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Sample records for viscoelastic deadly fluid

  1. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Gaume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  2. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-01-01

    Background The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. Conclusions/Significance This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera) flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control. PMID:18030325

  3. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  4. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  5. Rotating convection in a viscoelastic magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, L.M. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: dlarozen@uta.cl [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Díaz, P. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54 D, Temuco (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mancini, H.L. [Departamento de Fíisica y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid under rotation. The viscoelastic properties are given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effects of the rheology and of the rotation rate on the instability thresholds for a diluted magnetic suspension are emphasized. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids. • Thermal convection. • Viscoelastic model. • Realistic boundary conditions.

  6. Fluid viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Lin, Chungwei; Harvey, Benedict; Fiore, Alyssa G; Ardon, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S

    2017-06-09

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction was facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. In humans, as well as cattle, sperm are naturally deposited at the entrance to the cervix and must swim through viscoelastic cervical mucus and other mucoid secretions to reach the site of fertilization. Collective swimming induced by elasticity may thus facilitate sperm migration and contribute to successful fertilization. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, and this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function.

  7. Particle sedimentation in a sheared viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, William L.; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Particle suspensions are ubiquitous in engineered processes, biological systems, and natural settings. For an engineering application - whether the intent is to suspend and transport particles (e.g., in hydraulic fracturing fluids) or allow particles to sediment (e.g., in industrial separations processes) - understanding and prediction of the particle mobility is critical. This task is often made challenging by the complex nature of the fluid phase, for example, due to fluid viscoelasticity. In this talk, we focus on a fully 3D flow problem in a viscoelastic fluid: a settling particle with a shear flow applied in the plane perpendicular to gravity (referred to as orthogonal shear). Previously, it has been shown that an orthogonal shear flow can reduce the settling rate of particles in viscoelastic fluids. Using experiments and numerical simulations across a wide range of sedimentation and shear Weissenberg number, this talk will address the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the additional drag experienced by a rigid sphere settling in a confined viscoelastic fluid with orthogonal shear. We will then explore multiple particle effects, and discuss the implications and extensions of this work for particle suspensions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-114747 (WLM).

  8. Spatially modulated thermal convection of viscoelastic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayodé, Séliatou; Khayat, Roger E

    2004-06-01

    The thermal convection of modulated viscoelastic flow is examined in this study. The modulation is assumed to be weak enough for a regular perturbation solution to be implemented. In addition to being more accurate, the second-order perturbation results reveal new physical phenomena that could not be predicted by the first-order analysis. Inertia was found to enhance globally the discrepancies between the first- and the second-order perturbation solution. A comparison between the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian solution is carried out and the influences of inertia, modulation amplitude, and wave number are emphasized. The present results show that elasticity has a marked effect on fluid patterns, especially regarding the roll structure and symmetry. The influence of elasticity is greater for larger Rayleigh number and aspect ratio.

  9. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E.; Ahmed, Zahir U.

    2016-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity.

  10. Single Integral Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Danmarks Tekniske H~jskole, DV2,00 Lyngby, Denmark Sponsored by the United States Army under Contract No. DAAG29-80-C-0041 and 1 the Danish Council for...viscoelasticity related to the linear viscoelastic relaxation modulus G as follows G(t) = f M(s)ds (1.4) * t "Instituttet for Kemiteknik, Danmarks Tekniske

  11. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical study is made in the region near the stagnation point when a lighter incompressible viscoelastic fluids impinges orthogonally on the surface of another quiescent heavier incompressible viscous fluid. Similarity solutions of the momentum balance equations for both fluids are equalized at the interface. It isnoted ...

  12. Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos de Oliveira, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the

  13. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M REZA

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... increasing lateral interface velocity. It is observed that lateral interface velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic parameter for fixed values of density and viscosity ratio of the two fluids. The convective heat transfer is investigated base on the similarity solutions for the temperature distribution of the two ...

  14. Near critical swirling flow of a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen; Rusak, Zvi; Tichy, John; Wang, Shixiao

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between flow inertia and elasticity in high Re, axisymmetric, and near-critical swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid in a finite-length straight circular pipe is studied. The viscous stresses are described by the Giesekus constitutive model. The application of this model to columnar streamwise vortices is first investigated. Then, a nonlinear small-disturbance analysis is developed from the governing equations of motion. It explores the complicated interactions between flow inertia, swirl, and fluid viscosity and elasticity. An effective Re that links between steady states of swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid and those of a Newtonian fluid is revealed. The effects of the fluid viscosity, relaxation time, retardation time and mobility parameter on the flow development and on the critical swirl for the appearance of vortex breakdown are explored. Decreasing the ratio of the viscoelastic characteristic times from one increases the critical swirl for breakdown. Increasing the Weissenberg number from zero or increasing the fluid mobility parameter from zero cause a similar effect. Results may explain changes in the appearance of breakdown zones as a function of swirl level that were observed in Stokes et al. (2001) experiments, where Boger fluids were used.

  15. Chaotic gas bubble oscillations in a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Javier

    2008-05-01

    Regular and chaotic radial oscillations of an acoustically driven gas bubble in a viscoelastic fluid have been theoretically analyzed. For parameter values usually found in diagnostic ultrasound period-doubling routes to chaos have been identified. Thresholds values of the external pressure amplitude for a first bifurcation in terms of the elasticity and the shear viscosity of the host fluid have also been evaluated. To cite this article: J. Jiménez-Fernández, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  16. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  17. Viscoelastic fluids: A new challenge in heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnett, J.P. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States))

    1992-05-01

    A review of the current knowledge on the fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of viscoelastic aqueous polymer solutions in channel flow is presented. Both turbulent and laminar flow conditions are considered. For fully established turbulent channel flow, it was found that the friction factor, f, and the dimensionless heat transfer factor, j{sub H}, were functions of the Reynolds number and a dimensionless elasticity value, the Weissenberg number. For Weissenberg values greater than approximately 10 (the critical value) the friction factor was found to be a function only of the Reynolds number; for values less than 10 the friction factor was a function of both Re and Ws. For the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient j{sub H} the corresponding critical Weissenberg value was found to be about 100. The heat transfer reduction is always greater than the friction factor reduction; consequently, the heat transfer per unit pumping power decreases with increasing elasticity. For fully established laminar pipe flow of aqueous polymer solutions, the measured values of the friction factor and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient were in excellent agreement with the values predicted for a power law fluid. For laminar flow in a 2:1 rectangular channel the fully developed friction factor measurements were in agreement with the power law prediction. In contrast, the measured local heat transfer coefficients for aqueous polymer solutions in laminar flow through the 2:1 rectangular duct were two or three times the values predicted for a purely viscous power law fluid. It is hypothesized that these high heat transfer coefficients are due to secondary motions, which come about as a results of the unequal normal stresses occurring in viscoelastic fluids. The anomalous behavior of one particular aqueous polymer solution-namely, polyacrylic acid (Carbopol)-is described in some detail, raising some interesting questions as to how viscoelastic fluids should be classified.

  18. Thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid permeated with suspended particles in hydromagnetics in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pardeep

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of suspended particles on the thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid in hydromantic in porous medium is considered. For stationary convection, Walters B' viscoelastic fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The medium permeability and suspended particles has ten the onset of convection whereas the magnetic field postpones the onset of convection, for the case of stationary convection. The magnetic field and viscoelasticity intro duce oscillatory modes in the system which was non-existent in their absence.

  19. Nonlinear waves in a fluid-filled thin viscoelastic tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Yuan; Zhang, Tao

    2010-11-01

    In the present paper the propagation property of nonlinear waves in a thin viscoelastic tube filled with incompressible inviscid fluid is studied. The tube is considered to be made of an incompressible isotropic viscoelastic material described by Kelvin—Voigt model. Using the mass conservation and the momentum theorem of the fluid and radial dynamic equilibrium of an element of the tube wall, a set of nonlinear partial differential equations governing the propagation of nonlinear pressure wave in the solid—liquid coupled system is obtained. In the long-wave approximation the nonlinear far-field equations can be derived employing the reductive perturbation technique (RPT). Selecting the exponent α of the perturbation parameter in Gardner—Morikawa transformation according to the order of viscous coefficient η, three kinds of evolution equations with soliton solution, i.e. Korteweg—de Vries (KdV)—Burgers, KdV and Burgers equations are deduced. By means of the method of traveling-wave solution and numerical calculation, the propagation properties of solitary waves corresponding with these evolution equations are analysed in detail. Finally, as a example of practical application, the propagation of pressure pulses in large blood vessels is discussed.

  20. Investigation of particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua

    2016-08-01

    In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0≤τ<∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs.

  2. Oil drainage in model porous media by viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julien; Bodiguel, Hugues; Colin, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Crude oil recovery efficiency has been shown to depend directly on the capillary number (Ca). If the capillary phenomenon is well described for Newtonian fluids, the consequences of non linear rheology and viscoelasticity require more experimental work at the pore scale. In this work we take advantage of microfluidic to revisit this field. We carried out oil drainage experiments through a micromodel made up with photoresist resin. The wetting phase trapped is a model oil. The invading phases used are aqueous solutions of high molecular weight hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and surfactant. Qualitatively, we observed a transition between a capillary fingering at low flow rates and a stable front at high flow rates for the drainage experiments with HPAM and surfactant solutions as it happened for drainage with Newtonian fluids. From movies of the filling of the device, we determine the local velocity of all menisci in the porous media. Thus, we quantify the capillary fingering. Surprisingly, local velocities are not significantly different from those measured using water, whereas the HPAM solutions are much more viscous. With betaine solutions, we observed an emulsification of the oil clusters trapped during the invasion leading to a very high oil recovery after percolation.

  3. Effect of Fluid Viscoelasticity on Turbulence and Large-Scale Vortices behind Wall-Mounted Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukahara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic fluid flows in a channel with wall-mounted plates were performed to investigate the influence of viscoelasticity on turbulent structures and the mean flow around the plate. The constitutive equation follows the Giesekus model, valid for polymer or surfactant solutions, which are generally capable of reducing the turbulent frictional drag in a smooth channel. We found that turbulent eddies just behind the plates in viscoelastic fluid decreased in number and in magnitude, but their size increased. Three pairs of organized longitudinal vortices were observed downstream of the plates in both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids: two vortex pairs were behind the plates and the other one with the longest length was in a plate-free area. In the viscoelastic fluid, the latter vortex pair in the plate-free area was maintained and reached the downstream rib, but its swirling strength was weakened and the local skin-friction drag near the vortex was much weaker than those in the Newtonian flow. The mean flow and small spanwise eddies were influenced by the additional fluid force due to the viscoelasticity and, moreover, the spanwise component of the fluid elastic force may also play a role in the suppression of fluid vortical motions behind the plates.

  4. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  5. Flagellar swimming in viscoelastic fluids: role of fluid elastic stress revealed by simulations based on experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanbin; Qin, Boyang; Gopinath, Arvind; Arratia, Paulo E; Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    Many important biological functions depend on microorganisms' ability to move in viscoelastic fluids such as mucus and wet soil. The effects of fluid elasticity on motility remain poorly understood, partly because the swimmer strokes depend on the properties of the fluid medium, which obfuscates the mechanisms responsible for observed behavioural changes. In this study, we use experimental data on the gaits of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii swimming in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids as inputs to numerical simulations that decouple the swimmer gait and fluid type in order to isolate the effect of fluid elasticity on swimming. In viscoelastic fluids, cells employing the Newtonian gait swim faster but generate larger stresses and use more power, and as a result the viscoelastic gait is more efficient. Furthermore, we show that fundamental principles of swimming based on viscous fluid theory miss important flow dynamics: fluid elasticity provides an elastic memory effect that increases both the forward and backward speeds, and (unlike purely viscous fluids) larger fluid stress accumulates around flagella moving tangent to the swimming direction, compared with the normal direction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Influence Study of the Viscoelastic Fluids Features in Drag Reduction in Laminar Regime Flow in Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Vilalta Guillermo; Silva Mário; Blanco Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The drag reduction by polymer addition is wide interest in several areas. It has been shown that the polymer addition cushions the dissipative effects in turbulent flows. The main objective of this work is to establish a methodology for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluid through internal subroutines implemented in the Fluent code, via UDF. The validation of this methodology is made for the laminar flow regime case in pipeline. To describe the viscoelastic effect, it was used the F...

  7. Instability of two rotating viscoelastic (Walters B' superposed fluids with suspended particles in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pardeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability of the plane interface between two Walters B' viscoelastic superposed fluids permeated with suspended particles and uniform rotation in porous medium is considered following the linearized perturbation theory and normal mode analysis. For the stable configuration the system is found to be stable or unstable if ν' k1/Є, depending on kinematic viscoelasticity, permeability of the medium and porosity of the medium. However, the system is found to be unstable for the potentially unstable configuration. .

  8. Hall effect on MHD flow of visco-elastic micro-polar fluid layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0. (0,0, ). H. = H о is applied along z-axis. Fig. 1: Geometry of the problem. Here, we have taken Rivlin-Ericksen visco-elastic fluid in which when the fluid permeates a porous medium, the gross effect is represented by Darcy's law and the usual viscous term in the momentum equation is replaced by the resistance term. 1.

  9. Effect of Ratio of Visco-Elastic Material Viscosity to Fluid Viscosity on Stability of Flexible Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANBUKUMAR, S.; KUMAR, MUNENDRA

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, a flexible pipe has been considered to study the effect of ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity on the stability of flexible laminar pipe flow with axi-symmetric disturbances. The effect of thickness of visco-elastic material on the stability of flexible pipe flow with outer rigid shroud has also been studied. The stability curves are drawn for various values of the ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity. It is observed that stability of flow is increasing by decreasing the ratio of visco-elastic material viscosity to fluid viscosity.

  10. A viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction model for carotid arteries under pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjie; Wood, Nigel B; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction model (FSI) incorporating viscoelastic wall behaviour is developed and applied to an idealized model of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow. The shear and bulk moduli of the arterial wall are described by Prony series, where the parameters can be derived from in vivo measurements. The aim is to develop a fully coupled FSI model that can be applied to realistic arterial geometries with normal or pathological viscoelastic wall behaviour. Comparisons between the numerical and analytical solutions for wall displacements demonstrate that the coupled model is capable of predicting the viscoelastic behaviour of carotid arteries. Comparisons are also made between the solid only and FSI viscoelastic models, and the results suggest that the difference in radial displacement between the two models is negligible. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fluid-particle dynamics for passive tracers advected by a thermally fluctuating viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Christel; McKinley, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    Many biological fluids, like mucus and cytoplasm, have prominent viscoelastic properties. As a consequence, immersed particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior, which is to say, the variance of the particle displacement grows sublinearly with time. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic generalization of the Landau-Lifschitz Navier-Stokes fluid model and investigate the properties of particles that are passively advected by such a medium. We exploit certain exact formulations that arise from the Gaussian nature of the fluid model and introduce analysis of memory in the fluid statistics, marking an important step toward capturing fluctuating hydrodynamics among subdiffusive particles. The proposed method is spectral, meshless and is based on the numerical evaluation of the covariance matrix associated with individual fluid modes. With this method, we probe a central hypothesis of passive microrheology, a field premised on the idea that the statistics of particle trajectories can reveal fundamental information about their surrounding fluid environment.

  12. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles

    2016-11-01

    While swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic. We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D. A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparison to theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. NIH R01 GM072004, NIH P50GM094503.

  13. Shear Rheology of a Suspension of Deformable Solids in Viscoelastic Fluid via Immersed Boundary Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of fluids with suspended deformable solids is important to the design of microfluidic devices with soft particles and the examination of blood flow in complex channels. The fluids in these applications are often viscoelastic, motivating the development of a high-fidelity simulation tool with general constitutive model implementations for both the viscoelastic fluid and deformable solid. The Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM) presented by Zhang et al. (2007) allows for distinct fluid and solid grids to be utilized reducing the need for costly re-meshing when particles translate. We discuss a modified version of the IFEM that allows for the simulation of deformable particles in viscoelastic flows. This simulation tool is validated for simple Newtonian shear flows with elastic particles that obey a Neo-Hookean Law. The tool is used to further explore the rheology of a dilute suspension of Neo-Hookean particles in a Giesekus fluid. The results show that dilute suspensions of soft particles have viscosities that decrease as the Capillary number becomes higher in both the case of a Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. A discussion of multiple particle results will be included. NSF CBET-1066263 and 1066334.

  14. Emergence of a limit cycle for swimming microorganisms in a vortical flow of a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, A. M.; Gore, E.

    2012-05-01

    We propose that the rheological properties of background fluid play an important role in the interaction of microorganisms with the flow field. The viscoelastic-induced migration of microorganisms in a vortical flow leads to the emergence of a limit cycle. The shape and formation rate of patterns depend on motility, vorticity strength, and rheological properties of the background fluid. Given the inherent viscoelasticity of exopolysaccharides secreted by microorganisms, our results can suggest new mechanisms leading to the vital behavior of microorganisms such as bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation.

  15. Nonlinear viscoelasticity and shear localization at complex fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erni, Philipp; Parker, Alan

    2012-05-22

    Foams and emulsions are often exposed to strong external fields, resulting in large interface deformations far beyond the linear viscoelastic regime. Here, we investigate the nonlinear and transient interfacial rheology of adsorption layers in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. As a prototypical material forming soft-solid-type interfacial adsorption layers, we use Acacia gum (i.e., gum arabic), a protein/polysaccharide hybrid. We quantify its nonlinear flow properties at the oil/water interface using a biconical disk interfacial rheometer and analyze the nonlinear stress response under forced strain oscillations. From the resulting Lissajous curves, we access quantitative measures recently introduced for nonlinear viscoelasticity, including the intracycle moduli for both the maximum and zero strains and the degree of plastic energy dissipation upon interfacial yielding. We demonstrate using in situ flow visualization that the onset of nonlinear viscoelasticity coincides with shear localization at the interface. Finally, we address the nonperiodic character of this flow transition using an experimental procedure based on opposing stress pulses, allowing us to extract additional interfacial properties such as the critical interfacial stress upon yielding and the permanent deformation.

  16. Sensing of fluid viscoelasticity from piezoelectric actuation of cantilever flexural vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongwon; Jeong, Seongbin; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method is proposed to measure the rheological properties of fluids. The effects of fluids on the vibration actuated by piezoelectric patches were analyzed and used in measuring viscoelastic properties. Fluid-structure interactions induced changes in the beam vibration properties and frequency-dependent variations of the complex wavenumber of the beam structure were used in monitoring these changes. To account for the effects of fluid-structure interaction, fluids were modelled as a simple viscoelastic support at one end of the beam. The measured properties were the fluid's dynamic shear modulus and loss tangent. Using the proposed method, the rheological properties of various non-Newtonian fluids were measured. The frequency range for which reliable viscoelasticity results could be obtained was 10-400 Hz. Viscosity standard fluids were tested to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, and the results agreed well with the manufacturer's reported values. The simple proposed laboratory setup for measurements was flexible so that the frequency ranges of data acquisition were adjustable by changing the beam's mechanical properties.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becherer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelastic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite-amplitude) instabilities in parallel

  18. A viscoelastic fluid model for describing the mechanics of a Coarse ligated plasma clot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.R. [Texas A and M University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College Station, TX (United States); Rajagopal, K. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Thrombi are formed at the end of a series of complex biochemical processes. There are various types of thrombi, and their rheological properties change depending on the conditions during clot formation. In this paper, a model for a particular type of clot, formed from human plasma, is proposed within a thermodynamic framework that recognizes that viscoelastic fluids possess multiple natural configurations. (orig.)

  19. An improved weakly compressible SPH method for simulating free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Deng, Xiao-Long

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an improved weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is proposed to simulate transient free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids. The improved SPH algorithm includes the implementation of (i) the mixed symmetric correction of kernel gradient to improve the accuracy and stability of traditional SPH method and (ii) the Rusanov flux in the continuity equation for improving the computation of pressure distributions in the dynamics of liquids. To assess the effectiveness of the improved SPH algorithm, a number of numerical examples including the stretching of an initially circular water drop, dam breaking flow against a vertical wall, the impact of viscous and viscoelastic fluid drop with a rigid wall, and the extrudate swell of viscoelastic fluid have been presented and compared with available numerical and experimental data in literature. The convergent behavior of the improved SPH algorithm has also been studied by using different number of particles. All numerical results demonstrate that the improved SPH algorithm proposed here is capable of modeling free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids accurately and stably, and even more important, also computing an accurate and little oscillatory pressure field.

  20. Sensing of fluid viscoelasticity from piezoelectric actuation of cantilever flexural vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeongwon; Jeong, Seongbin; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Junhong, E-mail: parkj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental method is proposed to measure the rheological properties of fluids. The effects of fluids on the vibration actuated by piezoelectric patches were analyzed and used in measuring viscoelastic properties. Fluid-structure interactions induced changes in the beam vibration properties and frequency-dependent variations of the complex wavenumber of the beam structure were used in monitoring these changes. To account for the effects of fluid-structure interaction, fluids were modelled as a simple viscoelastic support at one end of the beam. The measured properties were the fluid’s dynamic shear modulus and loss tangent. Using the proposed method, the rheological properties of various non-Newtonian fluids were measured. The frequency range for which reliable viscoelasticity results could be obtained was 10–400 Hz. Viscosity standard fluids were tested to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, and the results agreed well with the manufacturer’s reported values. The simple proposed laboratory setup for measurements was flexible so that the frequency ranges of data acquisition were adjustable by changing the beam’s mechanical properties.

  1. Surface hydrodynamics of viscoelastic fluids and soft solids: Surfing bulk rheology on capillary and Rayleigh waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    From the recent advent of the new soft-micro technologies, the hydrodynamic theory of surface modes propagating on viscoelastic bodies has reinvigorated this field of technology with interesting predictions and new possible applications, so recovering its scientific interest very limited at birth to the academic scope. Today, a myriad of soft small objects, deformable meso- and micro-structures, and macroscopically viscoelastic bodies fabricated from colloids and polymers are already available in the materials catalogue. Thus, one can envisage a constellation of new soft objects fabricated by-design with a functional dynamics based on the mechanical interplay of the viscoelastic material with the medium through their interfaces. In this review, we recapitulate the field from its birth and theoretical foundation in the latest 1980s up today, through its flourishing in the 90s from the prediction of extraordinary Rayleigh modes in coexistence with ordinary capillary waves on the surface of viscoelastic fluids, a fact first confirmed in experiments by Dominique Langevin and me with soft gels [Monroy and Langevin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3167 (1998)]. With this observational discovery at sight, we not only settled the theory previously formulated a few years before, but mainly opened a new field of applications with soft materials where the mechanical interplay between surface and bulk motions matters. Also, new unpublished results from surface wave experiments performed with soft colloids are reported in this contribution, in which the analytic methods of wave surfing synthetized together with the concept of coexisting capillary-shear modes are claimed as an integrated tool to insightfully scrutinize the bulk rheology of soft solids and viscoelastic fluids. This dedicatory to the figure of Dominique Langevin includes an appraisal of the relevant theoretical aspects of the surface hydrodynamics of viscoelastic fluids, and the coverage of the most important experimental

  2. Simulations of viscoelastic fluids using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method: Transition states of elastic instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elastic instabilities could happen in viscoelastic flows as the Weissenberg number is enlarged, and this phenomenon makes the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluids more difficult. In this study, we introduce a coupled lattice Boltzmann method to solve the equations of viscoelastic fluids, which has a great capability of simulating the high Weissenberg number problem. Different from some traditional methods, two kinds of distribution functions are defined respectively for the evolution of the momentum and stress tensor equations. We mainly aim to investigate some key factors of the symmetry-breaking transition induced by elastic instability of viscoelastic fluids using this numerical coupled lattice Boltzmann method. In the results, we firstly find that the ratio of kinematical viscosity has an important influence on the transition of the elastic instability; the transition between the single stationary and cycling dominant vortex can be controlled via changing the ratio of kinematical viscosity in a periodic extensional flow. Finally, we can also observe a new transition state of instability for the flow showing the banded structure at higher Weissenberg number.

  3. A New Method to Simulate Free Surface Flows for Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free surface flows arise in a variety of engineering applications. To predict the dynamic characteristics of such problems, specific numerical methods are required to accurately capture the shape of free surface. This paper proposed a new method which combined the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE technique with the Finite Volume Method (FVM to simulate the time-dependent viscoelastic free surface flows. Based on an open source CFD toolbox called OpenFOAM, we designed an ALE-FVM free surface simulation platform. In the meantime, the die-swell flow had been investigated with our proposed platform to make a further analysis of free surface phenomenon. The results validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method for free surface simulation in both Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic fluid.

  4. Asymptotic Behavior of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Closed Loop Thermosyphon: Physical Derivation, Asymptotic Analysis, and Numerical Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Yasappan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluids subject to thermal gradients produce complex behaviors that arise from the competition with gravitational effects. Although such sort of systems have been widely studied in the literature for simple (Newtonian fluids, the behavior of viscoelastic fluids has not been explored thus far. We present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a Maxwell viscoelastic fluid in a closed-loop thermosyphon. This sort of fluid presents elastic-like behavior and memory effects. We study the asymptotic properties of the fluid inside the thermosyphon and the exact equations of motion in the inertial manifold that characterizes the asymptotic behavior. We derive, for the first time, the mathematical derivations of the motion of a viscoelastic fluid in the interior of a closed-loop thermosyphon under the effects of natural convection and a given external temperature gradient.

  5. Flagellar Kinematics and Swimming of Algal Cells in Viscoelastic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, B.; Gopinath, A.; Yang, J.; Gollub, J. P.; Arratia, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    The motility of microorganisms is influenced greatly by their hydrodynamic interactions with the fluidic environment they inhabit. We show by direct experimental observation of the bi-flagellated alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that fluid elasticity and viscosity strongly influence the beating pattern - the gait - and thereby control the propulsion speed. The beating frequency and the wave speed characterizing the cyclical bending are both enhanced by fluid elasticity. Despite these enhancements, the net swimming speed of the alga is hindered for fluids that are sufficiently elastic. The origin of this complex response lies in the interplay between the elasticity-induced changes in the spatial and temporal aspects of the flagellar cycle and the buildup and subsequent relaxation of elastic stresses during the power and recovery strokes.

  6. Error analysis of the finite element and finite volume methods for some viscoelastic fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; She, B.; Stebel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 105-123 ISSN 1570-2820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : error analysis * Oldroyd-B type models * viscoelastic fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.405, year: 2016 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2016.24.issue-2/jnma-2014-0057/jnma-2014-0057. xml

  7. The unsteady motion of a sphere in a viscoelastic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, L.E.; McKinley, G. H.; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    1994-01-01

    The motion of a sphere accelerating from rest along the center line of a cylindrical tube filled with a polyisobutylene (PIB) Boger fluid is examined both experimentally, using a digital imaging system, and numerically via a Lagrangian finite element method for single and multimode Oldroyd models...

  8. Thermal convection of dusty compressible Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid with hall currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Urvashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents and suspended particles on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid. The perturbation equations are analyzed in terms of normal modes after linearizing the relevant set of hydromagnetic equations. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, magnetic field, Hall currents, compressibility and suspended particles is derived. For the stationary convection Rivlin-Ericksen fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility and magnetic field are found to have a stabilizing effect on the system whereas Hall currents and suspended particles hasten the onset of thermal instability. These analytic results are confirmed numerically and the effects of various parameters on the stability parameter are depicted graphically. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wavenumbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, suspended particles and Hall currents which were not existing in the absence of these parameters.

  9. Influence Study of the Viscoelastic Fluids Features in Drag Reduction in Laminar Regime Flow in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilalta Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The drag reduction by polymer addition is wide interest in several areas. It has been shown that the polymer addition cushions the dissipative effects in turbulent flows. The main objective of this work is to establish a methodology for the numerical simulation of viscoelastic fluid through internal subroutines implemented in the Fluent code, via UDF. The validation of this methodology is made for the laminar flow regime case in pipeline. To describe the viscoelastic effect, it was used the Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic model closing with Peterlin model. To taking in account the viscous effects 50≤Re≤2000 values were used. In addition, for the polymer concentration analysis it was used values which depend on the polymers molecular weight and the solution concentration that ranged from 0≤Cw≤20. The molecular elasticity and extensibility were maintained at constant values. The results showed that the addition of polymers regardless of their molecular weight in laminar flow regime causes no change in power dissipation. This result, which is consistent with the literature, is a significant advance in defining a credible and appropriate methodology to viscoelastic fluid flow study by UDF implementation of constituent models that characterize these fluids.

  10. Three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid with thermal radiation and convective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab

    2014-01-01

    The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.

  11. Direct measurement of the ballistic motion of a freely floating colloid in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Andrew P.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2017-10-01

    A thermal colloid suspended in a liquid will transition from a short-time ballistic motion to a long-time diffusive motion. However, the transition between ballistic and diffusive motion is highly dependent on the properties and structure of the particular liquid. We directly observe a free floating tracer particle's ballistic motion and its transition to the long-time regime in both a Newtonian fluid and a viscoelastic Maxwell fluid. We examine the motion of the free particle in a Newtonian fluid and demonstrate a high degree of agreement with the accepted Clercx-Schram model for motion in a dense fluid. Measurements of the functional form of the ballistic-to-diffusive transition provide direct measurements of the temperature, viscosity, and tracer radius. We likewise measure the motion in a viscoelastic Maxwell fluid and find a significant disagreement between the theoretical asymptotic behavior and our measured values of the microscopic properties of the fluid. We observe a greatly increased effective mass for a freely moving particle and a decreased plateau modulus.

  12. The instability of streaming Walters' viscoelastic fluid B‧ in porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Sunil; Chand, Suresh

    1999-02-01

    The instability of streaming Walters' elastico-viscous fluid B in porous medium is considered. The case of two uniform streaming fluids separated by a horizontal boundary is considered. It is found that for the special case when perturbations in the direction of streaming are ignored, the system can be stable or unstable, depending upon kinematic viscoelasticity, medium porosity and medium permeability, for both potential unstable and potentially stable configurations. In every other direction, a minimum value of wave-number has been found and the system is unstable for all wave-numbers greater than this minimum wave number.

  13. Electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency of viscoelastic fluids in a polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yongjun; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Yongbo; Chang, Long; Liu, Quansheng; Yang, Liangui

    2017-08-01

    In order to conduct extensive investigation of energy harvesting capabilities of nanofluidic devices, we provide analytical solutions for streaming potential and electrokinetic energy conversion (EKEC) efficiency through taking the combined consequences of soft nanochannel, a rigid nanochannel whose surface is covered by charged polyelectrolyte layer, and viscoelastic rheology into account. The viscoelasticity of the fluid is considered by employing the Maxwell constitutive model when the forcing frequency of an oscillatory driving pressure flow matches with the inverse of the relaxation time scale of a typical viscoelastic fluid. We compare the streaming potential and EKEC efficiency with those of a rigid nanochannel, having zeta potential equal to the electrostatic potential at the solid-polyelectrolyte interface of the soft nanochannels. Within the present selected parameter ranges, it is shown that the different peaks of maximal streaming potential and EKEC efficiency for the rigid nanochannel are larger than those for the soft nanochannel when forcing frequencies of the driving pressure gradient are close to resonating frequencies. However, more enhanced streaming potential and EKEC efficiency for a soft nanochannel can be found in most of the regions away from these resonant frequencies. Moreover, the influence of several dimensionless parameters on EKEC efficiency is discussed in detail. Finally, within the given parametric regions, the maximum efficiency at some resonant frequency obtained in present analysis is about 25%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional Eulerian method for large deformation of viscoelastic fluid: Toward plate-mantle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Mikito; Kameyama, Masanori; Kageyama, Akira

    2008-05-01

    Toward the unified simulation of the large deformation of a rigid viscoelastic material (plate) and the convection of a viscous fluid (mantle), an Eulerian scheme with a semi-Lagrangian method is developed. The scheme adopts the CIP-CSLR method for advection terms of staggered grid system in three dimensions. The positive transported profile of a positive quantity is assured by flux corrections in the dimensional splitting method. The Jaumann co-rotational effect of the stress tensor is also integrated into the semi-Lagrangian treatment. This co-rotated semi-Lagrangian method is combined with an exponential time differencing method in the time development of the Maxwell constitutive model. The large time step comparable to, or larger than, the Maxwell relaxation time is successfully realized. Validation tests are performed for the three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a viscoelastic material with jump discontinuity of the mass density and other material properties.

  15. Electrospray fabrication and osmotic response of fluid core-viscoelastic shell microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Osuji, Chinedum

    2011-03-01

    Microcapsules with fluid-core in viscoelastic shell is interesting partially because of their unusual elasticity/rigidity. Electrospray technique, more flexible and scalable than traditional bulk and microfluidic emulsification, was used to generate spherical microcapsules. In particular, sodium alginate fine droplets generated by electrospray was surface cross-linked by either Ca(II) or chitosan to form polyelectrolyte microcapsules. By adjusting the needle inner diameter, concentration of sodium alginate, and applied voltage, we can control the droplet size to the designated range. Furthermore, we can tune the thickness and thereby rigidity/elasticity of the viscoelastic shell by adjusting the residence time of microcapsules in gelation solution to control the rigidity/elasticity of microcapsules. These polyelectrolyte microcapsules were subject to the osmotic pressure of synthetic water-soluble polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol), with progressively lower concentration to observe their osmotic swelling behavior.

  16. Numerical simulation of the planar extrudate swell of pseudoplastic and viscoelastic fluids with the streamfunction and the VOF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Pimenta, Francisco; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2017-01-01

    , as well as with numerical simulations performed with the open-source rheoTool toolbox in OpenFOAM®. While the simulations of the generalized Newtonian fluids achieved mesh independence for all the methods tested, the flow simulations of the viscoelastic fluids are more sensitive to mesh refinement......Abstract We present an Eulerian free-surface flow solver for incompressible pseudoplastic and viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids. The free-surface flow solver is based on the streamfunction flow formulation and the volume-of-fluid method. The streamfunction solver computes the vector potential...... of a solenoidal velocity field, which ensures by construction the mass conservation of the solution, and removes the pressure unknown. Pseudoplastic liquids are modelled with a Carreau model. The viscoelastic fluids are governed by differential constitutive models reformulated with the log-conformation approach...

  17. Effects of fluid viscoelasticity on the performance of an axial blood pump model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hui; Li, Jing-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous Xanthan gum solution (XGS) was used as blood analog fluid to explore the influence of fluid viscoelasticity on the performance of an axial blood pump model. For comparison, a 39 wt% Newtonian aqueous glycerin solution (GS), the common fluid in blood pump tests, was also used as a working fluid. The experimental results showed that a higher head curve was obtained using XGS in the pump than using GS. The heads of the XGS that were computed using the viscoelastic turbulence model agreed well with the measured data. In contrast, the standard k-ε turbulence model failed to provide satisfactory predictions for the XGS. The computational results revealed that in most parts of the pump model flow fields, the Reynolds shear stress values and turbulent dissipation rates of the XGS were all lower than those of the GS. The hemolysis index of the pump model using the XGS was calculated to be only one-third of that using the GS.

  18. Wave propagation and induced steady streaming in viscous fluid contained in a prestressed viscoelastic tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ye; Ng, Chiu-On

    2009-05-01

    The oscillatory and time-mean motions induced by a propagating wave of small amplitude through a viscous incompressible fluid contained in a prestressed and viscoelastic (modeled as a Voigt material) tube are studied by a perturbation analysis based on equations of motion in the Lagrangian system. The classical problem of oscillatory viscous flow in a flexible tube is re-examined in the contexts of blood flow in arteries or pulmonary gas flow in airways. The wave kinematics and dynamics, including wavenumber, wave attenuation, velocity, and stress fields, are found as analytical functions of the wall and fluid properties, prestress, and the Womersley number for the cases of a free or tethered tube. On extending the analysis to the second order in terms of the small wave steepness, it is shown that the time-mean motion of the viscoelastic tube with sufficient strength is short lived and dies out quickly as a limit of finite deformation is approached. Once the tube has attained its steady deformation, the steady streaming in the fluid can be solved analytically. Results are generated to illustrate the combined effects on the first-order oscillatory flow and the second-order steady streaming due to elasticity, viscosity, and initial stresses of the wall. The present model as applied to blood flow in arteries and gas flow in pulmonary airways during high-frequency ventilation is examined in detail through comparison with models in the literature.

  19. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Maqsood

    Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet

  20. Stability of plane Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifdi Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The linear stability of plan Poiseuille flow of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically. The fourth-order Sommerfeld equation governing the stability analysis is solved by spectral method with expansions in lagrange’s polynomials, based on collocation points of Gauss-Lobatto. The critical values of Reynolds number, wave number and wave speed are computed. The results are shown through the neutral curve. The main purpose of this work is to check the combined effect of magnetic field and fluid’s elasticity on the stability of the plane Poiseuille flow. Based on the results obtained in this work, the magnetic field is predicted to have a stabilizing effect on the Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids. Hence, it will be shown that for second-order fluids (K 0 is that the critical Reynolds numbers Rec increase when the Hartman number M increases for certain value of elasticity number K and decrease for others. The latter result is in contrast to previous studies.

  1. Ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Goswami, Prakash; Dhar, Jayabrata; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    We report a study on the ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip. Here, we derive an analytical solution for the potential distribution in a parallel plate microchannel, where the effects of finite sized ionic species are taken into account by invoking the free energy formalism. Following this, a purely electroosmotic flow of a simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT) fluid is considered. For the sPTT model, linear, quadratic, and exponential kernels are chosen for the stress coefficient function describing its viscoelastic nature across various ranges of Deborah number. The theoretical framework presented in our analysis has been successfully compared with experimental results available in the literature. We believe that the implications of the considered effects on the net volumetric throughput will not only provide a deeper theoretical insight to interpret the electrokinetic data in the presence of ionic species but also serve as a fundamental design tool for novel electrokinetically driven lab-on-a-chip biofluidic devices.

  2. Chemically reacting dusty viscoelastic fluid flow in an irregular channel with convective boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivaraj

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the combined effects of free convective heat and mass transfer on an unsteady MHD dusty viscoelastic (Walters liquid model-B fluid flow between a vertical long wavy wall and a parallel flat wall saturated with porous medium subject to the convective boundary condition. The coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically using perturbation technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been studied for various combinations of physical parameters such as magnetic field, heat absorption, thermal radiation, radiation absorption, Biot number and chemical reaction parameters. The skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also presented and displayed graphically. Further, it is observed that the velocity profiles of dusty fluid are higher than the dust particles.

  3. Influence of rheology on laminar heat transfer to viscoelastic fluids in a rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, C.; Hartnett, J.P. (Energy Resources Center, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (US))

    1992-03-01

    Experimental studies of the laminar pressure drop and heat-transfer behavior of two types of aqueous polymer solutions were carried out in a 2:1 rectangular channel. The fluids studied were 1000 wppm of neutralized Carbopol 934 in deionized water and 1000 wppm of Separan AP-273 in tap water. Three difference thermal boundary conditions were studied. The experimental friction factors for the two polymer solutions agree with the value predicted for a purely viscous power law fluid. The measured Nusselt values for the two polymer solutions were considerably higher than the corresponding values for a power law fluid and higher than the experimental values for water. In this paper it is postulated that these high heat-transfer values are the result of secondary flows which arise from normal stress differences imposed on the boundaries of viscoelastic fluids in laminar flow through noncircular geometries. In addition, it is hypothesized that under laminar flow conditions the low frequency oscillatory behavior determines the relative elasticity, which in turn influences the heat-transfer performance of such fluids.

  4. Viscoelastic flow simulations in model porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, S.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Padding, J. T.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the flow of unsteadfy three-dimensional viscoelastic fluid through an array of symmetric and asymmetric sets of cylinders constituting a model porous medium. The simulations are performed using a finite-volume methodology with a staggered grid. The solid-fluid interfaces of the porous structure are modeled using a second-order immersed boundary method [S. De et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 232, 67 (2016), 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2016.04.002]. A finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive model with Peterlin closure is used to model the viscoelastic part. By means of periodic boundary conditions, we model the flow behavior for a Newtonian as well as a viscoelastic fluid through successive contractions and expansions. We observe the presence of counterrotating vortices in the dead ends of our geometry. The simulations provide detailed insight into how flow structure, viscoelastic stresses, and viscoelastic work change with increasing Deborah number De. We observe completely different flow structures and different distributions of the viscoelastic work at high De in the symmetric and asymmetric configurations, even though they have the exact same porosity. Moreover, we find that even for the symmetric contraction-expansion flow, most energy dissipation is occurring in shear-dominated regions of the flow domain, not in extensional-flow-dominated regions.

  5. A new mixed subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulation of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Chen; Wang, Lu; Cai, Wei-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2011M500652), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51276046 and 51206033), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020).

  6. The mechanism of propulsion of a model microswimmer in a viscoelastic fluid next to a solid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Thomas R.; Morozov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study the swimming of a model organism, the so-called Taylor's swimming sheet, in a viscoelastic fluid close to a solid boundary. This situation comprises natural habitats of many swimming microorganisms, and while previous investigations have considered the effects of both swimming next to a boundary and swimming in a viscoelastic fluid, seldom have both effects been considered simultaneously. We re-visit the small wave amplitude result obtained by Elfring and Lauga ["Theory of locomotion through complex fluids," in Complex Fluids in Biological Systems, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, edited by S. E. Spagnolie (Springer New York, New York, NY, 2015), pp. 283-317] and give a mechanistic explanation to the decoupling of the effects of viscoelasticity, which tend to slow the sheet, and the presence of the boundary, which tends to speed up the sheet. We also develop a numerical spectral method capable of finding the swimming speed of a waving sheet with an arbitrary amplitude and waveform. We use it to show that the decoupling mentioned earlier does not hold at finite wave amplitudes and that for some parameters the presence of a boundary can cause the viscoelastic effects to increase the swimming speed of microorganisms.

  7. Chaotic Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium with a Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Bhadauria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic convection in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous layer, heated from below, is studied by using Oldroyd’s type constituting relation and in the presence of an internal heat source. A modified Darcy law is used in the momentum equation, and a heat source term has been considered in energy equation. An autonomous system of fourth-order differential equations has been deduced by using a truncated Fourier series. Effect of internal heat generation on chaotic convection has been investigated. The asymptotic behavior can be stationary, periodic, or chaotic, depending upon the flow parameters. Construction of four-scroll, or “two-butterfly,” and chaotic attractor has been examined.

  8. Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with Electromagnetic Effects and Nonuniform Heat Source/Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with electric and magnetic dissipation and nonuniform heat source/sink has been studied. The buoyant effect and the electric number E1 couple with magnetic parameter M to represent the dominance of the electric and magnetic effects, and adding the specific item of nonuniform heat source/sink is presented in governing equations which are the main contribution of this study. The similarity transformation, the finite-difference method, Newton method, and Gauss elimination method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, and the important wall unknown values of f''(0 and θ'(0 have been carried out. The parameter Pr, E1, or Ec can increase the heat transfer effects, but the parameter M or A* may decrease the heat transfer effects.

  9. Hall Effect on Thermal Instability of Viscoelastic Dusty Fluid in Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of Hall currents and suspended dusty particles on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Rivlin-Ericksen elastico viscous fluid in a porous medium is considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effects whereas compressibility and magnetic field have stabilizing effects on the system. The medium permeability, however, has stabilizing and destabilizing effects on thermal instability in contrast to its destabilizing effect in the absence of the magnetic field. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers are depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents and viscoelasticity parameter are found to introduce oscillatory modes in the systems, which did not exist in the absence of these parameters

  10. Elastic Deformation Analysis on MHD Viscous Dissipative Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid: An Exact Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar

    2017-05-01

    This communication is devoted to analyze elastic deformation on electrically conducted viscoelastic fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation effects. Non-linear analysis is computed through exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Special emphasis is provided for elastic deformation in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics effects. Concentration profile is discussed significantly in the presence constructive and destructive chemical reaction. Results are displayed through graphs and discussed for physical parameters that are used in present analysis. Notable findings include that temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of Prandtl number and a decreasing function of elastic deformation. In addition, heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing the conjugate parameter (γ) which measures the strength of surface heating.

  11. Mixed Convection Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid by a Stretching Cylinder with Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Anwar, Muhammad Shoaib; Farooq, Muhammad; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Flow of viscoelastic fluid due to an impermeable stretching cylinder is discussed. Effects of mixed convection and variable thermal conductivity are present. Thermal conductivity is taken temperature dependent. Nonlinear partial differential system is reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential system. Resulting nonlinear system is computed for the convergent series solutions. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and discussed. The results obtained with the current method are in agreement with previous studies using other methods as well as theoretical ideas. Physical interpretation reflecting the contribution of influential parameters in the present flow is presented. It is hoped that present study serves as a stimulus for modeling further stretching flows especially in polymeric and paper production processes. PMID:25775032

  12. Conjugate Heat Transfer of Mixed Convection for Viscoelastic Fluid Past a Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A conjugate heat transfer problem of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid past a stretching sheet has been studied. Governing equations include heat conduction equation of a stretching sheet, continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation of a second-grade fluid, analyzed by a combination of a series expansion method, the similarity transformation, and a second-order accurate finite-difference method. These solutions are used to iterate with the heat conduction equation of the stretching sheet to obtain distributions of the local convective heat transfer coefficient and the stretching sheet temperature. Ranges of dimensionless parameters, the Prandtl number Pr, the elastic number E and the conduction-convection coefficient Ncc are from 0.001 to 10, 0.0001 to 0.01, and 0.5 to 2.0, respectively. A parameter G, which is used to represent the dominance of the buoyant effect, is present in governing equations. Results indicated that elastic effect in the flow could increase the local heat transfer coefficient and enhance the heat transfer of a stretching sheet. In addition, same as the results from Newtonian fluid flow and conduction analysis of a stretching sheet, a better heat transfer is obtained with a larger Ncc, G, and E.

  13. Interplay between optical, viscous and elastic forces on an optically trapped Brownian particle immersed in a viscoelastic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez-García, P; Jeney, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    We provide a detailed study of the interplay between the different interactions which appear in the Brownian motion of a micronsized sphere immersed in a viscoelastic fluid measured with optical trapping interferometry. To explore a wide range of viscous, elastic and optical forces, we analyze two different viscoelastic solutions at various concentrations, which provide a dynamic polymeric structure surrounding the Brownian sphere. Our experiments show that, depending of the fluid, optical forces, even if small, slightly modify the complex modulus at low frequencies. Based on our findings, we propose an alternative methodology to calibrate this kind of experimental set-up when non-Newtonian fluids are used. Understanding the influence of the optical potential is essential for a correct interpretation of the mechanical properties obtained by optically-trapped probe-based studies of biomaterials and living matter.

  14. Dynamics of particle sedimentation in viscoelastic fluids: A numerical study on particle chain in two-dimensional narrow channel

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a numerical method for simulating the sedimentation of circular particles in two-dimensional channel filled with a viscoelastic fluid of FENE-CR type, which is generalized from a domain/distributed Lagrange multiplier method with a factorization approach for Oldroyd-B fluids developed in [J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 156 (2009) 95]. Numerical results suggest that the polymer extension limit L for the FENE-CR fluid has no effect on the final formation of vertical chain for the cases of two disks and three disks in two-dimensional narrow channel, at least for the values of L considered in this article; but the intermediate dynamics of particle interaction before having a vertical chain can be different for the smaller values of L when increasing the relaxation time. For the cases of six particles sedimenting in FENE-CR type viscoelastic fluid, the formation of chain of 4 to 6 disks does depend on the polymer extension limit L. For the smaller values of L, FENE-CR type viscoelastic flu...

  15. Modeling Asymmetric Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in Symmetric Planar Sudden Expansion Geometry Based on User-Defined Function in FLUENT CFD Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.

  16. Heat Transfer of Viscoelastic Fluid Flow due to Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeppanavar, M. M.; Siddalingappa, M. N.; Jyoti, H.

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, a viscoelastic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially stretching continuous sheet in the presence of a heat source/sink has been examined. Loss of energy due to viscous dissipation of the non-Newtonian fluid has been taken into account in this study. Approximate analytical local similar solutions of the highly non-linear momentum equation are obtained for velocity distribution by transforming the equation into Riccati-type and then solving this sequentially. Accuracy of the zero-order analytical solutions for the stream function and velocity are verified by numerical solutions obtained by employing the Runge-Kutta fourth order method involving shooting. Similarity solutions of the temperature equation for non-isothermal boundary conditions are obtained in the form of confluent hypergeometric functions. The effect of various physical parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. It is seen that the rate of heat transfer from the stretching sheet to the fluid can be controlled by suitably choosing the values of the Prandtl number Pr and local Eckert number E, local viscioelastic parameter k*1 and local heat source/ sink parameter β*

  17. The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer with non-equilibrium model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    Full Text Available The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.

  18. The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer with non-equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Moli; Li, Shucai; Zhang, Qiangyong

    2013-01-01

    The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.

  19. Streptococcus mutans biofilm transient viscoelastic fluid behaviour during high-velocity microsprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, S; Johnston, D A; Rmaile, A; Gottenbos, B; De Jager, M; Aspiras, M; Starke, E M; Ward, M T; Stoodley, P

    2016-06-01

    Using high-speed imaging we assessed Streptococcus mutans biofilm-fluid interactions during exposure to a 60-ms microspray burst with a maximum exit velocity of 51m/s. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 72h on 10mm-length glass slides pre-conditioned with porcine gastric mucin. Biofilm stiffness was measured by performing uniaxial-compression tests. We developed an in-vitro interproximal model which allowed the parallel insertion of two biofilm-colonized slides separated by a distance of 1mm and enabled high-speed imaging of the removal process at the surface. S. mutans biofilms were exposed to either a water microspray or an air-only microburst. High-speed videos provided further insight into the mechanical behaviour of biofilms as complex liquids and into high-shear fluid-biofilm interaction. We documented biofilms extremely transient fluid behaviour when exposed to the high-velocity microsprays. The presence of time-dependent recoil and residual deformation confirmed the pivotal role of viscoelasticity in biofilm removal. The air-only microburst was effective enough to remove some of the biofilm but created a smaller clearance zone underlying the importance of water and the air-water interface of drops moving over the solid surface in the removal process. Confocal and COMSTAT analysis showed the high-velocity water microspray caused up to a 99.9% reduction in biofilm thickness, biomass and area coverage, within the impact area. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling of viscoelastic properties of nonpermeable porous rocks saturated with highly viscous fluid at seismic frequencies at the core scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zizhen; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Wang, Ruihe

    2017-08-01

    A core scale modeling method for viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies is developed based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. Based on this modeling method, we numerically test the effects of frequency, fluid viscosity, porosity, pore size, and pore aspect ratio on the storage moduli and the stress-strain phase lag of saturated rocks. And we also compared the modeling results to the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The dynamic moduli calculated from the modeling are lower than the predictions of CPA, and both of these fall between the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The modeling results indicate that the frequency and the fluid viscosity have similar effects on the dynamic moduli dispersion of fully saturated rocks. We observed the Debye peak in the phase lag variation with the change of frequency and viscosity. The pore structure parameters, such as porosity, pore size, and aspect ratio affect the rock frame stiffness and result in different viscoelastic behaviors of the saturated rocks. The stress-strain phase lags are larger with smaller stiffness contrasts between the rock frame and the pore fluid. The viscoelastic properties of saturated rocks are more sensitive to aspect ratio compared to other pore structure parameters. The results suggest that significant seismic dispersion (at about 50-200 Hz) might be expected for both compressional and shear waves passing through rocks saturated with highly viscous fluids.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryWe develop a core scale modeling method to simulate the viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. By using this modeling method, we numerically test the effects of

  1. Mathematical Study of the Small Oscillations of Two Nonmixing Fluids, the Lower Inviscid, the Upper Viscoelastic, in an Open Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaouini, H.; El Bakkali, L.; Capodanno, P.

    2017-12-01

    The authors study the small oscillations of a system of two nonmixing fluids, the lower inviscid, the upper viscoelastic, in an open container, restricting themselves for the second to the more simple Oldroyd model. From the equations of motion, they obtain a variational formulation of the problem, from which they deduce a variational equation for the viscoelastic fluid only, then a system of operatorial equations in suitable Hilbert space. They show the existence and the symmetry of the spectrum, prove the stability of the system and specify the location of the eigenvalues. They prove the existence of two sets of positive real eigenvalues having, the first l'infinity, the second a point of the real axis, as point of accumulation. Finally, after a suitable transformation of the operatorial equations of motion, they obtain an existence and unicity theorem of the solution of the associated evolution problem by means of the semigroups theory.

  2. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomases, Becca

    2016-01-01

    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in wh...

  3. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  4. Onset of Primary and Secondary Instabilities of Viscoelastic Fluids Saturating a Porous Layer Heated from below by a Constant Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Gueye

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the thermal convection thresholds and linear characteristics of the primary and secondary instabilities for viscoelastic fluids saturating a porous horizontal layer heated from below by a constant flux. The Galerkin method is used to solve the eigenvalue problem by taking into account the elasticity of the fluid, the ratio between the viscosity of the solvent and the total viscosity of the fluid and the lateral confinement of the medium. For the primary instability, we found out that depending on the rheological parameters, two types of convective structures may appear when the basic conductive solution loses its stability: stationary long wavelength instability as for Newtonian fluids and oscillatory convection. The effect of the lateral confinement of the porous medium by adiabatic walls is to stabilize the oblique and longitudinal rolls and therefore selects transverse rolls at the onset of convection. In the range of the rheological parameters where stationary long wave instability develops first, we use a parallel flow approximation to determine analytically the velocity and temperature fields associated with the monocellular convective flow. The linear stability analysis of the monocellular flow is performed, and the critical conditions above which the flow becomes unstable are determined. The combined influence of the viscoelastic parameters and the lateral confinement on the characteristics of the secondary instability is quantified. The major new findings concerning the secondary instabilities may be summarized as follows: (i For concentrated viscoelastic fluids, computations showed that the most amplified mode of convection corresponds to oscillatory transverse rolls, which appears via a Hopf bifurcation. This pattern selection is independent of both the fluid elasticity and the lateral confinement of the porous medium. (ii For diluted viscoelastic fluids, the preferred mode of convection is found to be oscillatory

  5. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  6. Towards the minimization of thermodynamic irreversibility in an electrically actuated microflow of a viscoelastic fluid under electrical double layer phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Jain, Manish; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the entropy generation minimization for electro-osmotic flow of a viscoelastic fluid through a parallel plate microchannel under the combined influences of interfacial slip and conjugate transport of heat. We use in this study the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model to describe the rheological behavior of the viscoelastic fluid. Using Navier's slip law and thermal boundary conditions of the third kind, we solve the transport equations analytically and evaluate the global entropy generation rate of the system. We examine the influential role of the following parameters on the entropy generation rate of the system, viz., the viscoelastic parameter (ɛDe2), Debye-Hückel parameter ( κ ¯ ) , channel wall thickness (δ), thermal conductivity of the wall (γ), Biot number (Bi), Peclet number (Pe), and axial temperature gradient (B). This investigation finally establishes the optimum values of the abovementioned parameters, leading to the minimum entropy generation of the system. We believe that results of this analysis could be helpful in optimizing the second-law performance of microscale thermal management devices, including the micro-heat exchangers, micro-reactors, and micro-heat pipes.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics effect on convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic micropolar fluid past a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amera Aziz, Laila; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Syahidah Yusoff, Nur; Shafie, Sharidan

    2017-09-01

    The main interest of this study is to investigate the effect of MHD on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic micropolar fluid. Governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form in order to reduce their complexity. Then, the stream function is applied to the dimensionless equations to produce partial differential equations which are then solved numerically using the Keller-box method in Fortran programming. The numerical results are compared to published study to ensure the reliability of present results. The effects of selected physical parameters such as the viscoelastic parameter, K, micropolar parameter, K1 and magnetic parameter, M on the flow and heat transfer are discussed and presented in tabular and graphical form. The findings from this study will be of critical importance in the fields of medicine, chemical as well as industrial processes where magnetic field is involved.

  8. Experimental study on two oscillating grid turbulence with viscoelastic fluids based on PIV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yue; Zheng, Xin; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Feng-Chen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, to study the viscoelastic effect on isotropic turbulence without wall effects, a two oscillating grid turbulence is built to investigate this phenomenon using particle image velocimetry...

  9. Analysis of Magneto-hydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium in Wire Coating Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. Nylon, polysulfide, low/high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE and plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC are the common and important plastic resin used for wire coating. In the current study, wire coating is performed using viscoelastic third grade fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field and porous medium. The governing equations are first modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. A numerical technique called ND-solve method is used for comparison and found good agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters on the velocity field and temperature profile is shown with the help of graphs. It is observed that the velocity profiles increase as the value of viscoelastic third grade parameter β increase and decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. It is also observed that the temperature profiles increases as the Brinkman number B r , permeability parameter K , magnetic parameter M and viscoelastic third grade parameter (non-Newtonian parameter β increase.

  10. Application of colloid probe atomic force microscopy to the adhesion of thin films of viscous and viscoelastic silicone fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James; Cheneler, David; Andrews, James W; Avery, Andrew R; Zhang, Zhibing; Ward, Michael C L; Adams, Michael J

    2011-09-20

    The adhesive characteristics of thin films (0.2-2 μm) of linear poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) liquids with a wide range of molecular weights have been measured using an atomic force microscope with a colloid probe (diameters 5 and 12 μm) for different separation velocities. The data were consistent with a residual film in the contact region having a thickness of ∼6 nm following an extended dwell time before separation of the probe. It was possible to estimate the maximum adhesive force as a function of the capillary number, Ca, by applying existing theoretical models based on capillary interactions and viscous flow except at large values of Ca in the case of viscoelastic fluids, for which it was necessary to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model. The compliance of the atomic force microscope colloid beam was an important factor in governing the retraction velocity of the probe and therefore the value of the adhesive force, but the inertia of the beam and viscoelastic stress overshoot effects were not significant in the range of separation velocities investigated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Study on shear-induced thermal conductivity for heat transfer enhancement with non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryul; Yoon, Hyun-Joong

    2013-09-01

    Shear-induced viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were performed for viscoelastic fluids. This research was also designed to investigate the extent to which the thermal conductivity of viscoelastic fluids is affected by fluid motion under conditions in which it is known that the viscous properties undergo significant changes, and then the effect of the shear-induced thermal conductivity measured on the convective heat transfer enhancement for a heat exchanger system. It was also found experimentally that the thermal conductivity increased with shear rate for two polyacrylamide solutions of 1000 and 2000 wppm with order of 23%-43% and 17%-21%, respectively, depending on temperature (20-50 °C). The increase in the thermal conductivity with a shear rate was greater for lower concentration polyacrylamide solutions than for higher concentration ones, with a difference of 8%-22% depending on temperature range (20-50 °C). The convective heat transfer enhancement with the shear-induced thermal conductivity in the infinite rectangular duct was of the order of 41%-74% and 41%-52% over the entire temperature range (20-50 °C) of the two polyacrylamide solutions of 1000 and 2000 wppm, respectively.

  12. Modeling the nanoscale viscoelasticity of fluids by bridging non-Markovian fluctuating hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, Nikolaos K; Satish, Siddarth; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2009-12-21

    A multiscale computational method is developed to model the nanoscale viscoelasticity of fluids by bridging non-Markovian fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To capture the elastic responses that emerge at small length scales, we attach an additional rheological model parallel to the macroscopic constitutive equation of a fluid. The widely used linear Maxwell model is employed as a working choice; other models can be used as well. For a fluid that is Newtonian in the macroscopic limit, this approach results in a parallel Newtonian-Maxwell model. For water, argon, and an ionic liquid, the power spectrum of momentum field autocorrelation functions of the parallel Newtonian-Maxwell model agrees very well with those calculated from all-atom MD simulations. To incorporate thermal fluctuations, we generalize the equations of FHD to work with non-Markovian rheological models and colored noise. The fluctuating stress tensor (white noise) is integrated in time in the same manner as its dissipative counterpart and numerical simulations indicate that this approach accurately preserves the set temperature in a FHD simulation. By mapping position and velocity vectors in the molecular representation onto field variables, we bridge the non-Markovian FHD with atomistic MD simulations. Through this mapping, we quantitatively determine the transport coefficients of the parallel Newtonian-Maxwell model for water and argon from all-atom MD simulations. For both fluids, a significant enhancement in elastic responses is observed as the wave number of hydrodynamic modes is reduced to a few nanometers. The mapping from particle to field representations and the perturbative strategy of developing constitutive equations provide a useful framework for modeling the nanoscale viscoelasticity of fluids.

  13. Transient flows of Newtonian viscous fluids in a tube extended by a viscoelastic vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennis, S.; Ly, D.; Bellet, D. (C.N.R.S., 31 - Toulouse (France))

    1982-09-20

    A resolution method based on symbolical calculation is finalized and applied to the determination of fields of velocity and power load, in Newtonian transient flows in a rigid tube one end of which is extended by a viscoelastic vessel and the other subjected to variable pressures.

  14. Mathematica numerical simulation of peristaltic biophysical transport of a fractional viscoelastic fluid through an inclined cylindrical tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D; Anwar Bég, O

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the peristaltic transport of a viscoelastic fluid (with the fractional second-grade model) through an inclined cylindrical tube. The wall of the tube is modelled as a sinusoidal wave. The flow analysis is presented under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. Caputo's definition of fractional derivative is used to formulate the fractional differentiation. Analytical solutions are developed for the normalized momentum equations. Expressions are also derived for the pressure, frictional force, and the relationship between the flow rate and pressure gradient. Mathematica numerical computations are then performed. The results are plotted and analysed for different values of fractional parameter, material constant, inclination angle, Reynolds number, Froude number and peristaltic wave amplitude. It is found that fractional parameter and Froude number resist the flow pattern while material constant, Reynolds number, inclination of angle and amplitude aid the peristaltic flow. Furthermore, frictional force and pressure demonstrate the opposite behaviour under the influence of the relevant parameters emerging in the equations of motion. The study has applications in uretral biophysics, and also potential use in peristaltic pumping of petroleum viscoelastic bio-surfactants in chemical engineering and astronautical applications involving conveyance of non-Newtonian fluids (e.g. lubricants) against gravity and in conduits with deformable walls.

  15. Concerning the Effect of a Viscoelastic Foundation on the Dynamic Stability of a Pipeline System Conveying an Incompressible Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Olunloyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analytical method for solving a well-posed boundary value problem of mathematical physics governing the vibration characteristics of an internal flow propelled fluid-structure interaction where the pipeline segment is idealized as an elastic hollow beam conveying an incompressible fluid on a viscoelastic foundation. The effect of Coriolis and damping forces on the overall dynamic response of the system is investigated. In actuality, for a pipe segment supported at both ends and subject to a free motion, these two forces generate conjugate complex frequencies for all flow velocities. On employing integral transforms and complex variable functions, a closed form analytical expression is derived for the overall dynamic response. It is demonstrated that a concise mathematical expression for the natural frequency associated with any mode of vibration can be deduced from the algebraic product of the complex frequency pairs. By a way of comparative analysis for damping decrement physics reminiscent with laminated structures, mathematical expressions are derived to illustrate viscoelastic damping effects on dynamic stability for any flow velocity. The integrity of the analytical solution is verified and validated by confirming theresults in literature in appropriate asymptotic limits.

  16. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert D.

    2017-08-01

    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in which highly concentrated elastic stresses accumulate near swimmer bodies and where dramatic slow-downs are seen.

  17. Numerical simulation of FENE-P viscoelastic fluids flow and heat transfer in grooved channel with rectangular cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Abdelkader; Khezzar, Lyes; Alshehhi, Mohamed Saeed

    2017-08-01

    The forced convection heat transfer for non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids obeying the FENE-P model in a parallel-plate channel with transverse rectangular cavities is carried out numerically using ANSYS-POLYFLOW code. The flow investigated is assumed to be two-dimensional, incompressible, laminar and steady. The flow behavior and temperature distribution influenced by the re-circulation caused by the variation of cross-section area along the stream wise direction have been studied. The constant heat flux condition has been applied and the effects of the different parameters, such as the aspect ratio of channel cavities (AR = 0.25, 0.5), the Reynolds number ( Re = 25, 250, and 500), the fluid elasticity defined by the Weissenberg number ( We), and the extensibility parameter of the model ( L 2), on heat transfer characteristics have been explored for channels of three successive cavities configuration. Different levels of heat transfer enhancement were obtained and discussed.

  18. Pure axial flow of viscoelastic fluids in rectangular microchannels under combined effects of electro-osmosis and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshadi, Milad; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven axial flows of viscoelastic fluids in a rectangular microchannel with arbitrary aspect ratios. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the complete form of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model with the Gordon-Schowalter convected derivative which covers the upper convected Maxwell, Johnson-Segalman and FENE-P models. Our numerical simulation is based on the computation of 2D Poisson-Boltzmann, Cauchy momentum and PTT constitutive equations. The solution of these governing nonlinear coupled set of equations is obtained by using the second-order central finite difference method in a non-uniform grid system and is verified against 1D analytical solution of the velocity profile with less than 0.06% relative error. Also, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of channel aspect ratio (width to height), wall zeta potential and the Debye-Hückel parameter on 2D velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and the Poiseuille number in the mixed EO/PD flows of viscoelastic fluids with different Weissenberg numbers. Our results show that, for low channel aspect ratios, the previous 1D analytical models underestimate the velocity profile at the channel half-width centerline in the case of favorable pressure gradients and overestimate it in the case of adverse pressure gradients. The results reveal that the inapplicability of the Debye-Hückel approximation at high zeta potentials is more significant for higher Weissenberg number fluids. Also, it is found that, under the specified values of electrokinetic parameters, there is a threshold for velocity scale ratio in which the Poiseuille number is approximately independent of channel aspect ratio.

  19. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ian H.

    1989-01-01

    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  20. Time-frequency analyses of fluid-solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2017-06-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  1. Quantitative analysis of continuous intravenous infusions in pediatric anesthesia: safety implications of dead volume, flow rates, and fluid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haobo; Lovich, Mark A; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of continuous pediatric drug infusions. The dynamics of drug delivery by continuous infusion to pediatric patients have not been systematically examined. This study extends previously described analytic models to propofol and remifentanil delivery, focusing on infants and toddlers. We postulated that infusion system dead volume, and drug and carrier flow rates, significantly influence drug delivery. We studied effects of patient weight, infusion system dead volume, drug and carrier flow rates, along with drug stock concentration and dose, on propofol and remifentanil delivery to the circulation. We calculated the drug mass available for inadvertent bolus in the dead volume, the volume of fluid supplied by drug infusions, and model-based estimates of the range of lag times to achieve a targeted steady-state rate of drug delivery. The drug mass in the dead volume at steady state increased with dead volume size and drug dose. For infants, this drug mass could exceed 100% of commonly used loading doses. Predicted lag times to steady state depend on patient size, fluid flow rates, and the mixing behavior of the drug entering the main fluid pathway. Neonates have the longest lag times to achieve steady state. Fluid quantities delivered by drug infusions increase with drug flow rate and can represent a large fraction of estimated maintenance fluid requirements. Fluid delivery increases if stock drug concentrations are diluted. These relationships were qualitatively similar for propofol and remifentanil. Traditional studies focus on drug disposition once a drug enters the circulation. Our analysis shows the potential importance of factors influencing drug delivery to the patient's circulation, focusing on propofol and remifentanil administration to small patients. The drug mass available for inadvertent bolus residing in the reservoir of the dead volume at steady state may be large and clinically relevant. Lag times to achieve steady

  2. Pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood fluid inside stenosed arteries: Investigating the effects of viscoelastic and elastic walls, arteriosclerosis, and polycythemia diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, A Abbas; Talebi, Z; Cheraghali, D; Shahbani-Zahiri, A; Norouzi, M

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the interaction of pulsatile blood flow with the viscoelastic walls of the axisymmetric artery is numerically investigated for different severities of stenosis. The geometry of artery is modeled by an axisymmetric cylindrical tube with a symmetric stenosis in a two-dimensional case. The effects of stenosis severity on the axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall shear stress, and wall radial displacement for the viscoelastic artery are also compared to the elastics artery. Furthermore, the effects of atherosclerosis and polycythemia diseases on the hemodynamics and the mechanical behavior of arterial walls are investigated. The pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian blood is simulated inside the viscoelastic artery using the COMSOL Multiphysics software (version 5) and by employing the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Moreover, finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the governing equations on the unstructured grids. For modeling the non-Newtonian blood fluid and the viscoelastic arterial wall, the modified Casson model, and generalized Maxwell model are used, respectively. According to the results, with stenosis severity increasing from 25% to 75% at the time of maximum volumetric flow rate, the maximum value of axial velocity and its gradient increase 7.9 and 19.6 times, and the maximum wall shear stress of viscoelastic wall increases 24.2 times in the constriction zone. With the progression of the atherosclerosis disease (fivefold growth of arterial elastic modulus), the wall radial displacement of viscoelastic arterial walls decreases nearly 40%. In this study, axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall radial displacement, and wall shear stress were examined for different percentages of stenosis (25%, 50%, and 75%). The atherosclerosis disease was investigated by the fivefold growth of viscoelastic arterial elastic modulus and polycythemia

  3. Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Media over a Shrinking Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukta, D.; Dash, G. C.; Mishra, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a shrinking sheet subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source. Effects of radiation, viscous dissipation, and uniform heat sink on the heat transfer have been considered. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations representing momentum, concentration, and nonhomogenous heat equation are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved by applying Kummer's function. The exact solution of temperature field is obtained for power-law surface temperature (PST) as well as power-law heat flux (PHF) boundary condition. The interaction of magnetic field is proved to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution, whereas presence of porous matrix reduces the temperature field at all points. PMID:27379316

  4. Analysis of heat and mass transfer with MHD and chemical reaction effects on viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. R.; Pattnaik, P. K.; Bhatti, M. M.; Abbas, T.

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the mass and heat transfer analysis over an electrically conducting viscoelastic (Walters B') fluid over a stretching surface in presence of transverse magnetic field. The impact of chemical reaction, as well as non-uniform heat source, are also taken into account. Similarity transformations are employed to model the equations. The governing equations comprises of momentum, energy, and concentration which are modified to a set of non-linear differential equations and then solved by applying confluent hypergeometric function known as " Kummer's function". The exact solution for heat equation is obtained for two cases i.e. (1) Prescribed surface temperature, (2) Prescribed wall heat flux. Physical behavior of all the sundry parameters are against concentration, temperature, and velocity profile are presented through graphs. The inclusion of magnetic field is counterproductive in diminishing the velocity distribution whereas reverse effect is encountered for concentration and temperature profiles.

  5. Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Media over a Shrinking Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukta, D; Dash, G C; Mishra, S R

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a shrinking sheet subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source. Effects of radiation, viscous dissipation, and uniform heat sink on the heat transfer have been considered. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations representing momentum, concentration, and nonhomogenous heat equation are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved by applying Kummer's function. The exact solution of temperature field is obtained for power-law surface temperature (PST) as well as power-law heat flux (PHF) boundary condition. The interaction of magnetic field is proved to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution, whereas presence of porous matrix reduces the temperature field at all points.

  6. Three-dimensional absolute and convective instabilities in mixed convection of a viscoelastic fluid through a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Silvia C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107 - Universite Lille I, Bld. Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Ouarzazi, Mohamed Najib, E-mail: najib.ouarzazi@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107 - Universite Lille I, Bld. Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2010-06-07

    By using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances of viscoelastic flow convection in a porous medium with horizontal through-flow and vertical temperature gradient. Temporal stability analysis reveals that among three-dimensional (3D) modes the pure down-stream transverse rolls are favored for the onset of convection. In addition, by considering a spatiotemporal stability approach we found that all unstable 3D modes are convectively unstable except the transverse rolls which may experience a transition to absolute instability. The combined influence of through-flow and elastic parameters on the absolute instability threshold, wave number and frequency is then determined, and results are compared to those of a Newtonian fluid.

  7. Effect of Open Crack on Vibration Behavior of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Embedded in a Visco-Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiyam Eslami

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper vibration behavior of a fluid-conveying cracked pipe surrounded by a visco-elastic medium has been considered. During this work, the effect of an open crack parameters and flow velocity profile shape inside the pipe on natural frequency and critical flow velocity of the system has been analytically investigated. An explicit function for the local flexibility of the cracked pipe has been offered using principle of the fracture mechanics. Comparison between the results of the present study and the experimental data reported in the literature reveals success and high accuracy of the implemented method. It is demonstrated that the existence of the crack in the pipe, decreases the natural frequency and the critical flow velocity so that the system instability onsets at a lower flow velocity in comparison with the intact pipe. Results indicate that the flow velocity profile shape inside the pipe caused by the viscosity of real fluids, significantly affects the critical flow velocity of both intact and fluid-conveying cracked pipe. For instance, as the flow-profile-modification factor decreases from 1.33 to 1.015, the dimensionless critical flow velocity of intact clamped-clamped pipe increases from 5.45 to 6.24.

  8. Proposal of Damping Function for Low-Reynolds-Number k-ε Model Applicable in Prediction of Turbulent Viscoelastic-Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-Reynolds-number k-ε model applicable for viscoelastic fluid was proposed to predict the frictional-drag reduction and the turbulence modification in a wall-bounded turbulent flow. In this model, an additional damping function was introduced into the model of eddy viscosity, while the treatment of the turbulent kinetic energy (k and its dissipation rate (ε is an extension of the model for Newtonian fluids. For constructing the damping function, we considered the influence of viscoelasticity on the turbulent eddy motion and its dissipative scale and investigated the frequency response for the constitutive equation based on the Giesekus fluid model. Assessment of the proposed model’s performance in several rheological conditions for drag-reduced turbulent channel flows demonstrated good agreement with DNS (direct numerical simulation data.

  9. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  10. Wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic carbon nanotubes under longitudinal magnetic field with thermal and surface effect via nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yaxin; Zhou, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied in this paper. With consideration of thermal effect and surface effect, wave equation is derived for fluid-conveying viscoelastic SWCNTs under longitudinal magnetic field utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The closed-form expressions are derived for the frequency and phase velocity of the wave motion. The influences of fluid flow velocity, structural damping coefficient, temperature change, magnetic flux and surface effect are discussed in detail. SWCNTs’ viscoelasticity reduces the wave frequency of the system and the influence gets remarkable with the increase of wave number. The fluid in SWCNTs decreases the frequency of wave propagation to a certain extent. The frequency (phase velocity) gets larger due to the existence of surface effect, especially when the diameters of SWCNTs and the wave number decrease. The wave frequency increases with the increase of the longitudinal magnetic field, while decreases with the increase of the temperature change. The results may be helpful for better understanding the potential applications of SWCNTs in nanotechnology.

  11. Unequal diffusivities case of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions within viscoelastic fluid flow in the presence of induced magnetic-field and nonlinear thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Animasaun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and induced magnetic field on viscoelastic fluid flow toward a stagnation point. It is assumed that there exists a kind of chemical reaction between chemical species A and B. The diffusion coefficients of the two chemical species in the viscoelastic fluid flow are unequal. Since chemical species B is a catalyst at the horizontal surface, hence homogeneous and heterogeneous schemes are of the isothermal cubic autocatalytic reaction and first order reaction respectively. The transformed governing equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta integration scheme along with Newton’s method. Good agreement is obtained between present and published numerical results for a limiting case. The influence of some pertinent parameters on skin friction coefficient, local heat transfer rate, together with velocity, induced magnetic field, temperature, and concentration profiles is illustrated graphically and discussed. Based on all of these assumptions, results indicate that the effects of induced magnetic and viscoelastic parameters on velocity, transverse velocity and velocity of induced magnetic field are almost the same but opposite in nature. The strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter is very helpful to reduce the concentration of bulk fluid and increase the concentration of catalyst at the surface.

  12. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of entangled wormlike micellar fluid under large-amplitude oscillatory shear: role of elastic Taylor-Couette instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K

    2014-06-01

    The role of elastic Taylor-Couette flow instabilities in the dynamic nonlinear viscoelastic response of an entangled wormlike micellar fluid is studied by large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) rheology and in situ polarized light scattering over a wide range of strain and angular frequency values, both above and below the linear crossover point. Well inside the nonlinear regime, higher harmonic decomposition of the resulting stress signal reveals that the normalized third harmonic I_{3}/I_{1} shows a power-law behavior with strain amplitude. In addition, I_{3}/I_{1} and the elastic component of stress amplitude σ_{0}{E} show a very prominent maximum at the strain value where the number density (n_{v}) of the Taylor vortices is maximum. A subsequent increase in applied strain (γ) results in the distortions of the vortices and a concomitant decrease in n_{v}, accompanied by a sharp drop in I_{3} and σ_{0}{E}. The peak position of the spatial correlation function of the scattered intensity along the vorticity direction also captures the crossover. Lissajous plots indicate an intracycle strain hardening for the values of γ corresponding to the peak of I_{3}, similar to that observed for hard-sphere glasses.

  13. On singularity of the UCM and Oldroyd-B models in viscoelastic fluids: resolving the high-Weissenberg number problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Rho Shin

    2012-11-01

    Most of methods based on the UCM and Oldroyd-B models in viscoelastic fluids are found to break down at a frustratingly low value of the Weissenberg number around We=1. The rigorous explanation for this mysterious break-down has remained elusive until recently. In this work, the nature of mathematical singularity of these classical models is first elucidated by considering shear, compression, and extension flows. Then a regularization method based on the Rayleigh-Onsager quadratic dissipation function is proposed in order to resolve the high-Weissenberg number problem. In particular, the exact reason why the extensional flow suffers the break-down in high-Weissenberg number cases is explained. In addition, the relationship of the regularized model to other constitutive models such as the Giesekus and the Phan-Thien-Tanner equations is illustrated. This work was supported by the Degree and Research Center for Aerospace Green Technology (DRC) funded by the Korea Research Council of Fundamental Science & Technology (KRCF).

  14. Mathematical modelling of nonlinear thermal radiation effects on EMHD peristaltic pumping of viscoelastic dusty fluid through a porous medium duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bhatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired propulsion systems are currently receiving significant interest in the aerospace sector. Since many spacecraft propulsion systems operate at high temperatures, thermal radiation is important as a mode of heat transfer. Motivated by these developments, in the present article, the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation (via the Rosseland diffusion flux model has been studied on the laminar, incompressible, dissipative EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic propulsive flow of a non-Newtonian (Jefferys viscoelastic dusty fluid containing solid particles through a porous planar channel. The fluid is electrically-conducting and a constant static magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction (channel walls. Slip effects are also included. Magnetic induction effects are neglected. The mathematical formulation is based on continuity, momentum and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions, which are simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and taking the long wavelength and lubrication approximations. The boundary value problem is then rendered non-dimensional with appropriate variables and the resulting system of reduced ordinary differential equations is solved analytically. The impact of various emerging parameters dictating the non-Newtonian propulsive flow i.e. Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, permeability parameter, Eckert number, particle volume fraction, electric field and slip parameter are depicted graphically. Increasing particle volume fraction is observed to suppress temperature magnitudes. Furthermore the computations demonstrate that an increase in particle volume fraction reduces the pumping rate in retrograde pumping region whereas it causes the opposite effect in the co-pumping region. The trapping mechanism is also visualized with the aid of streamline contour plots. Increasing thermal radiation elevates temperatures. Increasing Hartmann (magnetic body

  15. On the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Oldroydian Visco-Elastic Fluid Saturated by Brinkman–Darcy Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman–Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman–Darcy, Prandtl–Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.

  16. On the Application of Viscoelastic & Viscoplastic Constitutive Relations in the CFD Bio-Fluid Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Akherat, S M Javid Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Considerations on implementation of the stress-strain constitutive relations applied in Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of cardiovascular flows have been addressed extensively in the literature. However, the matter is yet controversial. The author suggests that the choice of non-Newtonian models and the consideration of non-Newtonian assumption versus the Newtonian assumption is very application oriented and cannot be solely dependent on the vessel size. In the presented work, where a renal disease patient-specific geometry is used, the non-Newtonian effects manifest insignificant, while the vessel is considered to be medium to small which, according to the literature, suggest a strict use of non-Newtonian formulation. The insignificance of the non-Newtonian effects specially manifests in Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along the walls of the numerical domain, where the differences between Newtonian calculated WSS and non-Newtonian calculated WSS is barely visible.

  17. Hall Effect on Bénard Convection of Compressible Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible Walter’s B′ elasticoviscous fluid through porous medium is considered. The analysis is carried out within the framework of linear stability theory and normal mode technique. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and compressibility have postponed the onset of convection through porous medium. Moreover, medium permeability hasten postpone the onset of convection, and magnetic field has duel character on the onset of convection. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection have been obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents found to introduce oscillatory modes, in the absence of these effects the principle of exchange of stabilities is valid.

  18. Structure and oil responsiveness of viscoelastic fluids based on mixed anionic/cationic wormlike surfactant micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibaev, A. V.; Makarov, A. V.; Aleshina, A. L.; Rogachev, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Philippova, O. E.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a combination of small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering and rheometry was applied in order to investigate the structure and oil responsiveness of anionic/cationic wormlike surfactant micelles formed in a mixture of potassium oleate and n-octyltrimethylammonium bromide (C8TAB). A new facile method of calculating the structure factor of charged interacting wormlike micelles was proposed. It was shown that the mean distance between the micelles decreases upon the increase of the amount of cationic co-surfactant and lowering of the net micellar charge. It was demonstrated that highly viscous fluids containing mixed anionic/cationic wormlike micelles are highly responsive to oil due to its solubilization inside the micellar cores, which leads to the disruption of micelles and formation of microemulsion droplets. Experimental data suggest that solubilization of oil proceeds differently in the case of mixed anionic/cationic micelles in the absence of salt, and anionic micelles of the same surfactant in the presence of KCl.

  19. Viscoelastic Waves Simulation in a Blocky Medium with Fluid-Saturated Interlayers Using High-Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovskii, Vladimir; Sadovskaya, Oxana

    2017-04-01

    A thermodynamically consistent approach to the description of linear and nonlinear wave processes in a blocky medium, which consists of a large number of elastic blocks interacting with each other via pliant interlayers, is proposed. The mechanical properties of interlayers are defined by means of the rheological schemes of different levels of complexity. Elastic interaction between the blocks is considered in the framework of the linear elasticity theory [1]. The effects of viscoelastic shear in the interblock interlayers are taken into consideration using the Pointing-Thomson rheological scheme. The model of an elastic porous material is used in the interlayers, where the pores collapse if an abrupt compressive stress is applied. On the basis of the Biot equations for a fluid-saturated porous medium, a new mathematical model of a blocky medium is worked out, in which the interlayers provide a convective fluid motion due to the external perturbations. The collapse of pores is modeled within the generalized rheological approach, wherein the mechanical properties of a material are simulated using four rheological elements. Three of them are the traditional elastic, viscous and plastic elements, the fourth element is the so-called rigid contact [2], which is used to describe the behavior of materials with different resistance to tension and compression. Thermodynamic consistency of the equations in interlayers with the equations in blocks guarantees fulfillment of the energy conservation law for a blocky medium in a whole, i.e. kinetic and potential energy of the system is the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the blocks and interlayers. As a result of discretization of the equations of the model, robust computational algorithm is constructed, that is stable because of the thermodynamic consistency of the finite difference equations at a discrete level. The splitting method by the spatial variables and the Godunov gap decay scheme are used in the blocks, the

  20. Geometry and subsidence history of the Dead Sea basin: A case for fluid-induced mid-crustal shear zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Flores, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Pull-apart basins are narrow zones of crustal extension bounded by strike-slip faults that can serve as analogs to the early stages of crustal rifting. We use seismic tomography, 2-D ray tracing, gravity modeling, and subsidence analysis to study crustal extension of the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large and long-lived pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST). The basin gradually shallows southward for 50 km from the only significant transverse normal fault. Stratigraphic relationships there indicate basin elongation with time. The basin is deepest (8-8.5 km) and widest (???15 km) under the Lisan about 40 km north of the transverse fault. Farther north, basin depth is ambiguous, but is 3 km deep immediately north of the lake. The underlying pre-basin sedimentary layer thickens gradually from 2 to 3 km under the southern edge of the DSB to 3-4 km under the northern end of the lake and 5-6 km farther north. Crystalline basement is ???11 km deep under the deepest part of the basin. The upper crust under the basin has lower P wave velocity than in the surrounding regions, which is interpreted to reflect elevated pore fluids there. Within data resolution, the lower crust below ???18 km and the Moho are not affected by basin development. The subsidence rate was several hundreds of m/m.y. since the development of the DST ???17 Ma, similar to other basins along the DST, but subsidence rate has accelerated by an order of magnitude during the Pleistocene, which allowed the accumulation of 4 km of sediment. We propose that the rapid subsidence and perhaps elongation of the DSB are due to the development of inter-connected mid-crustal ductile shear zones caused by alteration of feldspar to muscovite in the presence of pore fluids. This alteration resulted in a significant strength decrease and viscous creep. We propose a similar cause to the enigmatic rapid subsidence of the North Sea at the onset the North Atlantic mantle plume. Thus, we propose that aqueous fluid flux

  1. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  2. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-03-15

    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible.

  3. Optimal homotopy asymptotic method for flow and heat transfer of a viscoelastic fluid in an axisymmetric channel with a porous wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazle; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an approximate analytical solution of flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall is presented. The solution is obtained through the use of a powerful method known as Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). We obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless velocity and temperature for various parameters. The influence and effect of different parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, friction factor, and rate of heat transfer are presented graphically. We also compared our solution with those obtained by other methods and it is found that OHAM solution is better than the other methods considered. This shows that OHAM is reliable for use to solve strongly nonlinear problems in heat transfer phenomena.

  4. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  5. A 3-D Lagrangian finite element algorithm with remeshing for simulating large-strain hydrodynamic instabilities in power law viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical algorithm (PINK-3D) that is based on the finite element method. The algorithm is designed to simulate hydrodynamic instabilities in power law viscoelastic fluids under gravity. These instabilities are caused by large and sharp contrasts in mechanical strength and/or density between different materials (e.g., folding, necking, or Rayleigh-Taylor diapirism). The instabilities are controlled by the geometry of the material interfaces and the related intralayer stress distribution when amplitudes of the material interfaces are still low. The presented algorithm combines a deformable Lagrangian mesh with remeshing in order to accurately simulate the low-amplitude stages of the emerging instabilities, and also to simulate the large-strain evolution of the structures emerging from these instabilities. The remeshing is based on material interfaces that accurately track the boundaries between materials with strongly varying material properties (e.g., effective viscosity or power law stress exponent). We describe here the main technical details of the 3-D algorithm. The accuracy of the 3-D algorithm is demonstrated with comparisons between the numerical results and 2-D and 3-D analytical solutions for folding, necking, Rayleigh-Taylor diapirism, and circular inclusions in viscous medium. We also benchmark the 3-D algorithm with results of a different 2-D finite element algorithm to test the accuracy of the large-strain results with remeshing. Furthermore, two tests are presented that show the accuracy of the viscoelasticity implementation. PINK-3D is also used to study 3-D necking applied to lithospheric slab detachment, and 2-D and 3-D folding applied to fold nappe formation. In particular, we apply the 3-D code to quantify and visualize the evolution of the 3-D finite strain ellipsoid for the developing 3-D structures.

  6. Numerical simulation of the planar extrudate swell of pseudoplastic and viscoelastic fluids with the streamfunction and the VOF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Pimenta, Francisco; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2018-01-01

    , in order to preserve the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor, and to circumvent the high Weissenberg number problem. The volume fraction of the fluid is advected with a geometric conservative unsplit scheme that preserves a sharp interface representation. For the sake of comparison, we also...

  7. Understanding Viscoelasticity An Introduction to Rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity; in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity at a first year graduate level. The main aim is to provide a still compact book, sufficient at the level of first year graduate course for those who wish to understand viscoelasticity and to embark in modeling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. To this end, a new chapter on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) was introduced which is relevant to model complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed,...

  8. Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...

  9. Theory of swimming filaments in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Henry

    2008-03-01

    Microorganisms often encounter and must move through complex media. What aspects of propulsion are altered when swimming in viscoelastic gels and fluids? Motivated by the swimming of sperm through the mucus of the female mammalian reproductive tract, we examine the swimming of filaments in nonlinearly viscoelastic fluids. We obtain the swimming velocity and hydrodynamic force exerted on an infinitely long cylinder with prescribed beating pattern. We apply these results to study the swimming of a simplified sliding-filament model for a sperm flagellum. Viscoelasticity tends to decrease swimming speed. The viscoelastic response of the fluid can change the shapes of beating patterns, and changes in the beating patterns can even lead to reversal of the swimming direction.

  10. Ligament Mediated Fragmentation of Viscoelastic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; Houze, Eric C.; Moore, John R.; Koerner, Michael R.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2016-10-01

    The breakup and atomization of complex fluids can be markedly different than the analogous processes in a simple Newtonian fluid. Atomization of paint, combustion of fuels containing antimisting agents, as well as physiological processes such as sneezing are common examples in which the atomized liquid contains synthetic or biological macromolecules that result in viscoelastic fluid characteristics. Here, we investigate the ligament-mediated fragmentation dynamics of viscoelastic fluids in three different canonical flows. The size distributions measured in each viscoelastic fragmentation process show a systematic broadening from the Newtonian solvent. In each case, the droplet sizes are well described by Gamma distributions which correspond to a fragmentation-coalescence scenario. We use a prototypical axial step strain experiment together with high-speed video imaging to show that this broadening results from the pronounced change in the corrugated shape of viscoelastic ligaments as they separate from the liquid core. These corrugations saturate in amplitude and the measured distributions for viscoelastic liquids in each process are given by a universal probability density function, corresponding to a Gamma distribution with nmin=4 . The breadth of this size distribution for viscoelastic filaments is shown to be constrained by a geometrical limit which can not be exceeded in ligament-mediated fragmentation phenomena.

  11. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  12. Microfluidic high viability neural cell separation using viscoelastically tuned hydrodynamic spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Hjort, Klas; Wicher, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    A high viability microfluidic cell separation technique of high throughput was demonstrated based on size difference continuous mode hydrodynamic spreading with viscoelastic tuning. Using water with fluorescent dye as sample fluid and in parallel introducing as elution a viscoelastic biocompatible...

  13. Viscoelastic pulsational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Pranamika; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical model analysis to study the linear pulsational mode dynamics in viscoelastic complex self-gravitating infinitely extended clouds in the presence of active frictional coupling and dust-charge fluctuations. The complex cloud consists of uniformly distributed lighter hot mutually thermalized electrons and ions, and heavier cold dust grains amid partial ionization in a homogeneous, quasi-neutral, hydrostatic equilibrium configuration. A normal mode analysis over the closed set of slightly perturbed cloud governing equations is employed to obtain a generalized dispersion relation (septic) of unique analytic construct on the plasma parameters. Two extreme cases of physical interest depending on the perturbation scaling, hydrodynamic limits and kinetic limits are considered. It is shown that the grain mass and viscoelastic relaxation time associated with the charged dust fluid play stabilizing roles to the fluctuations in the hydrodynamic regime. In contrast, however in the kinetic regime, the stabilizing effects are introduced by the dust mass, dust equilibrium density and equilibrium ionic population distribution. Besides, the oscillatory and propagatory features are illustrated numerically and interpreted in detail. The results are in good agreement with the previously reported findings as special corollaries in like situations. Finally, a focalized indication to new implications and applications of the outcomes in the astronomical context is foregrounded.

  14. Uma nova metodologia para a simulação de escoamentos de fluidos viscoelásticos A new approach for simulation of viscoelastic fluid flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Muniz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available É proposta neste trabalho uma nova metodologia para resolução das equações governantes de fluidos viscoelásticos, baseada no método dos volumes finitos, usando o arranjo co-localizado para as variáveis e malhas estruturadas. São utilizadas aproximações de alta ordem para os fluxos lineares e não-lineares médios nas interfaces dos volumes, e para os termos não-lineares que surgem da discretização das equações constitutivas. Nesta metodologia, os valores médios das variáveis nos volumes são usados durante todo o procedimento de resolução, e os valores pontuais são obtidos ao final, através da deconvolução dos valores médios. O sistema de equações discretizadas é resolvido de forma simultânea, pelo método de Newton. A metodologia é exemplificada para um problema clássico em mecânica de fluidos computacional, o escoamento stick-slip, usando como equação constitutiva o modelo de Oldroyd-B. As soluções obtidas apresentaram boa precisão, sendo livres de oscilações mesmo em regiões de grandes gradientes das variáveis.In this work, a new methodology to solve the governing equations of viscoelastic fluid flows is proposed. This methodology is based on the finite-volume method with co-located arrangement of the variables, using high-order approximations for the linear and nonlinear average fluxes in the interfaces and for the nonlinear terms resulting from the discretization of the constitutive equations. In this methodology, the average values of the variable in the volumes are used during the resolution, and the point values are recovered in the post-processing step by deconvolution of the average values. The nonlinear equations, resulting from the discretization technique, are solved simultaneously, using the Newton's method. The solutions obtained are oscillation-free and accurate, as can be seen in the solution of the stick-slip flow, used as an illustrative example.

  15. Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1993-01-01

    The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...... is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem, and an extension of the problem to transient flow is proposed....

  16. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  17. Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Walter's liquid model-B; stratified fluid; porous medium; variable viscosity. PACS Nos 47; 47.10.A−; 47.10.ad; 47.10.−g. 1. Introduction. There are many viscoelastic fluids that cannot be characterized by Maxwell's or Oldroyd's constitutive relations. One such fluid is Walters' (model B) viscoelastic fluid which is ...

  18. Numerical study of viscoelastic polymer flow in simplified pore structures using stabilised finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at

  19. Similarity Analysis for Effects of Variable Diffusivity and Heat Generation/Absorption on Heat and Mass Transfer for a MHD Stagnation-Point Flow of a Convective Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with a Slip Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. El-Hawary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical analysis has been carried out for stagnation-point heat and mass transfer of a viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with surface slip velocity, concentration dependent diffusivity, thermal convective boundary conditions, and heat source/sink. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using Lie group analysis. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations are obtained using shooting method. The influences of various parameters on velocity, temperature, and mass profiles have been studied. Also, the effects of various parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are given in graphics form and discussed.

  20. Simulation of transient viscoelastic flow with second order time integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1995-01-01

    The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem.......The Lagrangian Integral Method (LIM) for the simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is extended to second order accuracy in the time integration. The method is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem....

  1. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  2. Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu; Dauxois, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We observe large amplitude nonlinear internal waves which are coupled to the boat dynamics, and we emphasize that the modeling of the wave-induced drag requires more analysis, taking into account nonlinear effects.

  3. Rheological modeling of viscoelastic passive dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunwoo

    2001-07-01

    An efficient method of modeling the rheological behavior of viscoelastic dampers is discussed and illustrated. The method uses the standard mechanical model composed of linear springs and dashpots, which leads to a Prony series representation of the corresponding material function in the time domain. The computational procedure used is simple and straightforward and allows the linear viscoelastic material functions to be readily determined from experimental data in the time or frequency domain. Some existing models including the fractional derivative model and modified power-law are reviewed and compared with the standard mechanical model. It is found the generalized Maxwell and generalized Voigt model accurately describe the broadband rheological behavior of viscoelastic dampers commonly used in structural and vibration control. While a cumbersome nonlinear fitting technique is required for other models, a simple collocation or least-squares method can be used to fit the standard mechanical model to experimental data. The remarkable computational efficiency associated with the exponential basis functions of the Prony series greatly facilitates fitting of the model and interconversion between linear viscoelastic material functions. A numerical example on a viscoelastic fluid damper demonstrates the advantages of the use of the standard mechanical model over other existing models. Details of the computational procedures for fitting and inter-conversion are discussed and illustrated.

  4. Interfacial Dynamics of Thin Viscoelastic Films and Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Valeria; Kondic, Lou

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational investigation of thin viscoelastic films and drops on a solid substrate subject to the van der Waals interaction force. The governing equations are obtained within a long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations with Jeffreys model for viscoelastic stresses. We investigate the effects of viscoelasticity, Newtonian viscosity, and the substrate slippage on the dynamics of thin viscoelastic films. We also study the effects of viscoelasticity on drops that spread or recede on a prewetted substrate. For dewetting films, the numerical results show the presence of multiple secondary droplets for higher values of elasticity, consistently with experimental findings. For drops, we find that elastic effects lead to deviations from the Cox-Voinov law for partially wetting fluids. In general, elastic effects enhance spreading, and suppress retraction, compared to Newtonian ones.

  5. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory......” of their past deformations. This generates some numerical difficulties which are addressed with the log-conformation transformation. The main novelty of this work lies on the use of the volume-of-fluid method to track the free surfaces of the viscoelastic flows. We present some preliminary results of test case...... simulations where the different features of the model are tested independently....

  6. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  7. Viscoelastic guidance of resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bleeding in trauma carries a high mortality and is increased in case of coagulopathy. Our understanding of hemostasis and coagulopathy has improved, leading to a change in the protocols for hemostatic monitoring. This review describes the current state of evidence supporting...... populations. In trauma care, viscoelastic hemostatic assays allows for rapid and timely identification of coagulopathy and individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy. As part of the resuscitation concept, viscoelastic hemostatic assays seem to improve outcome also in trauma; however, there is a need...

  8. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  9. Coiling and Folding of Viscoelastic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth

    2007-11-01

    The study of fluid jets impacting on a flat surface has industrial applications in many areas, including processing of foods and consumer goods, bottle filling, and polymer melt processing. Previous studies have focused primarily on purely viscous, Newtonian fluids, which exhibit a number of different dynamical regimes including dripping, steady jetting, folding, and steady coiling. Here we add another dimension to the problem by focusing on mobile (low viscosity) viscoelastic fluids, with the study of two wormlike-micellar fluids, a cetylpyridinum-salicylic acid salt (CPyCl/NaSal) solution, and an industrially relevant shampoo base. We investigate the effects of viscosity and elasticity on the dynamics of axi-symmetric jets. The viscoelasticity of the fluids is systematically controlled by varying the concentration of salt counterions. Experimental methods include shear and extensional rheology measurements to characterize the fluids, and high-speed digital video imaging. In addition to the regimes observed in purely viscous systems, we also find a novel regime in which the elastic jet buckles and folds on itself, and alternates between coiling and folding behavior. We suggest phase diagrams and scaling laws for the coiling and folding frequencies through a systematic exploration of the experimental parameter space (height of fall, imposed flow rate, elasticity of the solution).

  10. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic arterial wall models: application on animals

    CERN Document Server

    Ghigo, Arthur; Armentano, Ricardo; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a non-linear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time-defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus-is nearly constant throughout the network. Therefore, as it is well known that smaller arteries are stiffer, the viscoelastic coefficient rises when approaching the peripheral sites to compensate the rise of the Young's modulus, resulting in a higher damping effect. We incorporated the fitted viscoelastic coefficients in a nonlinear 1D fluid model to compute the pulse waves in the network. The damping effect of viscoelasticity on the high frequency waves is clear especiall...

  11. Dynamics of a microorganism in a sheared viscoelastic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corato, Marco; D'Avino, Gaetano

    2016-12-21

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a model spherical microorganism, called squirmer, suspended in a viscoelastic fluid undergoing unconfined shear flow. The effect of the interplay of shear flow, fluid viscoelasticity, and self-propulsion on the orientational dynamics is addressed. In the limit of weak viscoelasticity, quantified by the Deborah number, an analytical expression for the squirmer angular velocity is derived by means of the generalized reciprocity theorem. Direct finite element simulations are carried out to study the squirmer dynamics at larger Deborah numbers. Our results show that the orientational dynamics of active microorganisms in a sheared viscoelastic fluid greatly differs from that observed in Newtonian suspensions. Fluid viscoelasticity leads to a drift of the particle orientation vector towards the vorticity axis or the flow-gradient plane depending on the Deborah number, the relative weight between the self-propulsion velocity and the flow characteristic velocity, and the type of swimming. Generally, pullers and pushers show an opposite equilibrium orientation. The results reported in the present paper could be helpful in designing devices where separation of microorganisms, based on their self-propulsion mechanism, is obtained.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid Over A Stretching Sheet by Using the Homotopy Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the Homotopy Analysis Method in comparison with the numerical method in solving this problems. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. A clear...... conclusion can be drawn from the numerical method results that the HAM provides highly accurate solutions for nonlinear differential equations. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper a study of the flow and heat transfer of an incompressible homogeneous second grade fluid past a stretching sheet channel...... is presented and the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the Homotopy Analysis Method in comparison...

  13. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...... of abandoned bones and rootless spirits; the remnants of years of civil war. This chapter deals with these landscapes of death, and explores how consolation is found through tying the dead to the land: to the home. It also explores the constant peril that this way of life poses, as living in such close...

  14. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  15. Growth of viscoelastic wings and the reduction of particle mobility in a viscoelastic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, William L.; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-10-01

    The motion of a rigid spherical particle in a sheared polymeric fluid is studied via experiments and numerical simulations. We study particle mobility in highly elastic fluids, where the deformation due to the sphere's movement and the shear flow both result in significant stretching of the polymer. The shear flow is imposed in a plane perpendicular to the sphere's movement, resulting in regions of high polymer tension in the wake of the sphere that can extend well into the shear flow and gradient directions. We observe that these viscoelastic wake structures, resembling wings, are linked to an increase in the form drag, providing a mechanism for a dramatic decrease in the particle mobility.

  16. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stability of the flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a deformable elastic solid medium is reviewed focusing on the role played by the fluid elasticity on the earlier known instability modes for the Newtonian fluids. In particular, two classes of modes are emphasized: the viscous mode for the creeping flow, and the wall mode for ...

  17. Viscoelastic suppression of gravity-driven counterflow instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Layne, D; Magee, E W; Katz, J I

    2011-02-04

    Attempts to achieve "top kill" of flowing oil wells by pumping dense drilling "muds," i.e., slurries of dense minerals, from above will fail if the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity-driven counterflow produces turbulence that breaks up the denser fluid into small droplets. Here we estimate the droplet size to be submillimeter for fast flows and suggest the addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to suppress turbulence. We find in laboratory experiments a variety of new physical effects for a viscoelastic shear-thickening liquid in a gravity-driven counterstreaming flow. There is a progression from droplet formation to complete turbulence suppression at the relevant high velocities. Thick descending columns show a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. Thinner streams form structures resembling globules on a looping filament.

  18. Day of the Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  19. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  20. Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, R

    1982-01-01

    Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str

  1. Nonrigid Registration of Monomodal MRI Using Linear Viscoelastic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for nonrigid registration of monomodal MRI based on physical laws. The proposed method assumes that the properties of image deformations are like those of viscoelastic matter, which exhibits the properties of both an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Therefore, the deformation fields of the deformed image are constrained by both sets of properties. After global registration, the local shape variations are assumed to have the properties of the Maxwell model of linear viscoelasticity, and the deformation fields are constrained by the corresponding partial differential equations. To speed up the registration, an adaptive force is introduced according to the maximum displacement of each iteration. Both synthetic datasets and real datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. We compare the results of the linear viscoelastic model with those of the fluid model on the basis of both the standard and adaptive forces. The results demonstrate that the adaptive force increases in both models and that the linear viscoelastic model improves the registration accuracy.

  2. Three-sphere swimmer in a nonlinear viscoelastic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, Mark P.

    2013-04-10

    A simple model for a swimmer consisting of three colinearly linked spheres attached by rods and oscillating out of phase to break reciprocal motion is analyzed. With a prescribed forcing of the rods acting on the three spheres, the swimming dynamics are determined analytically in both a Newtonian Stokes fluid and a zero Reynolds number, nonlinear, Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid with Deborah numbers of order one (or less), highlighting the effects of viscoelasticity on the net displacement of swimmer. For instance, the model predicts that the three-sphere swimmer with a sinusoidal, but nonreciprocal, forcing cycle within an Oldroyd-B representation of a polymeric Boger fluid moves a greater distance with enhanced efficiency in comparison with its motility in a Newtonian fluid of the same viscosity. Furthermore, the nonlinear contributions to the viscoelastic constitutive relation, while dynamically nontrivial, are predicted a posteriori to have no effect on swimmer motility at leading order, given a prescribed forcing between spheres. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  3. Study on Mechanism of Viscoelastic Polymer Transient Flow in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil recovery, including conventional and viscous oil, can be improved significantly by flooding with polymer solutions. This chemical flooding method can increase oil production, and it can improve the macrodisplacement efficiency and microsweep efficiencies. In this study, we establish physical models that include the dead-end and complex models based on the pore-network pattern etched into glass, using the snappyHexMesh solver in OpenFOAM. These models capture the complexity and topology of porous media geometry. We establish a mathematical model for transient flows of viscoelastic polymers using computational fluid dynamics simulations, and we study the distributions of pressure and velocity for different elasticity scenarios and different flooding process. The results demonstrate that the pressure difference increases as the relaxation time decreases, before the flow reaches its steady state. For a steady flow, elasticity can give rise to an additional pressure difference, which increases with increasing elasticity. Thus, the characteristics of pressure difference vary before and after the flow becomes steady; this phenomenon is very important. Velocity contours become more widely spaced with elasticity increase. This suggests that elasticity of the polymer solutions contributes to the microsweep efficiency. The results of the study provide the necessary theoretical foundation for laboratory experiments and development of methods for polymer flooding and can be helpful for the design and selection of polymers for polymer flooding.

  4. Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.

  5. Deformation and buckling of microcapsules in a viscoelastic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffiee, Amir Hossein; Dabiri, Sadegh; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the dynamics of (1) a Newtonian liquid-filled capsule in a viscoelastic matrix and that of (2) a viscoelastic capsule in a Newtonian matrix in a linear shear flow using a front-tracking method. The numerical results for case (1) indicate that the polymeric fluid reduces the capsule deformation and aligns the deformed capsule with the flow direction. It also narrows the range of tension experienced by the deformed capsule for case (1), while the tank-treading period significantly increases. Interestingly, the polymeric fluid has an opposite effect on the tank-treading period and the orientation angle of case (2), but its effect on the deformation is similar to case (1).

  6. Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  7. Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer in MHD flow of dusty viscoelastic (Walters' liquid model-B) stratified fluid in porous medium under variable viscosity. Om Prakash ... Expressions for the velocity of fluid and particle phases, temperature field, Nusselt number, skin friction and flow flux are obtained within the channel. The effects of various ...

  8. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using a generalized molecular stress function model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    A new finite element technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. It represents a further development of the 3D Lagrangian integral method (3D-LIM) from a Rivlin–Sawyers...

  9. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    EXPERIMENTAL VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CORN COB. COMPOSITES UNDER RADIAL COMPRESSION. BY. U.G.N. ANAZODO. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ABSTRACT. The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for ...

  10. Focusing and alignment of erythrocytes in a viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Taesik; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    Viscoelastic fluid flow-induced cross-streamline migration has recently received considerable attention because this process provides simple focusing and alignment over a wide range of flow rates. The lateral migration of particles depends on the channel geometry and physicochemical properties of particles. In this study, digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM) is employed to investigate the lateral migration of human erythrocytes induced by viscoelastic fluid flow in a rectangular microchannel. DIHM provides 3D spatial distributions of particles and information on particle orientation in the microchannel. The elastic forces generated in the pressure-driven flows of a viscoelastic fluid push suspended particles away from the walls and enforce erythrocytes to have a fixed orientation. Blood cell deformability influences the lateral focusing and fixed orientation in the microchannel. Different from rigid spheres and hardened erythrocytes, deformable normal erythrocytes disperse from the channel center plane, as the flow rate increases. Furthermore, normal erythrocytes have a higher angle of inclination than hardened erythrocytes in the region near the side-walls of the channel. These results may guide the label-free diagnosis of hematological diseases caused by abnormal erythrocyte deformability.

  11. Viscoelastic fracture of biological composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Brener, Efim A.

    2011-11-01

    Soft constituent materials endow biological composites, such as bone, dentin and nacre, with viscoelastic properties that may play an important role in their remarkable fracture resistance. In this paper we calculate the scaling properties of the quasi-static energy release rate and the viscoelastic contribution to the fracture energy of various biological composites, using both perturbative and non-perturbative approaches. We consider coarse-grained descriptions of three types of anisotropic structures: (i) liquid-crystal-like composites, (ii) stratified composites, (iii) staggered composites, for different crack orientations. In addition, we briefly discuss the implications of anisotropy for fracture criteria. Our analysis highlights the dominant lengthscales and scaling properties of viscoelastic fracture of biological composites. It may be useful for evaluating crack velocity toughening effects and structure-dissipation relations in these materials.

  12. Viscoelastic response near the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Brian

    2011-03-01

    We use numerical and theoretical methods to investigate oscillatory rheology in soft sphere packings, which serve as a minimal model for foams, emulsions, and other complex fluids that undergo a jamming transition. Although the zero frequency (elastic) properties of jammed media are well documented, far less is known about their viscoelastic response. We demonstrate that the frequency-dependent storage and loss moduli display critical scaling with distance to the jamming point. This behavior is governed by a diverging time scale that separates quasistatic response from a critical regime in which viscous and elastic forces contribute equally to the stress. We provide scaling arguments for all of the relevant critical exponents. Supported by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research.

  13. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D time-dependent viscoelastic flow computation using integral constitutive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for the numerical 3D simulation of time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The fluid is described by the Rivlin Sawyer integral constitutive equation. The method (referred to as the 3D...

  14. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  15. Non-integer viscoelastic constitutive law to model soft biological tissues to in-vivo indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nagehan; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, derivatives and integrals of non-integer orders are being more commonly used for the description of constitutive behavior of various viscoelastic materials including soft biological tissues. Compared to integer order constitutive relations, non-integer order viscoelastic material models of soft biological tissues are capable of capturing a wider range of viscoelastic behavior obtained from experiments. Although integer order models may yield comparably accurate results, non-integer order material models have less number of parameters to be identified in addition to description of an intermediate material that can monotonically and continuously be adjusted in between an ideal elastic solid and an ideal viscous fluid. In this work, starting with some preliminaries on non-integer (fractional) calculus, the "spring-pot", (intermediate mechanical element between a solid and a fluid), non-integer order three element (Zener) solid model, finally a user-defined large strain non-integer order viscoelastic constitutive model was constructed to be used in finite element simulations. Using the constitutive equation developed, by utilizing inverse finite element method and in vivo indentation experiments, soft tissue material identification was performed. The results indicate that material coefficients obtained from relaxation experiments, when optimized with creep experimental data could simulate relaxation, creep and cyclic loading and unloading experiments accurately. Non-integer calculus viscoelastic constitutive models, having physical interpretation and modeling experimental data accurately is a good alternative to classical phenomenological viscoelastic constitutive equations.

  16. Optimization of Bistable Viscoelastic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    the critical pressure gives rise to increased hydraulic resistance. We have combined a state-of-the-art implementation for viscoelastic flow modeling with topology optimization in a high level finite element package (COMSOL). We use this framework on the cross geometry with the aim to reduce the critical...

  17. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamic problem in micropolar viscoelastic medium has been investigated by employing eigen value approach after applying Laplace and Fourier transformations. An example of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the application of the approach. The integral transforms ...

  18. Dead or alive?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Dead or Alive was a painting and sound exhibition in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Richmond. NPL is the UK’s national standards laboratory for metrology and is one of the world’s leading measurement institutes. \\ud \\ud The exhibition took the form of installations consisting of paintings and soundscapes set up in two spaces, an anechoic chamber (dead) and a reverberation chamber (alive). For the exhibition a new body of work was made including a twenty-seven-metre panoramic painti...

  19. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...... a quantitative description of the empirical network composed of citations and references (in- and out-links) between papers (nodes) in the SPIRES database of scientific papers in high energy physics. We also demonstrate that the death mechanism alone can result in power law degree distributions for the resulting...... network....

  20. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabaud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  1. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...

  2. Heat Transfer to MHD Oscillatory Viscoelastic Flow in a Channel Filled with Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of a transverse magnetic field and radiative heat transfer on unsteady flow of a conducting optically thin viscoelastic fluid through a channel filled with saturated porous medium and nonuniform walls temperature has been discussed. It is assumed that the fluid has small electrical conductivity and the electromagnetic force produced is very small. Closed-form analytical solutions are constructed for the problem. The effects of the radiation and the magnetic field parameters on velocity profile and shear stress for different values of the viscoelastic parameter with the combination of the other flow parameters are illustrated graphically, and physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  3. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  4. A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.

  5. A Numerical Model of Viscoelastic Flow in Microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Miller, G; Liepmann, D

    2002-11-14

    The authors present a numerical method to model non-Newtonian, viscoelastic flow at the microscale. The equations of motion are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This constitutive equation is chosen to model a Boger fluid which is representative of complex biological solutions exhibiting elastic behavior due to macromolecules in the solution (e.g., DNA solution). The numerical approach is a projection method to impose the incompressibility constraint and a Lax-Wendroff method to predict velocities and stresses while recovering both viscous and elastic limits. The method is second-order accurate in space and time, free-stream preserving, has a time step constraint determined by the advective CFL condition, and requires the solution of only well-behaved linear systems amenable to the use of fast iterative methods. They demonstrate the method for viscoelastic incompressible flow in simple microchannels (2D) and microducts (3D).

  6. Fractional order viscoelasticity in characterization for atrial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing Jin; Li, Cheng Gang; Wu, Hong Tao; Kalantari, Masoud

    2013-05-01

    Atrial tissue due to its solid-like and fluid-like constituents shows highly viscoelastic properties. Up to now, the distribution pattern of muscle fiber in heart is not well established, and it is hard to establish the constitutive model for atrial tissue completely based on the microstructure level. Consider the equivalence between the fractional viscoelasticity and the fractal spring-dashpot model, a generalized fractional order Maxwell model is proposed to model the porcine atrial tissue in the phenomenological sense. This model has a simple expression and intuitively physical meanings. The constitutive parameters in the model are estimated in the complex domain by a genetic algorithm. Final results illustrate the proposed model gets a well agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Naegele, G

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles.

  8. SPH modeling and simulation of spherical particles interacting in a viscoelastic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Ellero, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we extend the three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) non-colloidal particulate model previously developed for Newtonian suspending media in Vázquez-Quesada and Ellero ["Rheology and microstructure of non-colloidal suspensions under shear studied with smoothed particle hydrodynamics," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 233, 37-47 (2016)] to viscoelastic matrices. For the solvent medium, the coarse-grained SPH viscoelastic formulation proposed in Vázquez-Quesada, Ellero, and Español ["Smoothed particle hydrodynamic model for viscoelastic fluids with thermal fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E 79, 056707 (2009)] is adopted. The property of this particular set of equations is that they are entirely derived within the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling formalism and therefore enjoy automatically thermodynamic consistency. The viscoelastic model is derived through a physical specification of a conformation-tensor-dependent entropy function for the fluid particles. In the simple case of suspended Hookean dumbbells, this delivers a specific SPH discretization of the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We validate the suspended particle model by studying the dynamics of single and mutually interacting "noncolloidal" rigid spheres under shear flow and in the presence of confinement. Numerical results agree well with available numerical and experimental data. It is straightforward to extend the particulate model to Brownian conditions and to more complex viscoelastic solvents.

  9. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  10. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Urban, Matthew W.; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A.; Humphrey, Tye C.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2011-10-01

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  11. Viscoelastic behavior of erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözeren, A; Skalak, R; Sung, K L; Chien, S

    1982-07-01

    A nonlinear viscoelastic relation is developed to describe the viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membrane. This constitutive equation is used in the analysis of the time-dependent aspiration of an erythrocyte membrane into a micropipette. Equations governing this motion are reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of the Volterra type. A numerical procedure based on a finite difference scheme is used to solve the integral equation and to match the experimental data. The data, aspiration length vs. time, is used to determine the relaxation function at each time step. The inverse problem of obtaining the time dependence of the aspiration length from a given relaxation function is also solved. Analytical results obtained are applied to the experimental data of Chien et al. 1978. Biophys. J. 24:463-487. A relaxation function similar to that of a four-parameter solid with a shear-thinning viscous term is proposed.

  12. Viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in a constricted microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyu; DuBose, John; Joo, Sang Woo; Qian, Shizhi

    2015-01-01

    Focusing suspended particles in a fluid into a single file is often necessary prior to continuous-flow detection, analysis, and separation. Electrokinetic particle focusing has been demonstrated in constricted microchannels by the use of the constriction-induced dielectrophoresis. However, previous studies on this subject have been limited to Newtonian fluids only. We report in this paper an experimental investigation of the viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in non-Newtonian polyethylene oxide solutions through a constricted microchannel. The width of the focused particle stream is found NOT to decrease with the increase in DC electric field, which is different from that in Newtonian fluids. Moreover, particle aggregations are observed at relatively high electric fields to first form inside the constriction. They can then either move forward and exit the constriction in an explosive mode or roll back to the constriction entrance for further accumulations. These unexpected phenomena are distinct from the findings in our earlier paper [Lu et al., Biomicrofluidics 8, 021802 (2014)], where particles are observed to oscillate inside the constriction and not to pass through until a chain of sufficient length is formed. They are speculated to be a consequence of the fluid viscoelasticity effects. PMID:25713690

  13. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  14. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R.; Cloete, T.; Govender, R.

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s-1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  15. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  16. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...... the species studied here from Ammodaucus, Distichoselinum, Elaeoselinum, Guillonea and Margotia in Thapsia in correspondence with previous phylogenetic studies of Apiaceae. Elaeoselinum is not monophyletic. Clades within Thapsia correlate well with previous observations of groupings based on the occurrence...

  17. Migration of rigid particles in two-phase viscoelastic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patrick; Jaensson, Nick; Hulsen, Martien

    2017-11-01

    We present simulations of particle migration in two-phase flows, where one of the fluids is viscoelastic, whereas the other is Newtonian. The fluid-fluid interface is assumed to be diffuse, and is described using Cahn-Hilliard theory. The equations are solved using the finite element method on moving meshes that are aligned with the particle boundary. The meshes used are highly refined in the interfacial region between the fluids and near the particle boundary, which allows us to perform simulations with a small interfacial thickness. Four regimes of particle migration are observed. The first regime, migration away from the interface, occurs if normal stresses in the viscoelastic fluid are absent, i.e. a Newtonian fluid. Due to the deformation of the interface, as Laplace pressure is build up, effectively pushing the particle away from the interface. The second regime, halted migration, occurs if the particle migrates toward the interface, but the migration is halted due to the Laplace pressure. In the third regime, interface penetration, the interfacial tension is not large enough to halt the migration, and the particle moves into the Newtonian fluid, encapsulated by a film of viscoelastic fluid. In the final fourth regime the particles are adsorbed at the interface.

  18. Age-dependence of intracranial viscoelastic properties in living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyakov, Alexander V; Cenkowski, Stefan S; Buist, Richard J; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2011-04-01

    To explore the effect of maturation on intracranial mechanical properties, viscoelastic parameters were determined in 44 live rats at ages 1-2, 10-12, 21, 56-70, and 180 days using instrumented indentation. With the dura mater intact, the apparent modulus of elasticity, the indentation modulus, and viscous behavior were measured in vivo, as well as 1 h after death. In a separate group of 25 rats, brain water, and protein content were determined. A significant increase of the elastic and indentation moduli beginning at 10-12 days after birth and continuing to 180 days was observed. The creep behavior decreased in the postnatal period and stabilized at 21 days. Changes in intracranial biomechanical properties corresponded to a gradual decrease of brain water, and an increase in total protein content, including glial fibrillary acidic protein, myelin basic protein, and neurofilament light chain. Elastic properties were not significantly different comparing the live and dead states. However, there were significant postmortem changes in viscous behavior. Viscoelastic properties of living rat intracranial contents are shown to be age dependent, reflecting the physical and biochemical changes during postnatal development. This may be important for understanding why young and mature brains respond differently in situations of brain trauma and hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller–Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin–Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time. PMID:26130967

  20. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2011-06-01

    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  2. Simulating Nonlinear Oscillations of Viscoelastically Damped Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. D. Monsia; Y. J. F. Kpomahou

    2014-01-01

    ... viscoelastic system experiencing large deformations response. The model is represented with the use of a mechanical oscillator consisting of an inertial body attached to a nonlinear viscoelastic spring...

  3. Thermal convection in a nonlinear non-Newtonian magnetic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Laroze, D.; Pleiner, H.

    2015-01-01

    We report theoretical and numerical results on thermal convection of a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. The viscoelastic properties are described by a general nonlinear viscoelastic model that contains as special cases the standard phenomenological constitutive equations for the stress tensor. In order to explore numerically the system we perform a truncated Galerkin expansion obtaining a generalized Lorenz system with ten modes. We find numerically that the system has station...

  4. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  5. Shape recovery of viscoelastic beams after stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai

    2015-01-01

    for the load relaxation and shape recovery of a linear viscoelastic beam subject to such time-varying constraints. It is shown that a viscoelastic beam recovers to its original shape asymptotically over time. The analytical solutions are employed to investigate the effect of temperature and stowage time...

  6. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  7. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  8. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement under alternative torque using electromagnetically spinning method with quadruple electromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.

  9. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Closed Surgical Wounds With Dead Space

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Hyunsuk; Lee, A-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Hong, Joon Pio

    2015-01-01

    Background Closed incisional wound surgery frequently leaves dead space under the repaired skin, which results in delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on incisional wounds with dead space after primary closure by evaluating the fluid volume through the suction drain, blood flow of the skin, tensile strength, and histology of the wounds. Methods Bilateral 25-cm-long incisional wounds with dead space were created on the ...

  10. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    the surface of Vor Frelsers Cemetery, as the background for affective resonances of the un-seen and un-told networks that connect people with time, places and spaces, through media. By following a non-representational research approach the project tries to enliven this particular cemetery rather than report...... as functional assistant cemetery in 1790, the 1,66 Acre of Vor Frelser Cemetery have had significant cultural and emotional roothold in the citizens of Amager and the adjacent Copenhagen districts. Today it serves as both the traditional ritual space for the interment of the dead (bodies or cremated remains...... that convey a weave of bodies, sites and memories along with a bodily exploration of the city of Copenhagen. Here invisible life-traces and their way through the urban landscape are animated as a meshwork of relations between the real and the fictional, unfolding in the interplay between performance...

  11. Charlie: Dead Laughing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Tuirán Rougeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the dramatic events of January 2015 in France, from the perspective of humor as an unconscious formation, as described by Freud. The deadly attack targeted the headquarters of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical journal that questions sensitive social issues through caricatures, cartoons, and humor. Considering that censure has always existed, what could explain this bloody act today? Can't we laugh at everything? Can't we laugh with anyone? While Freud suggests the hypothesis that the comic is a formation of spirit vis-à-vis the pain caused by existence, he also proposes that humor is the contribution of the super-ego to the comic. How, then, is it possible to understand that we cannot laugh at everything?

  12. Thermal convection in a nonlinear non-Newtonian magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroze, D.; Pleiner, H.

    2015-09-01

    We report theoretical and numerical results on thermal convection of a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. The viscoelastic properties are described by a general nonlinear viscoelastic model that contains as special cases the standard phenomenological constitutive equations for the stress tensor. In order to explore numerically the system we perform a truncated Galerkin expansion obtaining a generalized Lorenz system with ten modes. We find numerically that the system has stationary, periodic and chaotic regimes. We establish phase diagrams to identify the different dynamical regimes as a function of the Rayleigh number and the viscoelastic material parameters.

  13. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  14. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, Cheng Yuan [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea Wales (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system.

  15. Viscoelastic Relaxation Modulus Characterization Using Prony Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana E. Lopes Pacheco

    Full Text Available AbstractThe mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials is influenced, among other factors, by parameters like time and temperature. The present paper proposes a methodology for a thermorheologically and piezorheologically simple characterization of viscoelastic materials in the time domain based on experimental data using Prony Series and a mixed optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithms and Nonlinear Programming. The text discusses the influence of pressure and temperature on the mechanical behavior of those materials. The results are compared to experimental data in order to validate the methodology. The final results are very promising and the methodology proves to be effective in the identification of viscoelastic materials.

  16. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  17. TECHNIQUE AND DEVICE FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE OF VISCOELASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Murav’eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the characteristics of process fluids allows us to evaluate their quality, biological tissues – to differentiate healthy tissues and tissues with pathologies. Measuring the characteristics of process fluids allows us to evaluate their quality, biological tissues – to differentiate healthy tissues and tissues with pathologies. One of the complex acoustic parameters is the impedance, which allows one to fully evaluate the characteristics of viscoelastic media. Most of impedance methods of measurements require using two or more reference media and the availability of calibrated acoustic transducers. The aim of this work ware introduced a methods and construction for the experimental evaluation of the longitudinal and shear impedance of viscoelastic media based on measuring the parameters of the amplitude-frequency characteristics and calculating the elements of the electric circuit for replacing the piezoelectric element which vibrating in the test medium.The paper introduces a methods and construction of the experimental evaluation of the impedances of viscoelastic media. The suggested methods is allowed measuring longitudinal and shear impedances and determining velocities of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves and the values of the elastic moduli of viscoelastic media, including in various aggregate states. The technique is fairly simple to implement and can be reproduced using simple laboratory equipment.The obtained values of the acoustic impedances of the investigated media are in satisfactory agreement with their reference data. In contrast to the known methods for determining the acoustic impedance, the developed technique allows us to estimate with sufficient accuracy the parameter of the shear impedance of viscoelastic media that is difficult to measure at the frequencies of the megahertz range, which determines the shear modulus of the material and characterizes its resistance to shear deformations. The results of

  18. Time-dependent finite-element method for the simulation of three-dimensional viscoelastic flow with integral models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematic description of the fluid flow and represent a further development of the 2D Lagrangian integral method (LIM). The convergence of the method...... is demonstrated on the problem of a sphere moving in a cylinder filled with an upper convected Maxwell fluid....

  19. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  20. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  1. Effects of viscoelasticity on drop impact and spreading on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbassarov, Daulet; Muradoglu, Metin

    2016-06-01

    The effects of viscoelasticity on drop impact and spreading on a flat solid surface are studied computationally using a finite-difference-front-tracking method. The finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Chilcott-Rallison model is used to account for the fluid viscoelasticity. It is found that viscoelasticity favors advancement of contact line during the spreading phase, leading to a slight increase in the maximum spreading, in agreement with experimental observations [Huh, Jung, Seo, and Lee, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 18, 1221 (2015), 10.1007/s10404-014-1518-4]. However, in contrast with the well-known antirebound effects of polymeric additives, the viscoelasticity is found to enhance the tendency of the drop rebound in the receding phase. These results suggest that the antirebound effects are mainly due to the polymer-induced modification of wetting properties of the substrate rather than the change in the material properties of the drop fluid. A model is proposed to test this hypothesis. It is found that the model results in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations and the antirebound behavior can be captured by the modification of surface wetting properties in the receding phase.

  2. Numerical study of Dean vortices in developing Newtonian and viscoelastic flows through a curved duct of square cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutabaa, Mohammed; Helin, Lionel; Mompean, Gilmar; Thais, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids through a curved duct of square cross-section. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model is used to represent viscoelastic effects. The numerical method uses a finite volume discretization with a staggered grid, and the equations are written in general orthogonal coordinates. The numerical simulations produced for 3 different Dean numbers (125, 137 and 150) show clearly the presence of two steady Dean cells and the upstream development of a four-cell pattern when the centrifugal forces become significant. The comparison between Newtonian and PTT flows shows that the transition from twin-cells to four-cells is anticipated for the viscoelastic fluid. To cite this article: M. Boutabaa et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  3. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  4. Viscoelasticity of Concentrated Proteoglycan Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechai, Nispa; Jamieson, Alex; Blackwell, John; Carrino, David

    2001-03-01

    Proteoglycan Aggregate (PGA) is the principal macromolecular component of the energy-absorbing matrix of cartilage and tendon. Its brush-like supramolecular structure consists of highly-ionic subunits, non-covalently bound to a hyaluronate chain. We report viscoelastic behavior of concentrated solutions of PGA, purified by column fractionation to remove free subunits. At physiological ionic strength, these preparations exhibit a sol-to-gel transition when the concentration is increased above molecular overlap. The strain dependence of concentrated solutions shows a pronounced non-linearity above a critical strain, at which the storage modulus decreases suddenly, and the loss modulus exhibits a maximum. This response is similar to that observed for close-packed dispersions of soft spheres, when the applied strain is sufficient to move a sphere past its neighbors. At low and high ionic strength, the elasticity of solutions near the overlap concentration decreases. The former is interpreted as due to a decrease in intramolecular and intermolecular electrostatic repulsions, because of strong trapping of counterions within the PGA brush, the latter to salt-induced brush collapse.

  5. Climate change and dead zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dead Star Rumbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time. These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars. This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons. Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen. The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the later, on December 2, 2004.

  7. A primer on experimental and computational rheology with fractional viscoelastic constitutive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, Luís Lima; Ford, Neville John; Morgado, Maria Luísa; Rebelo, Magda; McKinley, Gareth Huw; Nóbrega, João Miguel

    2017-05-01

    This work presents a brief introduction to fractional calculus and its application to some problems in rheology. We present two different viscoelastic models based on fractional derivatives (the Fractional Maxwell Model - FMM and the Fractional Viscoelastic Fluid - FVF) and discuss their reduction to the classical Newtonian and Maxwell fluids. A third model is also studied (an extension of the FMM to an invariant form), being given by a combination of the K-BKZ integral model with a fractional memory function which we denote the Fractional K-BKZ model. We discuss and illustrate the ability of these models to fit experimental data, and present numerical results for simple stress relaxation following step strain and steady shearing.

  8. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port light...

  9. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-10

    We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  11. Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Viscoelastic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negaard, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    .... It would be useful if viscoelastic materials could be used to damp the vibration of such structures, however the behavior of a viscoelastic material in an extremely high g-loading is not well understood...

  12. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  13. Viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy: A newer concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Solanki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of conventional trabeculectomy (CT and viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy (VAT in primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A total of 65 primary open-angle glaucoma cases were taken for each of the two groups, i.e., CT and VAT. Viscoelastic-augmented trabeculectomy constituted lamellar scleral flap, deep scleral flap, penetrating trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy, filling of the anterior chamber with viscoelastic (sodium hyaluronate and balanced salt solution, movement of visco in bleb, and tight flap closure. Success criteria included intraocular pressure (IOP <14 mmHg with no devastating complications. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean IOP was significantly lower after VAT compared to CT at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Target IOP was achieved in 60% cases in VAT group compared to 36.92% in CT group. Conclusion: VAT is effective in reducing IOP to the target level for advanced glaucoma with lower postoperative complications.

  14. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-14

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  15. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-07-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a nonzero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  16. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    1966a,b; 1976) for elastic solids, fluids and further for non-local polar fields and are now universally accepted. A micropolar continuum is a collection of inter- connected particles in the form of small rigid bodies undergoing both translational and ...

  17. Broadband nanoindentation of glassy polymers: Part I Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesph E. Jakes; Rod S. Lakes; Don S. Stone

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are developed to assess viscoelastic moduli from unloading slopes in Berkovich nanoindentation across four orders of magnitude in time scale (0.01-100 s unloading time). Measured viscoelastic moduli of glassy polymers poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, and polycarbonate follow the same trends with frequency (1/unloading time) as viscoelastic moduli...

  18. Asymptotic estimates of viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyga, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Asymptotic behavior of viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront is expressed in terms of a causal function $g(t)$ defined in \\cite{SerHanJMP} in connection with the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. Viscoelastic Green's functions exhibit a discontinuity at the wavefront if $g(0) < \\infty$. Estimates of continuous and discontinuous viscoelastic Green's functions near the wavefront are obtained.

  19. Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.

    2017-01-10

    A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).

  20. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  1. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  2. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2018-01-01

    illustrate our essay design arguments through the competition’s history and results. In our paper we argue that designing future cemeteries should focus on how spaces such as Arnos Vale represent a transitional hybrid space. A merger of the Victorian past with the digital present, in order to create a new...... kind of archival future. Future Cemeteries will ultimately become spaces where both dead humans and dead data are stored. The irony, of course, is that given current design conditions and limitations in thinking, Arnos Vale’s granite headstones will remain in situ long after today’s ‘internet’ has...

  3. Investigation of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena effects on heat transfer of viscoelastic flow inside a symmetric sudden expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbani-Zahiri, A.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Shahmardan, M. M.; Norouzi, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the inertial and non-isothermal flows of the viscoelastic fluid through a planar channel with symmetric sudden expansion are numerically simulated. Effects of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena on the heat transfer rate are examined for the thermally developing and fully developed flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the planar channel with an expansion ratio of 1:3. The rheological model of exponential Phan Thien-Tanner is used to include both the effects of shear-thinning and elasticity in fluid viscosity. The properties of fluids are temperature-dependent, and the viscous dissipation and heat stored by fluid elasticity are considered in the heat transfer equation. For coupling the governing equations, the PISO algorithm (Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operator) is applied and the system of equations is linearized using the finite volume method on the collocated grids. The main purpose of this study is to examine the pitchfork bifurcation phenomena and its influences on the temperature distribution, the local and mean Nusselt numbers, and the first and second normal stress differences at different Reynolds, elasticity, and Brinkman numbers. The results show that by increasing the Brinkman number for the heated flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the channel, the value of the mean Nusselt number is almost linearly decreased. Also, the maximum values of the local Nusselt number for the thermally developing flow and the local Nusselt number of the thermally fully developed flow are decremented by enhancing the Brinkman number.

  4. Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

    2008-07-01

    Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

  5. Johnson-Segalman -- Saint-Venant equations for viscoelastic shallow flows in the elastic limit

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The shallow-water equations of Saint-Venant, often used to model the long-wave dynamics of free-surface flows driven by inertia and hydrostatic pressure, can be generalized to account for the elongational rheology of non-Newtonian fluids too. We consider here the $4 \\times 4$ shallow-water equations generalized to viscoelastic fluids using the Johnson-Segalman model in the elastic limit (i.e. at infinitely-large Deborah number, when source terms vanish). The system of nonlinear first-order eq...

  6. Non Linear Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation of Elastomers for Hysteresis Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Sairom; Kim, Dooman [Korea Aerospace Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jaehyung [Univ. of North Texas, Houston (United States); Choi, Seok-Ju [R and Center, Hnakook Tire Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    An accurate hysteresis model of an elastomer is important for quantifying viscoelastic energy loss. We suggest a highly nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model of elastomers. The model captures a nonlinear viscoelastic characteristic by combining Yeoh's hyperelastic model and Hoofatt's hysteresis model used Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. Analytical and numerical models were generated from uniaxial cyclic tests of an elastomer under a sinusoidal load with a mean strain of 150%, amplitudes of 20-80%, and frequencies of 0.02-0.2Hz. The viscoelastic model can highly capture the viscoelastic energy loss up to a strain of 230%.

  7. Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.

  8. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  9. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  10. Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.

  11. Viscoelastic Models for Nearly Incompressible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    outlined first, then the Prony series approximation to the stress relaxation function is introduced, and this in turn is used to derive various...These solutions are useful for verifying the model implementation. nonlinear, viscoelastic, rate-dependence, nearly incompressible, Prony series...12 3.4 Prony Series Approximation and Incremental Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.4.1

  12. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Transactions of the ASME,. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 27(9):. 438-444. 19. Yang, W.H. 1966. The contact problem for viscoelastic bodies. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of. Applied Mechanics, 33(4): 395-401. 20. Meyer, K.H. 1950. Natural and. Synthetic High polymers. Interscience. Publishers Inc.N.Y.USA. 21.

  13. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...

  14. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of frozen dough remedied availability of fresh bread. However, bread elaborated from frozen dough has less volume and texture is firmer. This study evaluates how storage affects the protein solubility, fermentative capacity and viscoelasticity of frozen dough. In addition to examining the effects of storage on the ...

  15. A Brief Review of Elasticity and Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    behavior of solid-like foods, Journal of Food Engineering , 78 (2007), 978–983. [18] M. Doi and M. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Oxford...lipids, Journal of Food Engineering , 33 (1997), 305–320. [52] J. Smart and J.G. Williams, A comparison of single integral non-linear viscoelasticity

  16. Isolation of nanoscale exosomes using viscoelastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, molecular cargos secreted by almost all mammalian cells, are considered as promising biomarkers to identify many diseases including cancers. However, the small size of exosomes (30-200 nm) poses serious challenges on their isolation from the complex media containing a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes, especially in small sample volumes. Here we develop a viscoelasticity-based microfluidic system to directly separate exosomes from cell culture media or serum in a continuous, size-dependent, and label-free manner. Using a small amount of biocompatible polymer as the additive into the media to control the viscoelastic forces exerted on EVs, we are able to achieve a high separation purity (>90%) and recovery (>80%) of exosomes. The size cutoff in viscoelasticity-based microfluidics can be easily controlled using different PEO concentrations. Based on this size-dependent viscoelastic separation strategy, we envision the handling of diverse nanoscale objects, such as gold nanoparticles, DNA origami structures, and quantum dots. This work was supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572334, 91543125).

  17. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field on the gravitational instability of strongly coupled plasma and observed that instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of non uniform magnetic field in transverse mode of wave propagation under both the kinetic and hydrodynamic limits, when the viscoelastic medium is infinitely electrically conducting.

  18. Numerical Models for Viscoelastic Liquid Atomization Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atomization spray of non-Newtonian liquid plays a pivotal role in various engineering applications, especially for the energy utilization. To operate spray systems efficiently and well understand the effects of liquid rheological properties on the whole spray process, a comprehensive model using Euler-Lagrangian approaches was established to simulate the evolution of the atomization spray for viscoelastic liquid. Based on the Oldroyd model, the viscoelastic linear dispersion relation was introduced into the primary atomization; an extended viscoelastic version of Taylor analogy breakup (TAB model was proposed; and the coalescence criteria was modified by rheological parameters, such as the relaxation time, the retardation time and the zero shear viscosity. The predicted results are validated with experimental data varying air-liquid mass flow ratio (ALR. Then, numerical calculations are conducted to investigate the characteristics of viscoelastic liquid atomization process. Results showed that the evolutionary trend of droplet mean diameter, Weber number and Ohnesorge number of viscoelastic liquids along with axial direction were qualitatively similar to that of Newtonian liquid. However, the mean size of polymer solution increased more gently than that of water at the downstream of the spray, which was beneficial to stable control of the desirable size in the applications. As concerned the effects of liquid physical properties, the surface tension played an important role in the primary atomization, which indicated the benefit of selecting the solvents with lower surface tension for finer atomization effects, while, for the evolution of atomization spray, larger relaxation time and zero shear viscosity increased droplet Sauter mean diameter (SMD significantly. The zero shear viscosity was effective throughout the jet region, while the effect of relaxation time became weaken at the downstream of the spray field.

  19. Magnetophoresis 'meets' viscoelasticity: deterministic separation of magnetic particles in a modular microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Francesco; Madadi, Hojjat; Villone, Massimiliano M; D'Avino, Gaetano; Cusano, Angela M; Vecchione, Raffaele; Ventre, Maurizio; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-04-21

    The deflection of magnetic beads in a microfluidic channel through magnetophoresis can be improved if the particles are somehow focused along the same streamline in the device. We design and fabricate a microfluidic device made of two modules, each one performing a unit operation. A suspension of magnetic beads in a viscoelastic medium is fed to the first module, which is a straight rectangular-shaped channel. Here, the magnetic particles are focused by exploiting fluid viscoelasticity. Such a channel is one inlet of the second module, which is a H-shaped channel, where a buffer stream is injected in the second inlet. A permanent magnet is used to displace the magnetic beads from the original to the buffer stream. Experiments with a Newtonian suspending fluid, where no focusing occurs, are carried out for comparison. When viscoelastic focusing and magnetophoresis are combined, magnetic particles can be deterministically separated from the original streamflow to the buffer, thus leading to a high deflection efficiency (up to ~96%) in a wide range of flow rates. The effect of the focusing length on the deflection of particles is also investigated. Finally, the proposed modular device is tested to separate magnetic and non-magnetic beads.

  20. Instability analysis of cosmic viscoelastic gyro-gravitating clouds in the presence of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Das, Papari

    2017-08-01

    A classical formalism for the weakly nonlinear instability analysis of a gravitating rotating viscoelastic gaseous cloud in the presence of gyratory dark matter is presented on the cosmic Jeans flat scales of space and time. The constituent neutral gaseous fluid (NGF) and dark matter fluid (DMF) are inter-coupled frictionally via mutual gravity alone. Application of standard nonlinear perturbation techniques over the complex gyro-gravitating clouds results in a unique conjugated pair of viscoelastic forced Burgers (VFB) equations. The VFB pair is conjointly twinned by correlational viscoelastic effects. There is no regular damping term here, unlike, in the conventional Burgers equation for the luminous (bright) matter solely. Instead, an interesting linear self-consistent derivative force-term naturalistically appears. A numerical illustrative platform is provided to reveal the micro-physical insights behind the weakly non-linear natural diffusive eigen-modes. It is fantastically seen that the perturbed NGF evolves as extended compressive solitons and compressive shock-like structures. In contrast, the perturbed DMF grows as rarefactive extended solitons and hybrid shocks. The latter is micro-physically composed of rarefactive solitons and compressive shocks. The consistency and reliability of the results are validated in the panoptic light of the existing reports based on the preeminent nonlinear advection-diffusion-based Burgers fabric. At the last, we highlight the main implications and non-trivial futuristic applications of the explored findings.

  1. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... What should I do if I find a dead bird? State and local agencies have different policies ...

  2. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deadly force. 632.4 Section 632.4 National... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a) Deadly force is destructive physical force directed against a person or persons (e.g., firing a lethal...

  3. A stable and convergent scheme for viscoelastic flow in contraction channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, David; Colella, Phillip; Miller, Gregory

    2004-02-15

    We present a new algorithm to simulate unsteady viscoelastic flows in abrupt contraction channels. In our approach we split the viscoelastic terms of the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation using Duhamel's formula and discretize the resulting PDEs using a semi-implicit finite difference method based on a Lax-Wendroff method for hyperbolic terms. In particular, we leave a small residual elastic term in the viscous limit by design to make the hyperbolic piece well-posed. A projection method is used to impose the incompressibility constraint. We are able to compute the full range of elastic flows in an abrupt contraction channel--from the viscous limit to the elastic limit--in a stable and convergent manner for elastic Mach numbers less than one. We demonstrate the method for unsteady Oldroyd-B and Maxwell fluids in planar contraction channels.

  4. Prediction of Viscoelastic Behavior of Blood Flow in Plaque Deposited Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Solangi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the viscoelastic behaviour of blood over low value of elasticity, to analyse the influence of inertia in the presence of elasticity. For viscoelastic fluids shear-thinning and strainsoftening PTT (Phan-Thien/Tanner constitutive model is employed to identify the influence of elasticity. The computational method adopted is based on a finite element semi-implicit time stepping Taylor- Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme. Simulations are conducted via atherosclerotic vessels along with various percentages of deposition at distinct values of Reynolds numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for recirculation flow structure and development of recirculation length to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on partially blocked plaque deposited vessels.

  5. Asymptotic ray theory of linear viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechtschein, Stephane

    The Asymptotic Ray Theory (ART) has become a frequently used technique for the numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in complex geological models. This theory was originally developed for elastic structures with the ray amplitude computation performed in the time domain. ART is now extended to linear viscoelastic media, the linear theory of viscoelasticity being used to simulate the dispersive properties peculiar to anelastic materials. This extension of ART is based on the introduction of a frequency dependent amplitude term having the same properties as in the elastic case and on a frequency dependent complex phase function. Consequently the ray amplitude computation is now performed in the frequency domain, the final solution being obtained by carrying out an Inverse Fourier Transform. Since ART is used, the boundary conditions for the kinematic and dynamic properties of the waves only have to be satisfied locally. This results in a much simpler Snell's Law for linear viscoelastic media, which in fact turns out to be of the same form as for the elastic case. No complex angle is involved. Furthermore the rays, the ray parameters, the geometrical spreading are all real values implying that the direction of the attenuation vector is always along the ray. The reflection and transmission coefficients were therefore rederived. These viscoelastic ART coefficients behave differently from those obtained with the Plane Wave method. Their amplitude and phase curves are always close to those computed for perfectly elastic media and they smoothly approach the elastic reflection/transmission coefficients when the quality factors increase to infinity. These same ART coefficients also display some non-physical results depending on the choice of the quality factors. This last feature might be useful to determine whether or not the two media making up the interface can be regarded as linear viscoelastic. Finally the results obtained from synthetic seismogram computations

  6. Global risk of deadly heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Dousset, Bénédicte; Caldwell, Iain R.; Powell, Farrah E.; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Bielecki, Coral R.; Counsell, Chelsie W. W.; Dietrich, Bonnie S.; Johnston, Emily T.; Louis, Leo V.; Lucas, Matthew P.; McKenzie, Marie M.; Shea, Alessandra G.; Tseng, Han; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Leon, Lisa R.; Hawkins, Ed; Trauernicht, Clay

    2017-07-01

    Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2014, and found 783 cases of excess human mortality associated with heat from 164 cities in 36 countries. Based on the climatic conditions of those lethal heat events, we identified a global threshold beyond which daily mean surface air temperature and relative humidity become deadly. Around 30% of the world's population is currently exposed to climatic conditions exceeding this deadly threshold for at least 20 days a year. By 2100, this percentage is projected to increase to ~48% under a scenario with drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and ~74% under a scenario of growing emissions. An increasing threat to human life from excess heat now seems almost inevitable, but will be greatly aggravated if greenhouse gases are not considerably reduced.

  7. Elasto-inertial particle focusing under the viscoelastic flow of DNA solution in a square channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bookun; Kim, Ju Min

    2016-03-01

    Particle focusing is an essential step in a wide range of applications such as cell counting and sorting. Recently, viscoelastic particle focusing, which exploits the spatially non-uniform viscoelastic properties of a polymer solution under Poiseuille flow, has attracted much attention because the particles are focused along the channel centerline without any external force. Lateral particle migration in polymer solutions in square channels has been studied due to its practical importance in lab-on-a-chip applications. However, there are still many questions about how the rheological properties of the medium alter the equilibrium particle positions and about the flow rate ranges for particle focusing. In this study, we investigated lateral particle migration in a viscoelastic flow of DNA solution in a square microchannel. The elastic property is relevant due to the long relaxation time of a DNA molecule, even when the DNA concentration is extremely low. Further, the shear viscosity of the solution is essentially constant irrespective of shear rate. Our current results demonstrate that the particles migrate toward the channel centerline and the four corners of a square channel in the dilute DNA solution when the inertia is negligible (elasticity-dominant flow). As the flow rate increases, the multiple equilibrium particle positions are reduced to a single file along the channel centerline, due to the elasto-inertial particle focusing mechanism. The current results support that elasto-inertial particle focusing mechanism is a universal phenomenon in a viscoelastic fluid with constant shear viscosity (Boger fluid). Also, the effective flow rate ranges for three-dimensional particle focusing in the DNA solution were significantly higher and wider than those for the previous synthetic polymer solution case, which facilitates high throughput analysis of particulate systems. In addition, we demonstrated that the DNA solution can be applied to focus a wide range of

  8. Immersed boundary methods for particles in viscoelastic drilling muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    In fracture stimulation of oil and gas wells, polymeric solution with suspended solids (proppants) are pumped to prop open the fracture. The primary aim of our work is to understand the dynamics of such proppants under various flow conditions through numerical computations. The study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all scales associated with the particle motion and the flow are resolved. The present effort is based on the algorithm proposed by Patankar (CTR Annual Research Briefs 2001:185), i.e. the Immersed Boundary (IB) methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry and for simplicity are chosen to be Cartesian. Since Cartesian grids cannot efficiently represent a fracture geometry, our focus is on the development of an IB method for viscoelastic flows in unstructured domain grids. This method is implemented in a massively parallel, unstructured finite-volume-based fluid solver developed at Stanford University. The main theme of the presentation will be the description of the algorithm, measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. A number of flow simulations will be presented, which validates the accuracy and correctness of the algorithm.

  9. A Viscoelastic Constitutive Law For FRP Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Luigi; Berardi, Valentino Paolo; D'Aponte, Anna

    2011-09-01

    The present study deals with the long-term behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil engineering. More specifically, the authors propose a mechanical model capable of predicting the viscoelastic behavior of FRP laminates in the field of linear viscoelasticity, starting from that of the matrix material and fiber. The model is closely connected with the low FRP stress levels in civil engineering applications. The model is based on a micromechanical approach which assumes that there is a perfect adhesion between the matrix and fiber. The long-term behavior of the phases is described through a four-parameter rheological law. A validation of the model has also been developed by matching the predicted behavior with an experimental one available in the literature.

  10. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...... it is demonstrated that surface tension plays a key role in the selection of the most unstable mode...

  11. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  12. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: dobos@konkoly.hu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.

  13. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  14. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  15. Temperature compensation in viscoelastic damper using magnetorheological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Tu, Jianwei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Jiayun; Tan, Dongmei

    2017-06-01

    The viscoelastic damper is an effective passive vibration control device, however, its viscoelastic material experiences considerable thermal softening when subjected to higher temperatures, limiting its development and application. In an effort to cope this problem, this paper proposes the development of a new-type viscoelastic damper using the magnetorheological (MR) effect to compensate for the thermal softening effect of viscoelastic material. The new damper is manufactured and the performance is tested, verifying that its MR effect can effectively make up for the performance deficiency of traditional viscoelastic dampers in high temperature. The mechanical model of the new damper is devised and its parameters are identified through the performance test data. The compensation strategy is presented and the thermal compensation controller based on pulse width modulation technology is developed. The compensation experimental results show that this new-type viscoelastic damper will not be influenced by environmental temperature, it can maintain the optimal energy dissipation performance in various temperature conditions.

  16. Stability and dynamics of fluid flow past deformable solid media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Objective of our work: To uncover qualitatively new instabilities in flow past deformable solid media. (Will not consider tube collapse due to external pressure changes.) Page 5. Introduction. 5. Fluid Governing equations. Incompressible; both Newtonian and Viscoelastic fluids. $%' & (. )0&01)243. 5&26(. &08720. Newtonian ...

  17. Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.

  18. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  20. Effects of viscoelasticity on droplet dynamics and break-up in microfluidic T-Junctions: a lattice Boltzmann study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam; Sbragaglia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics and break-up of fluid threads in microfluidic T-junctions are investigated using numerical simulations of dilute polymer solutions at changing the Capillary number (Ca), i.e. at changing the balance between the viscous forces and the surface tension at the interface, up to Ca ≈ 3×10(-2). A Navier-Stokes (NS) description of the solvent based on the lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) is here coupled to constitutive equations for finite extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with the closure proposed by Peterlin (FENE-P model). We present the results of three-dimensional simulations in a range of Ca which is broad enough to characterize all the three characteristic mechanisms of break-up in the confined T-junction, i.e. squeezing, dripping and jetting regimes. The various model parameters of the FENE-P constitutive equations, including the polymer relaxation time τP and the finite extensibility parameter L2, are changed to provide quantitative details on how the dynamics and break-up properties are affected by viscoelasticity. We will analyze cases with Droplet Viscoelasticity (DV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the dispersed (d) phase, as well as cases with Matrix Viscoelasticity (MV), where viscoelastic properties are confined in the continuous (c) phase. Moderate flow-rate ratios Q ≈ O(1) of the two phases are considered in the present study. Overall, we find that the effects are more pronounced in the case with MV, as the flow driving the break-up process upstream of the emerging thread can be sensibly perturbed by the polymer stresses.

  1. Viscoelasticity measurement of gel formed at the liquid-liquid reactive interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, Tomohiro

    2012-11-01

    We have experimentally studied a reacting liquid flow with gel formation by using viscous fingering (VF) as a flow field. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, xthantan gum (XG) solution and the ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. We showed that influence of gel formation on VF were qualitatively different in these two systems. We consider that the difference in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. In the present study, viscoelasticity measurement was performed by two methods. One is the method which uses Double Wall Ring sensor (TA instrument) and another is the method using parallel plate. In both viscoelasticity measurements, the behavior of the formed gel was qualitatively consistent. We have found that the gel in the SPA system shows viscoelastic fluid like behavior. Moreover, we have found that the gel in the XG system shows solid like behavior.

  2. Viscoelasticity and structure of polystyrene/fumed silica nanocomposites: filler network and hydrodynamic contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Giovanni; Romeo, Giovanni; Acierno, Domenico

    2010-02-16

    We investigate the relationships between structure and linear viscoelasticity of a model polymer nanocomposite system based on a mixture of fumed silica nanoparticles and polystyrene. Alterations in the viscoelastic behavior are attributed to the structuring of primary silica aggregates. Above a critical filler volume fraction, a space-filling network builds up as the result of cluster aggregation, and the complex frequency-dependence of the moduli is simplified by splitting the viscoelasticity of the composites into the independent responses of the suspending polymer melt and the filler network. Specifically, we present a refinement of a two-component model recently proposed for attractive colloidal suspensions, in which hydrodynamic effects related to the presence of the filler are properly taken into account using the concept of shear stress equivalent deformation. Our approach, validated through the building of a master curve of the elastic modulus for samples of different composition, allows the estimation of the elasticity of samples in which the filler network is too tenuous to be appreciated through a simple frequency scan. In addition, the structure of the filler network is studied using both the percolation and fractal approaches, and the reliability of the critical parameters is discussed. We expect that our analysis may be useful for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of complex fluids where the elasticity of the components may be superimposed.

  3. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  4. The effect of viscoelasticity and tabletting speed on consolidation and relaxation of a viscoelastic material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarschalk, KV; Vromans, H; Bolhuis, GK; Lerk, CF

    This paper evalutes the applicability of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) as a tool to explain consolidation and relaxation behaviour of a viscoelastic powder compressed at different speeds. From the DMA-data it is concluded that the material becomes more rigid and more elastic with increasing

  5. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiong Yap Gan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  6. Wave attenuation over seabed mud modeled by a two-layered viscoelastic model

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Y.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In coastal areas, wave-mud interaction is an important mechanism of wave attenuation. The present study on mud-induced wave attenuation is settled in a system composed of an inviscid water layer and a mud layer, in which the mud layer is modeled by a two-layered viscoelastic model. In the two-layered model, the upper layer is described by a Maxwell model, which is fluid-like; the lower layer is described by a Kelvin-Voigt model, which is heavier, and solid-like. Including the influence of the...

  7. Viscoelastic finite-element analysis of human skull - dura mater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... 1981). MATERIALS AND METHODS. In order to determine the influence of the viscoelastic nature of the human skull and dura mater on their deformation, we made the finite-element analysis of cranial cavity with the ICP scope from 1.5 to 5 kPa respectively. By ignoring the viscoelasticity of human skull.

  8. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2014-01-01

    labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G...

  9. Effect of Viscoelasticity on Adhesion of Bioinspired Micropatterned Epoxy Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, G.; Arzt, E.; Kamperman, M.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of viscoelasticity on adhesion was investigated for micropatterned epoxy surfaces and compared to nonpatterned surfaces. A two-component epoxy system was used to produce epoxy compositions with different viscoelastic properties. Pillar arrays with flat punch tip geometries were fabricated

  10. On the Abaqus FEA model of finite viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Destrade, Michel; Ogden, Ray W.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of the QLV (Quasi-Linear Viscoelastic) constitutive law are compared with those of the ABAQUS viscoelastic model for two simple motions in order to highlight, in particular, their very different dissipation rates and certain shortcomings of the ABAQUS model.

  11. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  12. Reflection of plane micropolar viscoelastic waves at a loosely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. A solution of the field equations governing small motions of a micropolar viscoelastic solid half-space is employed to study the reflection and transmission of plane waves at a loosely bonded interface between two dissimilar micropolar viscoelastic solid half-spaces. The amplitude ratios for various reflected.

  13. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. A viscoelastic model to simulate soft tissue materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Ortiz, J. S.; Lagos, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Continuum mechanic theories are frequently used to simulate the mechanical behavior of elastic and viscous materials, specifically soft tissues typically showing incompressibility, nonlinear deformation under stress, fading memory and insensitivity to the strain-rate. The time dependence of a viscoelastic material could be better understood by considering it as composed by an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Different types of mechanical devices can be constructed provided a particular configuration of elastic springs and dashpots. In this work our aim is to probe many of the soft tissue mechanical behavior, by considering a Kelvin's device coupled to a set of in parallel Maxwell's devices. Then, the resulting model composed of a long series of modified Kelvin bodies must span a broad range of characteristic times resulting in a suitable model for soft tissue simulation. Under driving static and dynamic stress applied to a 2-Dim system, its time dependence strain response is computed. We obtain a set of coupled Volterra integral equations solved via the extended trapezoidal rule scheme, and the Newton-Raphson method to solve nonlinear coupled equations.

  15. Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets: triplet shape and restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Prerna; DeBenedictis, Andrew; Atherton, Timothy J.; Caggioni, Marco; Prescott, Stuart W.; Hartel, Richard W.; Spicer, Patrick T.

    The stability of shapes formed by three viscoelastic droplets during their arrested coalescence has been investigated using micromanipulation experiments. Addition of a third droplet to arrested droplet doublets is shown to be controlled by the balance between interfacial pressures driving coalescence and internal elasticity that resists total consolidation. The free fluid available within the droplets controls the transmission of stress during droplet combination and allows connections to occur via formation of a neck between the droplets. The anisotropy of three-droplet systems adds complexity to the symmetric case of two-droplet aggregates because of the multiplicity of orientations possible for the third droplet. When elasticity dominates, the initial orientation of the third droplet is preserved in the triplet's final shape. When elasticity is dominated by the interfacial driving force, the final shape can deviate strongly from the initial positioning of droplets. Movement of the third droplet to a more compact packing occurs, driven by liquid meniscus expansion that minimizes the surface energy of the triplet. A range of compositions and orientations are examined and the resulting domains of restructuring and stability are mapped based on the final triplet structure. A geometric and a physical model are used to explain the mechanism driving meniscus-induced restructuring and are related to the impact of these phenomena on multiple droplet emulsions.

  16. Spherical particle sedimenting in weakly viscoelastic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    We consider the dynamics of a small spherical particle driven through an unbounded viscoelastic shear flow by an external force. We give analytical solutions to both the mobility problem (the velocity of a forced particle) and the resistance problem (the force on a fixed particle), valid to second order in the dimensionless Deborah and Weissenberg numbers, which represent the elastic relaxation time of the fluid relative to the rate of translation and the imposed shear rate. We find a shear-induced lift at O (Wi ) , a modified drag at O (De2) and O (Wi2) , and a second lift that is orthogonal to the first, at O (Wi2) . The relative importance of these effects depends strongly on the orientation of the forcing relative to the shear. We discuss how these forces affect the terminal settling velocity in an inclined shear flow. We also describe a basis set of symmetric Cartesian tensors and demonstrate how they enable general tensorial perturbation calculations such as the present theory. In particular, this scheme allows us to write down a solution to the inhomogeneous Stokes equations, required by the perturbation expansion, by a sequence of algebraic manipulations well suited to computer implementation.

  17. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2012-01-16

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  18. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  19. Q-compensated reverse time migration in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z.; Gu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation exhibits anelastic properties in subsurface media, especially high-attenuation areas such as the structure within and below gas-filled reservoirs, it causes strong amplitude loss and phase distortion of the waves and always degrades the resolution of the migration images. We evaluated a compensating method for attenuation effects in viscoelastic reverse time migration(Q-RTM) to improve image resolution. The viscoelastic Q-RTM is based on the decoupled attenuation property of the viscoelastic wave equation, through mitigating the amplitude attenuation and phase dispersion effects when source and receiver wavefields were extrapolated, the attenuation effects are compensated. During the migration, the decoupled attenuation wave equation offer separated amplitude attenuation and phase dispersion operators. In our viscoelastic Q-RTM, the receiver wavefield is reconstructed by reversing the signs of both P- and S-wave loss operators in viscoelastic equation, the source wacefield use viscoelastic forward modeling, thus attenuation effects are compensated during imaging. With the analysis of separated operators in backward viscoelastic wave equation, we further illustrate the decoupled P- and S-wave attenuation property and corresponding amplitude loss and phase dispersion. Based on decoupled P- and S-wave equation, we get separated viscoelastic P- and S-wavefields to obtain the scalar images. Finally, we tested the viscoelastic Q-RTM on several numerical examples to demonstrate the advantages of the method to compensate attenuation effect during migration, and we applied this method to realistic model, numerical results illustrated that the viscoelastic Q-RTM produced higher resolution images compared with noncompensated RTM method, particularly in the strong attenuation zones.

  20. Measurement of tissue viscoelasticity with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. F.; Alizad, A.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue properties such as elasticity and viscosity have been shown to be related to such tissue conditions as contraction, edema, fibrosis, and fat content among others. Magnetic Resonance Elastography has shown outstanding ability to measure the elasticity and in some cases the viscosity of tissues, especially in the liver, providing the ability to stage fibrotic liver disease similarly to biopsy. We discuss ultrasound methods of measuring elasticity and viscosity in tissues. Many of these methods are becoming widely available in the extant ultrasound machines distributed throughout the world. Some of the methods to be discussed are in the developmental stage. The advantages of the ultrasound methods are that the imaging instruments are widely available and that many of the viscoelastic measurements can be made during a short addition to the normal ultrasound examination time. In addition, the measurements can be made by ultrasound repetitively and quickly allowing evaluation of dynamic physiologic function in circumstances such as muscle contraction or artery relaxation. Measurement of viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties will become a consistent part of clinical ultrasound examinations in our opinion.

  1. Creep and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Jafarzadeh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Biomechanics of the human dentition is inherently complex.Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate, in vitro, the creep and the recovery of dentin under static uniaxial compressive stress conditions.Materials and Methods: Specimens of cylindrical morphology were prepared from recently extracted non-carious lower molar teeth, such that the average tubule orientation was axial. Slides of mid- coronal dentin (parallel surfaces, height 1.8 mm were sectionedwith a slow speed diamond saw and then cut into cylindrical discs. Specimens were stored at 4ºC for 24h to restabilize water content. Creep data were then measured by LVDT axially in water for periods of 2h load + 2h recovery on 4 separate groups (n=6: at two stresses (10 & 18 MPa and at two temperatures: 37 & 60ºC. Maximum creep strain, permanent set,strain recovery and initial compressive modulus were reported.Results: Compliance values were also calculated and slight non-linearity found at 60ºC.Two-way ANOVA was performed on results. Dentin exhibited a linear viscoelastic response under 'clinical' compressive stress levels , with a maximum strain ~ 1% and highrecoverability: permanent set<0.3%.Conclusion: This established a performance standard for viscoelastic stability of restorative biomaterials, replacing human dentin.

  2. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  3. Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Hal F

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter.   New to this edition:   ·         One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures ·         Brings up-to-date polymer pro...

  4. Acoustic precursor wave propagation in viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangran Kevin; Mojahedi, Mohammad; Sarris, Costas D

    2014-03-01

    Precursor field theory has been developed to describe the dynamics of electromagnetic field evolution in causally attenuative and dispersive media. In Debye dielectrics, the so-called Brillouin precursor exhibits an algebraic attenuation rate that makes it an ideal pulse waveform for communication, sensing, and imaging applications. Inspired by these studies in the electromagnetic domain, the present paper explores the propagation of acoustic precursors in dispersive media, with emphasis on biological media. To this end, a recently proposed causal dispersive model is employed, based on its interpretation as the acoustic counterpart of the Cole¿Cole model for dielectrics. The model stems from the fractional stress¿strain relation, which is consistent with the empirically known frequency power-law attenuation in viscoelastic media. It is shown that viscoelastic media described by this model, including human blood, support the formation and propagation of Brillouin precursors. The amplitude of these precursors exhibits a sub-exponential attenuation rate as a function of distance, actually being proportional to z(-p), where z is the distance traveled within the medium and 0.5

  5. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable disease...

  6. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the rails...

  7. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  8. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  9. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  10. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  11. On nonlinear viscoelastic deformations: a reappraisal of Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; Abrahams, I David; Parnell, William J

    2014-06-08

    This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved behaviour and offers a straightforward scheme for solving a wide range of models. Results from the new model are contrasted with those in the literature for the case of uniaxial elongation of a bar: for an imposed stretch of an incompressible bar and for an imposed load. In the latter case, a numerical solution to a Volterra integral equation is required to obtain the results. This is achieved by a high-order discretization scheme. Finally, the stretch of a compressible viscoelastic bar is determined for two distinct materials: Horgan-Murphy and Gent.

  12. Dispersion curves for a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam with fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, often used as a viscoelastic constitutive law for polymeric materials, is based on purely mathematical properties of linearity, convergence of improper integrals, and causality; thus, it may also be valid as a viscoelastic constitutive law for general structural materials. Accordingly, the motion equation of a Timoshenko beam composed of conventional elastic structural materials is extended to one composed of viscoelastic materials. From the derived governing equation, a dispersive equation is derived for a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam. By plotting phase velocity curves and group velocity curves for a beam of solid circular cross-section composed of a viscoelastic material (polyvinyl chloride foam), the influence of the fractional order of viscoelasticity is examined. As a result, it is found that, in the high frequency range, only the first mode of a Timoshenko beam converged to the propagation velocity of the Rayleigh wave, which takes account of the fractional order of viscoelasticity. In addition, the phase velocity and the group velocity were found to increase as the fractional order approaches 0, and to decrease as the fractional order approaches 1. Furthermore, the rate of velocity change becomes greater as the fractional order approaches 0, and becomes smaller as the fractional order approaches 1.

  13. Viscoelastic modeling of filled, crosslinked rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prashant G.

    1999-10-01

    Filled polymer systems have been a subject of interest for rheologists since the past many decades. Their applications range from paints and pigments to high performance composite materials. Tires come under a special class of applications wherein the type of filler used, its reinforcing abilities, traction improvement capabilities and cost effectiveness enormously control the final end use. Presently, there is lack of a complete understanding of the behavior of these materials under different load conditions. Moreover there is a lack of a comprehensive theory which can describe the rheology of filled rubbers, their chemorheology, and their behavior in the final fully cured state simultaneously. The present work is aimed at capturing a wide range of rheological/viscoelastic properties of filled rubbers with one set of constitutive/kinetic equations and a flexible relaxation spectrum. Various mechanical properties of filled, crosslinked rubbers were investigated in order to understand their analogy in the melt state. For this purpose, quasi-static hysteresis and step-strain relaxation experiments were carried out. Dynamic mechanical properties were understood in great details by using Fourier harmonic analysis to understand the time and strain non-linearities in the material. The time non-linearities arise due to thixotropic and non-isothermal effects, while the waveform distortions (strain related) occur due to non-linear viscoelastic effects. It is also very important to ensure no interference from any extraneous noise in the system during a dynamic test. Using the experimental evidences in melt rheology (creeping flow, shear start-up, and relaxation), and the kinetic mechanisms that affect chemorheology [152], an appropriate thixotropic-viscoelastic spectrum was chosen in order to describe experiments in all states of SBR rubber satisfactorily. This approach convinces that various manifestations of the filler in the melt state are preserved during crosslinking

  14. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  15. Dielectrophoretic Separation of Live and Dead Monocytes Using 3D Carbon-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yildizhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood has been the most reliable body fluid commonly used for the diagnosis of diseases. Although there have been promising investigations for the development of novel lab-on-a-chip devices to utilize other body fluids such as urine and sweat samples in diagnosis, their stability remains a problem that limits the reliability and accuracy of readouts. Hence, accurate and quantitative separation and characterization of blood cells are still crucial. The first step in achieving high-resolution characteristics for specific cell subpopulations from the whole blood is the isolation of pure cell populations from a mixture of cell suspensions. Second, live cells need to be purified from dead cells; otherwise, dead cells might introduce biases in the measurements. In addition, the separation and characterization methods being used must preserve the genetic and phenotypic properties of the cells. Among the characterization and separation approaches, dielectrophoresis (DEP is one of the oldest and most efficient label-free quantification methods, which directly purifies and characterizes cells using their intrinsic, physical properties. In this study, we present the dielectrophoretic separation and characterization of live and dead monocytes using 3D carbon-electrodes. Our approach successfully removed the dead monocytes while preserving the viability of the live monocytes. Therefore, when blood analyses and disease diagnosis are performed with enriched, live monocyte populations, this approach will reduce the dead-cell contamination risk and achieve more reliable and accurate test results.

  16. Model for bubble pulsation in liquid between parallel viscoelastic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Todd A.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    A model is presented for a pulsating spherical bubble positioned at a fixed location in a viscous, compressible liquid between parallel viscoelastic layers of finite thickness. The Green’s function for particle displacement is found and utilized to derive an expression for the radiation load imposed on the bubble by the layers. Although the radiation load is derived for linear harmonic motion it may be incorporated into an equation for the nonlinear radial dynamics of the bubble. This expression is valid if the strain magnitudes in the viscoelastic layer remain small. Dependence of bubble pulsation on the viscoelastic and geometric parameters of the layers is demonstrated through numerical simulations. PMID:22779461

  17. Active-passive calibration of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Mario; Richardson, Andrew C; S Reihani, S Nader

    2010-01-01

    In order to use optical tweezers as a force measuring tool inside a viscoelastic medium such as the cytoplasm of a living cell, it is crucial to perform an exact force calibration within the complex medium. This is a nontrivial task, as many of the physical characteristics of the medium and probe......, e.g., viscosity, elasticity, shape, and density, are often unknown. Here, we suggest how to calibrate single beam optical tweezers in a complex viscoelastic environment. At the same time, we determine viscoelastic characteristics such as friction retardation spectrum and elastic moduli of the medium...

  18. Viscoelastic creep elimination in dielectric elastomer actuation by preprogrammed voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Wang, Yanjie; McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing; Chen, Hualing

    2014-11-01

    Viscoelasticity causes a time-dependent deformation and lowers the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of VHB-based dielectric elastomers (DEs), thus seriously restricting a wide range of applications of this otherwise versatile soft smart material. The viscoelastic deformation of a prestretched VHB film in a circular actuator configuration is studied both theoretically and experimentally. By adjusting the applied voltage, viscoelastic creep can be dispelled and an invariable strain is obtained by simulation. Subsequently, an experiment was designed to validate the simulation and the results indicate that a constant strain can be achieved by preprogramming the applied actuation voltage.

  19. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  20. Viscoelastic frictionless contact problems with adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofonea Mircea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two quasistatic frictionless contact problems for viscoelastic bodies with long memory. In the first problem the contact is modelled with Signorini's conditions and in the second one is modelled with normal compliance. In both problems the adhesion of the contact surfaces is taken into account and is modelled with a surface variable, the bonding field. We provide variational formulations for the mechanical problems and prove the existence of a unique weak solution to each model. The proofs are based on arguments of time-dependent variational inequalities, differential equations, and a fixed point theorem. Moreover, we prove that the solution of the Signorini contact problem can be obtained as the limit of the solutions of the contact problem with normal compliance as the stiffness coefficient of the foundation converges to infinity.

  1. Ratcheting in a nonlinear viscoelastic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemme, David; Smith, Lloyd

    2017-11-01

    Uniaxial time-dependent creep and cycled stress behavior of a standard and toughened film adhesive were studied experimentally. Both adhesives exhibited progressive accumulation of strain from an applied cycled stress. Creep tests were fit to a viscoelastic power law model at three different applied stresses which showed nonlinear response in both adhesives. A third order nonlinear power law model with a permanent strain component was used to describe the creep behavior of both adhesives and to predict creep recovery and the accumulation of strain due to cycled stress. Permanent strain was observed at high stress but only up to 3% of the maximum strain. Creep recovery was under predicted by the nonlinear model, while cycled stress showed less than 3% difference for the first cycle but then over predicted the response above 1000 cycles by 4-14% at high stress. The results demonstrate the complex response observed with structural adhesives, and the need for further analytical advancements to describe their behavior.

  2. Heart valve viscoelastic properties - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochová P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cryopreservation on the biological tissue mechanics are still largely unknown. Generalized Maxwell model was applied to characterize quantitatively the viscoelastic behavior of sheep mitral heart valve tissue. Three different groups of specimens are supposed to be tested: fresh tissue specimens (control group, cryopreserved allografts from tissue bank and allografts already used as tissue replacements taken from the animals approximately one year after the surgery. Specific aim of this study is to determine whether or not the treatment used for storage in tissue bank influences significantly the mechanical properties and behavior of the tissue. At the moment, only the first group of specimens was examined. The methodology presented in this paper proved suitable to complete the study.

  3. Acoustics of marine sediment under compaction: binary grain-size model and viscoelastic extension of Biot's theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurer, Klaus C; Brown, Colin

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a model of acoustic wave propagation in unconsolidated marine sediment, including compaction, using a concept of a simplified sediment structure, modeled as a binary grain-size sphere pack. Compressional- and shear-wave velocities and attenuation follow from a combination of Biot's model, used as the general framework, and two viscoelastic extensions resulting in complex grain and frame moduli, respectively. An effective-grain model accounts for the viscoelasticity arising from local fluid flow in expandable clay minerals in clay-bearing sediments. A viscoelastic-contact model describes local fluid flow at the grain contacts. Porosity, density, and the structural Biot parameters (permeability, pore size, structure factor) as a function of pressure follow from the binary model, so that the remaining input parameters to the acoustic model consist solely of the mass fractions and the known mechanical properties of each constituent (e.g., carbonates, sand, clay, and expandable clay) of the sediment, effective pressure, or depth, and the environmental parameters (water depth, salinity, temperature). Velocity and attenuation as a function of pressure from the model are in good agreement with data on coarse- and fine-grained unconsolidated marine sediments.

  4. Viscoelastic parameter identification of human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, S; Sommer, G; Holzapfel, G A; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the constitutive behavior of the human brain is critical to interpret the physical environment during neurodevelopment, neurosurgery, and neurodegeneration. A wide variety of constitutive models has been proposed to characterize the brain at different temporal and spatial scales. Yet, their model parameters are typically calibrated with a single loading mode and fail to predict the behavior under arbitrary loading conditions. Here we used a finite viscoelastic Ogden model with six material parameters-an elastic stiffness, two viscoelastic stiffnesses, a nonlinearity parameter, and two viscous time constants-to model the characteristic nonlinearity, conditioning, hysteresis and tension-compression asymmetry of the human brain. We calibrated the model under shear, shear relaxation, compression, compression relaxation, and tension for four different regions of the human brain, the cortex, basal ganglia, corona radiata, and corpus callosum. Strikingly, unconditioned gray matter with 0.36kPa and white matter with 0.35kPa were equally stiff, whereas conditioned gray matter with 0.52kPa was three times stiffer than white matter with 0.18kPa. While both unconditioned viscous time constants were larger in gray than in white matter, both conditioned constants were smaller. These rheological differences suggest a different porosity between both tissues and explain-at least in part-the ongoing controversy between reported stiffness differences in gray and white matter. Our unconditioned and conditioned parameter sets are readily available for finite element simulations with commercial software packages that feature Ogden type models at finite deformations. As such, our results have direct implications on improving the accuracy of human brain simulations in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A note on the effects of liquid viscoelasticity and wall slip on foam drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, V.

    2007-06-01

    A foam drainage model is modified to attempt the description of foams made of viscoelastic liquids (such as polymer solutions). In particular, the standard approach to foam drainage dominated by viscous dissipation in Plateau borders is modified to take into account the elastic forces acting on the fluid within Plateau borders, and slipping of the polymer solution at the walls of Plateau borders. It is shown that, in the case of forced drainage, the resulting differential equations reduce to the same one obtained in the case of Newtonian liquids, which is satisfied by the well-known solitary wave solution. According to these results, the fluid elasticity has no effect on the drainage velocity, while the wall slip assumption is compatible with recent observations showing a faster drainage velocity in the forced drainage experiment.

  6. Slip flow on stagnation point over a stretching sheet in a viscoelastic nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M. K. A.; Noar, N. A. Z.; Salleh, M. Z.; Ishak, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the numerical investigation of stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet immersed in a viscoelastic (Walter's liquid-B model) nanofluid with velocity slip condition and constant wall temperature is considered. The governing equations for the model which is non linear partial differential equations are first transformed by using similarity transformation. Then, the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is employed to solve the transformed ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number, the Sherwood number and the skin friction coefficient. Further, the effects of slip parameter on the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the heat and mass transfer rate is higher for the Walter's fluid compared to the classical viscous fluid and the presence of the velocity slip reduces the effects of the stretching parameter on the skin friction coefficient.

  7. De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    10 | Air & Space Power Journal De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? Robert Cardillo Richard Szafranski Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or...of French Artillery Instructors in the U.S. Army.”1 Let’s fire directly at the idea of strategy. The hypothesis is that strategy is dead , and that’s...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Mixed convection boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid past a horizontal circular cylinder: Case of constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Rahimah; Afiqah Rawi, Noraihan; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Shafie, Sharidan

    2017-09-01

    The steady of two-dimensional convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid over a circular cylinder is investigated in this paper. Carboxymethyl cellulose solution (CMC) is chosen as the base fluid and copper as a nanoparticle with the Prandtl number Pr = 6.2. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless forms. Then they are solved numerically by using the Keller-Box method. This paper focus on the effects of selected parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics and be presented in graphs. The results show that, the velocity profiles and the temperature profiles are increased by increasing the values of nanoparticles volume fraction. While velocity profile decreases when viscoelastic parameter is increase. The reverse trend is observed for the temperature profiles. Also, the values of reduced skin friction are increased by increasing mixed convection parameter, but the values of heat transfer coefficient produce an opposite behaviour with an increasing in mixed convection parameter.

  9. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...... are probably essential for the CMP’s ability to form and sustain a plug in the cervical canal during pregnancy, thereby reducing the risk of ascending infections....

  10. Enabling large-scale viscoelastic calculations via neural network acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Thompson, T. Ben; Meade, Brendan J.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most significant challenges involved in efforts to understand the effects of repeated earthquake cycle activity is the computational costs of large-scale viscoelastic earthquake cycle models. Computationally intensive viscoelastic codes must be evaluated at thousands of times and locations, and as a result, studies tend to adopt a few fixed rheological structures and model geometries and examine the predicted time-dependent deformation over short (learn a computationally efficient representation of viscoelastic solutions, at any time, location, and for a large range of rheological structures, allows these calculations to be done quickly and reliably, with high spatial and temporal resolutions. We demonstrate that this machine learning approach accelerates viscoelastic calculations by more than 50,000%. This magnitude of acceleration will enable the modeling of geometrically complex faults over thousands of earthquake cycles across wider ranges of model parameters and at larger spatial and temporal scales than have been previously possible.

  11. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters...

  12. Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point ...

  13. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    superposed flow condition on viscoelastic properties of LLDPE, Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and hybrid of short glass fibre and Kev- lar fibre reinforced LLDPE. Parallel-plate rheometer was employed for these tests. Rheological parameters.

  14. Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166797.html Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat Here's how to ... t take off in Phoenix on Tuesday, the heat wave scorching the Southwest for the next week ...

  15. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  16. Dead cell phagocytosis and innate immune checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan

    2017-01-01

    The human body loses several billions of cells daily. When cells die in vivo, the corpse of each dead cell is immediately cleared. Specifically, dead cells are efficiently recognized and cleared by multiple types of neighboring phagocytes. Early research on cell death focused more on molecular mechanisms of cell death regulation while the cellular corpses were merely considered cellular debris. However, it has come to light that various biological stimuli following cell death are important for immune regulation. Clearance of normal dead cells occurs silently in immune tolerance. Exogenous or mutated antigens of malignant or infected cells can initiate adaptive immunity, thereby inducing immunogenicity by adjuvant signals. Several pathogens and cancer cells have strategies to limit the adjuvant signals and escape immune surveillance. In this review, we present an overview of the mechanisms of dead cell clearance and its immune regulations. PMID:28768566

  17. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  18. Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children Share Tweet ... from accidental exposure to a skin patch containing fentanyl, a powerful pain reliever. As a result of ...

  19. Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165825.html Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly? New report suggests they're ... 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Filtered cigarettes might be even more lethal than unfiltered ones, ...

  20. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  1. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  2. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  3. Viscoelasticity of Axisymmetric Composite Structures: Analysis and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    analysis can be applied to composite pressure vessels, gun barrels, and flywheels . 15. SUBJECT TERMS viscoelasticity, creep, composite, gun barrel... flywheel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 28 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Jerome T...method to study the viscoelastic behavior of thick-walled composite cylinders. The analysis can be applied to the design of flywheel machinery and

  4. Mathematical justification of a viscoelastic elliptic membrane problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Arós, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    We consider a family of linearly viscoelastic elliptic shells, and we use asymptotic analysis to justify that what we have identified as the two-dimensional viscoelastic elliptic membrane problem is an accurate approximation when the thickness of the shell tends to zero. Most noticeable is that the limit problem includes a long-term memory that takes into account the previous history of deformations. We provide convergence results which justify our asymptotic approach.

  5. Gelatin methacrylate-alginate hydrogel with tunable viscoelastic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yong X. Chen; Brian Cain; Pranav Soman

    2017-01-01

    Although native extracellular matrix (ECM) is viscoelastic, synthetic biomaterials used in biomedical engineering to mimic ECM typically exhibit a purely elastic response when an external strain is applied. In an effort to truly understand how living cells interact with surrounding ECM matrix, new biomaterials with tunable viscoelastic properties continue to be developed. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of a gelatin methacrylate-alginate (Gel-Alg) composite hydrog...

  6. Freshening of the Dead Sea during the Last Glacial Revealed By Porewater Composition in ICDP Dead Sea Deep-Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the brine lakes that filled the Dead Sea basin has been extensively studied on the sedimentary exposures and drill cores on the Sea marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea. These geological sections documented the history of the epilimnion (upper brine) of the hypersaline lake during its high stands periods. The cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m provided the first opportunity to study the history of the deepest part of the hypolimnion (deep brine) by measuring the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the pore brines revealed a substantial decrease in salinity of the hypolimnion during the high stand of the last glacial Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea), particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). Diffusion-deposition model indicated that Cl- concentration of the deep hypolimnetic brine decreased gradually to less than 2/3 of its present value. The δ18O at the same time increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). The increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan was a result of evaporative fractionation of the less saline epilimnetic brine. The post-glacial δ18O decrease while salinity increased is attributed to the "reversed" δ18O fractionation during evaporation of very high salinity brine. Increase in the Na/Cl ratio due to dissolution of halite without reaching halite saturation was also observed during the freshening period.

  7. Visualization and microrheology of complex fluid/fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Siyoung Q.; Zasadzinski, Joseph; Squires, Todd

    2009-11-01

    We describe a novel microrheological technique to measure the rheological properties of fluid/fluid interfaces, which can dramatically affect the flow properties and dynamics of multiphase materials (emulsions, foams, cells and organs). Such measurements can be particularly challenging, as one needs to measure the influence of molecularly thin, two-dimensional layers but be insensitive to the three-dimensional bulk fluids on either side. However, dimensionality helps here: interfacial forces on a probe are exerted along a contact perimeter, whereas the bulk forces are exerted on the contact area. Smaller probes thus increase the perimeter/area ratio, and therefore the relative sensitivity to interfacial viscoelasticity. We fabricate micron-scale ferromagnetic amphiphilic disks (with versatile surface chemistry), place them on the interface, use external electromagnets to exert a known torque (stress), and measure the resulting rotational displacement (strain). In addition to its sensitivity, our technique can measure frequency dependent linear/nonlinear viscoelastic properties and yield stresses. Simultaneous visualization of the interface by fluorescence microscopy allows us to correlate local dynamics withe measured rheology. We validate our technique and highlight its capabilities with measurements on a variety of systems, including two-dimensional colloidal monolayers, fatty acid and phospholipid monolayers.

  8. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  9. A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed viscoelastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing approaches for simulating the true polar wander (TPW) of a viscoelastic body can be divided into three categories: (i) a linear dynamic approach which uses the linearized Liouville equation (e.g., Wu and Peltier (1984) and Mitrovica et al. (2005)); (ii) a nonlinear dynamic approach which is based on the quasi-fluid approximation (e.g., Sabadini and Peltier (1981), Ricard et al. (1993), and Cambiotti et al. (2011)); and (iii) a long-term limit approach which only considers the fluid limit of a reorientation (e.g., Matsuyama and Nimmo (2007)). Several limitations of these approaches have not been studied: the range for which the linear approach is accurate, the validity of the quasi-fluid approximation, and the dynamic solution for TPW of a tidally deformed rotating body. We establish a numerical procedure which is able to determine the large-angle reorientation of a viscoelastic celestial body that can be both centrifugally and tidally deformed. We show that the linear approach leads to significant errors for loadings near the poles or the equator. Second, we show that slow relaxation modes can have a significant effect on large-angle TPW of Earth or other planets. Finally, we show that reorientation of a tidally deformed body driven by a positive mass anomaly near the poles has a preference for rotating around the tidal axis instead of toward it. At a tidally deformed body which does not have a remnant bulge, positive mass anomalies are more likely to be found near the equator and the plane perpendicular to the tidal axis, while negative mass anomalies tend to be near the great circle that contains the tidal and rotational axes.

  10. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  11. Steady flow and viscoelastic properties of lubricating grease containing various thickener concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, S K; Luckham, P F; Tadros, Th F

    2004-06-01

    The flow and viscoelastic properties of a lubricating grease formed from a thickener composed of lithium hydroxystearate and a high-boiling-point mineral oil were investigated as a function of thickener concentration. The flow properties of grease were measured using continuous shear rheometry, while the viscoelastic properties were measured using oscillatory shear measurements. The flow properties show that grease is a shear-thinning fluid with a yield stress that increases with thickener concentration. At concentrations of lithium hydroxystearate greater than 5% by volume, the storage modulus, G', was found to be greater than the loss modulus, G", with both moduli increasing with increasing thickener concentration, below this critical concentration G" was greater than G'. Slip at the wall of the measuring platens was a major problem encountered during the rheological measurement of grease, this is hardly surprising, and greases are designed to slip in their lubricating functions. Therefore the measuring platens were roughened by sandblasting and significantly higher yield values were recorded with the roughened geometries. Creep experiments were also performed. In the creep test, yield stresses of greases could be obtained. Zero shear viscosity was also calculated from the creep experiment and as a result viscosities over nine orders of magnitude were obtained. The power law index of the scaling law of the elastic modulus and yield stress with increasing volume fraction was found to be 4.7+/-0.2 suggesting that the flocculation of the particles that compose the grease is likely to be of the chemically limited aggregation variety.

  12. Nonlocal vibration and biaxial buckling of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C. [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Y.Q., E-mail: cyqzhang@zju.edu.cn [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fan, L.F. [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-11

    The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium. - Highlights: • Vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system under in-plane edge loads is investigated. • Biaxial buckling of the system with simply supported boundary conditions is analyzed. • Explicit expression for the vibrational frequency and buckling load is obtained. • Impacts of viscoelastic Pasternak medium on vibrational frequency and buckling load are discussed. • Influences of structural damping, small size effect and loading ratio are also considered.

  13. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  14. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  15. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  16. Simulating Nonlinear Oscillations of Viscoelastically Damped Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Monsia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a mathematical model in terms of an exact analytical solution that may be used in numerical simulation and prediction of oscillatory dynamics of a one-dimensional viscoelastic system experiencing large deformations response. The model is represented with the use of a mechanical oscillator consisting of an inertial body attached to a nonlinear viscoelastic spring. As a result, a second-order first-degree Painlevé equation has been obtained as a law, governing the nonlinear oscillatory dynamics of the viscoelastic system. Analytical resolution of the evolution equation predicts the existence of three solutions and hence three damping modes of free vibration well known in dynamics of viscoelastically damped oscillating systems. Following the specific values of damping strength, over-damped, critically-damped and under-damped solutions have been obtained. It is observed that the rate of decay is not only governed by the damping degree but, also by the magnitude of the stiffness nonlinearity controlling parameter. Computational simulations demonstrated that numerical solutions match analytical results very well. It is found that the developed mathematical model includes a nonlinear extension of the classical damped linear harmonic oscillator and incorporates the Lambert nonlinear oscillatory equation with well-known solutions as special case. Finally, the three damped responses of the current mathematical model devoted for representing mechanical systems undergoing large deformations and viscoelastic behavior are found to be asymptotically stable.

  17. Characterizing gelatin hydrogel viscoelasticity with diffusing colloidal probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaniverki, Soheila; Juárez, Jaime J

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigate viscoelasticity in gelatin hydrogels using diffusing colloidal probe microscopy (DCPM) to directly measure the elastic potential energy interaction between colloidal probes and the underlying viscoelastic media. Gelatin samples are prepared in four different concentrations between 0.3wt% and 0.6wt% to examine changes in viscoelasticity with concentration. A force balance describing the interaction between the colloidal probes and the hydrogel as a spring-damper system lead to a simple model for mean square displacement. A histogram of locations sampled by the colloidal probes is directly related to the elastic potential energy and the effective spring constant of the gelatin hydrogels. The effective spring constant is a fixed parameter used in the mean square displacement model to find effective viscosity. These parameters are comparable to viscoelastic parameters obtain by a microrheology analysis of two-dimensional mean square displacements. These results can serve as a guide for assessing hydrogel systems where viscoelastic properties are an important factor in biomaterial design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Viscoelasticity of Epoxy nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been modeled in a multiscale covering from molecular scale (e.g., molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo), microscale (e.g., Brownian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, lattice Boltzmann, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau method, dynamic density functional theory method) to mesoscale and macroscale (e.g., micromechanics, equivalent-continuum and self-similar approaches, finite element method) The presence of layered silicates in nonaqueous polymers changes the viscoelastic behavior of the unfilled matrix from liquid-like to solid-like because of the formation of a three-dimensional percolating network of exfoliated or intercalated stacks. This gel-like behavior is a direct consequence of the highly anisotropic nature of the nanoclays which prevents their free rotation and the dissipation of stress. Particle to particle interactions is the dominant mechanism in fumed silica nanocomposites whereas particle to polymer interaction is the dominant one in colloidal silica nanocomposites at identical filler concentrations. These interactions are balanced in each nanocomposite systems by the silica surface treatments (chain grafting, silane modification) and the molecular weight of the matrix. Two different types of nanocomposite structures exist namely, intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the layers can be considered individually but remain more or less dispersed in the polymer matrix. Yield stress from Carreau-Yasuda model has been correlated to exfoliation. Also, equilibrium modulus and zero shear rate viscosity has been used to analyze percolation threshold and sol-gel transition. Nano clays organically functionalized were mixed with Epoxy in a high shear mixer.

  19. Linear Viscoelastic Property Measurement and Its Significance for Some Nonlinear Viscoelasticity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanidis, G. A.; Liechti, K. M.

    Three linear viscoelastic properties of an Ashland neat urethane adhesive were measured. Dynamic tensile compliance was found using a novel extensometer. The results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio was extracted from strain gage data that was corrected to include gage reinforcement effects. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to Prony series that originated in the time domain. Dynamic shear compliance inferred from dynamic tensile compliance and dynamic Poisson's ratio compared well with measured values. This established the validity of the time temperature shifting and interconversion procedures that were developed for this isotropic material in its linear range. Dynamic tensile compliance and dynamic Poisson's ratio were then used to obtain the dynamic bulk compliance, which was in turn converted to the time domain along with the dynamic shear compliance. The shear and dynamic creep compliance functions thus obtained formed the basis of the nonlinear viscoelastic models. Two nonlinear viscoelastic models based on free volume considerations (modified to include distortional effects) were considered as constitutive models. One was based on the effect of the state of strain on the free volume through the Doolittle equation, while the other incorporated the effect of state of stress via the Tait equation. Ramp loading experiments conducted in tension and shear at strain rates spanning three decades were reasonably well predicted. Contrary to expectations based on previous work with less precise small strain data, the strain-based model proved to be more applicable than the stress-based one. This means that the shear modified free volume model of Popelar and Liechti (2003) has now been shown to be

  20. Still water: dead zones and collimated ejecta from the impact of granular jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellowitz, Jake; Turlier, Hervé; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

    2013-10-18

    When a dense granular jet hits a target, it forms a large dead zone and ejects a highly collimated conical sheet with a well-defined opening angle. Using experiments, simulations, and continuum modeling, we find that this opening angle is insensitive to the precise target shape and the dissipation mechanisms in the flow. We show that this surprising insensitivity arises because dense granular jet impact, though highly dissipative, is nonetheless controlled by the limit of perfect fluid flow.

  1. Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-06-15

    The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.

  2. Modeling viscoelastic flow in a multiflux static mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpplmayr, T.; Miethlinger, J.

    2014-05-01

    We present a numerical and experimental study of the polymer flow in a multiflux static mixer. Various geometrical configurations are compared in terms of layer homogeneity. To evaluate the layer-forming process in different geometries, we applied a general and precise approach based on trajectory calculations for a large set of material points, followed by a statistical analysis. A simulation of viscous flow using the Carreau-Yasuda constitutive equation produced results which deviated from our experimental findings. Therefore, we used the Giesekus constitutive equation, taking into account viscoelastic effects, such as extrudate swell and secondary motions inside the mixer. Parallel plate rheometry was employed to collect dynamic mechanical data in the linear viscoelastic flow regime. Weissenberg numbers were calculated, and the maximum relaxation time in the obtained spectrum was limited to avoid divergence issues. The results of our study provide deeper insights into the layerforming process of viscoelastic melts in a multiflux static mixer.

  3. Atomic force microscopy studies on cellular elastic and viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-06-29

    In this work, a method based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach-reside-retract experiments was established to simultaneously quantify the elastic and viscoelastic properties of single cells. First, the elastic and viscoelastic properties of normal breast cells and cancerous breast cells were measured, showing significant differences in Young's modulus and relaxation times between normal and cancerous breast cells. Remarkable differences in cellular topography between normal and cancerous breast cells were also revealed by AFM imaging. Next, the elastic and viscoelasitc properties of three other types of cell lines and primary normal B lymphocytes were measured; results demonstrated the potential of cellular viscoelastic properties in complementing cellular Young's modulus for discerning different states of cells. This research provides a novel way to quantify the mechanical properties of cells by AFM, which allows investigation of the biomechanical behaviors of single cells from multiple aspects.

  4. Gelatin methacrylate-alginate hydrogel with tunable viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong X. Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although native extracellular matrix (ECM is viscoelastic, synthetic biomaterials used in biomedical engineering to mimic ECM typically exhibit a purely elastic response when an external strain is applied. In an effort to truly understand how living cells interact with surrounding ECM matrix, new biomaterials with tunable viscoelastic properties continue to be developed. Here we report the synthesis and mechanical characterization of a gelatin methacrylate-alginate (Gel-Alg composite hydrogel. Results obtained from creep and compressive tests reveal that the alginate component of Gel-Alg composite, can be effectively crosslinked, un-crosslinked and re-crosslinked by adding or chelating Ca2+ ions. This work demonstrates that Gel-Alg is capable of tuning its viscoelastic strain and elastic recovery properties, and can be potentially used to design ECM-mimicking hydrogels.

  5. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  6. Model and Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  7. Simulation of viscoelastic flow through constrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J. M.; Hinch, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method.In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears.The steady pressure drop...

  8. Evaluation and correction for optical scattering variations in laser speckle rheology of biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K

    2013-01-01

    Biological fluids fulfill key functionalities such as hydrating, protecting, and nourishing cells and tissues in various organ systems. They are capable of these versatile tasks owing to their distinct structural and viscoelastic properties. Characterizing the viscoelastic properties of bio-fluids is of pivotal importance for monitoring the development of certain pathologies as well as engineering synthetic replacements. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is a novel optical technology that enables mechanical evaluation of tissue. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the tissue and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are analyzed to evaluate mechanical properties. The rate of temporal speckle fluctuations is, however, influenced by both optical and mechanical properties of tissue. Therefore, in this paper, we develop and validate an approach to estimate and compensate for the contributions of light scattering to speckle dynamics and demonstrate the capability of LSR for the accurate extraction of viscoelastic moduli in phantom samples and biological fluids of varying optical and mechanical properties.

  9. THERMAL CONVECTION OF RIVLIN-ERICKSEN FLUID IN THE PRESENCE OF VERTICAL ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Banyal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal instability of a Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid, acted upon by uniform vertical rotation and heated from below, is investigated. Following linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the mathematical analysis of the governing equations of Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid convection with a uniform vertical rotation is performed. It is shown that for the cases of rigid boundaries the complex growth rate of oscillatory perturbations, neutral or unstable for all wave numbers, must lie inside a semi-circle, in the right-hand half of a complex -plane with the center at the origin. This prescribes the upper limits to the complex growth rate of arbitrary oscillatory motions of growing amplitude in a rotatory Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid heated from below. Furthermore, the conditions necessary for the existence of oscillatory motions of growing amplitude in the present configuration and the sufficient condition for the validity of the Principle of Exchange of Stabilities are established.

  10. Evaluation and correction for optical scattering variations in laser speckle rheology of biological fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hajjarian

    Full Text Available Biological fluids fulfill key functionalities such as hydrating, protecting, and nourishing cells and tissues in various organ systems. They are capable of these versatile tasks owing to their distinct structural and viscoelastic properties. Characterizing the viscoelastic properties of bio-fluids is of pivotal importance for monitoring the development of certain pathologies as well as engineering synthetic replacements. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR is a novel optical technology that enables mechanical evaluation of tissue. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the tissue and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are analyzed to evaluate mechanical properties. The rate of temporal speckle fluctuations is, however, influenced by both optical and mechanical properties of tissue. Therefore, in this paper, we develop and validate an approach to estimate and compensate for the contributions of light scattering to speckle dynamics and demonstrate the capability of LSR for the accurate extraction of viscoelastic moduli in phantom samples and biological fluids of varying optical and mechanical properties.

  11. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  12. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  13. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  14. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  15. On the modal diagonalization of viscoelastic mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroddi, F.; Eugeni, M.; Erba, F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the modal coupling of linear viscoelastic oscillators is discussed. In particular, it is demonstrated that in presence of space-homogeneous ideal hysteretic damping, namely, viscoelastic materials with loss factor constant as function of frequency, a set of coupled linear oscillators can be always decoupled by a real coordinate transformation. This result can be extended to the case of a not space-homogeneous ideal hysteretic damping if the modes of vibration of the system keep practically real. The proposed approach is applied to a linear Multi-Degree of Freedom system representing the Finite Element Model of an aeronautical structure.

  16. Relationship Between Structure and Viscoelastic Properties of Geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loginova Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study on viscoelastic properties of geosynthetic materials used in civil engineering is presented. Six samples of geofabrics and geogrids with different structures including woven geotextile fabric, nonwoven geotextile fabrics, warp-knitted geogrids and extruded geogrid were investigated. The tensile properties of geosynthetics including tensile strength, strain at maximum load and tensile load at specified strain have been determined. The creep and relaxation tests were carried out. The structure type was found to significantly affect the viscoelastic properties of the geosynthetics materials. In the article some results of numerous conducted tests are presented, analyzed and may be used to preselection of geosynthetics materials.

  17. 9 CFR 325.21 - Means of conveyance in which dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock and parts of carcasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Means of conveyance in which dead... Section 325.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.... strength 87 percent phenol) in the proportion of at least 6 fluid ounces to 1 gallon of water. (b...

  18. Einstein viscosity with fluid elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Yang, Mengfei; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2018-01-01

    We give the first correction to the suspension viscosity due to fluid elasticity for a dilute suspension of spheres in a viscoelastic medium. Our perturbation theory is valid to O (ϕ Wi2) in the particle volume fraction ϕ and the Weissenberg number Wi =γ ˙λ , where γ ˙ is the typical magnitude of the suspension velocity gradient, and λ is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. For shear flow we find that the suspension shear-thickens due to elastic stretching in strain "hot spots" near the particle, despite the fact that the stress inside the particles decreases relative to the Newtonian case. We thus argue that it is crucial to correctly model the extensional rheology of the suspending medium to predict the shear rheology of the suspension. For uniaxial extensional flow we correct existing results at O (ϕ Wi ) , and find dramatic strain-rate thickening at O (ϕ Wi2) . We validate our theory with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  19. A novel viscoelastic surfactant suitable for use in high temperature carbonate reservoirs for diverted acidizing stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Stuart; Zhou, Jian; Gadberry, Fred [AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Nasr-El-Din, Hisham; Wang, Guanqun [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Due to the low permeability of many carbonate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs, it is difficult to achieve economic hydrocarbon recovery from a well without secondary stimulation. Bullheading of strong acids, such as HCl is practiced in low temperature reservoirs, but as the bottom hole temperature (BHT) rises, the acid becomes increasingly corrosive, causing facial dissolution and sub-optimal wormhole network development. In the last decade, viscoelastic surfactants (VES) have been added to HCl acid systems to improve the stimulation of HT carbonate reservoirs. The VES form 'living polymers' or worm-like micelles as electrolyte concentration rises in the acid due to reaction with the reservoir. This leads to viscosification of the stimulation fluid. The viscosification slows further acid reaction in the region already contacted by the acid, and forces the acid to take an alternate path into the rock, leading to diversion of the acids further down the well to the harder to access toe or lower permeability zones. Until recently, the maximum BHT that such VES-based diverting systems could be used was up to about 250 deg F/120 deg C. Above that temperature, all viscous properties of the fluid are lost, destroying the mechanism of acid diversion. A recently developed novel viscoelastic surfactant provides nearly 100 deg F/55 deg C extension in the BHT range in which diverted acid treatments can be used. These fluids are able to maintain both viscosity up to about 375 deg F/190 deg C, with the elastic modulus predominating up to 350 deg F/175 deg C. It is the elasticity which is particularly important in acid diversion. These fluids can have their viscosity readily broken by in-situ hydrocarbons, dilution with water or by using a mutual solvent. The broken fluids are readily removed from the near-well bore, leaving the newly created wormhole network to produce the target hydrocarbons. The new VES is significantly more environmentally benign compared with current

  20. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  1. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  2. Viscoelastic finite-element analysis of human skull - dura mater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Key words: Viscoelasticity, finite-element analysis (FEA), strain, human skull, dura mater, intracranial pressure. INTRODUCTION. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the ... We presented the development and validation of a 3D finite-element model intended to better understand the deformation mechanisms of ...

  3. Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Large offshore wind turbines are f0W1ded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinde...

  4. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joginder Singh Dhiman

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... usual Jeans instability, they also observed that the sound waves suffer a new type of instability, which is due to the combined effects of the baryonic gas dynamics and self-gravitational field in both weakly and highly colli- sional regimes. Odenbach (2003) studied the magnetoviscous and viscoelastic effects ...

  5. Application Of Prony's Method To Data On Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.

    1988-01-01

    Prony coefficients found by computer program, without trial and error. Computational method and computer program developed to exploit full potential of Prony's interpolation method in analysis of experimental data on relaxation modules of viscoelastic material. Prony interpolation curve chosen to give least-squares best fit to "B-spline" interpolation of experimental data.

  6. Folding, stowage, and deployment of viscoelastic tape springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the folding, stowage, and deployment behavior of viscoelastic tape springs. Experiments show that during folding the relationship between load and displacement is nonlinear and varies with rate and temperature. In particular, the limit an...

  7. Viscoelastic performance of dielectric elastomer subject to different voltage stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Lei; Li, Bo; Chen, Hualing

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is capable of giant deformation subject to an electric field, and demonstrates significant advantages in the potentially application of soft machines with muscle-like characteristics. Due to an inherent property of all macromolecular materials, DE exhibits strong viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity could cause a time-dependent deformation and lower the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of DE based actuators, thus strongly affect its electromechanical performance and applications. Combining with the rheological model of viscoelastic relaxation, the viscoelastic performance of a VHB membrane in a circular actuator configuration undergoing separately constant, ramp and sinusoidal voltages are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results indicated that DE could attain a big deformation under a small constant voltage with a longer time or under a big voltage with a shorter time. The model also showed that a higher critical stretch could be achieved by applying ramping voltage with a lower rate and the stretch magnitude under sinusoidal voltage is much larger at a relatively low frequency. Finally, experiments were designed to validate the simulation and show well consistent with the simulation results.

  8. Quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic helical rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Beytullah; Fırat Çalim, Faruk; Tütüncü, Naki

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the dynamic behaviour of cylindrical helical rods made of linear viscoelastic materials are investigated in the Laplace domain. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods obtained using the Timoshenko beam theory are rewritten for cylindrical helical rods. The curvature of the rod axis, effect of rotary inertia, and shear and axial deformations are considered in the formulation. The material of the rod is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and linear viscoelastic. In the viscoelastic material case, according to the correspondence principle, the material constants are replaced with their complex counterparts in the Laplace domain. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form obtained in the Laplace domain are solved numerically using the complementary functions method to calculate the dynamic stiffness matrix of the problem. In the solutions, the Kelvin model is employed. The solutions obtained are transformed to the real space using the Durbin's numerical inverse Laplace transform method. Numerical results for quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic models are presented in the form of graphics.

  9. Strain rate viscoelastic analysis of soft and highly hydrated biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirella, A; Mattei, G; Ahluwalia, A

    2014-10-01

    Measuring the viscoelastic behavior of highly hydrated biological materials is challenging because of their intrinsic softness and labile nature. In these materials, it is difficult to avoid prestress and therefore to establish precise initial stress and strain conditions for lumped parameter estimation using creep or stress-relaxation (SR) tests. We describe a method ( ɛ˙M or epsilon dot method) for deriving the viscoelastic parameters of soft hydrated biomaterials which avoids prestress and can be used to rapidly test degradable samples. Standard mechanical tests are first performed compressing samples using different strain rates. The dataset obtained is then analyzed to mathematically derive the material's viscoelastic parameters. In this work a stable elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane, and a labile hydrogel, gelatin, were first tested using the ɛ˙M, in parallel SR was used to compare lumped parameter estimation. After demonstrating that the elastic parameters are equivalent and that the estimation of short-time constants is more precise using the proposed method, the viscoelastic behavior of porcine liver was investigated using this approach. The results show that the constitutive parameters of hepatic tissue can be quickly quantified without the application of any prestress and before the onset of time-dependent degradation phenomena. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 4. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic Cylinder with Axial Nonuniform Rotation and Magnetic Field. Joginder Singh Dhiman Rajni Sharma. Research Article Volume 38 Issue 4 December 2017 Article ID 64 ...

  11. Effect of Rotation on Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Kumar, P.

    1996-07-01

    The thermal instability of a layer of Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid acted on by a uniform rotation is considered. For stationary convection, a Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. It is found that rotation has a stabilizing effect and introduces oscillatory modes in the system. The visco-elasticity also introduces oscillatory modes in the system. A suffi-cient condition for the non-existence of overstability is also obtained.

  12. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movements Too much amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios . This condition can occur with multiple pregnancies (twins ... development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ...

  13. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  14. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  15. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition...

  17. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  18. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  19. Mechanistic Constitutive Models for Rubber Elasticity and Viscoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puso, M

    2003-01-21

    Physically based models which describe the finite strain behavior of vulcanized rubber are developed. Constitutive laws for elasticity and viscoelasticity are derived by integrating over orientation space the forces due to each individual polymer chain. A novel scheme is presented which effectively approximates these integrals in terms of strain and strain invariants. In addition, the details involving the implementation of such models into a quasi-static large strain finite element formulation are provided. In order to account for the finite extensibility of a molecular chain, Langevin statistics is used to model the chain response. The classical statistical model of rubber assumes that polymer chains interact only at the chemical crosslinks. It is shown that such model when fitted for uniaxial tension data cannot fit compression or equibiaxial data. A model which incorporates the entanglement interactions of surrounding chains, in addition to the finite extensibility of the chains, is shown to give better predictions than the classical model. The technique used for approximating the orientation space integral was applied to both the classical and entanglement models. A viscoelasticity model based on the force equilibration process as described by Doi and Edwards is developed. An assumed form for the transient force in the chain is postulated. The resulting stress tensor is composed of an elastic and a viscoelastic portion with the elastic stress given by the proposed entanglement model. In order to improve the simulation of experimental data, it was found necessary to include the effect of unattached or dangling polymer chains in the viscoelasticity model. The viscoelastic effect of such chains is the manifestation of a disengagement process. This disengagement model for unattached polymer chains motivated an empirical model which was very successful in simulating the experimental results considered.

  20. Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions : II. Measurements of the linear viscoelastic behavior of emulsions in the kilohertz range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, M.; Mellema, J.; Lopulissa, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions in shear deformation in the kilohertz range is demonstrated experimentally. In order to avoid complications due to inertia effects, emulsions with small droplet sizes are studied. The preliminary measurements are interpreted as being the result of droplet

  1. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritar, Endre

    2014-12-01

    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized.

  2. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic analysis of conical shells conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, D.; Ganesan, N.

    2008-02-01

    A formulation, based on the semi-analytical finite element method, is proposed for elastic conical shells conveying fluids. The structural equations are based on the shell element proposed by Ramasamy and Ganesan [Finite element analysis of fluid-filled isotropic cylindrical shells with constrained viscoelastic damping, Computers & Structures 70 (1998) 363-376] while the fluid model is based on velocity potential formulation used by Jayaraj et al. [A semi-analytical coupled finite element formulation for composite shells conveying fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration 258(2) (2002) 287-307]. Dynamic pressure acting on the walls is derived from Bernoulli's equation. By imposing the requirement that the normal component of velocity of the solid and fluid are equal leads to fluid-structure coupling. The computer code developed has been validated using results available in the literature for cylindrical shells conveying fluid. The study has been carried out for conical shells of different cone angles and for boundary condition like clamped-clamped, simply supported and clamped free. In general, instability occurs at a critical fluid velocity corresponding to the shell circumferential mode with the lowest natural frequency. Critical fluid velocities are lower than that of equivalent cylindrical shells. This result holds good for all boundary conditions.

  4. Hydromagnetic Stability of Two Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Superposed Conducting Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. C.; Kumar, P.

    1997-07-01

    The stability of the plane interface separating two Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous superposed fluids of uniform densities when the whole system is immersed in a uniform horizontal magnetic field has been studied. The stability analysis has been carried out, for mathematical simplicity, for two highly viscous fluids of equal kinematic viscosities and equal kinematic viscoelasticities. It is found that the stability criterion is independent of the effects of viscosity and viscoelasticity and is dependent on the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is found to stabilize a certain wave-number range of the unstable configuration. The behaviour of growth rates with respect to kinematic viscosity and kinematic viscoelasticity parameters are examined numerically.

  5. Critical evaluation and comparison of fluid distribution systems for industrial scale expanded bed adsorption chromatography columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    distributor at large scale were apparent: dead zones were present which could not be removed by increasing rotation rates or flow rates, and such changes led to a deterioration in hydrodynamic properties. In contrast, during fluid introduction through a rotating distributor no dead zones were observed...

  6. Modulating carbohydrate-based hydrogels as viscoelastic lubricant substitute for articular cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcovich, Gesmi; Antunes, Filipe E; Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Gabriele; Grassi, Mario; Asaro, Fioretta

    2017-09-01

    Viscosupplementation is a therapeutic approach for osteoarthritis treatment, where the synovial fluid, the natural lubricant of the joints, is replaced by viscoelastic solutions with rheological properties comparable or better than the starting material. This study presents the development of an innovative platform for viscosupplementation, based on the optimization of polysaccharide-based colloidal hydrogel, aiming to reduce on-site enzyme degradation and enhance the possibility of hyaluronic acid substitution with alternative biomaterials. Catanionic vesicles are proposed as physical crosslinker that can guarantee the formation of a 'soft', tunable network, offering a dual-therapeutic approach: on the mechanical relief perspective, as well as on the drug/gene delivery strategy. This research focuses on the fabrication and optimization of colloidal networks, driven by the synergistic interaction among catanionic vesicles and cationic modified cellulose polymers. This study tests the hypothesis that cellulose-like polymers can be arranged into functional matrix, mimicking the mechanical properties of healthy synovial fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The swimming behavior of flagellated bacteria in viscous and viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zijie; Henderikx, Rene; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    The motility of bacteria E.coli in viscous and viscoelastic fluids has been widely studied although full understanding remains elusive. The swimming mode of wild-type E.coli is well-described by a run-and-tumble sequence in which periods of straight swimming at a constant speed are randomly interrupted by a tumble, defined as a sudden change of direction with a very low speed. Using a tracking microscope, we follow cells for extended periods of time and find that the swimming behavior can be more complex, and can include a wider variety of behaviors including a "slow random walk" in which the cells move at relatively low speed without the characteristic run. Significant variation between individual cells is observed, and furthermore, a single cell can change its motility during the course of a tracking event. Changing the viscosity and viscoelasticy of the swimming media also has profound effects on the average swimming speed and run-tumble nature of the cell motility, including changing the distribution, duration of tumbling and slow random walk events. The reasons for these changes are explained using a Purcell-style resistive force model for the cell and flagellar behavior as well as model for the changes in flagellar bundling in different fluid viscosities. National Science Foundation.

  8. Bacterial Chromosomal Loci Move Subdiffusively through a Viscoelastic Cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephanie C.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Tracking of fluorescently labeled chromosomal loci in live bacterial cells reveals a robust scaling of the mean square displacement (MSD) as τ0.39. Brownian dynamics simulations show that this anomalous behavior cannot be fully accounted for by the classic Rouse or reptation models for polymer dynamics. Instead, the observed motion arises from the characteristic relaxation of the Rouse modes of the DNA polymer within the viscoelastic environment of the cytoplasm. To demonstrate these physical effects, we exploit our general analytical solution of the subdiffusive scaling for a monomer in a polymer embedded in a viscoelastic medium. The time-averaged and ensemble-averaged MSD of chromosomal loci exhibit ergodicity, and the velocity autocorrelation function is negative at short time lags. These observations are most consistent with fractional Brownian motion and rule out a continuous time random walk model as an explanation for anomalous motion in vivo. PMID:20867274

  9. Shear measurements of viscoelastic damping materials embedded in composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.

    1999-06-01

    Embedding viscoelastic damping materials into graphite/epoxy composites can greatly increase the damping of composite structures. Cocuring the damping material with the composite, however, has been shown to increase the modulus and lower the damping in many viscoelastic materials because epoxy penetrates many damping materials (especially acrylics). In this paper, the changes in shear modulus were measured using double lap shear tests. Also presented are shear moduli comparisons of samples cured with three different barrier film layers, KaptonR, TedlarR,and polyester, which are used to prevent the epoxy penetration. Lastly, samples with an embedded loosely woven scrim cloth placed between two damping material layers are tested to measure how the scrim affects the shear modulus.

  10. Thin viscoelastic disc subjected to radial non-stationary loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adámek V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of non-stationary wave phenomena in isotropic viscoelastic solids using analytical approaches is the aim of this paper. Concretely, the problem of a thin homogeneous disc subjected to radial pressure load nonzero on the part of its rim is solved. The external excitation is described by the Heaviside function in time, so the nonstationary state of stress is induced in the disc. Dissipative material behaviour of solid studied is represented by the discrete material model of standard linear viscoelastic solid in the Zener configuration. After the derivation of motion equations final form, the method of integral transforms in combination with the Fourier method is used for finding the problem solution. The solving process results in the derivation of integral transforms of radial and circumferential displacement components. Finally, the type of derived functions singularities and possible methods for their inverse Laplace transform are mentioned.

  11. Heterogeneous Viscoelasticity: A Combined Theory of Dynamic and Elastic Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2015-07-03

    We present a heterogeneous version of Maxwell's theory of viscoelasticity based on the assumption of spatially fluctuating local viscoelastic coefficients. The model is solved in coherent-potential approximation. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing-frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation energies. It is shown that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier-height distribution, which explains the violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation observed frequently in glasses. At finite but low frequencies, the theory describes low-temperature asymmetric alpha relaxation. As examples, we report the good agreement obtained for selected inorganic, metallic, and organic glasses. At high frequencies, the theory reduces to heterogeneous elasticity theory, which explains the occurrence of the boson peak and related vibrational anomalies.

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Constitutive equations for a one-dimensional, active, polar, viscoelastic liquid are derived by treating the strain field as a slow hydrodynamic variable. Taking into account the couplings between strain and polarity allowed by symmetry, the hydrodynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic body include an evolution equation for the polarity field that generalizes the damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Beyond thresholds of the active coupling coefficients between the polarity and the stress or the strain rate, bifurcations of the homogeneous state lead first to stationary waves, then to propagating waves of the strain, stress and polarity fields. I argue that these results are relevant to living matter, and may explain rotating actomyosin rings in cells and mechanical waves in epithelial cell monolayers.

  13. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  14. Viscoelastic analysis of a dental metal-ceramic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özüpek, Şebnem; Ünlü, Utku Cemal

    2012-11-01

    Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations used in prosthetic dentistry contain thermal stresses which develop during the cooling phase after firing. These thermal stresses coupled with the stresses produced by mechanical loads may be the dominant reasons for failures in clinical situations. For an accurate calculation of these stresses, viscoelastic behavior of ceramics at high temperatures should not be ignored. In this study, the finite element technique is used to evaluate the effect of viscoelasticity on stress distributions of a three-point flexure test specimen, which is the current international standard, ISO 9693, to characterize the interfacial bond strength of metal-ceramic restorative systems. Results indicate that the probability of interfacial debonding due to normal tensile stress is higher than that due to shear stress. This conclusion suggests modification of ISO 9693 bond strength definition from one in terms of the shear stress only to that accounting for both normal and shear stresses.

  15. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    OpenAIRE

    Valis, Noël

    2011-01-01

    The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de ...

  16. [A case of lycanthropy with deadly violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézech, M; De Witte, J; Etchepare, J J; Bourgeois, M

    1989-01-01

    After a short historical review of the contemporary medical literature, the authors analyze a new and original observation of lycanthropy. He is a 28 years old man, imprisoned for deadly violence, who has been showing, for many years, the belief of being transformed into a werewolf during depersonalization episodes when he presents a lycanthropic behaviour. Our observation is closer to hysteria and mythomania on an antisocial personality, although it seems difficult to place the mental pathology of this alcoholic recidivist delinquent into a nosographical frame.

  17. Dead time optimization method for power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselaers, C.; Bergmann, U.; Gronwald, F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a method for dead time optimization in variable speed motor drive systems. The aim of this method is to reduce the conduction time of the freewheeling diode to a minimum without generation of cross conduction. This results in lower losses, improved EMC, and less overshooting of the phase voltage. The principle of the method is to detect beginning cross currents without adding additional components in the half bridge like resistors or inductances. Only the wave shape of the phase voltage needs to be monitored during switching. This is illustrated by an application of the method to a real power converter.

  18. Modeling 3D viscoelastic secondary flows in extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lori T.

    Two numerical techniques were successfully applied to capture viscoelastic flows and were used to model flows during extrusion. The Radial Functions Method (RFM) was implemented to simulate flow patterns in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D), and correctly predicts secondary flows in fully developed non-circular ducts [34]. Validation was completed to implement a newly developed viscoelastic solver supplied by Favero et al. [42]. Numerical simulations of 2D viscoelastic entry flows were performed using a Finite Volume Method (FVM) with a stress-splitting technique. A planar abrupt contraction was chosen as the test geometry and numerical results were compared with past experimental and other numerical simulation results using a Giesekus model. Limits of stability were inspected where Weissenberg numbers on the order of 240 were successfully simulated. The single and multi-mode Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) shear-thinning models were then implemented to reproduce full 3D flows through a planar abrupt contraction. Results obtained within this work show excellent qualitative agreement with experimental observations made by Quinzani et al. [85] and simulation results of Azaiez et al. [6]. Comparison studies with work by other researchers, for both a 2D and 3D geometry with aspect ratios up to 10, were also found to be in agreement. As part of this work, viscoelastic secondary flows in a 3D non-circular duct were simulated using a FVM approach. Single and multi-mode Giesekus and linear-PTT models were implemented. Results are in agreement with experiments [38] as well as numerical results using RFM and FEM [112]. This is an important step toward modeling and simulating flow in an extruder channel. Exploratory FVM simulations were carried out beginning from an unwrapped screw channel to a full 3D single screw under isothermal conditions. The shear thinning characteristics of the Giesekus model were able to capture the polymer's relaxation time under high Weissenberg

  19. Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Bacri, J.-C.

    2003-06-01

    The previously developed technique of magnetic rotational microrheology [Phys. Rev. E 67, 011504 (2003)] is proposed to investigate the rheological properties of the cell interior. An endogeneous magnetic probe is obtained inside living cells by labeling intracellular compartments with magnetic nanoparticles, following the endocytosis mechanism, the most general pathway used by eucaryotic cells to internalize substances from an extracellular medium. Primarily adsorbed on the plasma membrane, the magnetic nanoparticles are first internalized within submicronic membrane vesicles (100 nm diameter) to finally concentrate inside endocytotic intracellular compartments (0.6 μm diameter). These magnetic endosomes attract each other and form chains within the living cell when submitted to an external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that these chains of magnetic endosomes are valuable tools to probe the intracellular dynamics at very local scales. The viscoelasticity of the chain microenvironment is quantified in terms of a viscosity η and a relaxation time τ by analyzing the rotational dynamics of each tested chain in response to a rotation of the external magnetic field. The viscosity η governs the long time flow of the medium surrounding the chains and the relaxation time τ reflects the proportion of solidlike versus liquidlike behavior (τ=η/G, where G is the high-frequency shear modulus). Measurements in HeLa cells show that the cell interior is a highly heterogeneous structure, with regions where chains are embedded inside a dense viscoelastic matrix and other domains where chains are surrounded by a less rigid viscoelastic material. When one compound of the cell cytoskeleton is disrupted (microfilaments or microtubules), the intracellular viscoelasticity becomes less heterogeneous and more fluidlike, in the sense of both a lower viscosity and a lower relaxation time.

  20. On the use of fractional derivatives for modeling nonlinear viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Haveroth, Thais Clara da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Among the wide range of structural polymers currently available in the market, this work is concerned particularly with high density polyethylene. The typical nonlinear viscoelastic behavior presented by this material is not trivial to model, and has already been investigated by many authors in the past. Aiming at a further contribution, this work proposes modeling this material behavior using an approach based on fractional derivatives. This formulation produces fractional constitutive eq...

  1. On a nonlinear viscoelastic model of Hunt-Crossley impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyagel, R. V.; Lapshin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    We consider a nonlinear viscoelastic model of the impact of a body on a stationary Hunt-Crossley obstacle. We obtain the first integral of the equation of motion and determine the coefficient of restitution, the kinetic energy lost at the impact, and their dependence on the impact velocity. We find the solution of the equation of motion of the body in terms of integrals by using the Lambert W-function and present the results of mathematical modeling.

  2. A Comparison of Viscoelastic Properties of Three Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Handling of endodontic sealers is greatly dependent on their elasticity and flow ability. We compared the viscoelastic properties of three root canal sealers.Materials and Methods: AH Plus (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany, Endofill (Dentsply Hero, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and AH26 (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The resulted pastes were placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 300, Anton-Paar, Graz, Austria. The experiments were performed at 25˚C and 37˚C. Viscoelastic properties of the sealers including loss modulus (G", storage modulus (G´ and complex viscosity (η* were studied using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. The shear module versus frequency (from 0.01 to 100 S-1 curves were gained using frequency deformation sweep test. Three samples of each material were examined at each temperature. The mean of these three measurements were recorded.Results: The storage modulus of AH plus was higher than its loss modulus at two temperatures. Endofill exhibited a crossover region in which the storage modulus crosses the loss modulus in both temperatures. At 25ºC the loss modulus of AH26 was higher than the storage modulus (G">G¢. In contrast, at 37ºC G¢was greater than G² (G¢>G². Both shear modules of AH Plus and Endofill decreased as the temperature raised from 25ºC to 37ºC. On the contrary, the loss modulus and storage modulus of AH26 increased at 37ºC.Conclusion: In both test temperatures, AH Plus behaved like viscoelastic solids and Endofill exhibited a gel-like viscoelastic behavior. AH26 at 25ºC behaved like liquids, while at 37ºC it was an elastic solid-like material

  3. pH-induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F [Department of Bioengineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)], E-mail: ryapp2@illinois.edu

    2009-03-07

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This paper focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time-domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced; however, the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability.

  4. Global existence result for the generalized Peterlin viscoelastic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; Nečasová, Šárka; Renardy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2017), s. 2950-2964 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Peterlin viscoelastic equations * global existence * weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/16M1068505

  5. pH-induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, R. D.; Insana, M. F.

    2009-03-01

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This paper focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time-domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced; however, the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability.

  6. Damping performance of cocured composite laminates with embedded viscoelastic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.

    1998-06-01

    Cocuring viscoelastic damping materials in composites has been shown to be successful in greatly increasing the damping of composite structures. The damping performance, however, is often not as high in cocured composites as in secondarily bonded composites, where the damping material does not undergo the cure process. The reason for the discrepancy in damping between the cocured and secondarily bonded samples was found to be resin penetration into the damping material. Samples with a barrier layer between the damping material and the epoxy resin had a 15.7% to 92.3% higher loss factor (depending on the frequency) than cocured FasTapeTM 1125 samples without the barrier and at least 168% higher loss factor than cocured ISD 112 samples without the barrier. These higher damping values are very close to the values achieved by secondarily bonding. Viscoelastic damping materials typically have maximum recommended temperatures below that of the composite cure cycles. The effect of cure temperature on viscoelastic damping materials was also studied and it was determined that most damping materials are marginally affected by cure cycle temperature.

  7. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  8. Nonlinear viscoelasticity and generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Keshavarz, Bavand; Manneville, Sébastien; McKinley, Gareth

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer gels display a multiscale microstructure that is responsible for their solid-like properties. Upon external deformation, these soft viscoelastic solids exhibit a generic nonlinear mechanical response characterized by pronounced stress- or strain-stiffening prior to irreversible damage and failure, most often through macroscopic fractures. Here we show on a model acid-induced protein gel that the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the gel can be described in terms of a 'damping function' which predicts the gel mechanical response quantitatively up to the onset of macroscopic failure. Using a nonlinear integral constitutive equation built upon the experimentally-measured damping function in conjunction with power-law linear viscoelastic response, we derive the form of the stress growth in the gel following the start up of steady shear. We also couple the shear stress response with Bailey's durability criteria for brittle solids in order to predict the critical values of the stress σc and strain γc for failure of the gel, and how they scale with the applied shear rate. This provides a generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels in a range of different deformation histories. This work was funded by the MIT-France seed fund and by the CNRS PICS-USA scheme (#36939). BK acknowledges financial support from Axalta Coating Systems.

  9. Earthquake response of adjacent structures with viscoelastic and friction dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the seismic response of two adjacent structures connected with a dry friction damper. Each of them consists of a viscoelastic rod and a rigid block, which can slide without friction along the moving base. A simplified earthquake model is used for modeling the horizontal ground motion. Energy dissipation is taken by the presence of the friction damper, which is modeled by the set-valued Coulomb friction law. Deformation of viscoelastic rods during the relative motion of the blocks represents another way of energy dissipation. The constitutive equation of a viscoelastic body is described by the fractional Zener model, which includes fractional derivatives of stress and strain. The problem merges fractional derivatives as non-local operators and theory of set-valued functions as the non-smooth ones. Dynamical behaviour of the problem is governed by a pair of coupled multi-valued differential equations. The posed Cauchy problem is solved by use of the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical scheme. The behaviour of the system is analyzed for different values of system parameters.

  10. A non-linear viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Charlebois, Mathieu; Funnell, W Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The mechanical behavior of the tympanic membrane displays both non-linearity and viscoelasticity. Previous finite-element models of the tympanic membrane, however, have been either non-linear or viscoelastic but not both. In this study, these two features are combined in a non-linear viscoelastic model. The constitutive equation of this model is a convolution integral composed of a non-linear elastic part, represented by an Ogden hyperelastic model, and an exponential time-dependent part, represented by a Prony series. The model output is compared with the relaxation curves and hysteresis loops observed in previous measurements performed on strips of tympanic membrane. In addition, a frequency-domain analysis is performed based on the obtained material parameters, and the effect of strain rate is explored. The model presented here is suitable for modeling large deformations of the tympanic membrane for frequencies less than approximately 3 rad/s or about 0.6 Hz. These conditions correspond to the pressurization involved in tympanometry.

  11. The effect of relaxation on cavitation dynamics in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Lauren; Warnez, Matthew; Johnsen, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. In certain applications, cavitation bubbles are produced directly in soft tissue, a viscoelastic medium. Although bubble dynamics research in water has received significant attention, the behavior of bubbles in tissue-like media is much less well understood, as the dynamics are strongly affected by the viscoelastic properties of the surroundings, including viscosity, elasticity and relaxation. In the present work, we numerically investigate the role of stress relaxation on spherical bubble dynamics. We simulate bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with linear and nonlinear relaxation under different types of forcing. Results indicate that the presence of relaxation causes faster growth rates and permits bubble rebound driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings, a phenomenon not observed in Newtonian media. Differences between nonlinear models become important only following a strong collapse (in which high stresses are generated), thus requiring a robust numerical approach. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number CBET 1253157 and NIH Grant Number 1R01HL110990-01A1.

  12. Modelling of Rough Contact between Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Spinu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The important gradients of stress arising in rough mechanical contacts due to interaction at the asperity level are responsible for damage mechanisms like rolling contact fatigue, wear, or crack propagation. The deterministic approach to this process requires computationally effective numerical solutions, capable of handling very fine meshes that capture the particular features of the investigated contacting surface. The spatial discretization needs to be supported by temporal sampling of the simulation window when time-dependent viscoelastic constitutive laws are considered in the description of the material response. Moreover, when real surface microtopography is considered, steep slopes inevitably lead to localized plastic deformation at the tip of the asperities that are first brought into contact. A computer model for the rough contact of linear viscoelastic materials, capable of handling deterministic contact geometry, complex viscoelastic models, and arbitrary loading histories, is advanced in this paper. Plasticity is considered in a simplified manner that preserves the information regarding the contact area and the pressure distribution without computing the residual strains and stresses. The model is expected to predict the contact behavior of deterministic rough surfaces as resulting from practical engineering applications, thus assisting the design of durable machine elements using elastomers or rubbers.

  13. Effects of Surface Viscoelasticity on Cellular Responses of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahare-Sadat Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One area of nanoscience deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. To elucidate the effects of the substrate surface morphology and viscoelasticity on cell proliferation, fractal analysis was performed on endothelial cells cultured on nanocomposite samples based on silicone rubber (SR and various concentrations of organomodified nanoclay (OC. Methods: The nanoclay/SR ratio was tailored to enhance cell behavior via changes in sample substrate surface roughness and viscoelasticity. Results: Surface roughness of the cured SR filled with negatively-charged nanosilicate layers had a greater effect than elasticity on cell growth. The surface roughness of SR nanocomposite samples increased with increasing the OC content, leading to enhanced cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling. This was consistent with the decrease in SR segmental motions and damping factor as the primary viscoelastic parameters by the nanosilicate layers with increasing clay concentrations. Conclusions: The inclusion of clay nanolayers affected the growth and behavior of endothelial cells on microtextured SR.

  14. Viscoelastic methods of blood clotting assessment – a multidisciplinary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eBenes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastic methods made available the bed-side assessment of blood clotting. Unlike standard laboratory tests, the results are based on the whole blood coagulation, are available in real time and in much faster turnaround time. In combination with our new knowledge about pathophysiology of the trauma induced coagulopathy the goal oriented treatment protocols have been recently proposed for the initial management of bleeding in trauma victims. Besides, the utility of viscoelastic monitoring devices has been proved even outside this setting in cardiosurgical patients or those undergoing liver transplantation. Many other situations were described in literature showing potential use of bed-side analysis of coagulation for the management of bleeding or critically ill patients. In the near future, we may expect further improvement of current bed-side diagnostic tools enabling not only the assessment of secondary hemostasis but also platelet aggregation. More sensitive assays for new anticoagulants are underway. Aim of this review is to offer the reader a multidisciplinary overview on the topic of viscoelastic methods and their potential use in anesthesiology and critical care.

  15. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  16. When the dead are alive! The influence of the living dead in the letter of Jude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan J. Joubert

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the impact of the deceased on  the audience to which the letter of Jude was originally addressed. A construct of the influence of the “living dead” in ancient Babylon, Israel, the Graeco-Roman world and in African tradition serves as a basic cognitive map to come to terms with Jude’s views on the dead. It is argued that, since the wicked dead, who are being physically punished in  the underworld,  are kept alive  in the collective memory of Jude’s community and since their deeds are re-enacted in the sinful behavior  of intruders in their midst, their lives are influenced by  the “presence” of these living dead. On the other hand and, although Jude does not deal with the physical whereabouts of the righteous death, he and his readers know that their postmortem honour is still intact. The righteous in this community is assured that God protects the integrity of the faithful dead.

  17. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  18. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  19. Mechanisms governing the visco-elastic responses of living cells assessed by foam and tensegrity models

    OpenAIRE

    Canadas, Patrick; Laurent, Valérie; Chabrand, Patrick; Isabey, Daniel; Wendling-Mansuy, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    The visco-elastic properties of living cells, measured to date by various authors, vary considerably, depending on the experimental methods and/or on the theoretical models used. In the present study, two mechanisms thought to be involved in cellular visco-elastic responses were analysed, based on the idea that the cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in cellular mechanical responses. For this purpose, the predictions of an open unit-cell model and a 30-element visco-elastic tensegrity model...

  20. On the Viscoelastic Parameters of Gussasphalt Mixture Based on Modified Burgers Model: Deviation and Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Faxiang Xie; Dengjing Zhang; Ao Zhou; Bohai Ji; Lin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Viscoelasticity is an important characteristic of gussasphalt mixtures. The aim of this study is to find the correct viscoelastic material parameters of the novel gussasphalt applied in the 4th Yangtze River Bridge based on the modified Burgers model. This study firstly derives the explicit Prony series form of the shear relaxation modulus of viscoelastic material from Laplace transformation, to fulfill the parameter inputting requirements of commonly used finite element software suites. Seco...

  1. Viscoelastic properties of polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiaxiang

    Polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites offer the potential for dramatically improved mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties while keeping the material density low. Understanding the linear and non-linear viscoelastic response for such materials is crucial because of the ability of such measurements to elucidate the mesoscale dispersion of layered-silicates and changes in such dispersion to applied flows as would be encountered in processing of these materials. A series of intercalated polystyrene (and derivatives of polystyrene) layered-silicate nanocomposites are studied to demonstrate the influence of mesoscale dispersion and organic---inorganic interactions on the linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties. A layered-silicate network structure is exhibited for the nanocomposites with strong polymer-silicate interaction such as montmorillonite (2C18M) and fluorohectorite (C18F) and the percolation threshold is ˜ 6 wt % for the 2C18M based hybrids. However, the nanocomposites based on hectorite (2C18H) with weak polymer-silicate interaction exhibit liquid-like terminal zone behavior. Furthermore, the enhanced terminal zone elastic modulus and viscosity of high brominated polystyrene and high molecular weight polystyrene based 2C18M nanocomposites suggest an improved delamination and dispersion of layered-silicates in the polymer matrix. The non-linear viscoelastic properties, specifically, the non-linear stress relaxation behavior and the applicability of time---strain separability, the effect of increasing strain amplitude on the oscillatory shear flow properties, and the shear rate dependence of the steady shear flow properties are examined. The silicate sheets (or collections of sheets) exhibit the ability to be oriented by the applied flow. Experimentally, the empirical Cox - Merz rule is demonstrated to be inapplicable for the hybrids. Furthermore, the K-BKZ constitutive model is used to model the steady shear properties. While being able to

  2. Free convection of Walter's fluid flow in a vertical double-passage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Huilgol, R.R. and Phan-Thien, N., 1997. Fluid mechanics of viscoelasticity, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Malashetty, M.S., Umavathi, J.C. and Leela, V., 2001. Magnetoconvective flow and heat transfer between vertical wavy wall and a parallel flat wall, Int. J. of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 437-456. Ostrich ...

  3. Automated palpation for breast tissue discrimination based on viscoelastic biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukune, Mariko; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, G Masakatsu

    2015-05-01

    Accurate, noninvasive methods are sought for breast tumor detection and diagnosis. In particular, a need for noninvasive techniques that measure both the nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic properties of breast tissue has been identified. For diagnostic purposes, it is important to select a nonlinear viscoelastic model with a small number of parameters that highly correlate with histological structure. However, the combination of conventional viscoelastic models with nonlinear elastic models requires a large number of parameters. A nonlinear viscoelastic model of breast tissue based on a simple equation with few parameters was developed and tested. The nonlinear viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in porcine breast were measured experimentally using fresh ex vivo samples. Robotic palpation was used for measurements employed in a finite element model. These measurements were used to calculate nonlinear viscoelastic parameters for fat, fibroglandular breast parenchyma and muscle. The ability of these parameters to distinguish the tissue types was evaluated in a two-step statistical analysis that included Holm's pairwise [Formula: see text] test. The discrimination error rate of a set of parameters was evaluated by the Mahalanobis distance. Ex vivo testing in porcine breast revealed significant differences in the nonlinear viscoelastic parameters among combinations of three tissue types. The discrimination error rate was low among all tested combinations of three tissue types. Although tissue discrimination was not achieved using only a single nonlinear viscoelastic parameter, a set of four nonlinear viscoelastic parameters were able to reliably and accurately discriminate fat, breast fibroglandular tissue and muscle.

  4. Photographic Study Of A Dead-Pressed Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowe, G. M.; Field, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    High speed photography in conjunction with electron microscopy and a pressure measuring technique have been used to investigate the differences between dead-pressed and non-dead-pressed samples of the primary explosive Mercury Fulminate (Hg Ful). Photographs of reaction propagation were taken in transmitted light using a specially adapted drop-weight machine with transparent anvils. The results of these experiments suggested a mechanism for dead-pressing in Hg Ful based on the microscopic internal structure of the compacted explosive.

  5. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  6. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  7. Viscoelastic Properties of Hyaluronan in Physiological Conditions [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Cowman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix (ECM, which is particularly abundant in soft connective tissues. Solutions of HA can be highly viscous with non-Newtonian flow properties. These properties affect the movement of HA-containing fluid layers within and underlying the deep fascia. Changes in the concentration, molecular weight, or even covalent modification of HA in inflammatory conditions, as well as changes in binding interactions with other macromolecules, can have dramatic effects on the sliding movement of fascia. The high molecular weight and the semi-flexible chain of HA are key factors leading to the high viscosity of dilute solutions, and real HA solutions show additional nonideality and greatly increased viscosity due to mutual macromolecular crowding. The shear rate dependence of the viscosity, and the viscoelasticity of HA solutions, depend on the relaxation time of the molecule, which in turn depends on the HA concentration and molecular weight. Temperature can also have an effect on these properties. High viscosity can additionally affect the lubricating function of HA solutions. Immobility can increase the concentration of HA, increase the viscosity, and reduce lubrication and gliding of the layers of connective tissue and muscle. Over time, these changes can alter both muscle structure and function. Inflammation can further increase the viscosity of HA-containing fluids if the HA is modified via covalent attachment of heavy chains derived from Inter-α-Inhibitor. Hyaluronidase hydrolyzes HA, thus reducing its molecular weight, lowering the viscosity of the extracellular matrix fluid and making outflow easier. It can also disrupt any aggregates or gel-like structures that result from HA being modified. Hyaluronidase is used medically primarily as a dispersion agent, but may also be useful in conditions where altered viscosity of the fascia is desired, such as in the treatment of

  8. Effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Xiuying; Miller, Reinhard; Sun, Kang

    2016-12-01

    The amphiphilic character and surface activity endows silk fibroin with the ability to reside at fluid interfaces and effectively stabilize emulsions. However, the influence of relevant factors and their actual effect on the interfacial viscoelasticity and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface has received less attention. In the present study, the effect of ionic strength on the interfacial viscoelasticity, emulsification effectiveness and stability of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface was investigated in detail. A higher ion concentration facilitates greater adsorption, stronger molecular interaction and faster structure reorganization of silk fibroin at the oil/water interface, thus causing quicker interfacial saturation adsorption, greater interfacial strength and lower interfacial structural fracture on large deformation. However, the presence of concentrated ions screens the charges in silk fibroin molecules and the zeta potential decreases as a result of electrostatic screening and ion-binding effects, which may result in emulsion droplet coalescence and a decrease in emulsion stability. The positively-charged ions significantly affect the interfacial elasticity and stability of silk fibroin layers at the oil/water interface as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions between counter-ions and the negatively-charged groups of silk fibroin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Time-frequency analyses of fluid–solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  10. Deadly Poisonous Turkish Mushrooms Containing Alpha Amanitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgaz Akata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisoning is still a serious health problem for Turkey. The mushroom species which cause fatal mushroom poisoning have been reported to contain at least 98% alpha-amanitin. The knowledge of the poisonous mushroom species including alpha- amanitin is important for the treatment and prevention of these poisonings. In this review, the mushrooms containig alpha-amanitin and causing deadly mushroom poisinings were listed and given information about their poisonus effects. According to literature, nine poisonous mushroom species which include alpha-amanitin have so far been reported from Turkey. These are Lepiota brunneoincarnata; Lepiota castanea; Lepiota helveola; Lepiota subincarnata; Amanita phalloides; Amanita verna; Amanita virosa; Conocybe filaris and Galerina marginata.

  11. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine revealed by porewater Cl- and δO18 in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-08-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δO18) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (∼31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually, reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δO18 increased to maximum of ∼7‰ (3‰ higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δO18 values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δO18 epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δO18 during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of “normal” evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δO18 decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the “reversed” behavior of δO18 during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  12. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine during the last glacial revealed by porewater Cl- and δ18O in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Boaz; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yosseph; Levi, Elan; Antler, Gilad; Gavrieli, Ittai; Stein, Mordechai

    2014-05-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δ18O on the same time increased to maximum of ~7o (3o higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of 'normal' evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δ18O decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the 'backward' behavior of δ18O during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  13. Fluid Surface Damping: A Technique for Vibration Suppression of Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ghoneim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluid surface damping (FSD technique for vibration suppression of beamlikestructures is proposed. The technique is a modification of the surface layer damping method. Two viscoelastic surface layers containing fluid-filled cavities are attached symmetrically to the opposite surfaces of the beam. The cavities on one side are attached to the corresponding cavities on the other side via connection passages. As the beam vibrates, the fluid is pumped back and forth through the connecting passages. Therefore, in addition to the viscoelastic damping provided by the surface layers, the technique offers viscous damping due to the fluid flow through the passage. A mathematical model for the proposed technique is developed, normalized, and solved in the frequency domain to investigate the effect of various parameters on the vibration suppression of a cantilever beam. The steady-state frequency response for a base white-noise excitation is calculated at the beam's free tip and over a frequency range containing the first five resonant frequencies. The parameters investigated are the flow-through passage viscous resistance, the length and location of the layers, the hydraulic capacitance of the fluid-filled cavities, and inertia of the moving fluid (hydraulic inertance. Results indicate that the proposed technique has promising potential in the field of vibration suppression of beamlike structures. With two FSD elements, all peak vibration amplitudes can be well suppressed over the entire frequency spectrum studied.

  14. Modulating state transition and mechanical properties of viscoelastic resins from maize zein through interactions with plasticizers and co-proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erickson, D.P.; Renzetti, S.; Jurgens, A.; Campanella, O.H.; Hamaker, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties have been observed in maize zein above its glass transition temperature; however, current understanding of how these viscoelastic polymers can be further manipulated for optimal performance is limited. Using resins formed via precipitation from aqueous ethanolic environments,

  15. Dual solutions of magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

    2017-09-01

    The present study is intended to encompass the stagnation point flow and heat transfer of viscoelastic nanofluid with the presence of thermal radiation. The viscous incompressible electrically conducting and Jeffrey fluid model is taken into account. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by using the appropriate similarity variables. The resulting differential equations are solved numerically using the built in bvp4c function in Matlab. Dual solutions are discovered for a certain range of the governing parameters. Numerical results for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are elucidated through tables and graphs.

  16. Changes in large pulmonary arterial viscoelasticity in chronic pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    Full Text Available Conduit pulmonary artery (PA stiffening is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH and is an excellent predictor of mortality due to right ventricular (RV overload. To better understand the impact of conduit PA stiffening on RV afterload, it is critical to examine the arterial viscoelastic properties, which require measurements of elasticity (energy storage behavior and viscosity (energy dissipation behavior. Here we hypothesize that PAH leads to frequency-dependent changes in arterial stiffness (related to elasticity and damping ratio (related to viscosity in large PAs. To test our hypothesis, PAH was induced by the combination of chronic hypoxia and an antiangiogenic compound (SU5416 treatment in mice. Static and sinusoidal pressure-inflation tests were performed on isolated conduit PAs at various frequencies (0.01-20 Hz to obtain the mechanical properties in the absence of smooth muscle contraction. Static mechanical tests showed significant stiffening of large PAs with PAH, as expected. In dynamic mechanical tests, structural stiffness (κ increased and damping ratio (D decreased at a physiologically relevant frequency (10 Hz in hypertensive PAs. The dynamic elastic modulus (E, a material stiffness, did not increase significantly with PAH. All dynamic mechanical properties were strong functions of frequency. In particular, κ, E and D increased with increasing frequency in control PAs. While this behavior remained for D in hypertensive PAs, it reversed for κ and E. Since these novel dynamic mechanical property changes were found in the absence of changes in smooth muscle cell content or contraction, changes in collagen and proteoglycans and their interactions are likely critical to arterial viscoelasticity in a way that has not been previously described. The impact of these changes in PA viscoelasticity on RV afterload in PAH awaits further investigation.

  17. Modular-based multiscale modeling on viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zeliang; Jia, Zheng; Liu, Wing Kam; Aldousari, Saad M.; Hedia, Hassan S.; Asiri, Saeed A.

    2017-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have been envisioned as advanced materials for improving the mechanical performance of neat polymers used in aerospace, petrochemical, environment and energy industries. With the filler size approaching the nanoscale, composite materials tend to demonstrate remarkable thermomechanical properties, even with addition of a small amount of fillers. These observations confront the classical composite theories and are usually attributed to the high surface-area-to-volume-ratio of the fillers, which can introduce strong nanoscale interfacial effect and relevant long-range perturbation on polymer chain dynamics. Despite decades of research aimed at understanding interfacial effect and improving the mechanical performance of composite materials, it is not currently possible to accurately predict the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites directly from their molecular constituents. To overcome this challenge, different theoretical, experimental and computational schemes will be used to uncover the key physical mechanisms at the relevant spatial and temporal scales for predicting and tuning constitutive behaviors in silico, thereby establishing a bottom-up virtual design principle to achieve unprecedented mechanical performance of nanocomposites. A modular-based multiscale modeling approach for viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites has been proposed and discussed in this study, including four modules: (A) neat polymer toolbox; (B) interphase toolbox; (C) microstructural toolbox and (D) homogenization toolbox. Integrating these modules together, macroscopic viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites could be directly predicted from their molecular constituents. This will maximize the computational ability to design novel polymer composites with advanced performance. More importantly, elucidating the viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites through fundamental studies is a critical step to generate an integrated computational material

  18. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanism for Aftershock Triggering and Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. They also occur in other natural or experimental systems, for example, in solar flares, in fracture experiments on porous materials and acoustic emissions, after stock market crashes, in the volatility of stock prices returns, in internet traffic variability and e-mail spamming, to mention a few. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle control the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and

  19. Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    on diluted solutions of linear polymers, normally referred to as Booger fluids. These fluids have almost constant shear viscosities and elongational viscosities several order of magnitudes larger than the shear viscosities, at high Deborah numbers. The simplest possible model to describe the constitutive......During the resent years several publications (for instance Hyzyak and Koelling, J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 71,73-88 (1997) and Gauri and Koelling, Rheol. Acta, 38, 458-470 (1999)) have concerned gas assisted displacement of viscoelastic fluids (polymer melts and polymeric solutions) contained...... in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...

  20. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  1. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  2. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  3. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal...

  4. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the...

  5. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNILOGIES OF CHITOSAN PRODUCTION FROM DEAD BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  7. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastler, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  8. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  9. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section...

  10. Modeling and clinical diagnosis of dead regions in the cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnaar, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis attempts to establish, using a model framework, a relationship between the psychophysical measurement of off-frequency listening and the functional auditory loss caused by dead regions in the cochlear. The results are used to evaluate the clinical value of dead region diagnosis with PTCs

  11. Linear Viscoelasticity, Reptation, Chain Stretching and Constraint Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A recently proposed self-consistent reptation model - alreadysuccessful at describing highly nonlinear shearing flows of manytypes using no adjustable parameters - is used here to interpretthe linear viscoelasticity of the same entangled polystyrenesolution. Using standard techniques, a relaxation....... The classical reptation picture,however, exhibits the opposite trend. Using the newly proposedmodel, we can switch on (or off) dynamics not included in theclassical Doi-Edwards model: chain-length fluctuations andconstraint release. We find that chain-length fluctuations areimportant to describe the plateau...

  12. Asymptotic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Flexural Shell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Arós, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    We consider a family of linearly viscoelastic shells with thickness $2\\varepsilon$, clamped along a portion of their lateral face, all having the same middle surface $S=\\mathbf{\\theta}(\\bar{\\omega})\\subset\\mathbb{R}^3$, where $\\omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^2$ is a bounded and connected open set with a Lipschitz-continuous boundary $\\gamma$. We show that, if the applied body force density is $O(\\varepsilon^2)$ with respect to $\\varepsilon$ and surface tractions density is $O(\\varepsilon^3)$, the sol...

  13. Slow viscoelastic relaxation and aging in aqueous foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Höhler, R.; Cohen-Addad, S.

    2006-05-01

    Like emulsions, pastes and many other forms of soft condensed matter, aqueous foams present slow mechanical relaxations when subjected to a stress too small to induce any plastic flow. To identify the physical origin of this viscoelastic behaviour, we have simulated how dry disordered coarsening 2D foams respond to a small applied stress. We show that the mechanism of long time relaxation is driven by coarsening-induced rearrangements of small bubble clusters. These findings are in full agreement with a scaling law previously derived from experimental creep data for 3D foams. Moreover, we find that the temporal statistics of coarsening-induced bubble rearrangements are described by a Poisson process.

  14. Calculation of dynamic stresses in viscoelastic sandwich beams using oma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelayo, F.; Aenlle, M. L.; Ismael, G.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical response of sandwich elements with viscoelastic core is time and temperature dependent. Laminated glass is a sandwich element where the mechanical behavior of the glass layers is usually considered linear-elastic material whereas the core is made of an amorphous thermoplastic which...... data. In simple structures, analytical mode shapes can be used alternatively to the numerical ones. In this paper, the dynamic stresses on the glass layers of a laminated glass beam have estimated using the experimental acceleration responses measured at 7 points of the beam, and the experimental mode...

  15. Viscoelastic and dynamic properties of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Christine

    ofthe cells themselves. In this thesis, the viscoelastic properties of mouse embryonic stem cells primedeither toward the epiblast (Epi) or the primitive endoderm (PrE) lineage were investigated.Optical tweezers were used to measure the fluctuations of endogenous lipid granules and therebydraw...... diffusive process was determined to becontinuous time random walk (CTRW).Upon exciting pluripotency, changes occur in the nucleus of stem cells. Chromatin remodeling,the recruitment of lamin A to the nucleoskeleton and stiffening of the cells were reported changescaused by differentiation...

  16. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  17. Viscoelastic properties of α-keratin fibers in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; André Meyers, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Considerable viscoelasticity and strain-rate sensitivity are a characteristic of α-keratin fibers, which can be considered a biopolymer. The understanding of viscoelasticity is an important part of the knowledge of the overall mechanical properties of these biological materials. Here, horse and human hairs are examined to analyze the sources of this response. The dynamic mechanical response of α-keratin fibers over a range of frequencies and temperatures is analyzed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The α-keratin fibers behave more elastically at higher frequencies while they become more viscous at higher temperatures. A glass transition temperature of ∼55°C is identified. The stress relaxation behavior of α-keratin fibers at two strains, 0.02 and 0.25, is established and fit to a constitutive equation based on the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive equation is further compared to the experimental results within the elastic region and a good agreement is obtained. The two relaxation constants, 14s and 359s for horse hair and 11s and 207s for human hair, are related to two hierarchical levels of relaxation: the amorphous matrix-intermediate filament interfaces, for the short term, and the cellular components for the long term. Results of the creep test also provide important knowledge on the uncoiling and phase transformation of the α-helical structure as hair is uniaxially stretched. SEM results show that horse hair has a rougher surface morphology and damaged cuticles. It also exhibits a lower strain-rate sensitivity of 0.05 compared to that of 0.11 for human hair. After the horse and human hairs are chemically treated and the disulfide bonds are cleaved, they exhibit a similar strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.05. FTIR results confirms that the human hair is more sensitive to the -S-S- cleavage, resulting in an increase of cysteic acid content. Therefore, the disulfide bonds in the matrix are experimentally identified as one source of the strain

  18. THERMO-VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER LAMINATE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Truszkiewicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigated material - laminate is intended as a substrate for small electronic components, electrodes and printed circuits, which are processed onto the laminate prior to thermoforming. The placement of the electronic components and the connecting circuits must be carefully designed to prevent damage during the thermoforming. The thermo-viscoelastic behavior of a polymer laminate film was characterized by mechanical measurements to obtain data for material modeling. The strain was measured using digital image correlation. The film is anisotropic and is able to deform to strains up to 60%.

  19. Phased-Array Focusing Potential in Pipe with Viscoelastic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, J. K.; Zhang, L.; Breon, L. J.; Rose, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    This work investigates the effectiveness of traditional guided-wave focusing techniques in piping with viscoelastic coating. Focusing results for an uncoated pipe are compared to that of pipe with a fusion-bonded epoxy coating, a coal-tar mastic coating, a coal-tar epoxy coating, a coal-tar tape coating, a wax coating, and an enamel coating. Experimental results are compared to computationally derived models. Results show that, for most coating types, focusing can be achieved without special consideration of the coating. This is significant in that it demonstrates the immediate applicability of traditional focusing techniques to coated pipeline.

  20. Fitting Prony Series To Data On Viscoelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of fitting Prony series to data on viscoelastic materials involves use of least-squares optimization techniques. Based on optimization techniques yields closer correlation with data than traditional method. Involves no assumptions regarding the gamma'(sub i)s and higher-order terms, and provides for as many Prony terms as needed to represent higher-order subtleties in data. Curve-fitting problem treated as design-optimization problem and solved by use of partially-constrained-optimization techniques.

  1. Cure-dependent Viscoelastic Poisson’s Ratio of Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-26

    Poisson’s ratio in creep and stress relaxation of EPON 828 epoxy cured with tri- ethylenetriamine using geometric moiré with gratings of 20 lines per...cure kinetics [23] and cure-dependent viscoelastic properties [24] of this material. A second system was also investigated, EPON 828 /3274, a bisphenol...Table 1. The EPON 828 /3274 specimens were cured for 48 h at room temperature followed by 10 h at 75◦C to ensure the material was fully reacted. After

  2. Solid particle erosion and viscoelastic properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance of several thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs having different chemical nature and micronscale arrangement of the hard and soft segments has been investigated by means of erosion and abrasion tests. The goal was correlating the erosion performances of the materials to their macroscopic mechanical properties. Unlike conventional tests, such as hardness and tensile measurements, viscoelastic analysis proved to be a valuable tool to study the erosion resistance of TPUs. In particular, a strict correlation was found between the erosion rate and the high-frequency (~107 Hz loss modulus. The latter reflects the actual ability of TPU to dissipate the impact energy of the erodent particles.

  3. Viscoelastic properties of elastomeric materials for O-ring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1989-01-01

    Redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster necessitated re-evaluation of the material used in the field joint O-ring seals. This research project was established to determine the viscoelastic characteristics of five candidate materials. The five materials are: two fluorocarbon compounds, two nitrile compounds, and a silicon compound. The materials were tested in a uniaxial compression test to determine the characteristic relaxation functions. These tests were performed at five different temperatures. A master material curve was developed for each material from the experimental data. The results of this study are compared to tensile relaxation tests. Application of these results to the design analysis is discussed in detail.

  4. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-08

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  5. Strain-Level Dependent Nonequilibrium Anisotropic Viscoelasticity: Application to the Abdominal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Marcos; Montáns, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Soft connective tissues sustain large strains of viscoelastic nature. The rate-independent component is frequently modeled by means of anisotropic hyperelastic models. The rate-dependent component is usually modeled through linear rheological models or quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) models. These viscoelastic models are unable, in general, to capture the strain-level dependency of the viscoelastic properties present in many viscoelastic tissues. In linear viscoelastic models, strain-level dependency is frequently accounted for by including the dependence of multipliers of Prony series on strains through additional evolution laws, but the determination of the material parameters is a difficult task and the obtained accuracy is usually not sufficient. In this work, we introduce a model for fully nonlinear viscoelasticity in which the instantaneous and quasi-static behaviors are exactly captured and the relaxation curves are predicted to a high accuracy. The model is based on a fully nonlinear standard rheological model and does not necessitate optimization algorithms to obtain material parameters. Furthermore, in contrast to most models used in modeling the viscoelastic behavior of soft tissues, it is valid for the large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium typically observed in soft tissues.

  6. Noise Reduction Evaluation of Multi-Layered Viscoelastic Infinite Cylinder under Acoustical Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mofakhami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper sound transmission through the multilayered viscoelastic air filled cylinders subjected to the incident acoustic wave is studied using the technique of separation of variables on the basis of linear three dimensional theory of elasticity. The effect of interior acoustic medium on the mode maps (frequency vs geometry and noise reduction is investigated. The effects of internal absorption and external moving medium on noise reduction are also evaluated. The dynamic viscoelastic properties of the structure are rigorously taken into account with a power law technique that models the viscoelastic damping of the cylinder. A parametric study is also performed for the two layered infinite cylinders to obtain the effect of viscoelastic layer characteristics such as thickness, material type and frequency dependency of viscoelastic properties on the noise reduction. It is shown that using constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic material with high loss factor leads to the uniform noise reduction in the frequency domain. It is also shown that the noise reduction obtained for constant viscoelastic material property is subjected to some errors in the low frequency range with respect to those obtained for the frequency dependent viscoelastic material.

  7. Measurement of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Full-Size Wood Composite Panels Using a Vibration Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Lujing Zhou; Dan Feng

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic viscoelasticity of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs) under the free-free vibrational state were determined by a vibration testing method. Vibration detection tests were performed on 194 pieces of three types of full-size WCPs (particleboard, medium density fiberboard, and plywood (PW)). The dynamic viscoelasticity from smaller specimens cut from the...

  8. Role of non-covalent interactions in the production of visco-elastic material from zein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Selling, Gordon; Sessa, David; Aramouni, Fadi M

    2014-03-15

    The role of non-covalent interactions in the formation of visco-elastic material from zein was investigated. Hydrophobic interactions were evaluated through the addition of various salts from the Hofmeister series. Urea, ethanol, and beta mercaptoethanol (β-ME) were used to evaluate the effects of protein denaturation and disulfide bonds on zein's ability to form a visco-elastic material. The addition of NaI and NaSCN altered the properties of visco-elastic materials made from zein, making them softer and more extensible, as did urea and ethanol. The addition of NaCl and Na2SO4 negatively impacted the ability of zein to from a visco-elastic material and at higher concentrations completely disrupted the formation of visco-elastic material. These results indicate that manipulating non-covalent interactions in zein can alter and in some cases, completely disrupt the formation of a visco-elastic material. Specifically this may be due to disruption of hydrophobic interactions within individual zein proteins or interactions between proteins. The reducing agent β-ME had little effect on zein's ability to form a visco-elastic material. Therefore, the visco-elastic properties of zein arise as a result of non-covalent interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncertainty quantification and stochastic-based viscoelastic modeling of finite deformation elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William S.; Hays, Michael; Miles, Paul; Smith, Ralph

    2013-04-01

    Material parameter uncertainty is a key aspect of model development. Here we quantify parameter uncertainty of a viscoelastic model through validation on rate dependent deformation of a dielectric elastomer that undergoes finite deformation. These materials are known for there large field induced deformation and applications in smart structures, although the rate dependent viscoelastic effects are not well understood. To address this issue, we first quantify hyperelastic and viscoelastic model uncertainty using Bayesian statistics by comparing a linear viscoelastic model to uniaxial rate dependent experiments. The probability densities, obtained from the Bayesian statistics, are then used to formulate a refined model that incorporates the probability densities directly within the model using homogenization methods. We focus on the uncertainty of the viscoelastic aspect of the model to show under what regimes does the stochastic homogenization framework provides improvements in predicting viscoelastic constitutive behavior. It is show that VHB has a relatively narrow probability distribution on the viscoelastic time constants. This supports use of a discrete viscoelastic model over the homogenized model.

  10. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Papari; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV) equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed) astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  11. Ultradry Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Foams with Viscoelastic Aqueous Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng; Worthen, Andrew J; Da, Chang; Qajar, Ali; Ketchum, Isaiah Robert; Alzobaidi, Shehab; Huh, Chun; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2016-01-12

    For foams with ultra low water contents, the capillary pressure is very large and induces rapid drainage that destabilizes the aqueous lamellae between the gas bubbles. However, we show that high-pressure CO2-in-water foams can be stabilized with a viscoelastic aqueous phase composed of entangled wormlike micelles, even for extremely high CO2 volume fractions ϕ of 0.95 to 0.98; the viscosity of these ultradry foams increased by up to 3-4-fold, reaching more than 100 cP relative to foams formed with conventional low viscosity aqueous phases. The foam morphology consisted of fine ∼20 μm polyhedral-shaped CO2 bubbles that were stable for hours. The wormlike micelles were formed by mixing anionic sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) with salt and a protonated cationic surfactant, as shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and large values of the zero-shear viscosity and the dynamic storage and loss moduli. With the highly viscous continuous aqueous phases, the foam lamella drainage rates were low, as corroborated by confocal microscopy. The preservation of viscous thick lamellae resulted in lower rates of Ostwald ripening relative to conventional foams as shown by high-pressure optical microscopy. The ability to stabilize viscous ultra high internal phase foams is expected to find utility in various practical applications, including nearly "waterless" fracturing fluids for recovery of oil and gas in shale, offering the possibility of a massive reduction in the amount of wastewater.

  12. Finite-Strain Fractional-Order Viscoelastic (FOV) Material Models and Numerical Methods for Solving Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fraction-order viscoelastic (FOV) material models have been proposed and studied in 1D since the 1930's, and were extended into three dimensions in the 1970's under the assumption of infinitesimal straining. It was not until 1997 that Drozdov introduced the first finite-strain FOV constitutive equations. In our presentation, we shall continue in this tradition by extending the standard, FOV, fluid and solid, material models introduced in 1971 by Caputo and Mainardi into 3D constitutive formula applicable for finite-strain analyses. To achieve this, we generalize both the convected and co-rotational derivatives of tensor fields to fractional order. This is accomplished by defining them first as body tensor fields and then mapping them into space as objective Cartesian tensor fields. Constitutive equations are constructed using both variants for fractional rate, and their responses are contrasted in simple shear. After five years of research and development, we now possess a basic suite of numerical tools necessary to study finite-strain FOV constitutive equations and their iterative refinement into a mature collection of material models. Numerical methods still need to be developed for efficiently solving fraction al-order integrals, derivatives, and differential equations in a finite element setting where such constitutive formulae would need to be solved at each Gauss point in each element of a finite model, which can number into the millions in today's analysis.

  13. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papari Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  14. Seismic Behavior of Posttensioned Concrete Bridge Piers with External Viscoelastic Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the seismic performance of posttensioned concrete piers with external viscoelastic dampers to improve the energy dissipation capacity of this type of structure. An installation scheme for viscoelastic dampers on bridge piers is proposed, and the mechanical models of the damper are analyzed according to the installation scheme. By attaching the viscoelastic dampers to the posttensioned bridge piers, the analytical model of the hybrid system is established using the OpenSees finite element analysis package. Cyclic behavior and time history analyses are conducted on a posttensioned bridge with and without viscoelastic dampers using the established finite element model. The analysis results indicate that the viscoelastic dampers can effectively improve the seismic performance of the bridge structures with posttensioned piers.

  15. PHOTOACOUSTIC VISCOELASTICITY IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES WITH INTENSITY-MODULATED CONTINUOUS-WAVE LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUE ZHAO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel photoacoustic viscoelasticity imaging (PAVEI technique that provides viscoelastic information of biological tissues is presented. We deduced the process of photoacoustic (PA effect on the basis of thermal viscoelasticity theory and established the relationship between the PA phase delay and the viscoelasticity for soft solids. By detecting the phase delay of PA signal, the viscoelasticity distribution of absorbers can be mapped. Gelatin phantoms with different densities and different absorption coefficients were used to verify the dependence of PAVEI measurements. Moreover, tissue mimicking phantoms mixed with fat and collagen at different concentrations were used to testify the feasibility of this technique with reliable contrast. Finally, the PAVEI was successfully applied to discrimination between biological tissue constituents. Our experimental results demonstrate that this novel technique has the potential for visualizing the anatomical and biomechanical properties of biological tissues.

  16. Generalization of the ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Rolland; Tabiai, Ilyass; Laberge Lebel, Louis; Lévesque, Martin

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the original ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic material response is represented using the thermodynamically acceptable Prony series approach. It can feature as many Prony terms as required and accounts for viscoelastic spherical and deviatoric components. The model was derived from an equivalence between peridynamic viscoelastic parameters and those appearing in classical continuum mechanics, by equating the free energy densities expressed in both frameworks. The model was simplified to a uni-dimensional expression and implemented to simulate a creep-recovery test. This implementation was finally validated by comparing peridynamic predictions to those predicted from classical continuum mechanics. An exact correspondence between peridynamics and the classical continuum approach was shown when the peridynamic horizon becomes small, meaning peridynamics tends toward classical continuum mechanics. This work provides a clear and direct means to researchers dealing with viscoelastic phenomena to tackle their problem within the peridynamic framework.

  17. Interconversion of linearly viscoelastic material functions expressed as Prony series: a closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-Cyr, Jacques; Crochon, Thibaut; Li, Chun; Lévesque, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Interconversion of viscoelastic material functions is a longstanding problem that has received attention since the 1950s. There is currently no accepted methodology for interconverting viscoelastic material functions due to the lack of stability and accuracy of the existing methods. This paper presents a new exact, analytical interconversion method for linearly viscoelastic material functions expressed as Prony series. The new algorithm relies on the equations of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes used for defining linearly viscoelastic constitutive theories. As a result, interconversion is made possible for unidimensional and tridimensional materials for arbitrary material symmetry. The algorithm has been tested over a broad range of cases and was found to deliver accurate interconversion in all cases. Based on its accuracy and stability, the authors believe that their algorithm provides a closure to the interconversion of linearly viscoelastic constitutive theories expressed with Prony series.

  18. Vibration Analysis of Cylindrical Sandwich Aluminum Shell with Viscoelastic Damping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hong Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has applied the constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatments to a cylindrical aluminum shell using layerwise displacement theory. The transverse shear, the normal strains, and the curved geometry are exactly taken into account in the present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The damped natural frequencies, modal loss factors, and frequency response functions of cylindrical viscoelastic aluminum shells are compared with those of the base thick aluminum panel without a viscoelastic layer. The thickness and damping ratio of the viscoelastic damping layer, the curvature of proposed cylindrical aluminum structure, and placement of damping layer of the aluminum panel were investigated using frequency response function. The presented results show that the sandwiched viscoelastic damping layer can effectively suppress vibration of cylindrical aluminum structure.

  19. Mapping Viscoelastic and Plastic Properties of Polymers and Polymer-Nanotube Composites using Instrumented Indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Andrew J; Cook, Robert F

    An instrumented indentation method is developed for generating maps of time-dependent viscoelastic and time-independent plastic properties of polymeric materials. The method is based on a pyramidal indentation model consisting of two quadratic viscoelastic Kelvin-like elements and a quadratic plastic element in series. Closed-form solutions for indentation displacement under constant load and constant loading-rate are developed and used to determine and validate material properties. Model parameters are determined by point measurements on common monolithic polymers. Mapping is demonstrated on an epoxy-ceramic interface and on two composite materials consisting of epoxy matrices containing multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A fast viscoelastic deformation process in the epoxy was unaffected by the inclusion of the nanotubes, whereas a slow viscoelastic process was significantly impeded, as was the plastic deformation. Mapping revealed considerable spatial heterogeneity in the slow viscoelastic and plastic responses in the composites, particularly in the material with a greater fraction of nanotubes.

  20. Epididymosomes transfer epididymal sperm binding protein 1 (ELSPBP1) to dead spermatozoa during epididymal transit in bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amours, Olivier; Frenette, Gilles; Bordeleau, Louis-Jean; Allard, Nancy; Leclerc, Pierre; Blondin, Patrick; Sullivan, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we showed that epididymal sperm binding protein 1 (ELSPBP1) characterizes spermatozoa already dead before ejaculation in bovine. In this study, we investigated the presence of ELSPBP1 in bull genital tract as well as its acquisition by spermatozoa during epididymal transit. As assessed by real-time RT-PCR, ELSPBP1 was highly expressed in the caput and the corpus epididymis but was present in lower expression levels in the testis and the cauda epididymis. Immunohistochemistry revealed the same expression pattern. However, Western blot on tissue homogenates showed some discrepancies, as ELSPBP1 was found in a comparable concentration all along the epididymis. This difference was due to the presence of ELSPBP1 in the epididymal fluid. In both caput and cauda epididymal fluid, ELSPBP1 was associated with the epididymosomes, small membranous vesicles secreted by epithelial cells of the epididymis and implicated in the transfer of proteins to spermatozoa. As assessed by immunocytometry, ELSPBP1 was found on a subset of dead spermatozoa in caput epididymis but was found on all dead spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. To assess ELSPBP1 acquisition by spermatozoa, caput epididymal spermatozoa were incubated with cauda epididymosomes under various conditions. ELSPBP1 detection by immunocytometry assay revealed that only spermatozoa already dead before incubation were receptive to ELSPBP1 transfer by epididymosomes. This receptivity was enhanced by the presence of zinc in the incubation medium. This specificity for a sperm subpopulation suggests that an underlying mechanism is involved and that ELSPBP1 could be a tag for the recognition of dead spermatozoa during epididymal transit.