)

    Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Höhler, R.; Cohen-Addad, S.


    Like emulsions, pastes and many other forms of soft condensed matter, aqueous foams present slow mechanical relaxations when subjected to a stress too small to induce any plastic flow. To identify the physical origin of this viscoelastic behaviour, we have simulated how dry disordered coarsening 2D foams respond to a small applied stress. We show that the mechanism of long time relaxation is driven by coarsening-induced rearrangements of small bubble clusters. These findings are in full agreement with a scaling law previously derived from experimental creep data for 3D foams. Moreover, we find that the temporal statistics of coarsening-induced bubble rearrangements are described by a Poisson process.

  8. Continuous relaxation and retardation spectrum method for viscoelastic characterization of asphalt concrete (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudip; Swamy, Aravind Krishna; Daniel, Jo S.


    This paper presents a simple and practical approach to obtain the continuous relaxation and retardation spectra of asphalt concrete directly from the complex (dynamic) modulus test data. The spectra thus obtained are continuous functions of relaxation and retardation time. The major advantage of this method is that the continuous form is directly obtained from the master curves which are readily available from the standard characterization tests of linearly viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete. The continuous spectrum method offers efficient alternative to the numerical computation of discrete spectra and can be easily used for modeling viscoelastic behavior. In this research, asphalt concrete specimens have been tested for linearly viscoelastic characterization. The linearly viscoelastic test data have been used to develop storage modulus and storage compliance master curves. The continuous spectra are obtained from the fitted sigmoid function of the master curves via the inverse integral transform. The continuous spectra are shown to be the limiting case of the discrete distributions. The continuous spectra and the time-domain viscoelastic functions (relaxation modulus and creep compliance) computed from the spectra matched very well with the approximate solutions. It is observed that the shape of the spectra is dependent on the master curve parameters. The continuous spectra thus obtained can easily be implemented in material mix design process. Prony-series coefficients can be easily obtained from the continuous spectra and used in numerical analysis such as finite element analysis.

  9. Computational visualization of unsteady flow around vehicles using high performance computing


    Tsubokura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshio; Nakashima, Takuji; Nouzawa, Takahide; Nakamura, Takaki; Zhang, Huilai; Onishi, Keiji; Oshima, Nobuyuki


    One of the largest-scale unstructured Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of flow around a full-scale road vehicle is conducted on the Earth Simulator in Japan. The main objective of our study is to look into the validity of LES for the assessment of vehicle aerodynamics, especially in the context of its possibility for unsteady or transient aerodynamic forces. Firstly, the aerodynamic LES proposed is quantitatively validated on the ASMO simplified model by comparing the mean pressure distributions o...

  10. Understanding Viscoelasticity An Introduction to Rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan


    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity; in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity at a first year graduate level. The main aim is to provide a still compact book, sufficient at the level of first year graduate course for those who wish to understand viscoelasticity and to embark in modeling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. To this end, a new chapter on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) was introduced which is relevant to model complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed,...

  11. Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan


    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...

  12. Theory of swimming filaments in viscoelastic media (United States)

    Fu, Henry


    Microorganisms often encounter and must move through complex media. What aspects of propulsion are altered when swimming in viscoelastic gels and fluids? Motivated by the swimming of sperm through the mucus of the female mammalian reproductive tract, we examine the swimming of filaments in nonlinearly viscoelastic fluids. We obtain the swimming velocity and hydrodynamic force exerted on an infinitely long cylinder with prescribed beating pattern. We apply these results to study the swimming of a simplified sliding-filament model for a sperm flagellum. Viscoelasticity tends to decrease swimming speed. The viscoelastic response of the fluid can change the shapes of beating patterns, and changes in the beating patterns can even lead to reversal of the swimming direction.

  13. PIV Measurements and CFD computations of secondary flow in a centrifugal pump impeller (061104)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, R.W.; Broersma, L.; van Andel, Koen; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses have been performed on the steady velocity field inside the shrouded impeller of a low specific-speed centrifugal pump operating with a vaneless diffuser. Flow rates ranging from

  14. Simulating serious games: a discrete-time computational model based on cognitive flow theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim


    This paper presents a computational model for simulating how people learn from serious games. While avoiding the combinatorial explosion of a games micro-states, the model offers a meso-level pathfinding approach, which is guided by cognitive flow theory and various concepts from learning sciences.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of flow reversal treatment of giant basilar tip aneurysm. (United States)

    Alnæs, Martin Sandve; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Bakke, Søren; Sorteberg, Angelika


    Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal is a treatment option for giant, partially thrombosed basilar tip aneurysms. The effectiveness of this treatment has been variable and not yet studied by applying computational fluid dynamics. Computed tomography images and blood flow velocities acquired with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were obtained prior to and after bilateral endovascular vertebral artery occlusion for a giant basilar tip aneurysm. Patient-specific geometries and velocity waveforms were used in computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to determine the velocity and wall shear stress changes induced by treatment. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal lead to a dramatic increase in aneurysm inflow and wall shear stress (30 to 170 Pa) resulting in an increase in intra-aneurysmal circulation. The enlargement of the circulated area within the aneurysm led to a re-normalization of the wall shear stress and the aneurysm remained stable for more than 8 years thereafter. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal can lead to unintended, potentially harmful changes in aneurysm inflow which can be quantified and possibly predicted by applying computational fluid dynamics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A Neural Model of How the Brain Computes Heading from Optic Flow in Realistic Scenes (United States)

    Browning, N. Andrew; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio


    Visually-based navigation is a key competence during spatial cognition. Animals avoid obstacles and approach goals in novel cluttered environments using optic flow to compute heading with respect to the environment. Most navigation models try either explain data, or to demonstrate navigational competence in real-world environments without regard…

  17. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This delay or staggering in e-waste disposal would reduce the amount of e-waste disposed yearly and thus afford the country the time to make plans to accommodate and manage the e-wastes generated more efficiently. KEYWORDS: e-waste, material flow model, computer equipment, sensitivity analysis, transfer coefficient.

  18. Computer Self-Efficacy, Competitive Anxiety and Flow State: Escaping from Firing Online Game (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Pei-Yu, Chiu; Shih, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Pei-Shin; Hong, Jon-Chao


    Flow state in game playing affected by computer self-efficacy and game competitive anxiety was studied. In order to examine the effect of those constructs with high competition, this study select "Escaping from firing online game" which require college students to escape from fire and rescue people and eliminate the fire damage along the way of…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A simple, fast and efficient algorithm to compute steady non-parallel flows and their linear stability in parameter space is described. The pseudo-arclength continuation method is used to trace branches of steady states as one of the parameters is varied. To determine the linear stability of each

  20. Skeleton-based design and simulation flow for Computation-in-Memory architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Nane, R.; Haron, M.A.B.; Hamdioui, S.; Corporaal, H; Bertels, K.L.M.; Zhao, W.; Moritz, C.A.


    Memristor-based Computation-in-Memory is one of the emerging architectures proposed to deal with Big Data problems. The design of such architectures requires a radically new automatic design flow because the memristor is a passive device that uses resistance to encode its logic value. This paper

  1. Cluster Analysis of Flow Cytometric List Mode Data on a Personal Computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker Schut, Tom C.; Bakker schut, T.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan


    A cluster analysis algorithm, dedicated to analysis of flow cytometric data is described. The algorithm is written in Pascal and implemented on an MS-DOS personal computer. It uses k-means, initialized with a large number of seed points, followed by a modified nearest neighbor technique to reduce

  2. Efficient computation and visualization of coherent structures in fluid flow applications. (United States)

    Garth, Christoph; Gerhardt, Florian; Tricoche, Xavier; Hans, Hagen


    The recently introduced notion of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent to characterize Coherent Lagrangian Structures provides a powerful framework for the visualization and analysis of complex technical flows. Its definition is simple and intuitive, and it has a deep theoretical foundation. While the application of this approach seems straightforward in theory, the associated computational cost is essentially prohibitive. Due to the Lagrangian nature of this technique, a huge number of particle paths must be computed to fill the space-time flow domain. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for the adaptive computation of FTLE fields in two and three dimensions that significantly reduces the number of required particle paths. Furthermore, for three-dimensional flows, we show on several examples that meaningful results can be obtained by restricting the analysis to a well-chosen plane intersecting the flow domain. Finally, we examine some of the visualization aspects of FTLE-based methods and introduce several new variations that help in the analysis of specific aspects of a flow.

  3. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin


    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  4. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR


    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  5. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues. (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B


    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  6. Effects of dialysate flow configurations in continuous renal replacement therapy on solute removal: computational modeling. (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Cruz, Dinna; Garzotto, Francesco; Kaushik, Manish; Teixeria, Catarina; Baldwin, Marie; Baldwin, Ian; Nalesso, Federico; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eungtaek; Kim, Hee Chan; Ronco, Claudio


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly used for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. During treatment, a slow dialysate flow rate can be applied to enhance diffusive solute removal. However, due to the lack of the rationale of the dialysate flow configuration (countercurrent or concurrent to blood flow), in clinical practice, the connection settings of a hemodiafilter are done depending on nurse preference or at random. In this study, we investigated the effects of flow configurations in a hemodiafilter during continuous venovenous hemodialysis on solute removal and fluid transport using computational fluid dynamic modeling. We solved the momentum equation coupling solute transport to predict quantitative diffusion and convection phenomena in a simplified hemodiafilter model. Computational modeling results showed superior solute removal (clearance of urea: 67.8 vs. 45.1 ml/min) and convection (filtration volume: 29.0 vs. 25.7 ml/min) performances for the countercurrent flow configuration. Countercurrent flow configuration enhances convection and diffusion compared to concurrent flow configuration by increasing filtration volume and equilibrium concentration in the proximal part of a hemodiafilter and backfiltration of pure dialysate in the distal part. In clinical practice, the countercurrent dialysate flow configuration of a hemodiafilter could increase solute removal in CRRT. Nevertheless, while this configuration may become mandatory for high-efficiency treatments, the impact of differences in solute removal observed in slow continuous therapies may be less important. Under these circumstances, if continuous therapies are prescribed, some of the advantages of the concurrent configuration in terms of simpler circuit layout and simpler machine design may overcome the advantages in terms of solute clearance. Different dialysate flow configurations influence solute clearance and change major solute removal mechanisms in the proximal and

  7. Modular-based multiscale modeling on viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zeliang; Jia, Zheng; Liu, Wing Kam; Aldousari, Saad M.; Hedia, Hassan S.; Asiri, Saeed A.


    Polymer nanocomposites have been envisioned as advanced materials for improving the mechanical performance of neat polymers used in aerospace, petrochemical, environment and energy industries. With the filler size approaching the nanoscale, composite materials tend to demonstrate remarkable thermomechanical properties, even with addition of a small amount of fillers. These observations confront the classical composite theories and are usually attributed to the high surface-area-to-volume-ratio of the fillers, which can introduce strong nanoscale interfacial effect and relevant long-range perturbation on polymer chain dynamics. Despite decades of research aimed at understanding interfacial effect and improving the mechanical performance of composite materials, it is not currently possible to accurately predict the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites directly from their molecular constituents. To overcome this challenge, different theoretical, experimental and computational schemes will be used to uncover the key physical mechanisms at the relevant spatial and temporal scales for predicting and tuning constitutive behaviors in silico, thereby establishing a bottom-up virtual design principle to achieve unprecedented mechanical performance of nanocomposites. A modular-based multiscale modeling approach for viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites has been proposed and discussed in this study, including four modules: (A) neat polymer toolbox; (B) interphase toolbox; (C) microstructural toolbox and (D) homogenization toolbox. Integrating these modules together, macroscopic viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites could be directly predicted from their molecular constituents. This will maximize the computational ability to design novel polymer composites with advanced performance. More importantly, elucidating the viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites through fundamental studies is a critical step to generate an integrated computational material

  8. Computational fluid dynamics analysis and PIV validation of a bionic vortex flow pulsatile LVAD. (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Yang, Ming; Ye, Lin; Dong, Zhaopeng


    Hemocompatibility is highly affected by the flow field in Left Ventricular Assistant Devices (LVAD). An asymmetric inflow and outflow channel arrangement with a 45° intersection angle with respect to the blood chamber is proposed to approximate the vascular structure of the aorta and left atrium on the left ventricle. The structure is expected to develop uninterruptible vortex flow state which is similar to the flow state in human left ventricle. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) asymmetric model is simulated using ANSYS workbench. To validate the velocity field calculated by CFD, a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment is conducted. The CFD results show that the proposed blood chamber could generate a shifting vortex flow that would be redirected to the aorta during ejection to form a persistent recirculating flow state, which is similar to the echocardiographic flow state in left ventricle. Both the PIV and the CFD results show the development of a persistent vortex during the pulsatile period. Comparison of the qualitative flow pattern and quantitative probed velocity histories in a pulsatile period shows a good agreement between the CFD and PIV data. The goal of developing persistent quasi intra-ventricle vortex flow state in LVAD is realized.

  9. Computational analysis of integrated biosensing and shear flow in a microfluidic vascular model (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy F.; Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.


    Fluid flow and flow-induced shear stress are critical components of the vascular microenvironment commonly studied using microfluidic cell culture models. Microfluidic vascular models mimicking the physiological microenvironment also offer great potential for incorporating on-chip biomolecular detection. In spite of this potential, however, there are few examples of such functionality. Detection of biomolecules released by cells under flow-induced shear stress is a significant challenge due to severe sample dilution caused by the fluid flow used to generate the shear stress, frequently to the extent where the analyte is no longer detectable. In this work, we developed a computational model of a vascular microfluidic cell culture model that integrates physiological shear flow and on-chip monitoring of cell-secreted factors. Applicable to multilayer device configurations, the computational model was applied to a bilayer configuration, which has been used in numerous cell culture applications including vascular models. Guidelines were established that allow cells to be subjected to a wide range of physiological shear stress while ensuring optimal rapid transport of analyte to the biosensor surface and minimized biosensor response times. These guidelines therefore enable the development of microfluidic vascular models that integrate cell-secreted factor detection while addressing flow constraints imposed by physiological shear stress. Ultimately, this work will result in the addition of valuable functionality to microfluidic cell culture models that further fulfill their potential as labs-on-chips.

  10. High-performance computing-based exploration of flow control with micro devices. (United States)

    Fujii, Kozo


    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator that controls flow separation is one of the promising technologies to realize energy savings and noise reduction of fluid dynamic systems. However, the mechanism for controlling flow separation is not clearly defined, and this lack of knowledge prevents practical use of this technology. Therefore, large-scale computations for the study of the DBD plasma actuator have been conducted using the Japanese Petaflops supercomputer 'K' for three different Reynolds numbers. Numbers of new findings on the control of flow separation by the DBD plasma actuator have been obtained from the simulations, and some of them are presented in this study. Knowledge of suitable device parameters is also obtained. The DBD plasma actuator is clearly shown to be very effective for controlling flow separation at a Reynolds number of around 10(5), and several times larger lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved at higher angles of attack after stall. For higher Reynolds numbers, separated flow is partially controlled. Flow analysis shows key features towards better control. DBD plasma actuators are a promising technology, which could reduce fuel consumption and contribute to a green environment by achieving high aerodynamic performance. The knowledge described above can be obtained only with high-end computers such as the supercomputer 'K'. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. MEDUSA - An overset grid flow solver for network-based parallel computer systems (United States)

    Smith, Merritt H.; Pallis, Jani M.


    Continuing improvement in processing speed has made it feasible to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simple three-dimensional flows on advanced workstations. Combining multiple workstations into a network-based heterogeneous parallel computer allows the application of programming principles learned on MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) distributed memory parallel computers to the solution of larger problems. An overset-grid flow solution code has been developed which uses a cluster of workstations as a network-based parallel computer. Inter-process communication is provided by the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software. Solution speed equivalent to one-third of a Cray-YMP processor has been achieved from a cluster of nine commonly used engineering workstation processors. Load imbalance and communication overhead are the principal impediments to parallel efficiency in this application.

  12. Localizing Energy Sources and Sinks in Plates Using Power Flow Maps Computed From Laser Vibrometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.F. Arruda


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method especially adapted for the computation of structural power flow using spatially dense vibration data measured with scanning laser Doppler vibrometers. In the proposed method, the operational deflection shapes measured over the surface of the structure are curve-fitted using a two-dimensional discrete Fourier series approximation that minimizes the effects of spatial leakage. From the wavenumber-frequency domain data thus obtained, the spatial derivatives that are necessary to determine the structural power flow are easily computed. Divergence plots are then obtained from the computed intensity fields. An example consisting of a rectangular aluminum plate supported by rubber mounts and excited by a point force is used to appraise the proposed method. The proposed method is compared with more traditional finite difference methods. The proposed method was the only to allow the localization of the energy source and sinks from the experimental divergence plots.

  13. A computational fluid dynamics simulation study of coronary blood flow affected by graft placement†. (United States)

    Lassaline, Jason V; Moon, Byung C


    To determine the effect of graft placement and orientation on flow rates through a partially obstructed coronary artery. A numerical, parametric study of blood flow in the human coronary artery was conducted using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A cylindrical approximation of the coronary artery with varying degrees of stenosis, with and without a bypass graft, was modelled to determine trends in volumetric flow rates. Steady and transient simulations were conducted for geometric variations of percentage of blockage, length and shape of stenosis, graft position relative to the coronary blockage and graft orientation. Accurate simulations were performed using a non-Newtonian fluid model and pressure-driven viscous flow. Simulations demonstrate, as expected, that total outlet flow rates of grafted arteries are consistently improved for upstream stenosis varying between 0 and 90% blockage. Grafts angled towards the artery provided increased total outflow. However, flow rates in the coronary artery upstream of the graft are substantially reduced in comparison with the non-grafted configuration due to competing flows. For some configurations (reduced blockage, graft placed close to long grafts), flow rates in the graft are below that of the flow rate through the stenosis. In general, a graft angled more towards the artery increased flow rates upstream of the graft. Placement and orientation of a graft may adversely affect upstream flow, with the degree of effect dependent on geometric factors of downstream position and graft angle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational simulation of postoperative pulmonary flow distribution in Alagille patients with peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. (United States)

    Yang, Weiguang; Hanley, Frank L; Chan, Frandics P; Marsden, Alison L; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Feinstein, Jeffrey A


    Up to 90% of individuals with Alagille syndrome have congenital heart diseases. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS), resulting in right ventricular hypertension and pulmonary flow disparity, is one of the most common abnormalities, yet the hemodynamic effects are ill-defined, and optimal patient management and treatment strategies are not well established. The purpose of this pilot study is to use recently refined computational simulation in the setting of multiple surgical strategies, to examine the influence of pulmonary artery reconstruction on hemodynamics in this population. Based on computed tomography angiography and cardiac catheterization data, preoperative pulmonary artery models were constructed for 4 patients with Alagille syndrome with PPS (all male, age range: 0.6-2.9 years), and flow simulations with deformable walls were performed. Surgeon directed virtual surgery, mimicking the surgical procedure, was then performed to derive postoperative models. Postoperative simulation-derived hemodynamics and blood flow distribution were then compared with the clinical results. Simulations confirmed substantial resistance, resulting from preoperative severe ostial stenoses, and the use of newly developed adaptive outflow boundary conditions led to excellent agreement with in vivo measurements. Relief of PPS decreased pulmonary artery pressures and improved pulmonary flow distribution both in vivo and in silico with good correlation. Using adaptive outflow boundary conditions, computational simulations can estimate postoperative overall pulmonary flow distribution in patients with Alagille syndrome after pulmonary artery reconstruction. Obstruction relief along with pulmonary artery vasodilation determines postoperative pulmonary flow distribution and newer methods can incorporate these physiologic changes. Evolving blood flow simulations may be useful in surgical or transcatheter planning and in understanding the complex interplay among various

  15. Phased-Array Focusing Potential in Pipe with Viscoelastic Coating (United States)

    Van Velsor, J. K.; Zhang, L.; Breon, L. J.; Rose, J. L.


    This work investigates the effectiveness of traditional guided-wave focusing techniques in piping with viscoelastic coating. Focusing results for an uncoated pipe are compared to that of pipe with a fusion-bonded epoxy coating, a coal-tar mastic coating, a coal-tar epoxy coating, a coal-tar tape coating, a wax coating, and an enamel coating. Experimental results are compared to computationally derived models. Results show that, for most coating types, focusing can be achieved without special consideration of the coating. This is significant in that it demonstrates the immediate applicability of traditional focusing techniques to coated pipeline.

  16. Multiscale Computational Analysis of Nitrogen and Oxygen Gas-Phase Thermochemistry in Hypersonic Flows (United States)

    Bender, Jason D.

    Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for

  17. Computer modelling of the cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics of aqueduct stenosis. (United States)

    Jacobson, E E; Fletcher, D F; Morgan, M K; Johnston, I H


    As the craniospinal space is a pressure loaded system it is difficult to conceptualize and understand the flow dynamics through the ventricular system. Aqueduct stenosis compromises flow, increasing the pressure required to move cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the ventricles. Under normal circumstances, less than one pascal (1 Pa) of pressure is required to move a physiological flow of CSF through the aqueduct. This is too small to measure using clinical pressure transducers. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program, CFX, has been used to model two forms of aqueduct stenosis: simple narrowing and forking of the aqueduct. This study shows that with mild stenoses, the increase in pressure required to drive flow becomes significant (86-125 Pa), which may result in an increased transmantle pressure difference but not necessarily an increased intraventricular pressure. Severe stenoses will result in both. Wall shear stresses increase concomitantly and may contribute to local damage of the aqueduct wall and further gliosis with narrowing.

  18. Local motion detectors are required for the computation of expansion flow-fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Schilling


    Full Text Available Avoidance of predators or impending collisions is important for survival. Approaching objects can be mimicked by expanding flow-fields. Tethered flying fruit flies, when confronted with an expansion flow-field, reliably turn away from the pole of expansion when presented laterally, or perform a landing response when presented frontally. Here, we show that the response to an expansion flow-field is independent of the overall luminance change and edge acceleration. As we demonstrate by blocking local motion-sensing neurons T4 and T5, the response depends crucially on the neural computation of appropriately aligned local motion vectors, using the same hardware that also controls the optomotor response to rotational flow-fields.

  19. SPH modeling and simulation of spherical particles interacting in a viscoelastic matrix (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Ellero, M.


    In this work, we extend the three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) non-colloidal particulate model previously developed for Newtonian suspending media in Vázquez-Quesada and Ellero ["Rheology and microstructure of non-colloidal suspensions under shear studied with smoothed particle hydrodynamics," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 233, 37-47 (2016)] to viscoelastic matrices. For the solvent medium, the coarse-grained SPH viscoelastic formulation proposed in Vázquez-Quesada, Ellero, and Español ["Smoothed particle hydrodynamic model for viscoelastic fluids with thermal fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E 79, 056707 (2009)] is adopted. The property of this particular set of equations is that they are entirely derived within the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling formalism and therefore enjoy automatically thermodynamic consistency. The viscoelastic model is derived through a physical specification of a conformation-tensor-dependent entropy function for the fluid particles. In the simple case of suspended Hookean dumbbells, this delivers a specific SPH discretization of the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We validate the suspended particle model by studying the dynamics of single and mutually interacting "noncolloidal" rigid spheres under shear flow and in the presence of confinement. Numerical results agree well with available numerical and experimental data. It is straightforward to extend the particulate model to Brownian conditions and to more complex viscoelastic solvents.

  20. Computational investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer of an economizer by porous medium approach (United States)

    Babu, C. Rajesh; Kumar, P.; Rajamohan, G.


    Computation of fluid flow and heat transfer in an economizer is simulated by a porous medium approach, with plain tubes having a horizontal in-line arrangement and cross flow arrangement in a coal-fired thermal power plant. The economizer is a thermal mechanical device that captures waste heat from the thermal exhaust flue gasses through heat transfer surfaces to preheat boiler feed water. In order to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer on tubes, a numerical analysis on heat transfer performance is carried out on an 110 t/h MCR (Maximum continuous rating) boiler unit. In this study, thermal performance is investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using ANSYS FLUENT. The fouling factor ε and the overall heat transfer coefficient ψ are employed to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer. The model demands significant computational details for geometric modeling, grid generation, and numerical calculations to evaluate the thermal performance of an economizer. The simulation results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient 37.76 W/(m2K) and economizer coil side pressure drop of 0.2 (kg/cm2) are found to be conformity within the tolerable limits when compared with existing industrial economizer data.

  1. Physiological Signal Analysis for Evaluating Flow during Playing of Computer Games of Varying Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian


    Full Text Available Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person–artifact–task model, we selected computer games (tasks with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy and shyness (personality as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40 played the games. Moreover, the associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated through a series of repeated-measures analyses. The results showed that the flow experience is related to a faster respiratory rate, deeper respiration, moderate heart rate (HR, moderate HR variability, and moderate SC. The main effect of shyness was non-significant, whereas the interaction of shyness and difficulty influenced the flow experience. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of arousal and valence. The results indicate that the flow state is a state of moderate mental effort that arises through the increased parasympathetic modulation of sympathetic activity.

  2. Prediction of Separation Length of Turbulent Multiphase Flow Using Radiotracer and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto1


    Full Text Available Multiphase flow modeling presents great challenges due to its extreme importance in various industrial and environmental applications. In the present study, prediction of separation length of multiphase flow is examined experimentally by injection of two kinds of iodine-based radiotracer solutions into a hydrocarbon transport pipeline (HCT having an inner diameter of 24 in (60,96 m. The main components of fluids in the pipeline are water 95%, crude oil 3% and gas 2%. A radiotracing experiment was carried out at the segment of pipe which is located far from branch points with assumptions that stratified flows in such segment were achieved. Two radiation detectors located at 80 and 100 m from injection point were used to generate residence time distribution (RTD curve resulting from injection of radiotracer solutions. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations using Eulerian-Eulerian control volume and commercial CFD package Fluent 6.2 were employed to simulate separation length of multiphase flow. The results of study shows that the flow velocity of water is higher than the flow rate of crude oil in water-dominated system despite the higher density of water than the density of the crude oil. The separation length in multiphase flow predicted by Fluent mixture model is approximately 20 m, measured from injection point. This result confirms that the placement of the first radiation detector at the distance 80 m from the injection point was correct

  3. Evaluation of local flow conditions in jailed side branch lesions using computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Na, Sang-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Chul; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae


    Lesions of vascular bifurcation and their treatment outcomes have been evaluated by anatomical and physiological methods, such as intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, local changes in flow dynamics in lesions of bifurcation have not been well evaluated. This study aimed at evaluating changes in the local flow patterns of bifurcation lesions. Eight (n=8) representative simulation-models were constructed: 1 normal bifurcation, 5 main-branch (MB) stenting models with various side-branch (SB) stenoses (ostial or non-ostial 75% diameter stenosis with 1- or 2-cm lesion lengths, ostial 75% diameter stenosis caused by carina shift), and 2 post-kissing models (no or 50% SB residual stenosis). Pressure, velocity, and wall shear stress (WSS) profiles around the bifurcation sites were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Post-stenting models revealed significant pressure drop in the SB (FFRkissing models, there was no significant pressure drop. All post-stenting models revealed eccentric low velocity flow patterns and areas of low WSS, primarily in the lateral wall on distal MB. Post-kissing angioplasty improved pressure drop in the SB but resulted in alteration of flow distribution in the MB. In the carina shift model, kissing ballooning resulted in deteriorated local flow conditions due to increased area of low velocity and WSS. This study suggests that the most commonly used bifurcation intervention strategy may cause local flow disturbances, which may partially explain high restenosis and event rates in patients with bifurcation lesions.

  4. Physiological Signal Analysis for Evaluating Flow during Playing of Computer Games of Varying Difficulty. (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Bian, Yulong; Han, Piguo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang; Chen, Yingmin


    Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person-artifact-task model, we selected computer games (tasks) with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy) and shyness (personality) as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC) were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40) played the games. Moreover, the associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated through a series of repeated-measures analyses. The results showed that the flow experience is related to a faster respiratory rate, deeper respiration, moderate heart rate (HR), moderate HR variability, and moderate SC. The main effect of shyness was non-significant, whereas the interaction of shyness and difficulty influenced the flow experience. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of arousal and valence. The results indicate that the flow state is a state of moderate mental effort that arises through the increased parasympathetic modulation of sympathetic activity.

  5. Viscoelasticity of Concentrated Proteoglycan Solutions (United States)

    Meechai, Nispa; Jamieson, Alex; Blackwell, John; Carrino, David


    Proteoglycan Aggregate (PGA) is the principal macromolecular component of the energy-absorbing matrix of cartilage and tendon. Its brush-like supramolecular structure consists of highly-ionic subunits, non-covalently bound to a hyaluronate chain. We report viscoelastic behavior of concentrated solutions of PGA, purified by column fractionation to remove free subunits. At physiological ionic strength, these preparations exhibit a sol-to-gel transition when the concentration is increased above molecular overlap. The strain dependence of concentrated solutions shows a pronounced non-linearity above a critical strain, at which the storage modulus decreases suddenly, and the loss modulus exhibits a maximum. This response is similar to that observed for close-packed dispersions of soft spheres, when the applied strain is sufficient to move a sphere past its neighbors. At low and high ionic strength, the elasticity of solutions near the overlap concentration decreases. The former is interpreted as due to a decrease in intramolecular and intermolecular electrostatic repulsions, because of strong trapping of counterions within the PGA brush, the latter to salt-induced brush collapse.

  6. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F [Computational Fluid Dynamics Team, CERFACS, Toulouse, 31057 (France); Gazaix, M [Computational Fluid Dynamics and Aero-acoustics Department, ONERA, Chatillon, 92320 (France); Poinsot, T [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse, 31400 (France)], E-mail:


    Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.

  7. Shear Rheology of a Suspension of Deformable Solids in Viscoelastic Fluid via Immersed Boundary Techniques (United States)

    Guido, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric


    The simulation of fluids with suspended deformable solids is important to the design of microfluidic devices with soft particles and the examination of blood flow in complex channels. The fluids in these applications are often viscoelastic, motivating the development of a high-fidelity simulation tool with general constitutive model implementations for both the viscoelastic fluid and deformable solid. The Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM) presented by Zhang et al. (2007) allows for distinct fluid and solid grids to be utilized reducing the need for costly re-meshing when particles translate. We discuss a modified version of the IFEM that allows for the simulation of deformable particles in viscoelastic flows. This simulation tool is validated for simple Newtonian shear flows with elastic particles that obey a Neo-Hookean Law. The tool is used to further explore the rheology of a dilute suspension of Neo-Hookean particles in a Giesekus fluid. The results show that dilute suspensions of soft particles have viscosities that decrease as the Capillary number becomes higher in both the case of a Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. A discussion of multiple particle results will be included. NSF CBET-1066263 and 1066334.

  8. Simulations of viscoelastic fluids using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method: Transition states of elastic instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su


    Full Text Available Elastic instabilities could happen in viscoelastic flows as the Weissenberg number is enlarged, and this phenomenon makes the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluids more difficult. In this study, we introduce a coupled lattice Boltzmann method to solve the equations of viscoelastic fluids, which has a great capability of simulating the high Weissenberg number problem. Different from some traditional methods, two kinds of distribution functions are defined respectively for the evolution of the momentum and stress tensor equations. We mainly aim to investigate some key factors of the symmetry-breaking transition induced by elastic instability of viscoelastic fluids using this numerical coupled lattice Boltzmann method. In the results, we firstly find that the ratio of kinematical viscosity has an important influence on the transition of the elastic instability; the transition between the single stationary and cycling dominant vortex can be controlled via changing the ratio of kinematical viscosity in a periodic extensional flow. Finally, we can also observe a new transition state of instability for the flow showing the banded structure at higher Weissenberg number.

  9. Navier-Stokes computations of separated vortical flows past prolate spheroid at incidence (United States)

    Wong, Tin-Chee; Kandil, Osama A.; Liu, C. H.


    The problem of steady incompressible viscous flow past prolate spheroids at incidence is formulated using the unsteady incompressible and compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The two sets of Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a pseudotime stepping of the implicit flux-difference splitting scheme on a curvilinear grid, which is generated by a transfinite grid generator. The Baldwin and Lomax (1978) algebraic eddy-viscosity model is used to model the turbulent flow. The computational applications cover a 6:1 prolate spheroid at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The results are compared with experimental data.



    Edi Azali Hadzri; Kahar Osman; Mohamed Rafiq Abdul Kadir; Azian Abdul Aziz


    In this study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius derived from MRI scans was constructed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) can be modeled as a Newtonian Fluid and its flow through the region of interest (ROI) was visualized using Engineering Fluid Dynamics (EFD).The constructed ROI was regarded as rigid walled and only steady state flow was able to be defined due to the limitations of current software. Dif...

  11. Effect of viscoelasticity and RBC migration phenomena in stenotic microvessels (United States)

    Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Syrakos, Alexandros; Georgiou, Georgios; Tsamopoulos, John


    This study deals with the numerical simulation of the hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels. The blood flow in microvessels differs significantly from that in large arteries and veins, because the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are comparable in size with the radius of the microvessels and, consequently, local effects such as cell interaction and migration are more pronounced. In terms of complexity of the flow, viscoelasticity along with stress-gradient induced migration effects have a more dominant role, which exceeds the viscous, inertial and transient effects. Recently, a non-homogeneous viscoelastic model has been proposed by Moyers-Gonzalez et al. (2008), which can accurately predict the Fahraeus effects. We developed a numerical algorithm for the time-integration of the set of differential equations that arise from the coupling of momentum, mass, and population balances for RBCs and aggregates with the constitutive laws for both species. The simulations show that a cell-depleted layer develops along the vessel wall with an almost constant thickness. Along this layer, the shear stresses are almost Newtonian because of the plasma, but the normal stresses that are exerted on the wall are high due to the contribution of the individual RBCs and rouleaux.

  12. Four-dimensional flow MRI for evaluation of post-stenotic turbulent flow in a phantom: comparison with flowmeter and computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Jihoon; Kim, Young-Hak [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Guk Bae; Kim, Namkug [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, MunYoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Stalder, Aurelien F.; Greiser, Andreas [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)


    To validate 4D flow MRI in a flow phantom using a flowmeter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as reference. Validation of 4D flow MRI was performed using flow phantoms with 75 % and 90 % stenosis. The effect of spatial resolution on flow rate, peak velocity and flow patterns was investigated in coronal and axial scans. The accuracy of flow rate with 4D flow MRI was evaluated using a flowmeter as reference, and the peak velocity and flow patterns obtained were compared with CFD analysis results. 4D flow MRI accurately measured the flow rate in proximal and distal regions of the stenosis (percent error ≤3.6 % in axial scanning with 1.6-mm resolution). The peak velocity of 4D flow MRI was underestimated by more than 22.8 %, especially from the second half of the stenosis. With 1-mm isotropic resolution, the maximum thickness of the recirculating flow region was estimated within a 1-mm difference, but the turbulent velocity fluctuations mostly disappeared in the post-stenotic region. 4D flow MRI accurately measures the flow rates in the proximal and distal regions of a stenosis in axial scan but has limitations in its estimation of peak velocity and turbulent characteristics. (orig.)

  13. Numerical solution of an elastic and viscoelastic gravitational models by the finite element method (United States)

    Arjona Almodóvar, A.; Chacón Rebollo, T.; Gómez Marmol, M.


    Volcanic areas present a lower effective viscosity than usually in the Earth's crust. Both the elastic-gravitational and the viscoelastic-gravitational models allow the computation of gravity, deformation, and gravitational potential changes in order to investigate crustal deformations of Earth (see for instance Battaglia & Segall, 2004; Fernández et al. 1999, 2001; Rundle 1980 and 1983). These models can be represented by a coupled system of linear parabolic (for the elastic deformations), hyperbolic (for the viscoelastic deformations) and elliptic partial differential equations (for gravitational potential changes) (see for instance Arjona et al. 2008 and 2010). The existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for both the elastic-gravitational and viscoelastic-gravitational problem was demonstrated in Arjona et al. (2008 and 2014). The stabilization to solutions of the associated stationary system was proved in Arjona and Díaz (2007). Here we consider the internal source as response to the effect of a pressurized magma reservoir into a multilayered, elastic-gravitational and viscoelastic-gravitational earth model. We introduce the numerical analysis of a simplified steady elastic-gravitational model, solved by means of the finite element method. We also present some numerical tests in realistic situations that confirm the predictions of theoretical order of convergence. Finally, we describe the methodology for both the elastic-gravitational and the viscoelastic-gravitational models using 2D and 3D test examples performed with FreeFEM++.

  14. Nonlinear electroelastic vibration analysis of NEMS consisting of double-viscoelastic nanoplates (United States)

    Ebrahimy, Farzad; Hosseini, S. Hamed S.


    The nonlinear electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Employing nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled while governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying semi-analytical generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory takes into account the effect of small size, which enables the present model to become effective in the analysis and design of nanosensors and nanoactuators. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. It is demonstrated that the GDQ method has high precision and computational efficiency in the vibration analysis of viscoelastic nanoplates. The good agreement between the results of this article and those available in literature validated the presented approach. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations are performed while the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of the several parameters such as electric voltage, small-scale effects, van der Waals interaction, Winkler and Pasternak elastic coefficients, the viscidity and aspect ratio of the nanoplate on its nonlinear vibrational characteristics. It is explicitly shown that the electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of viscoelastic nanoplates which are fundamental elements in nanoelectromechanical systems.

  15. Mechanical properties of multifunctional structure with viscoelastic components based on FVE model (United States)

    Hao, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jing; Mao, Daiyong


    Based on the models of Lion and Kardelky (2004) and Hofer and Lion (2009), a finite viscoelastic (FVE) constitutive model, considering the predeformation-, frequency- and amplitude-dependent properties, has been proposed in our earlier paper [1]. FVE model is applied to investigating the dynamic characteristics of the multifunctional structure with the viscoelastic components. Combing FVE model with the finite element theory, the dynamic model of the multifunctional structure could be obtained. Additionally, the parametric identification and the experimental verification are also given via the frequency-sweep tests. The results show that the computational data agree well with the experimental data. FVE model has made a success of expressing the dynamic characteristics of the viscoelastic materials utilized in the multifunctional structure. The multifunctional structure technology has been verified by in-orbit experiments.

  16. Viscoelastic material properties of the myocardium and cardiac jelly in the looping chick heart. (United States)

    Yao, Jiang; Varner, Victor D; Brilli, Lauren L; Young, Jonathan M; Taber, Larry A; Perucchio, Renato


    Accurate material properties of developing embryonic tissues are a crucial factor in studies of the mechanics of morphogenesis. In the present work, we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of the looping heart tube in the chick embryo through nonlinear finite element modeling and microindentation experiments. Both hysteresis and ramp-hold experiments were performed on the intact heart and isolated cardiac jelly (extracellular matrix). An inverse computational method was used to determine the constitutive relations for the myocardium and cardiac jelly. With both layers assumed to be quasilinear viscoelastic, material coefficients for an Ogden type strain-energy density function combined with Prony series of two terms or less were determined by fitting numerical results from a simplified model of a heart segment to experimental data. The experimental and modeling techniques can be applied generally for determining viscoelastic material properties of embryonic tissues.

  17. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine


    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  18. Model-Invariant Hybrid LES-RANS Computation of Separated Flow Past Periodic Hills (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen


    The requirement that physical quantities not vary with a hybrid LESRANS model's blending parameter imposes conditions on the computation that lead to better results across LES-RANS transitions. This promises to allow placement of those transitions so that LES is performed only where required by the physics, improving computational efficiency. The approach is applied to separated flow past periodic hills, where good predictions of separation-bubble size are seen due to the gradual, controlled, LES-RANS transition and the resulting enhanced near-wall eddy viscosity.

  19. Investigation on hydrodynamic performance of a marine propeller in oblique flow by RANS computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Yao


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on investigating on hydrodynamic characteristics of a marine propeller in oblique flow. The study is achieved by RANS simulations on an open source platform - OpenFOAM. A sliding grid approach is applied to compute the rotating motion of the propeller. Total force and moment acting on blades, as well as average force distributions in one revolution on propeller disk, are obtained for 70 cases of com- binations of advance ratios and oblique angles. The computed results are compared with available experimental data and discussed.

  20. Impact of Side Branches on the Computation of Fractional Flow in Intracranial Arterial Stenosis Using the Computational Fluid Dynamics Method. (United States)

    Liu, Haipeng; Lan, Linfang; Leng, Xinyi; Ip, Hing Lung; Leung, Thomas W H; Wang, Defeng; Wong, Ka Sing


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allows noninvasive fractional flow (FF) computation in intracranial arterial stenosis. Removal of small artery branches is necessary in CFD simulation. The consequent effects on FF value needs to be judged. An idealized vascular model was built with 70% focal luminal stenosis. A branch with one third or one half of the radius of the parent vessel was added at a distance of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm to the lesion. With pressure and flow rate applied as inlet and outlet boundary conditions, CFD simulations were performed. Flow distribution at bifurcations followed Murray's law. By including or removing side branches, five patient-specific intracranial artery models were simulated. Transient simulation was performed on a patient-specific model, with a larger branch for validation. Branching effect was considered trivial if the FF difference between paired models (branches included or removed) was within 5%. Compared with the control model without a branch, in all idealized models the relative differences of FF was within 2%. In five pairs of cerebral arteries (branches included/removed), FFs were 0.876 and 0.877, 0.853 and 0.858, 0.874 and 0.869, 0.865 and 0.858, 0.952 and 0.948. The relative difference in each pair was less than 1%. In transient model, the relative difference of FF was 3.5%. The impact of removing side branches with radius less than 50% of the parent vessel on FF measurement accuracy is negligible in static CFD simulations, and minor in transient CFD simulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 1: Computational technique (United States)

    Marconi, F.; Salas, M.; Yaeger, L.


    A numerical procedure has been developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  2. Computing simulated endolymphatic flow thermodynamics during the caloric test using normal and hydropic duct models. (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; McGarvie, Leigh; Pérez-Fernández, Nicolás


    The obtained simulations support the underlying hypothesis that the hydrostatic caloric drive is dissipated by local convective flow in a hydropic duct. To develop a computerized model to simulate and predict the internal fluid thermodynamic behavior within both normal and hydropic horizontal ducts. This study used a computational fluid dynamics software to simulate the effects of cooling and warming of two geometrical models representing normal and hydropic ducts of one semicircular horizontal canal during 120 s. Temperature maps, vorticity, and velocity fields were successfully obtained to characterize the endolymphatic flow during the caloric test in the developed models. In the normal semicircular canal, a well-defined endolymphatic linear flow was obtained, this flow has an opposite direction depending only on the cooling or warming condition of the simulation. For the hydropic model a non-effective endolymphatic flow was predicted; in this model the velocity and vorticity fields show a non-linear flow, with some vortices formed inside the hydropic duct.

  3. Stokeslets-meshfree computations and theory for flow in a collapsible microchannel (United States)

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne E.


    We present both a theoretical model and Stokeslets-meshfree computations to study the induced flow motions and transport in a 2 D microchannel with moving multiple prescribed dynamic collapses (contractions) along the upper wall. The channel is assumed to have a length that is much greater than its width, i.e., . The wall contractions are set to move with or without time (phase) lags with respect to each other. The theoretical analysis presented is based on the quasi-steady state approximations and the lubrication theory at the low Reynolds number flow regime. The meshfree numerical method is based on the method of fundamental solutions MFS, which uses a set of singularized force elements called Stokeslets to induce the flow motions. The flow field developments and structures induced by these wall contractions are given at various time snapshots during the collapsing cycle. The effect of the wall contractions amplitudes and the phase lags between individual contractions on the flow variables and on the time-averaged net flow over a complete cycle of contractions motions is studied. The present study is motivated by pumping mechanisms observed in insects, physiological systems that use multiple contractions to transport fluid, and the emerging novel microfluidic devices that mimic these systems.

  4. Computational study of liquid-gas cross-flow within structured packing cells (United States)

    Lavalle, Gianluca; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant


    Absorption columns used in the carbon capture processes and filled with structured packings are crucial to foster the exchanges and the transfers between the absorber liquid and the flue gas. However, flow reversal can occur under special flow conditions, resulting in a dramatic drop of the technological performances. We investigate numerically the liquid-gas pattern within a cross-flow packing cell. The cell is a complex geometry with two connected channels, where the two phases flow co- or counter-currently. We show that an increase of both the gas speed and the liquid load leads to an increase of the pressure drop. Particular focus is also given to the analysis of flow repartition and flooding delay. We reveal that tilting the unit cell helps to delay the flooding and extends the operational capability. The pressure drop of the cross-flow unit cell is also compared to the Mellapak packing which is widely used in carbon capture applications. Finally, we support this study by performing numerical simulations on simpler geometries by means of a low-dimensional film-gas model, in order to investigate the two-phase dynamics and predict the flooding onset with a low computational cost. The authors gratefully acknowledge EPSRC Grant No. EP/M001482/1.

  5. CoreFlow: A computational platform for integration, analysis and modeling of complex biological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasculescu, Adrian; Schoof, Erwin; Creixell, Pau


    the relationships between the data, the assumptions that have been made, and the manipulations that have been performed. Since the scripts use commonly available programming languages, they can easily be transferred to and from other computational environments for debugging or faster processing. This focus on ‘on......A major challenge in mass spectrometry and other large-scale applications is how to handle, integrate, and model the data that is produced. Given the speed at which technology advances and the need to keep pace with biological experiments, we designed a computational platform, CoreFlow, which...... provides programmers with a framework to manage data in real-time. It allows users to upload data into a relational database (MySQL), and to create custom scripts in high-level languages such as R, Python, or Perl for processing, correcting and modeling this data. CoreFlow organizes these scripts...

  6. Sand transverse dune aerodynamics: 3D Coherent Flow Structures from a computational study

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Luca


    The engineering interest about dune fields is dictated by the their interaction with a number of human infrastructures in arid environments. The aerodynamic behaviour of sand dunes in atmospheric boundary layer belongs to the class of bluff bodies. Because of their simple geometry and their frequent occurrence in desert area, transverse sand dunes are usually adopted in literature as a benchmark to investigate dune aerodynamics by means of both computational or experimental approach, usually in nominally 2D setups. The writers suspect the flow in the wake is characterised by 3D features and affected by wind tunnel setup - e.g. blockage effect, duct side wall boundary layer, incoming velocity profile - when experimental studies are carried out. The present study aims at evaluating the 3D flow features of an idealised transverse dune under different setup conditions by means of computational simulations and to compare the obtained results with experimental measurements.

  7. Three-dimensional computational modeling of subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space. (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Soellinger, Michaela; Boesiger, Peter; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan


    This study aims at investigating three-dimensional subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. An anatomically accurate 3D model of the entire SAS of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed from high resolution T2 weighted MRI data. Subject-specific pulsatile velocity boundary conditions were imposed at planes in the pontine cistern, cerebellomedullary cistern, and in the spinal subarachnoid space. Velocimetric MRI was used to measure the velocity field at these boundaries. A constant pressure boundary condition was imposed at the interface between the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle. The morphology of the SAS with its complex trabecula structures was taken into account through a novel porous media model with anisotropic permeability. The governing equations were solved using finite-volume CFD. We observed a total pressure variation from -42 Pa to 40 Pa within one cardiac cycle in the investigated domain. Maximum CSF velocities of about 15 cms occurred in the inferior section of the aqueduct, 14 cms in the left foramen of Luschka, and 9 cms in the foramen of Magendie. Flow velocities in the right foramen of Luschka were found to be significantly lower than in the left, indicating three-dimensional brain asymmetries. The flow in the cerebellomedullary cistern was found to be relatively diffusive with a peak Reynolds number (Re)=72, while the flow in the pontine cistern was primarily convective with a peak Re=386. The net volumetric flow rate in the spinal canal was found to be negligible despite CSF oscillation with substantial amplitude with a maximum volumetric flow rate of 109 mlmin. The observed transient flow patterns indicate a compliant behavior of the cranial subarachnoid space. Still, the estimated

  8. Macropore Flow in Soil Columns: Investigations with Computer Tomography and Lattice Boltzmann Simulations (United States)

    Schaap, M. G.; Tuller, M.; Guber, A.; Martin, M. A.; Martinez, F. S.; Pachepsky, Y.


    Soil structure greatly affects the ability of soil to transmit and to retain water, chemicals, and colloidal particles that can carry contaminants or be contaminants themselves, e.g. pathogenic microorganisms. No theory or empirical relationships have been developed to date to quantitatively relate parameters of soil structure and parameters of the contaminant transport in soils. The absence of theoretical advances in this area seriously hampers the ability to address issues of public concern, e.g. spread of contaminants introduced in the environment by agricultural activities. Recently, computer tomography of soils has become available to generate detailed images of soil pore space with high resolution and density. Successful applications of computer tomography in medical and material sciences show the great potential of this technique to create an exhaustive characterization of soil structure heterogeneity. In this presentation we investigate saturated flow through twelve undisturbed macroporous soil columns (7.62- cm sample diameter and 18-cm length) with lattice Boltzmann simulations. Saturated flow was measured for the complete columns, as well as on 2 cm sections for selected columns. Computed X-Ray tomography was performed on each of the columns, using the 420 kV X-ray source of a HYTEC FlashCT high-speed industrial CT scanner. The resolution was 116 microns per voxel, yielding a final tomography image of 656x656x1482 (~ 6.3 10E8) voxels. X-Ray CT observations typically provide "gray-scale" representations of the imaged object that must be segmented to yield discrete pore and particle geometry. Many segmentation algorithms are available, each yielding different final pore geometries thus potentially creating uncertainties in subsequent flow analyses. Lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations will be presented only for some of the columns as the simulations are extremely computationally intensive (each simulation requires ~ 60 GB of computer RAM at the observed

  9. Characterization of micro-invasive trabecular bypass stents by ex vivo perfusion and computational flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter KS


    Full Text Available Kendall S Hunter,1 Todd Fjield,2 Hal Heitzmann,2 Robin Shandas,1 Malik Y Kahook3 1Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado Hospital Eye Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery with the Glaukos iStent® or iStent inject® (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA is intended to create a bypass through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal to improve aqueous outflow through the natural physiologic pathway. While the iStent devices have been evaluated in ex vivo anterior segment models, they have not previously been evaluated in whole eye perfusion models nor characterized by computational fluid dynamics. Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with the iStent was evaluated in an ex vivo whole human eye perfusion model. Numerical modeling, including computational fluid dynamics, was used to evaluate the flow through the stents over physiologically relevant boundary conditions. In the ex vivo model, a single iStent reduced IOP by 6.0 mmHg from baseline, and addition of a second iStent further lowered IOP by 2.9 mmHg, for a total IOP reduction of 8.9 mmHg. Computational modeling showed that simulated flow through the iStent or iStent inject is smooth and laminar at physiological flow rates. Each stent was computed to have a negligible flow resistance consistent with an expected significant decrease in IOP. The present perfusion results agree with prior clinical and laboratory studies to show that both iStent and iStent inject therapies are potentially titratable, providing clinicians with the opportunity to achieve lower target IOPs by implanting additional stents. Keywords: glaucoma, iStent, trabecular bypass, intraocular pressure, ab-interno, CFD

  10. Two methods for calculating regional cerebral blood flow from emission computed tomography of inert gas concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanno, I; Lassen, N A


    Two methods are described for calculation of regional cerebral blood flow from completed tomographic data of radioactive inert gas distribution in a slice of brain tissue. It is assumed that the tomographic picture gives the average inert gas concentration in each pixel over data collection perio...... are implemented using synthetic data of xenon-133 emission computed tomography and some of the difficulties likely to be encountered in practice are stressed....

  11. Code Saturne: A Finite Volume Code for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows - Industrial Applications


    Archambeau, Frédéric; Méchitoua, Namane; Sakiz, Marc


    International audience; This paper describes the finite volume method implemented in Code Saturne, Electricite de France general-purpose computational fluid dynamic code for laminar and turbulent flows in complex two and three- dimensional geometries. The code is used for industrial applications and research activities in several fields related to energy production (nuclear power thermal-hydraulics, gas and coal combustion, turbomachinery, heating, ventilation and air conditioning...). The se...

  12. Comparison of measurements and computations of isothermal flow velocity inside HyperVapotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergis, A., E-mail: [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Resvanis, K.; Hardalupas, Y. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • A popular HHF device is the HyperVapotron (HV). • HVs employ a heat transfer mechanism called the Vapotron effect. • Experimental quantitative visualisation of the device has not been performed. • CFD tools used in the past to analyse HVs did not benchmark the coolant flows. • A PIV experiment is used to create benchmark data and compare them to literature. - Abstract: HyperVapotrons are two-phase water-cooled heat exchangers able to receive high heat fluxes (HHF) by employing a cyclic phenomenon called the “Vapotron Effect”. HyperVapotrons have been used routinely in HHF nuclear fusion applications. A detailed experimental investigation on the effect giving rise to the ability to sustain steady state heat fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} has not yet been possible and hence the phenomenon is not yet well understood. The coolant flow structures that promote the effect have been a major point of interest, and many investigations based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been performed in the past. The understanding of the physics of the coolant flow inside the device may hold the key to further optimisation of engineering designs. However, past computational investigations have not been experimentally evaluated. Isothermal flow velocity distribution measurements of the fluid flow in HyperVapotron optical models with high spatial resolution are performed in this paper. The same measurements are subsequently calculated via commercial CFD software. The isothermal CFD calculation is compared to the experimental velocity measurements to deduce the accuracy of the CFD investigations carried out. This unique comparison between computational and experimental results in HyperVapotrons will direct future efforts in analysing similar devices.

  13. Computational helioseismology in the frequency domain: acoustic waves in axisymmetric solar models with flows (United States)

    Gizon, Laurent; Barucq, Hélène; Duruflé, Marc; Hanson, Chris S.; Leguèbe, Michael; Birch, Aaron C.; Chabassier, Juliette; Fournier, Damien; Hohage, Thorsten; Papini, Emanuele


    Context. Local helioseismology has so far relied on semi-analytical methods to compute the spatial sensitivity of wave travel times to perturbations in the solar interior. These methods are cumbersome and lack flexibility. Aims: Here we propose a convenient framework for numerically solving the forward problem of time-distance helioseismology in the frequency domain. The fundamental quantity to be computed is the cross-covariance of the seismic wavefield. Methods: We choose sources of wave excitation that enable us to relate the cross-covariance of the oscillations to the Green's function in a straightforward manner. We illustrate the method by considering the 3D acoustic wave equation in an axisymmetric reference solar model, ignoring the effects of gravity on the waves. The symmetry of the background model around the rotation axis implies that the Green's function can be written as a sum of longitudinal Fourier modes, leading to a set of independent 2D problems. We use a high-order finite-element method to solve the 2D wave equation in frequency space. The computation is embarrassingly parallel, with each frequency and each azimuthal order solved independently on a computer cluster. Results: We compute travel-time sensitivity kernels in spherical geometry for flows, sound speed, and density perturbations under the first Born approximation. Convergence tests show that travel times can be computed with a numerical precision better than one millisecond, as required by the most precise travel-time measurements. Conclusions: The method presented here is computationally efficient and will be used to interpret travel-time measurements in order to infer, e.g., the large-scale meridional flow in the solar convection zone. It allows the implementation of (full-waveform) iterative inversions, whereby the axisymmetric background model is updated at each iteration.

  14. Computation and analysis of backward ray-tracing in aero-optics flow fields. (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Xue, Deting; Lv, Xiaoyi


    A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field. As a demonstration, the analysis is carried out for a typical blunt nosed vehicle. The backward tracing method and stopping criterion greatly simplify the ray-tracing computations in the aero-optics flow field, and they can be extended to our active laser illumination aero-optics study because of the reciprocity principle.

  15. SAFSIM input manual: A computer program for the engineering simulation of flow systems (United States)

    Dobranich, D.


    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary goals of SAFSIM. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanics module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange surface capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for gas (compressible) or liquid (incompressible) single-phase flow systems with primary emphasis on gases (or supercritical fluids). This document contains a description of all the information required to create an input file for SAFSIM execution.

  16. Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn


    Sound generation has been widely studied using numerical hybrid methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce a flexible procedure where the acoustic source data may be synthesized and stored from commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes and later used to predict radiated...... noise. Different applications will require either analytical or numerical methods for the radiation calculations. Attention is restricted to low Mach number flows where the noise generation is dominated by the interaction of the flow with a surface with at least one characteristic dimension short...... compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...

  17. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others


    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  18. Computational analysis of microbubble flows in bifurcating airways: role of gravity, inertia, and surface tension. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zielinski, Rachel; Ghadiali, Samir N


    Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy for patients with severe lung disorders, the microbubble flows generated during ventilation generate hydrodynamic stresses, including pressure and shear stress gradients, which damage the pulmonary epithelium. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics to investigate how gravity, inertia, and surface tension influence both microbubble flow patterns in bifurcating airways and the magnitude/distribution of hydrodynamic stresses on the airway wall. Direct interface tracking and finite element techniques were used to simulate bubble propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled bifurcating airway. Computational solutions of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equation were used to investigate how inertia, gravity, and surface tension forces as characterized by the Reynolds (Re), Bond (Bo), and Capillary (Ca) numbers influence pressure and shear stress gradients at the airway wall. Gravity had a significant impact on flow patterns and hydrodynamic stress magnitudes where Bo > 1 led to dramatic changes in bubble shape and increased pressure and shear stress gradients in the upper daughter airway. Interestingly, increased pressure gradients near the bifurcation point (i.e., carina) were only elevated during asymmetric bubble splitting. Although changes in pressure gradient magnitudes were generally more sensitive to Ca, under large Re conditions, both Re and Ca significantly altered the pressure gradient magnitude. We conclude that inertia, gravity, and surface tension can all have a significant impact on microbubble flow patterns and hydrodynamic stresses in bifurcating airways.

  19. Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Viscoelastic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negaard, Gordon


    .... It would be useful if viscoelastic materials could be used to damp the vibration of such structures, however the behavior of a viscoelastic material in an extremely high g-loading is not well understood...

  20. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Swirling Flow Reduction by Using Anti-Vortex Baffle (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John W.; West, Jeff S.


    An anti-vortex baffle is a liquid propellant management device placed adjacent to an outlet of the propellant tank. Its purpose is to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of free surface dip and vortex, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the flight. To design an effective anti-vortex baffle, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were undertaken for the NASA Ares I vehicle LOX tank subjected to the simulated flight loads with and without the anti-vortex baffle. The Six Degree-Of-Freedom (6-DOF) dynamics experienced by the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) during ascent were modeled by modifying the momentum equations in a CFD code to accommodate the extra body forces from the maneuvering in a non-inertial frame. The present analysis found that due to large moments, the CLV maneuvering has a significant impact on the vortical flow generation inside the tank. Roll maneuvering and side loading due to pitch and yaw are shown to induce swirling flow. The vortical flow due to roll is symmetrical with respect to the tank centerline, while those induced by pitch and yaw maneuverings showed two vortices side by side. The study found that without the anti-vortex baffle, the swirling flow caused surface dip during the late stage of drainage and hence early vapor ingestion. The flow can also be non-uniform in the drainage pipe as the secondary swirling flow velocity component can be as high as 10% of the draining velocity. An analysis of the vortex dynamics shows that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe during the Upper Stage burn is mainly the result of residual vortices inside the tank due to the conservation of angular momentum. The study demonstrated that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe can be effectively suppressed by employing the anti-vortex baffle.

  1. How to teach computational fluid dynamics: explore the method or explore the flow? (United States)

    Smith, Marc K.


    A traditional course in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at the senior or first-year graduate level has one main goal. The student should finish the course with a clear understanding of the numerical techniques involved in CFD and how they are used to solve the specific partial differential equations (PDEs) that describe fluid motion. Typically, the instructor chooses a specific numerical technique, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, or finite element, teaches the fundamentals of that technique, and possibly reviews the others. This lecture material is followed by a project in which each student writes their own Navier-Stokes solver, uses it to solve a simple flow problem, and validates the code by comparison of the numerical results to experimental data for their flow geometry. The educational pedagogy of this course format is that the only way one can truly learn and appreciate CFD is to work through the underlying nuts-and-bolts of these respective numerical methods and see how they work in code. The evolution of CFD software over the past twenty years has brought us to the point where a challenge to this traditional pedagogy is in order. In this paper, a CFD course given during the Spring 2007 term at Georgia Tech will be described that was based on the idea that a tool to successfully solve the PDEs for an incompressible, Newtonian flow in any geometry is available. In this GT course, the flow solver used was COMSOL Multiphysics. The course involved the exploration of a number of fluid flows with the intent of developing a deep understanding of the underlying fluid mechanical mechanisms involved in the flow. Along the way, the student learned about the finite element method used in the software, how to properly pose the underlying mathematical model for the fluid flow, the limitations of the modeling process, and how to properly validate the flow solution. Specific examples from the course that illustrate these ideas will be discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Volkov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with conceptions and methods for visual representation of research numerical results in the problems of fluid mechanics and gas. The three-dimensional nature of unsteady flow being simulated creates significant difficulties for the visual representation of results. It complicates control and understanding of numerical data, and exchange and processing of obtained information about the flow field. Approaches to vortical flows visualization with the usage of gradients of primary and secondary scalar and vector fields are discussed. An overview of visualization techniques for vortical flows using different definitions of the vortex and its identification criteria is given. Visualization examples for some solutions of gas dynamics problems related to calculations of jets and cavity flows are presented. Ideas of the vortical structure of the free non-isothermal jet and the formation of coherent vortex structures in the mixing layer are developed. Analysis of formation patterns for spatial flows inside large-scale vortical structures within the enclosed space of the cubic lid-driven cavity is performed. The singular points of the vortex flow in a cubic lid-driven cavity are found based on the results of numerical simulation; their type and location are identified depending on the Reynolds number. Calculations are performed with fine meshes and modern approaches to the simulation of vortical flows (direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation. Paradigm of graphical programming and COVISE virtual environment are used for the visual representation of computational results. Application that implements the visualization of the problem is represented as a network which links are modules and each of them is designed to solve a case-specific problem. Interaction between modules is carried out by the input and output ports (data receipt and data transfer giving the possibility to use various input and output devices.

  3. Inertial and viscoelastic forces on rigid colloids in microfluidic channels. (United States)

    Howard, Michael P; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Nikoubashman, Arash


    We perform hybrid molecular dynamics simulations to study the flow behavior of rigid colloids dispersed in a dilute polymer solution. The underlying Newtonian solvent and the ensuing hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated through multiparticle collision dynamics, while the constituent polymers are modeled as bead-spring chains, maintaining a description consistent with the colloidal nature of our system. We study the cross-stream migration of the solute particles in slit-like channels for various polymer lengths and colloid sizes and find a distinct focusing onto the channel center under specific solvent and flow conditions. To better understand this phenomenon, we systematically measure the effective forces exerted on the colloids. We find that the migration originates from a competition between viscoelastic forces from the polymer solution and hydrodynamically induced inertial forces. Our simulations reveal a significantly stronger fluctuation of the lateral colloid position than expected from thermal motion alone, which originates from the complex interplay between the colloid and polymer chains.

  4. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.


    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  5. Viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy: A newer concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Solanki


    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of conventional trabeculectomy (CT and viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy (VAT in primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A total of 65 primary open-angle glaucoma cases were taken for each of the two groups, i.e., CT and VAT. Viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy constituted lamellar scleral flap, deep scleral flap, penetrating trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy, filling of the anterior chamber with viscoelastic (sodium hyaluronate and balanced salt solution, movement of visco in bleb, and tight flap closure. Success criteria included intraocular pressure (IOP <14 mmHg with no devastating complications. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean IOP was significantly lower after VAT compared to CT at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Target IOP was achieved in 60% cases in VAT group compared to 36.92% in CT group. Conclusion: VAT is effective in reducing IOP to the target level for advanced glaucoma with lower postoperative complications.

  6. High Fidelity Simulation of Liquid Jet in Cross-flow Using High Performance Computing (United States)

    Soteriou, Marios; Li, Xiaoyi


    High fidelity, first principles simulation of atomization of a liquid jet by a fast cross-flowing gas can help reveal the controlling physics of this complicated two-phase flow of engineering interest. The turn-around execution time of such a simulation is prohibitively long using typically available computational resources today (i.e. parallel systems with ~O(100) CPUs). This is due to multiscale nature of the problem which requires the use of fine grids and time steps. In this work we present results from such a simulation performed on a state of the art massively parallel system available at Oakridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Scalability of the computational algorithm to ~2000 CPUs is demonstrated on grids of up to 200 million nodes. As a result, a simulation at intermediate Weber number becomes possible on this system. Results are in agreement with detailed experiment measurements of liquid column trajectory, breakup location, surface wavelength, onset of surface stripping as well as droplet size and velocity after primary breakup. Moreover, this uniform grid simulation is used as a base case for further code enhancement by evaluating the feasibility of employing Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) near the liquid-gas interface as a means of mitigating computational cost.

  7. Broadband nanoindentation of glassy polymers: Part I Viscoelasticity (United States)

    Joesph E. Jakes; Rod S. Lakes; Don S. Stone


    Protocols are developed to assess viscoelastic moduli from unloading slopes in Berkovich nanoindentation across four orders of magnitude in time scale (0.01-100 s unloading time). Measured viscoelastic moduli of glassy polymers poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, and polycarbonate follow the same trends with frequency (1/unloading time) as viscoelastic moduli...

  8. Asymptotic estimates of viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront


    Hanyga, Andrzej


    Asymptotic behavior of viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront is expressed in terms of a causal function $g(t)$ defined in \\cite{SerHanJMP} in connection with the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. Viscoelastic Green's functions exhibit a discontinuity at the wavefront if $g(0) < \\infty$. Estimates of continuous and discontinuous viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront are obtained.

  9. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Chun On Tsang


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  10. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models. (United States)

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Lai, Simon Sui Man; Chung, Wai Choi; Tang, Abraham Yik Sau; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Poon, Alexander Kai Kei; Yu, Alfred Cheuk Hang; Chow, Kwok Wing


    The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  11. Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping (United States)

    Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.


    A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).

  12. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  13. Computed Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.


    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is carried with the macro-flow of the weld metal. By using CT images, a 3-dimensional (3D) image of the lead flow pattern can be reconstructed. CT imaging was found to be a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  14. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Shit


    Full Text Available Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluid flow are reduced to a nondimensional form, which are then characterized by four dimensionless parameters. With an aim to validate our numerical approach, the computational results are compared with those of the analytical solution available in the developed region far from the singularity. The hydraulic impedance by unit length within the developed flow region increases with the magnetic field. The time average entrance length with a greater precision on the unsteady case decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The overall voltage characteristics do not depend on the developed flow field within the entry region.

  15. Computational Design and Analysis of a Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing for a Wind Tunnel Model (United States)

    Lynde, Michelle N.; Campbell, Richard L.


    A natural laminar flow (NLF) wind tunnel model has been designed and analyzed for a wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The NLF design method is built into the CDISC design module and uses a Navier-Stokes flow solver, a boundary layer profile solver, and stability analysis and transition prediction software. The NLF design method alters the pressure distribution to support laminar flow on the upper surface of wings with high sweep and flight Reynolds numbers. The method addresses transition due to attachment line contamination/transition, Gortler vortices, and crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting modal instabilities. The design method is applied to the wing of the Common Research Model (CRM) at transonic flight conditions. Computational analysis predicts significant extents of laminar flow on the wing upper surface, which results in drag savings. A 5.2 percent scale semispan model of the CRM NLF wing will be built and tested in the NTF. This test will aim to validate the NLF design method, as well as characterize the laminar flow testing capabilities in the wind tunnel facility.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Visualisation of Coastal Flows in Tidal Channels Supporting Ocean Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Zangiabadi


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics in coastal regions are strongly influenced by the topography of the seabed and understanding the fluid dynamics is necessary before installation of tidal stream turbines (TST. In this paper, the bathymetry of a potential TST deployment site is used in the development of the a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model. The steady state k-ϵ and transient Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence methods are employed and compared. The simulations are conducted with a fixed representation of the ocean surface, i.e., a rigid lid representation. In the vicinity of Horse Rock a study of the pressure difference shows that the small change in height of the water column is negligible, providing confidence in the simulation results. The stream surface method employed to visualise the results has important inherent characteristics that can enhance the visual perception of complex flow structures. The results of all cases are compared with the flow data transect gathered by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. It has been understood that the k-ϵ method can predict the flow pattern relatively well near the main features of the domain and the LES model has the ability to simulate some important flow patterns caused by the bathymetry.

  17. A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.

  18. Computational Investigation of Flow Fields and Erosion in a Dimpled Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alhajeri


    Full Text Available A numerical prediction of flow in a dimpled channel is reported. The flow regimes considered cover a wide range of Reynolds numbers, which range from 380 to 99000 and which are equivalent to a range of inlet velocities from very low (0.072 m/s to very high (60 m/s. In this study, calculations were made using the standard k-e model with standard wall function. The drag coefficient, skin friction drag, pressure drag, and pressure distribution around a dimple were investigated. As the velocity increased, the drag coefficient decreased until the velocity exceeded 45 m/s, after which it increased. Furthermore, the pressure drag and skin friction drag depend on the velocity. Particles with a density of 2440 kg/m3 and a diameter of 100 microns were tracked through the domain to estimate the frequency, velocity, and angle of impact of the particles and to estimate the resulting erosion rate. It was found that the maximum erosion rate occurred between 40 and 65 degrees from the leading edge of the dimple. Furthermore, a computational study of the flow fields of three dimples in an in-line arrangement is presented. This study showed that similar flow behaviours exist between the first and second dimples and that the flow behaviours are identical between the second and third cylindrical dimples.

  19. Adaptive computer-based spatial-filtering method for more accurate estimation of the surface velocity of debris flow. (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Inaba, H; Itakura, Y; Yoshida, Y; Kasahara, M


    An adaptive computer-based spatial-filtering velocimeter to measure the surface velocity of a natural debris flow with high accuracy is described that can adjust the filter parameters, specifically, the slit width of the filter, based on the surface-pattern characteristics of the flow. A computer simulation confirms the effectiveness of this technique. The surface velocity of a natural debris flow at the Mt. Yakedake Volcano, Japan, was estimated by this adaptive method, and the results were compared with those obtained by two other methods: hardware-based spatial filtering and normal computer-based spatial filtering.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling of contrast transport in basilar aneurysms following flow-altering surgeries. (United States)

    Vali, Alireza; Abla, Adib A; Lawton, Michael T; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy L


    In vivo measurement of blood velocity fields and flow descriptors remains challenging due to image artifacts and limited resolution of current imaging methods; however, in vivo imaging data can be used to inform and validate patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Image-based CFD can be particularly useful for planning surgical interventions in complicated cases such as fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery, where it is crucial to alter pathological hemodynamics while preserving flow to the distal vasculature. In this study, patient-specific CFD modeling was conducted for two basilar aneurysm patients considered for surgical treatment. In addition to velocity fields, transport of contrast agent was simulated for the preoperative and postoperative conditions using two approaches. The transport of a virtual contrast passively following the flow streamlines was simulated to predict post-surgical flow regions prone to thrombus deposition. In addition, the transport of a mixture of blood with an iodine-based contrast agent was modeled to compare and verify the CFD results with X-ray angiograms. The CFD-predicted patterns of contrast flow were qualitatively compared to in vivo X-ray angiograms acquired before and after the intervention. The results suggest that the mixture modeling approach, accounting for the flow rates and properties of the contrast injection, is in better agreement with the X-ray angiography data. The virtual contrast modeling assessed the residence time based on flow patterns unaffected by the injection procedure, which makes the virtual contrast modeling approach better suited for prediction of thrombus deposition, which is not limited to the peri-procedural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer program for calculating supersonic flow on the windward side conical delta wings by the method of lines (United States)

    Klunker, E. B.; South, J. C., Jr.; Davis, R. M.


    A user's manual is presented for a program that calculates the supersonic flow on the windward side of conical delta wings with shock attached at the sharp leading edge by the method of lines. The program also has a limited capability for computing the flow about circular and elliptic cones at incidence. It provides information including the shock shape, flow field, isentropic surface-flow properties, and force coefficients. A description of the program operation, a sample computation, and a FORTRAN 4 program listing are included.

  2. A viscoelastic Unitary Crack-Opening strain tensor for crack width assessment in fractured concrete structures (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Benboudjema, Farid


    A post-processing technique which allows computing crack width in concrete is proposed for a viscoelastic damage model. Concrete creep is modeled by means of a Kelvin-Voight cell while the damage model is that of Mazars in its local form. Due to the local damage approach, the constitutive model is regularized with respect to finite element mesh to avoid mesh dependency in the computed solution (regularization is based on fracture energy).

  3. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.


    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  4. Computational modeling of magnetic particle margination within blood flow through LAMMPS (United States)

    Ye, Huilin; Shen, Zhiqiang; Li, Ying


    We develop a multiscale and multiphysics computational method to investigate the transport of magnetic particles as drug carriers in blood flow under influence of hydrodynamic interaction and external magnetic field. A hybrid coupling method is proposed to handle red blood cell (RBC)-fluid interface (CFI) and magnetic particle-fluid interface (PFI), respectively. Immersed boundary method (IBM)-based velocity coupling is used to account for CFI, which is validated by tank-treading and tumbling behaviors of a single RBC in simple shear flow. While PFI is captured by IBM-based force coupling, which is verified through movement of a single magnetic particle under non-uniform external magnetic field and breakup of a magnetic chain in rotating magnetic field. These two components are seamlessly integrated within the LAMMPS framework, which is a highly parallelized molecular dynamics solver. In addition, we also implement a parallelized lattice Boltzmann simulator within LAMMPS to handle the fluid flow simulation. Based on the proposed method, we explore the margination behaviors of magnetic particles and magnetic chains within blood flow. We find that the external magnetic field can be used to guide the motion of these magnetic materials and promote their margination to the vascular wall region. Moreover, the scaling performance and speedup test further confirm the high efficiency and robustness of proposed computational method. Therefore, it provides an efficient way to simulate the transport of nanoparticle-based drug carriers within blood flow in a large scale. The simulation results can be applied in the design of efficient drug delivery vehicles that optimally accumulate within diseased tissue, thus providing better imaging sensitivity, therapeutic efficacy and lower toxicity.

  5. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.


    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  6. Viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in a constricted microchannel (United States)

    Lu, Xinyu; DuBose, John; Joo, Sang Woo; Qian, Shizhi


    Focusing suspended particles in a fluid into a single file is often necessary prior to continuous-flow detection, analysis, and separation. Electrokinetic particle focusing has been demonstrated in constricted microchannels by the use of the constriction-induced dielectrophoresis. However, previous studies on this subject have been limited to Newtonian fluids only. We report in this paper an experimental investigation of the viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in non-Newtonian polyethylene oxide solutions through a constricted microchannel. The width of the focused particle stream is found NOT to decrease with the increase in DC electric field, which is different from that in Newtonian fluids. Moreover, particle aggregations are observed at relatively high electric fields to first form inside the constriction. They can then either move forward and exit the constriction in an explosive mode or roll back to the constriction entrance for further accumulations. These unexpected phenomena are distinct from the findings in our earlier paper [Lu et al., Biomicrofluidics 8, 021802 (2014)], where particles are observed to oscillate inside the constriction and not to pass through until a chain of sufficient length is formed. They are speculated to be a consequence of the fluid viscoelasticity effects. PMID:25713690

  7. Simulation of Rubber Friction Using Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubber and Roughness Parameters of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arab Bafrani


    Full Text Available One of the most important factors that affect tire friction is surface roughness, which determines the size of the real contact area, real pressure distribution on the contact interface, and scales of mechanical engagement between viscoelastic rubber and a rough substrate. The need to predict coefficient of friction (COF for rubber on rough surfaces for applications such as traction of tires on the road surfaces led to some physical models such as Heinrich-Kluppel’s model. The current study examines the applicability of the Heinrich-Kluppel model, using different viscoelastic representations, in numerical simulations of COF for rubber, and its agreement with the experimental results. For this purpose, roughness characteristics of the surfaces and viscoelastic properties of rubber were measured by fractal analysis and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis (DMTA, respectively. These data were employed in the numerical code to simulate COF for a rubber sample. The model was also modified by replacing the Zener viscoelastic representation in the original model with the generalized Maxwell viscoelastic representation. On the other hand, COF for rubber was measured on the same rough surface (different sand-papers by an in-house friction tester, and results were compared with the numerical results. It was shown that computer simulation could predict the load and speed dependence of rubber friction very well. The application of the generalized Maxwell model improved agreement between the numerical and experimental results for high sliding speeds where the Zener viscoelastic model failed to predict the right trend in variation of COF with speed. This speed range was matched with the sliding velocities in the footprint of tire under rolling conditions.

  8. Adaptive finite element simulation of flow and transport applications on parallel computers (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin Shelton

    The subject of this work is the adaptive finite element simulation of problems arising in flow and transport applications on parallel computers. Of particular interest are new contributions to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in this parallel high-performance context, including novel work on data structures, treatment of constraints in a parallel setting, generality and extensibility via object-oriented programming, and the design/implementation of a flexible software framework. This technology and software capability then enables more robust, reliable treatment of multiscale--multiphysics problems and specific studies of fine scale interaction such as those in biological chemotaxis (Chapter 4) and high-speed shock physics for compressible flows (Chapter 5). The work begins by presenting an overview of key concepts and data structures employed in AMR simulations. Of particular interest is how these concepts are applied in the physics-independent software framework which is developed here and is the basis for all the numerical simulations performed in this work. This open-source software framework has been adopted by a number of researchers in the U.S. and abroad for use in a wide range of applications. The dynamic nature of adaptive simulations pose particular issues for efficient implementation on distributed-memory parallel architectures. Communication cost, computational load balance, and memory requirements must all be considered when developing adaptive software for this class of machines. Specific extensions to the adaptive data structures to enable implementation on parallel computers is therefore considered in detail. The libMesh framework for performing adaptive finite element simulations on parallel computers is developed to provide a concrete implementation of the above ideas. This physics-independent framework is applied to two distinct flow and transport applications classes in the subsequent application studies to illustrate the flexibility of the

  9. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O' hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie


    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation of airfoils in unsteady low Reynolds number flows (United States)

    Amiralaei, Mohammadreza

    The inherent complexity of low Reynolds number (LRN) flows and their respective viscous vortical patterns demand an accurate solution method to achieve the desired accuracy. This complicated flow field needs even more robust methods when the flow is unsteady. The flow field of unsteady airfoils and wings in LRN regime is challenging to solve and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations stand out as solid solution techniques in this area. This thesis is motivated by an existing rotating-flapping mechanism, whose kinematics components can be broken into pitching, plunging and a novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motion of its blades and each blade's cross section. The focus is on two-dimensional low Reynolds number (LRN) flows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a Finite Volume Method (FVM). As one of the targets is to simulate a pair of blades, and consequently a pair of airfoils, a mesh motion library is developed to perform rotational and translational motions of multi-body configurations. The library and its sub-routines are tested on pairs of pitching, plunging and flapping airfoils, where the moving mesh problem is performed with a significant gain in the computational time compared to other moving mesh techniques such as Laplacian smoothing algorithm. The simulations of a single airfoil under harmonic and the novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motions, respectively, are conducted within 67% and 80% time it took to obtain a steady solution using the Laplace smoothing mesh motion algorithm, while the calculated force coefficients were in reasonably close agreement. Flow fields of single unsteady airfoils under pitching, plunging and figure-of-eight flapping motions are also simulated in this thesis accompanied with extensive parametric studies. The simulations of the considered figure-of-eight flapping pattern shows that its highly inclined asymmetrical kinematics results in higher vertical lift coefficients than the existing flapping patterns

  11. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai


    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  12. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  13. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Inokuma, Margaret; Aghaeepour, Nima; Perucha, Esperanza; Mollon, Jennifer; Nomura, Laurel; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Cope, Andrew; Prevost, A Toby; Heck, Susanne; Maino, Vernon; Lord, Graham; Brinkman, Ryan R; Nestle, Frank O


    Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid) flow cytometry platform (CFP) and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP) in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25). Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  14. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Hazry, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yaacob, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  15. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  16. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villanova

    Full Text Available Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid flow cytometry platform (CFP and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10 and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25. Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  17. Steady computational analysis of shrouded plug nozzle flows using unequal stream pressures (United States)

    Ruhs, Kevin Paul

    This study focuses on the effects of unequal core and bypass stream feed pressures in a high pressure ratio, two-stream nozzle notionally designed for supersonic business jet applications. Whereas previous analysis used a measured mass average pressure of the core and bypass streams, equal pressures were not exactly maintained in the experimental work and the effect of the imbalance is the primary motivation for the present study. The plug nozzle geometry used is a sub-scale model of a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation concept that features an extended shroud. It uses two inlet streams, representing core and bypass streams from a turbofan engine. Nozzle pressure ratios range from unity to 6.23. Experimental measurements included pressure taps on the plug and shroud, schlieren and shadowgraph figures, mass flows for both streams, and thrust values. The computational analysis employed the General Equation and Mesh Solver, or GEMS code. Previous computational analysis was performed by Kapilavai, giving a basis analysis involving grid generation and refinement, error convergence studies, axisymmetric analysis, and unsteady computations. Unequal core and bypass stream pressure or swirl in the core stream is used to replicate experimental data and assess performance. The results of using these conditions were explored, including pressure on the plug and shroud, shock characteristics, separation and recirculation zones, mass flows and discharge coefficients, and thrust efficiencies.

  18. Non Linear Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation of Elastomers for Hysteresis Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Sairom; Kim, Dooman [Korea Aerospace Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jaehyung [Univ. of North Texas, Houston (United States); Choi, Seok-Ju [R and Center, Hnakook Tire Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An accurate hysteresis model of an elastomer is important for quantifying viscoelastic energy loss. We suggest a highly nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model of elastomers. The model captures a nonlinear viscoelastic characteristic by combining Yeoh's hyperelastic model and Hoofatt's hysteresis model used Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. Analytical and numerical models were generated from uniaxial cyclic tests of an elastomer under a sinusoidal load with a mean strain of 150%, amplitudes of 20-80%, and frequencies of 0.02-0.2Hz. The viscoelastic model can highly capture the viscoelastic energy loss up to a strain of 230%.

  19. Computational model of blood flow in the aorto-coronary bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghista Dhanjoo N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is an effective treatment modality for patients with severe coronary artery disease. The conduits used during the surgery include both the arterial and venous conduits. Long- term graft patency rate for the internal mammary arterial graft is superior, but the same is not true for the saphenous vein grafts. At 10 years, more than 50% of the vein grafts would have occluded and many of them are diseased. Why do the saphenous vein grafts fail the test of time? Many causes have been proposed for saphenous graft failure. Some are non-modifiable and the rest are modifiable. Non-modifiable causes include different histological structure of the vein compared to artery, size disparity between coronary artery and saphenous vein. However, researches are more interested in the modifiable causes, such as graft flow dynamics and wall shear stress distribution at the anastomotic sites. Formation of intimal hyperplasia at the anastomotic junction has been implicated as the root cause of long- term graft failure. Many researchers have analyzed the complex flow patterns in the distal sapheno-coronary anastomotic region, using various simulated model in an attempt to explain the site of preferential intimal hyperplasia based on the flow disturbances and differential wall stress distribution. In this paper, the geometrical bypass models (aorto-left coronary bypass graft model and aorto-right coronary bypass graft model are based on real-life situations. In our models, the dimensions of the aorta, saphenous vein and the coronary artery simulate the actual dimensions at surgery. Both the proximal and distal anastomoses are considered at the same time, and we also take into the consideration the cross-sectional shape change of the venous conduit from circular to elliptical. Contrary to previous works, we have carried out computational fluid dynamics (CFD study in the entire aorta-graft-perfused artery domain

  20. RAMSIM: A fast computer model for mean wind flow over hills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J-F.


    The Riso Atmospheric Mixed Spectral-Integration Model (RAMSIM) is a micro-scale, linear flow model developed to quickly calculate the mean wind flow field over orography. It was designed to bridge the gap between WAsP and similar models that are fast but insufficiently accurate over steep slopes, and non-linear CFD models that are accurate but too computationally expensive for routine use on a PC. RAMSIM is governed by the RANS and E-{epsilon} turbulence closure equations, expressed in non-Cartesian coordinates. A terrain-following coordinate system is created from a simple analytical expression. The equations are linearized by a perturbation expansion about the flat-terrain case. The first-order equations, representing the spatial correction due to the presence of orography, are Fourier-transformed analytically in the two horizontal dimensions. The pressure and horizontal velocity components are eliminated, resulting in a set of four ordinary differential equations (ODEs). RAMSIM is currently implemented and tested in two-dimensional space; a 3D version has been formulated but not yet implemented. In the 2D case, there are only three ODEs, depending on only two non-dimensional parameters. This is exploited by solving the ODEs by Runge-Kutta integration for all useful combinations of these parameters, and storing the results in look-up tables (LUT). The flow field over any given orography is then quickly obtained by interpolating from the LUTs and scaling the value of the flow variables for each wavenumber component of the orography, and returning to real space by inverse Fourier transform. RAMSIM was tested against measurements, as well as other authors' flow models, in four test cases: two laboratory flows over idealized terrain, and two field experiments. RAMSIM calculations generally agree with measurements over upward slopes and hilltops, but overestimate the speed very near the ground at hilltops. RAMSIM appears to have an edge over other linear models

  1. Numerical simulations of rough contacts between viscoelastic materials (United States)

    Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.


    The durability of the mechanical contact is often plagued by surface-related phenomena like rolling contact fatigue, wear or crack propagation, which are linked to the important gradients of stress arising in the contacting bodies due to interaction at the asperity level. The semi-analytical computational approach adopted in this paper is based on a previously reported algorithm capable of simulating the contact between bodies with arbitrary limiting surfaces and viscoelastic behaviour, which is enhanced and adapted for the contact of real surfaces with microtopography. As steep slopes at the asperity level inevitably lead to localized plastic deformation at the tip of the asperities that are first brought into contact, the viscoelastic behaviour is amended by limiting the maximum value of the pressure on the contact area to that of the material hardness, according to the Tabor equation. In this manner, plasticity is considered in a simplified manner that assures the knowledge of the contact area and of the pressure distribution without estimation of the residual state. The main advantage of this approach is the preservation of the algorithmic complexity, allowing the simulation of very fine meshes capable of capturing particular features of the investigated contacting surface. The newly advanced model is expected to predict the contact specifics of rough surfaces as resulting from various manufacturing processes, thus assisting the design of durable machine elements using elastomers or rubbers.

  2. Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wun Huang


    Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.

  3. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  4. Fluid viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm. (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Lin, Chungwei; Harvey, Benedict; Fiore, Alyssa G; Ardon, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S


    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction was facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. In humans, as well as cattle, sperm are naturally deposited at the entrance to the cervix and must swim through viscoelastic cervical mucus and other mucoid secretions to reach the site of fertilization. Collective swimming induced by elasticity may thus facilitate sperm migration and contribute to successful fertilization. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, and this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function.

  5. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip


    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov


    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  7. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  8. Viscoelastic Models for Nearly Incompressible Materials (United States)


    outlined first, then the Prony series approximation to the stress relaxation function is introduced, and this in turn is used to derive various...These solutions are useful for verifying the model implementation. nonlinear, viscoelastic, rate-dependence, nearly incompressible, Prony series...12 3.4 Prony Series Approximation and Incremental Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.4.1

  9. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Transactions of the ASME,. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 27(9):. 438-444. 19. Yang, W.H. 1966. The contact problem for viscoelastic bodies. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of. Applied Mechanics, 33(4): 395-401. 20. Meyer, K.H. 1950. Natural and. Synthetic High polymers. Interscience. Publishers Inc.N.Y.USA. 21.

  10. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal


    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...

  11. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of frozen dough remedied availability of fresh bread. However, bread elaborated from frozen dough has less volume and texture is firmer. This study evaluates how storage affects the protein solubility, fermentative capacity and viscoelasticity of frozen dough. In addition to examining the effects of storage on the ...

  12. A Brief Review of Elasticity and Viscoelasticity (United States)


    behavior of solid-like foods, Journal of Food Engineering , 78 (2007), 978–983. [18] M. Doi and M. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Oxford...lipids, Journal of Food Engineering , 33 (1997), 305–320. [52] J. Smart and J.G. Williams, A comparison of single integral non-linear viscoelasticity

  13. Isolation of nanoscale exosomes using viscoelastic effect (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao


    Exosomes, molecular cargos secreted by almost all mammalian cells, are considered as promising biomarkers to identify many diseases including cancers. However, the small size of exosomes (30-200 nm) poses serious challenges on their isolation from the complex media containing a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes, especially in small sample volumes. Here we develop a viscoelasticity-based microfluidic system to directly separate exosomes from cell culture media or serum in a continuous, size-dependent, and label-free manner. Using a small amount of biocompatible polymer as the additive into the media to control the viscoelastic forces exerted on EVs, we are able to achieve a high separation purity (>90%) and recovery (>80%) of exosomes. The size cutoff in viscoelasticity-based microfluidics can be easily controlled using different PEO concentrations. Based on this size-dependent viscoelastic separation strategy, we envision the handling of diverse nanoscale objects, such as gold nanoparticles, DNA origami structures, and quantum dots. This work was supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572334, 91543125).

  14. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field on the gravitational instability of strongly coupled plasma and observed that instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of non uniform magnetic field in transverse mode of wave propagation under both the kinetic and hydrodynamic limits, when the viscoelastic medium is infinitely electrically conducting.

  15. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Lai, Simon Sui Man; Chung, Wai Choi; Tang, Abraham Yik Sau; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Poon, Alexander Kai Kei; Yu, Alfred Cheuk Hang; Chow, Kwok Wing


    The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms...

  16. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C.


    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  17. Computations of Separated High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows: Development of RANS and Variable-Resolution PANS Approaches Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a high fidelity computational approach for unsteady calculations of strongly separated non-equilibrium high-enthalpy hypersonic flows....

  18. Computer Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.


    In friction stir welding, a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld such as aluminum alloys. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and thus tracks the aluminum deformation flow paths in a unique 3-dimensional manner. CT scanning is a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.

  19. Comparisons of LES and RANS Computations with PIV Experiments on a Cylindrical Cavity Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Su


    Full Text Available A comparison study on the numerical computations by large eddy simulation (LES and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS methods with experiment on a cylindrical cavity flow was conducted in this paper. Numerical simulations and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurement were performed for two Reynolds numbers of the flow at a constant aspect ratio of H/R = 2.4 (R is the radius of the cylindrical cavity, and H is liquid level. The three components of velocity were extracted from 100 sequential PIV measured velocity frames with averaging, in order to illustrate the axial jet flow evolution and circulation distribution in the radial direction. The results show that LES can reproduce well the fine structure inside the swirling motions in both the meridional and the horizontal planes, as well as the distributions of velocity components and the circulation, in good agreement with experimental results, while the RANS method only provided a rough trend of inside vortex structure. Based on the analysis of velocity profiles at various locations, it indicates that LES is more suitable for predicting the complex flow characteristics inside complicated three-dimensional geometries.

  20. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow and Valve Dynamics in Hearts with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (United States)

    Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Pinheiro, Aurelio


    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiovascular disease manifested by the thickening of the ventricular wall and often leads to a partial obstruction to the blood flow out of the left ventricle. HCM is recognized as one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. In a heart with HCM, the hypertrophy usually narrows the blood flow pathway to the aorta and produces a low pressure zone between the mitral valve and the hypertrophy during systole. This low pressure can suck the mitral valve leaflet back and completely block the blood flow into the aorta. In the current study, a sharp interface immersed boundary method flow solver is employed to study the hemodynamics and valve dynamics inside a heart with HCM. The three-dimensional motion and configuration of the left ventricle including mitral valve leaflets and aortic valves are reconstructed based on echo-cardio data sets. The mechanisms of aortic obstruction associated with HCM are investigated. The long term objective of this study is to develop a computational tool to aid in the assessment and surgical management of HCM.

  1. An Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Behaviour in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Vidar


    Gas/solid flows have been studied extensively, mainly because they are important in nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries. This thesis describes an experiment done at two different circulating fluidized bed systems. Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) were used to measure mean and fluctuating velocity, diameter and solids concentration. A typical core-annulus flow was obtained in both cases. The measurements show a relative mean velocity as well as a relative fluctuating velocity between different particle sizes. An axial segregation by size and its variation with the superficial gas velocity are demonstrated. Significant radial segregation is found in both risers. A three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model was developed based on Eulerian description of the phases where the kinetic theory of granular flow is the basis of the turbulence modelling in the solid phases. There are one gas phase and any number of solid phases. Simulations of flow behaviour in two- and three-dimensions agree well with experiments and the model is able to handle axial segregation by size for different superficial gas velocities and particle size distributions. 107 refs., 79 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. DSMC-computation of the Rarefied Gas Flow through a Slit into a Vacuum (United States)

    Sazhin, Oleg


    The gas rarefaction, gas molecule-molecule interaction and gas-surface scattering influence on the gas flow through a slit into a vacuum is investigated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. To study the gas molecule-molecule interaction influence on the gas flow we used the hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS) anc variable soft sphere (VSS) models defined for the inverse-power-law (IPL) potential and also the generalized hard sphere (GHS) model defined for the 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. Maxwell (specular-diffuse scheme), Cercignani-Lampis (CL) and Epstein approaches were used to simulate the gas-surface scattering. The results of computations of the mas; flow rate in a wide range of rarefactions and distributions of the density, temperature and mass velocity, and streamlines are presented. This study demonstrates that the gas molecule-molecule interaction significantly interferes with the gas flow through a slit, while the influence of the gas-surface scattering is negligibly small. Our results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical asymptotes, experimental and numerical data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyaev Valeriy Genrihovich


    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of development and the results of the pilot testing of the contact-free meter of the two-phase flow of loose construction materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation. The flow meter designed by the author is based on the method of registration of polarization currents caused by the motion of the dielectric material within the electric field of a measurement unit integrated into the pneumatic transportation line. The registration unit is the implementation of the original technology. Its functional concept is based on the Pockels transverse effect inside the lithium niobate crystal. This electro-optical effect is characterized by minimal persistence, as the phase of the optical wave varies within the time period of 10 second, and this effect makes it possible to improve the accuracy of measurements. The flow rates is identified on the basis of one variable integral parameter, the intensity of an optical wave passing through the Pockels cell simulated by the currents of polarization of the material. The paper contains the structural pattern of the computer-aided meter of loose dielectric materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation, the system of visualization of the mass flow, and the results of the pilot testing of the proposed meter. The proposed system may represent an unbiased system of management of construction materials, consumption procedures, and warehouse processing of materials.

  4. An alternating direction algorithm for two-phase flow visualization using gamma computed tomography. (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi


    In order to build high-speed imaging systems with low cost and low radiation leakage, the number of radioactive sources and detectors in the multiphase flow computed tomography (CT) system has to be limited. Moreover, systematic and random errors are inevitable in practical applications. The limited and corrupted measurement data have made the tomographic inversion process the most critical part in multiphase flow CT. Although various iterative reconstruction algorithms have been developed based on least squares minimization, the imaging quality is still inadequate for the reconstruction of relatively complicated bubble flow. This paper extends an alternating direction method (ADM), which is originally proposed in compressed sensing, to image two-phase flow using a low-energy γ-CT system. An l(1) norm-based regularization technique is utilized to treat the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, and the image reconstruction model is reformulated into one having partially separable objective functions, thereafter a dual-based ADM is adopted to solve the resulting problem. The feasibility is demonstrated in prototype experiments. Comparisons between the ADM and the conventional iterative algorithms show that the former has obviously improved the space resolution in reasonable time.

  5. SAFSIM theory manual: A computer program for the engineering simulation of flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.


    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program for simulating the integrated performance of complex flow systems. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a fluid mechanics module with flow network capability; (2) a structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange surface capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. Any or all of the physics modules can be implemented, as the problem dictates. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems. Both the fluid mechanics and structure heat transfer modules employ a one-dimensional finite element modeling approach. This document contains a description of the theory incorporated in SAFSIM, including the governing equations, the numerical methods, and the overall system solution strategies.

  6. Investigation of Flow Through Centrifugal Pump Impellers Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhou


    Full Text Available With the aid of computational fluid dynamics, the complex internal flows in water pump impellers can be well predicted, thus facilitating the design of pumps. This article describes the three-dimensional simulation of internal flow in three different types of centrifugal pumps (one pump has four straight blades and the other two have six twisted blades. A commercial three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code called CFX, with a standard k–ε two-equation turbulence model was used to simulate the problem under examination. In the calculation, the finite-volume method and an unstructured grid system were used for the solution procedure of the discretized governing equations for this problem.

  7. Comparison of computational modelling and field testing of a small wind turbine operating in unsteady flows (United States)

    Bradney, D. R.; Evans, S. P.; Salles Pereira Da Costa, M.; Clausen, P. D.


    Small horizontal-axis wind turbines are likely to operate in a broad range of operating flow conditions, often in highly turbulent flow, due, in part, to their varied site placements. This paper compares the computational simulations of the performance of a 5 kW horizontal-axis wind turbine to detailed field measurements, with a particular focus on the impact of unsteady operating conditions on the drivetrain performance and generator output. Results indicate that the current Blade Element Momentum Theory based aerodynamic models under-predict the effect of high turbine yaw on the rotor torque, leading to a difference between predicted and measured shaft speed and power production. Furthermore, the results show discrepancies between the predicted instantaneous turbine yaw performance and measurements.

  8. Computational prediction of flow and aerodynamic characteristics for an elliptic airfoil at low Reynolds number (United States)

    Chitta, Varun

    Lifting surfaces of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are often operated in low Reynolds number (Re) ranges, wherein the transition of boundary layer from laminar-to-turbulent plays a more significant role than in high-Re aerodynamics applications. This poses a challenge for traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, since typical modeling approaches assume either fully laminar or fully turbulent flow. In particular, the boundary layer state must be accurately predicted to successfully determine the separation behavior which significantly influences the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based CFD simulations of an elliptic airfoil are performed for time-varying angles of attack, and results are used to elucidate relevant flow physics and aerodynamic data for an elliptic airfoil under realistic operating conditions. Results are also used to evaluate the performance of several different RANS-based turbulence modeling approaches for this class of flowfield.

  9. Modeling and computation of boundary-layer flows laminar, turbulent and transitional boundary layers in incompressible and compressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer


    This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mixed convection flows in buildings enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayne, Alexander; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)


    In recent years Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model the air circulation and temperature environment inside the rooms of residential and office buildings to gain insight into the relative energy consumptions of various HVAC systems for cooling/heating for climate control and thermal comfort. This requires accurate simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer for various types of ventilation systems using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of fluid dynamics. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Navier-Stokes equations is computationally intensive and expensive for simulations of this kind. As a result, vast majority of CFD simulations employ RANS equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. In order to assess the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for accurate simulations, it is critical to validate the calculations against the experimental data. For this purpose, we use three well known benchmark validation cases, one for natural convection in 2D closed vertical cavity, second for forced convection in a 2D rectangular cavity and the third for mixed convection in a 2D square cavity. The simulations are performed on a number of meshes of different density using a number of turbulence models. It is found that k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model with a second-order algorithm on a reasonable mesh gives the best results. This information is then used to determine the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for flows in 3D enclosures with different ventilation systems. In particular two cases are considered for which the experimental data is available. These cases are (1) air flow and heat transfer in a naturally ventilated room and (2) airflow and temperature distribution in an atrium. Good agreement with the experimental data and computations of other investigators is obtained.

  11. Gray-box reservoir routing to compute flow propagation in operational forecasting and decision support systems (United States)

    Russano, Euan; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo


    Operational forecasting and decision support systems for flood mitigation and the daily management of water resources require computationally efficient flow routing models. If backwater effects do not play an important role, a hydrological routing approach is often a pragmatic choice. It offers a reasonable accuracy at low computational costs in comparison to a more detailed hydraulic model. This work presents a nonlinear reservoir routing scheme as well as its implementation for the flow propagation between the hydro reservoir Três Marias and a downstream inundation-affected city Pirapora in Brazil. We refer to the model as a gray-box approach due to the identification of the parameter k by a data-driven approach for each reservoir of the cascade, instead of using estimates based on physical characteristics. The model reproduces the discharge at the gauge Pirapora, using 15 reservoirs in the cascade. The obtained results are compared with the ones obtained from the full-hydrodynamic model SOBEK. Results show a relatively good performance for the validation period, with a RMSE of 139.48 for the gray-box model, while the full-hydrodynamic model shows a RMSE of 136.67. The simulation time for a period of several years for the full-hydrodynamic took approximately 64s, while the gray-box model only required about 0.50s. This provides a significant speedup of the computation by only a little trade-off in accuracy, pointing at the potential of the simple approach in the context of time-critical, operational applications. Key-words: flow routing, reservoir routing, gray-box model

  12. Computational analysis of platelet adhesion and aggregation under stagnation point flow conditions. (United States)

    Reininger, C B; Lasser, R; Rumitz, M; Böger, C; Schweiberer, L


    The clinical relevance of platelet function assessment with stagnation point flow adhesio-aggregometry (SPAA) has been verified. Quantitative analysis of platelet adhesion and aggregation is possible by means of mathematical analysis of the dark-field, light intensity curves (growth curves) obtained during the SPAA experiment. We present a computational procedure for evaluating these curves, which was necessitated by, and is based on, actual clinical application. A qualitative growth curve classification, corresponding to a basic and distinct pattern of platelet deposition and characteristic of a regularly occurring clinical state is also presented.

  13. Interactive Data Exploration for High-Performance Fluid Flow Computations through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Perovic, Nevena


    © 2014 IEEE. Huge data advent in high-performance computing (HPC) applications such as fluid flow simulations usually hinders the interactive processing and exploration of simulation results. Such an interactive data exploration not only allows scientiest to \\'play\\' with their data but also to visualise huge (distributed) data sets in both an efficient and easy way. Therefore, we propose an HPC data exploration service based on a sliding window concept, that enables researches to access remote data (available on a supercomputer or cluster) during simulation runtime without exceeding any bandwidth limitations between the HPC back-end and the user front-end.

  14. Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes Computations for Flows past the Yawed MEXICO Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Yang, H.


    In the paper the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model has been used to simulate flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed rotor are compared to detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project...... with the DNW wind tunnel for the yawed rotor are also performed and show that the tunnel effects are very small in the loading and in the near wake field behind the rotor whereas in the far wake region (>1D) the influence becomes important....

  15. A computational study of leukocyte adhesion and its effect on flow pattern in microvessels. (United States)

    Pappu, Vijay; Doddi, Sai K; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    Three-dimensional computational modeling and simulation are presented on the adhesive rolling of deformable leukocytes over a P-selectin coated surface in parabolic shear flow in microchannels. The computational model is based on the immersed boundary method for cell deformation and Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction. The simulations are continued for at least 1s of leukocyte rolling during which the instantaneous quantities such as cell deformation index, cell/substrate contact area, and fluid drag remain statistically stationary. The characteristic 'stop-and-go' motion of rolling leukocytes, and the 'tear-drop' shape of adherent leukocytes as observed in experiments are reproduced by the simulations. We first consider the role of cell deformation and cell concentration on rolling characteristics. We observe that compliant cells roll slower and more stably than rigid cells. Our simulations agree with previous in vivo observation that the hydrodynamic interactions between nearby leukocytes affect cell rolling, and that the rolling velocity decreases inversely with the separation distance, irrespective of cell deformability. We also find that cell deformation decreases, and the cells roll more stably with reduced velocity fluctuation, as the cell concentration is increased. However, the effect of nearby cells on the rolling characteristics is found to be more significant for rigid cells than compliant cells. We then address the effect of cell deformability and rolling velocity on the flow resistance due to, and the fluid drag on, adherent leukocytes. While several earlier computational works have addressed this problem, two key features of leukocyte adhesion, such as cell deformation and rolling, were often neglected. Our results suggest that neglecting cell deformability and rolling velocity may significantly overpredict the flow resistance and drag force. Increasing the cell concentration is shown to increase the flow resistance and reduce the

  16. Noninvasive Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease: Fractional Flow Reserved Derived from Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (FFRCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rațiu Mihaela


    Full Text Available Invasive coronary angiography (ICA completed by fractional flow reserve (FFR assessment represents the main procedure that is performed in the decision process for coronary revascularization. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA is an effective method used in the noninvasive anatomic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, CCTA tends to overestimate and does not offer hemodynamic data about the coronary lesions. Recent progresses made in the research involving computational fluid dynamics and image modeling permit the evaluation of FFRCT noninvasively, using data obtained in a standard CCTA. Studies have shown an improved precision and discrimination of FFRCT compared to CCTA for the diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the role of CCTA in CAD evaluation, the impact of FFRCT, the scientific basis of this novel method and its potential clinical applications.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast MRI with high accuracy optical flow estimation (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Barbu, Adrian; Lobbes, Marc; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Burgeth, Bernhard; Kleefeld, Andreas; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe


    Non-mass enhancing lesions represent a challenge for the radiological reading. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. To enhance the discriminative properties of an automated radiological workflow, the correct preprocessing steps need to be taken. In an usual computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, motion compensation plays an important role. To this end, we employ a new high accuracy optical flow based motion compensation algorithm with robustification variants. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  18. Evaluation of irrigant flow in the root canal using different needle types by an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Boutsioukis, Christos; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, Michel; Kastrinakis, Eleftherios; Wesselink, Paul R.; van der Sluis, Lucas W.M.


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle tip design on the irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe using a validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methods: A CFD model was created to simulate the irrigant flow

  19. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin


    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  20. Robust second-order scheme for multi-phase flow computations (United States)

    Shahbazi, Khosro


    A robust high-order scheme for the multi-phase flow computations featuring jumps and discontinuities due to shock waves and phase interfaces is presented. The scheme is based on high-order weighted-essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume schemes and high-order limiters to ensure the maximum principle or positivity of the various field variables including the density, pressure, and order parameters identifying each phase. The two-phase flow model considered besides the Euler equations of gas dynamics consists of advection of two parameters of the stiffened-gas equation of states, characterizing each phase. The design of the high-order limiter is guided by the findings of Zhang and Shu (2011) [36], and is based on limiting the quadrature values of the density, pressure and order parameters reconstructed using a high-order WENO scheme. The proof of positivity-preserving and accuracy is given, and the convergence and the robustness of the scheme are illustrated using the smooth isentropic vortex problem with very small density and pressure. The effectiveness and robustness of the scheme in computing the challenging problem of shock wave interaction with a cluster of tightly packed air or helium bubbles placed in a body of liquid water is also demonstrated. The superior performance of the high-order schemes over the first-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for computations of shock-bubble interaction is also shown. The scheme is implemented in two-dimensional space on parallel computers using message passing interface (MPI). The proposed scheme with limiter features approximately 50% higher number of inter-processor message communications compared to the corresponding scheme without limiter, but with only 10% higher total CPU time. The scheme is provably second-order accurate in regions requiring positivity enforcement and higher order in the rest of domain.