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Sample records for virus-inoculated inbred preleukemic

  1. Inflammatory Signaling Pathways in Preleukemic and Leukemic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayda Hemmati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are a rare subset of bone marrow cells that usually exist in a quiescent state, only entering the cell cycle to replenish the blood compartment, thereby limiting the potential for errors in replication. Inflammatory signals that are released in response to environmental stressors, such as infection, trigger active cycling of HSCs. These inflammatory signals can also directly induce HSCs to release cytokines into the bone marrow environment, promoting myeloid differentiation. After stress myelopoiesis is triggered, HSCs require intracellular signaling programs to deactivate this response and return to steady state. Prolonged or excessive exposure to inflammatory cytokines, such as in prolonged infection or in chronic rheumatologic conditions, can lead to continued HSC cycling and eventual HSC loss. This promotes bone marrow failure, and can precipitate preleukemic states or leukemia through the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic changes in HSCs. This can occur through the initiation of clonal hematopoiesis, followed by the emergence preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs. In this review, we describe the roles of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways in the generation of pre-LSCs and in progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In AML, activation of some inflammatory signaling pathways can promote the cycling and differentiation of LSCs, and this can be exploited therapeutically. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of modulating inflammatory signaling for the treatment of myeloid malignancies.

  2. Sideroblastic anemia as a preleukemic event in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitahara, M.; Cosgriff, T.M.; Eyre, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    Sideroblastic anemia after treatment for Hodgkin's disease was seen in two patients 3 years after completion of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This was followed in both by the development of myelomonoblastic leukemia. No evidence of recurrent Hodgkin's disease was present in either patient. Our observation suggests that development of sideroblastic anemia in patients previously treated for Hodgkin's disease is probably secondary to the treatment and is a preleukemic event.

  3. Preleukemic granulocytic sarcoma of cervix and vagina: initial manifestation by cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, J; Behm, F G; Schneider, V

    1982-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an unusual form of tumefaction caused by acute granulocytic leukemia. On rare occasions, the lesion precedes the leukemic phase and presents as a mass with a normal peripheral white cell count. This report describes the initial manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma by vaginal cytology in a 39-year-old female with Down's syndrome. Six days after admission, the patient died of acute peritonitis following spontaneous perforation of the bowel. Autopsy revealed involvement of cervix, vagina, bowel wall and one pelvic lymph node by granulocytic sarcoma. Bone marrow examination confirmed the preleukemic stage of the disease. Cytologically, the malignant cells occurred singly. No nucleoli were seen. The differential diagnosis between malignant lymphoma and granulocytic sarcoma rests upon a positive naphtol AS-D chloroacetate esterase stain in granulocytic sarcoma. This stain may be performed on paraffin-embedded sections or on smears.

  4. Paraproteinaemia in inbred chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, J R; McNally, M P; Jaton, J C

    1975-01-01

    Sera from seventy chickens of several inbred lines were screened by cellulose acetate electrophoresis for abnormalities of immunoglobulin production. IgG levels in two sera (both from apparently healthy birds) were unusually high. The IgG proteins purified from these two sera were shown, by isoelectric focusing, to be of restricted heterogeneity. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1201862

  5. INBRED AND OUTBRED DROSOPHILA SUBOBSCURA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 1. Acclimatization to High Temperatures in Inbred and Outbred Drosophila Subobscura (Published on 1956 J. Genet. 54, 497-505). J. Maynard Smith. J. Genet. Classic Volume 84 Issue 1 April 2005 pp 37-45 ...

  6. Concise review: preleukemic stem cells: molecular biology and clinical implications of the precursors to leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Ashley; Barreyro, Laura; Steidl, Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    Recent experimental evidence has shown that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) arise from transformed immature hematopoietic cells following the accumulation of multiple stepwise genetic and epigenetic changes in hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors. The series of transforming events initially gives rise to preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSC), preceding the formation of fully transformed leukemia stem cells (LSC). Despite the established use of poly-chemotherapy, relapse continues to be the most common cause of death in AML and MDS. The therapeutic elimination of all LSC, as well as pre-LSC, which provide a silent reservoir for the re-formation of LSC, will be essential for achieving lasting cures. Conventional sequencing and next-generation genome sequencing have allowed us to describe many of the recurrent mutations in the bulk cell populations in AML and MDS, and recent work has also focused on identifying the initial molecular changes contributing to leukemogenesis. Here we review recent and ongoing advances in understanding the roles of pre-LSC, and the aberrations that lead to pre-LSC formation and subsequent LSC transformation.

  7. Gene Mapping with Recombinant Inbreds in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, B; Burr, F A; Thompson, K. H.; Albertson, M. C.; Stuber, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines of maize have been developed for the rapid mapping of molecular probes to chromosomal location. Two recombinant inbred families have been constructed from F(2) populations of T232 X CM37 and CO159 X Tx303. A genetic map based largely on isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms has been produced that covers virtually the entire maize genome. In order to map a new gene, an investigator has only to determine its allelic distribution among the recombinant in...

  8. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

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    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  9. Detection of social approach in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michel; Jamon, Marc

    2009-10-12

    An experiment was designed to automatically assess the relative level of social interaction during encounters involving trios of inbred mice consisting of two familiar cage mate males plus an unfamiliar third male. The automation of the spatial positioning was obtained by using a video-tracking program. In addition social behaviours were manually scored. To evaluate the influence of basic motor properties on the evaluation of the level of social interaction, we analysed two strains (C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv) that are frequently employed in transgenic research, and show very different levels of motor activity. Correlations between manual and automated parameters showed that spatial parameters correctly fitted the level of social interaction between mice. In both strains C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv, a proximity parameter (duration of bouts during which two individuals were close to each other) defined the social approach and correctly assessed the discrimination of social novelty.

  10. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

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    Boćanski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. The most commonly used method for determining combining abilities is diallel analysis. Besides conventional methods for diallel analysis, a new biplot approach has been sugested. In this paper, we studied the combining ability for grain yield in a set of genotypes obtained by diallel crossing system of six inbred lines. Both, the Griffing’s conventional method and the biplot approach have been used for diallel analysis. Comparing the GCA values from biplot analysis and Griffing’s method, similar results can be observed, with the exception of NS L 1051 and NS L 1000 whose ranks are interchanged. Biplot analysis enables the SCA estimation of parent inbred, and the highest SCA has inbred B73D. Biplot analysis also allows the estimation of the best crosses. Inbred B73D shows the best results when crossed with testers Mo17Ht, NS L 1051 and N152, inbred N152 combines best with testers NS L 1001 and NS L 1000, whereas the cross of inbred NS L 1051 with tester B73D results with the highest grain yield per plant in comparison with other testers.

  11. Cytoarchitecture and transcriptional profiles of neocortical malformations in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Smith, Phoebe T; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2008-11-01

    Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice.

  12. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boćanski Jan; Nastasić Aleksandra; Stanisavljević Dušan; Srećkov Zorana; Mitrović Bojan; Treskić Sanja; Vukosavljev Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. Th...

  13. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

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    Daros Máskio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test, making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index, with predicted genetic gains of 17.8% for popping expansion and 26.95% for yield.

  14. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

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    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  15. Genetic variation between Spanish and American versions of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Abuín, María del Carmen; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Ordás López, Bernardo; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of maize inbred lines in different stations causes variability among strains. The objective of this research was to determine agronomic and molecular differences in American sweet corn inbreds maintained in Spain. American and Spanish strains of five sweet corn inbred lines were characterized by using 34 RAPD primers that produced 168 consistent bands. Strains of four of these inbreds were crossed in a diallel design, and hybrids were evaluated in four environments in northwester...

  16. Plant regeneration from immature embryos of Kenyan maize inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field grown, self pollinated maize genotypes were planted in KARI (Kiboko and Kabete) research stations between January 2004 and May 2005. Immature maize embryos from twelve parental inbred lines and their respective single cross hybrids were evaluated for their ability form callus, somatic embryos and subsequent ...

  17. determination of the heterotic groups of maize inbred lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for ... Weevil resistance exists and is moderately heritable. Key Words: Combining ability, gene ... field biotic and abiotic stresses ignoring traits that improve grain storage. Weevil ...

  18. Callus induction and regeneration of elite Indian maize inbreds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five elite Indian maize inbreds namely; HKI1105, HKI1105, HKI335, CM300 and LM5 were evaluated for callus induction and regeneration. Immature embryos obtained 14 days after pollination were used as explants. Genotype, medium, type of auxin and their concentrations influenced callus induction. N6 medium ...

  19. Dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred Drosophila melanogaster populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Westerhof, M. D. D.; Roekx, L. P.; Pen, I.

    Genetic rescue has been proposed as a management strategy to improve the fitness of genetically eroded populations by alleviating inbreeding depression. We studied the dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred populations of Drosophila. Using balancer chromosomes, we show that the force of heterosis that

  20. Induced cytomictic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for improving oligogenic and polygenic characters, disease resistance and quantitative characters including yielding ability. The cytological stability of maize inbred lines is an important consideration in view of their extensive use in genetics and plant breeding research. Investigation in Zea mays L. confirms that the migration of chromosomes is a real event that cannot be misunderstood as an artifact produced by fixation or mechanical injuries. During present investigation, we found that out of six inbred lines of Zea mays L. viz. CM-135, CM-136, CM-137, CM-138, CM-142 and CM-213 at various treatment doses of gamma irradiations viz. 200, 400 and 600 Gy, some of the plants of inbred line CM- 138 at 200 Gy dose displayed characteristic cytoplasmic connections during all the stages of meiosis. Four plants from this treatment set were found to be engaged in a rare phenomenon reported as "Cytomixis". It elucidates that in inbred of Zea mays L., induced cytomixis through gamma rays treatment may be considered to be a possible source of production of aneuploid and polyploid gametes. This phenomenon may have several applications in Zea mays L. improvement in the sense of diversity and ever yield potential.

  1. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  2. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue culture. Immature embryos obtained 16 days after pollination were used as explants for callus induction. Calli were induced on LS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus ...

  3. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  4. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue culture. Immature embryos obtained 16 days after pollination were used as explants for callus induction. Calli were induced on LS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-.

  5. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Areejit Samal

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... One elegant mathematical genetics problem solved by them concerns recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced via repeated self or brother–sister mating. In this classic contribution, Haldane and Waddington derived an analytical formula for the probabilities of 2-locus and 3-locus RIL genotypes.

  6. Hetrosis and combining ability of sub tropical maize inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the combining ability of subtropical maize inbred lines and identify appropriate germplasm for hybrid development. P6 was the highest yielding parent and P2 x P7 was the highest yielding cross. Heterosis for grain yield was high in those involving P6 as a parent. Parents P2, P7 ...

  7. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic basis, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from the cross Mo17 × Huangzao4, was used for quantitative trait locus mapping (QTL) for EAW under high and low nitrogen (N) regimes.

  8. Combing ability analysis of among early generation maize inbred lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining ability estimates are important genetic attributes ina maize breeding program aiming to develop stable andhigh yielding hybrids and synthetic varieties. The objectives of this study were to estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, ...

  9. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    Abstract. Combining ability estimates are important genetic attributes ina maize breeding program aiming to develop stable andhigh yielding hybrids and synthetic varieties. The objectives of this study were to estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ...

  10. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Nastasic, A.; Stanisavljevic, D.; Sreckov, Z.; Mitrovic, B.; Treskic, S.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a

  11. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield related traits, and reaction to gray leaf spot (GLS) and northern corn leaf blight ...... Gevers H.O., J.K. Lake and T. Hohls, 1994 Diallel cross analysis ofmaize for resistance to gray leaf spot in maize.

  12. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

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    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of the sweet corn inbred lines is of great importance for its breeding. In this paper we analyzed genetic similarity of six sweet corn inbreds based on SSR markers. 40 SSR primers were used in DNA amplification. Results were compared and correlated with the data on specific combining ability, obtained by the diallel analysis. The results of SCA were in concurrence with genetic similarity. Values of rank correlation coefficient were negative, indicating that more similar inbred lines had smaller estimates of SCA, and lines that were less similar had higher estimates of SCA. Rank correlation coefficient between SCA and GS according to Dice coefficient was between -0,16 and -0,57*.

  13. Condition, innate immunity and disease mortality of inbred crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Miller, Andrew D; Buckles, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-22

    Cooperatively breeding American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) suffer a severe disease-mediated survival cost from inbreeding, but the proximate mechanisms linking inbreeding to disease are unknown. Here, we examine indices of nestling body condition and innate immunocompetence in relationship to inbreeding and disease mortality. Using an estimate of microsatellite heterozygosity that predicts inbreeding in this population, we show that inbred crows were in relatively poor condition as nestlings, and that body condition index measured in the first 2-33 days after hatching, in addition to inbreeding index, predicted disease probability in the first 34 months of life. Inbred nestlings also mounted a weaker response along one axis of innate immunity: the proportion of bacteria killed in a microbiocidal assay increased as heterozygosity index increased. Relatively poor body condition and low innate immunocompetence are two mechanisms that might predispose inbred crows to ultimate disease mortality. A better understanding of condition-mediated inbreeding depression can guide efforts to minimize disease costs of inbreeding in small populations.

  14. Selection of popcorn inbred lines based on performance and genealogy of S5 progenies and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids is the most important objective in a corn breeding program. The objectives of thisstudy were to select and assess inbred lines, and to discuss the efficiency of four cycles of among and within inbred familyselection. Two experiments were evaluated, one with 144 S5 progenies of the popcorn population Beija-Flor and another withseven inbred lines. Based on expected gains in expansion volume, the best selective procedure was mass selection. The 14selected inbred lines should be divergent, because only two pairs were derived from the same S3 or S4 family. The analysis ofselection efficiency demonstrated that it is important to select superior plants in families with poorer performance to minimizethe loss of superior genotypes. The quality of the evaluated inbred lines was comparable to commercial populations and theyield satisfactory. The information about genealogy did not increase the inbred line selection efficiency.

  15. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.

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    Baofen Zuo

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8% loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95% showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9% KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG(n (50%, 2/4, followed by (GT(n (27.27%, 3/11 and (CA(n (23.08%, 3/13. The microsatellite CMP in (CT(n and (AG(n repeats were 20% (1/5. According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102 revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3 simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice.

  16. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

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    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  17. Diagnostics of low-pressure discharges containing InBr studied for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2013-10-01

    The utilization of InBr in low-pressure rare-gas plasmas for lighting applications may serve as an efficient alternative to hazardous mercury, which is used in common fluorescent lamps as a radiator. In order to perform systematic investigations of these discharges, diagnostic methods are required to gain insight into the relevant plasma parameters. This goal can be achieved by using white light absorption and optical emission spectroscopy supported by an extended corona model of the indium atom and a simulation of the relative intensity of the InBr emission. The set of diagnostic methods is exemplarily applied to measurements on an inductively coupled argon discharge at 100 W power with varying InBr content. The plasma parameters are derived and the processes determining their changes with varying InBr density are identified. Increasing the InBr density results in a decrease in Te but an increase in ne, which can be explained by considering the ionization and power balance. The relevant population processes for the rovibrational states of InBr are inelastic collisions with heavy particles with an increasing importance of electron impact excitation at a higher InBr density. The radiated power is maximal at a cold spot temperature between 210 and 220 °C as reabsorption occurs at a high InBr density.

  18. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was, therefore, conducted to investigate the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability of selected maize inbred lines for grain yield and GLS disease resistance. Eight maize inbred lines with contrasting reactions to GLS were crossed in diallel mating to generate 28 hybrids. The parents and ...

  19. Testing Sunflower Inbred Lines for Tolerance to Phoma Black Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boško Dedić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem is caused by a widespread pathogen Phoma macdonaldii Boerema.The disease occurs regularly, causing damage by early defoliation and premature ripening.Complete resistance of sunflower to this disease has never been found, but there arereports of differences in response by different genotypes. Fifty-four new inbred lines weretested in our trials conducted at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field. Plants in one trialwere non-irrigated, and irrigated in another. Sunflower plants were artificially inoculatedwith mycelial plugs in the bud stage. The length of stem lesions was measured and comparedusing an analysis of variance. Disease intensity was generally more severe in the nonirrigatedfield. There were significant differences in tolerance to Phoma black stem amongthe tested lines in both trials. The percentage of tolerant genotypes was 1.8%.

  20. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  1. Causes and consequences of chromatin variation between inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10% of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits.

  2. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  3. Evaluation of Lentil Recombinant Inbred Lines using Drought Tolerance Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Rahimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify drought tolerant lines among 168 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Hindi variety of L3685 (high yielding, erect type and early growth as female parent and Iranian variety of Qazvin (with prostrate growth and late growth as male parent, two experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions at the experimental Field of Shahrekord University in 2013. Results of combined analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among lines under study in both experimental conditions in terms of grain yield (P≤0.01. Significant interaction of line×conditions revealed that lines responded differently to drought stress based on grain yield. Results also indicates that lines 160, 125 and 129 were promising lines under both conditions in terms of grain yield. Positive and significant correlation between tolerance indices and grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions indicated that the STI, MP, HARM and GMP indices may identify promising from non promising lines. Based on the above criteria, lines 160, 125, 48, 103 and 129 were recognized as drought tolerant lines. According to the results of principal components analysis, the first and second components determined 97.8% of the total variations among genotypes under study for drought resistance indices. The distribution of lines in the biplot showed genetic variations to the drought stress and thus lines 160, 125, 48, 129 and 103 were identified as high yielders under drought stress condition.

  4. Combining ability of tropical and temperate inbred lines of popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, V Q R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Freitas Júnior, S P; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Moterle, L M; Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A

    2010-08-31

    In Brazil, using combining ability of popcorn genotypes to achieve superior hybrids has been unsuccessful because the local genotypes are all members of the same heterotic group. To overcome this constraint, 10 lines (P(1) to P(10)) with different adaptations to tropical or temperate edaphoclimatic environments were used to obtain 45 F(1) hybrids in a complete diallel. These hybrids and three controls were evaluated in two environments in Rio de Janeiro State. Grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), and days to silking (FL) were evaluated in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Significant differences between genotypes (P inbred lines that improved GY were P(3) and P(4), unlike P(8), P(9) and P(10), which improved PE, and P(2), which improved both PE and GY. The additive effects were much more important for PE than for GY. The hybrid combinations gave positive estimates of heterosis for GY but not for PE.

  5. Inbreeding depression in maize populations and its effects on the obtention of promising inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclecio Domingos Garbuglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding can potentially be used for the development of inbred lines containing alleles of interest, but the genetic causes that control inbreeding depression are not completely known, and there are few studies found in the literature. The present study aimed to obtain estimates of inbreeding depression for eight traits in seven tropical maize populations, analyze the effects of inbreeding over generations and environments, and predict the behavior of inbred lines in future generation S? through linear regression methods. It was found that regardless of the base population used, prediction values could vary when the model was based on only 2 generations of inbreeding due to the environmental component. The influence of the environment in this type of study could be reduced when considering 3 generations of inbreeding, allowing greater precision in predicting the phenotypes of inbred lines. The use of linear regression was effective for inbred line prediction for the different agronomic traits evaluated. The use of 3 levels of inbreeding minimizes the effects of the environmental component in inbred line prediction for grain yield. GO-S was the most promising population for inbred line extraction.

  6. The variability of bx1 DIMBOA biosynthesis gene in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA is a secondary metabolite in plants that renders defense against phytopatogenic bacteria, fungi, insects and other pest organisms. The biosynthesis of DIMBOA is controlled by nine genes, the first bx1 gene governs the transcription of a key enzyme in DIMBOA biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to genotype maize inbred lines used in breeding programmes for the presence of resistant allele in order to identify the source of biotic stress resistance. The variability of bx1 gene was assessed in a set of 96 diverse inbred lines with a functional microsatellite marker umc1022 located in bx1 gene. Two marker alleles, the length of 91 and 97 bp, were found in the majority of inbred lines, the former being predominant among Lancaster inbred lines and the latter in the BSSS heterotic group. By comparing previous findings on the inbred lines with high level of DIMBOA and resistance with the pedigree information of the maize inbred lines analyzed in this study, we postulated that the allele 91 bp could be associate with DIMBOA accumulation and pest resistance. The DIMBOA quantification and evaluation of pest infestations in field trials are needed to verify our results.

  7. Social approach and repetitive behavior in eleven inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S; Nadler, Jessica J; Young, Nancy B; Nonneman, Randal J; Segall, Samantha K; Andrade, Gabriela M; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Magnuson, Terry R

    2008-08-05

    Core symptoms of autism include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors. The repetitive behavior domain encompasses abnormal motoric stereotypy, an inflexible insistence on sameness, and resistance to change. In recent years, many genetic mouse models of autism and related disorders have been developed, based on candidate genes for disease susceptibility. The present studies are part of an ongoing initiative to develop appropriate behavioral tasks for the evaluation of mouse models relevant to autism. We have previously reported profiles for sociability, preference for social novelty, and resistance to changes in a learned pattern of behavior, as well as other functional domains, for 10 inbred mouse strains of divergent genetic backgrounds. The present studies extend this multi-component behavioral characterization to several additional strains: C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and the wild-derived PERA/EiJ. C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, SJL/J, and PERA/EiJ demonstrated low sociability, measured by time spent in proximity to an unfamiliar conspecific, with 30-60% of mice from these strains showing social avoidance. In the Morris water maze, NZB/B1NJ had a persistent bias for the quadrant where the hidden platform was located during acquisition, even after 9 days of reversal training. A particularly interesting profile was found for C58/J, which had low social preference, poor performance in the T-maze, and overt motoric stereotypy. Overall, this set of tasks and observational methods provides a strategy for evaluating novel mouse models in behavioral domains relevant to the autism phenotype.

  8. Copy number variants in a highly inbred Iberian porcine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A I; Barragán, C; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M C; Villanueva, B

    2014-06-01

    We carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of porcine copy number variants (CNVs) based on whole-genome SNP genotyping data and provided new measures of genomic diversity (number, length and distribution of CNV events) for a highly inbred strain (the Guadyerbas strain). This strain represents one of the most ancient surviving populations of the Iberian breed, and it is currently in serious danger of extinction. CNV detection was conducted on the complete Guadyerbas population, adjusted for genomic waves, and used strict quality criteria, pedigree information and the latest porcine genome annotation. The analysis led to the detection of 65 CNV regions (CNVRs). These regions cover 0.33% of the autosomal genome of this particular strain. Twenty-nine of these CNVRs were identified here for the first time. The relatively low number of detected CNVRs is in line with the low variability and high inbreeding estimated previously for this Iberian strain using pedigree, microsatellite or SNP data. A comparison across different porcine studies has revealed that more than half of these regions overlap with previously identified CNVRs or multicopy regions. Also, a preliminary analysis of CNV detection using whole-genome sequence data for four Guadyerbas pigs showed overlapping for 16 of the CNVRs, supporting their reliability. Some of the identified CNVRs contain relevant functional genes (e.g., the SCD and USP15 genes), which are worth being further investigated because of their importance in determining the quality of Iberian pig products. The CNVR data generated could be useful for improving the porcine genome annotation. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Photosynthetic properties of elite erect leaf maize inbred lines and their contribution to seed production improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis that elite erect leaf maize inbred lines are characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such are very desirable in increasing the number of plants per unit area (plant density in the process of seed production has been confirmed in the present study. The properties of the observed elite erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of phase transitions (critical temperatures and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on the obtained results on photosynthetic properties it was also possible to estimate the tolerance and adaptation of elite erect leaf maize inbred lines to high temperatures and drought.

  10. Combining abilities of inbred lines for dry matter yield of maize (Zea mays L. Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study encompass the investigation on combining abilities of six maize inbred lines and their diallel hybrids of F1 generation for dry matter yield of both, the whole plant and the ear. The analysis of combining abilities was performed following Griffing (1956 method 2, model I, without reciprocal crosses, while the analysis the genetic components of variance and the regression analysis were done after the model proposed by Hayman and Jinks (1954 and Mather and Jink (1971. Dominant gene effects in inheritance of dry matter yield of the whole plant and the ear were determined by the analysis of combining abilities. The role of these effects are also observable from the analysis of genetic components of variations and results of the Vr/Wr regression analysis. The inbred line ZPLB 406 was the inbred with the highest GCA effects. .

  11. Genetics of age-related hearing loss in mice: I. Inbred and F1 hybrid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erway, L C; Willott, J F; Archer, J R; Harrison, D E

    1993-02-01

    The auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) was used to assess hearing loss in five inbred strains of mice and all ten combinations of F1 hybrids. The inbred strains are CBA/H-T6J (CH), DBA/2J (D2), C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (BY) and WB/ReJ (WB). The F1 hybrids are CHD2, CHB6, CHBY, CHWB, D2B6, D2BY, D2WB, B6BY, B6WB, and BYWB. At middle age (12, 16 months), mice were tested with click stimuli. At a relatively old age (23 months, near inbreds' median life span), they were tested with both click and tone-pip stimuli. The CH mice and their four F1 hybrid strains exhibit lower thresholds than the other strains, with the F1 strains being most sensitive (i.e., hybrid vigor). The D2 inbred and the three D2 F1 hybrids (excluding CHD2) exhibit the earliest and most severe hearing losses. The B6, BY and WB inbred strains exhibit severe hearing losses between 16 and 23 months of age; however, the B6BY, B6WB and BYWB F1 hybrids have significantly lower thresholds than their parental strains (genetic complementation). These data support a genetic model for recessive alleles at three different loci which contribute to age-related hearing loss. The CH mice have none of the recessive alleles, and the D2 mice are homozygous recessive for all three; the B6, BY and WB inbred strains are homozygous recessive respectively for one of the three loci.

  12. Analysis of genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines (Zea mays L. under heat stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High temperature adversely affects the plant physiological processes: limits plant growth and reduction in grain yield. Heat stress is often encountered to spring sowing of maize in spring season. Twenty maize inbred lines were studied for days to 50 % anthesis and silking, anthesis–silking interval, leaf firing, tassel blast, SPAD reading and leaf senescence, plant and ear height, leaf area index, ear per plant, cob length and diameter, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel row, silk receptivity, shelling percentage, thousand kernel weight and grain yield in alpha lattice design at National Maize Research Program at Rampur, Chitwan,Nepal with the objective to identify superior heat stress tolerant lines. Analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits. Result of multivariable analysis revealed that twenty inbred lines formed four clusters. The resistance inbred lines and susceptible inbred lines formed different clusters. The members of cluster 4 were found to be tolerant to heat stress due to they had lowest value of tassel blast, leaf firing, and leaf area index with highest value of cob diameter and length, ear per plant, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row, shelling percentage, silk receptivity and grain yield whereas as members of cluster 1were found most susceptible due to they had longer anthesis silking interval, with maximum tassel blast and leaf firing along with no grain yield under heat stress condition. From this study inbred lines RL-140, RML-76, RML-91 and RML-40 were found most tolerant to heat stress. These inbred lines belonging to superior cluster could be considered very useful in developing heat tolerant variety and other breeding activities.

  13. [Analysis of the susceptibility of the Minor inbred chicken strain to Rous sarcoma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korec, E; Klozánek, I

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and resistance of the Minor hen inbred line to two antigenic subgroups of the Rous sarcoma virus were determined by the method of the infection of chorioallantoic membranes. The Minor line is sensitive to infection with the virus of the antigenic B subgroup and, as demonstrated by the testing of the interline hybrids of F1 and B1 generations, the birds of the Minor line are dominant homozygotes of genotype bsbs. The testing with the virus of antigenic A subgroup revealed a heterogeneity of the inbred population as to sensitivity and resistance. A formula was derived for the determination of the frequency of the dominant allele as determining sensitivity.

  14. COMPARISON OF MAIZE INBRED LINES DIFFERING IN LOW-TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE - EFFECT OF ACCLIMATION AT SUBOPTIMAL TEMPERATURE ON CHLOROPLAST FUNCTIONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHEUL, MJ; VANHASSEL, PR; STAMP, P

    Acclimation to optimal or suboptimal temperature may influence photosynthetic properties of different maize genotypes in distinct ways. In this study, leaf growth and chloroplast functioning of the second leaves of Penjalinan, an inbred line used in warm tropical regions (CS) and Z7, an inbred line

  15. 31 heterosis for litter traits in native by exotic inbred pig crosses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Inbred strains generated from native and exotic pigs were compared with their F1 and F2 backcross populations for a range of ... traits performance of the crossbred groups were mostly influenced by maternal, sex-linked, dominance and ... intensively reared in standard pens according to their litter groups.

  16. A model analysis of yield differences among recombinant inbred lines in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.Y.; Kropff, M.J.; Goudriaan, J.; Stam, P.

    2001-01-01

    Crop models can support plant breeding if they can predict differences in performance of different genotypes. In this study, the ability of a crop model to explain yield differences among genotypes in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of two-row harley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was explored.

  17. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Cátedra de Producción de Bovinos para carne, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, CIC, Universidad Nacional de Rosario,. Argentina, Ov. Lagos y Ruta 33 (2170) Casilda, Argentina. [Renny M., Julio N. B., Bernardi S. F., Gardenal C. N. and Oyarzabal M. I. 2014 Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse.

  18. Study of yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays L.) inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of seven corn inbred lines, a field trial was conducted under non-stress and different drought stress conditions (stress at vegetative (6 to 7 leaves), pollination and grain filling stages) at the Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar ...

  19. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the hypertension model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Gao, Lin-lin; Zhen, Lin-lin

    2016-01-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important hypertension model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,310 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported.

  20. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  1. Heterosis For Litter Traits In Native By Exotic Inbred Pig Crosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generate F1 crossbred genotypes; while gilts from each crossbred group were backcrossed to their male parents to obtain four backcross progeny groups. Results of the study showed that the litter performances were better in the crossbred groups than in the inbred parents and this improvement could be ascribed to the ...

  2. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  3. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  4. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  5. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  6. Combining ability of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Ten inbred parents with varying resistance levels to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca were crossed in a half diallel mating scheme to generate 45 F1 hybrids. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G).

  7. Combining ability of maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten inbred parents with varying resistance levels to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca were crossed in a half diallel mating scheme to generate 45 F1 hybrids. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G) by environment ...

  8. Analysis of natural allelic variation in Arabidopsis using a multiparent recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Boer, M.P.; Effgen, S.; Keizer, P.; Koornneef, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2011-01-01

    To exploit the diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana, eight founder accessions were crossed to produce six recombinant inbred line (RIL) subpopulations, together called an Arabidopsis multiparent RIL (AMPRIL) population. Founders were crossed pairwise to produce four F1 hybrids. These F1s were crossed

  9. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  10. Selection of maize inbred lines and gene expression for resistance to ear rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G S; Pinho, R G V; Pinho, E V R V; Pires, L P M; Bernardo Junior, L A Y; Pereira, J L A; Melo, M P

    2017-07-06

    In recent years, there has been a large incidence of fungi causing "ear rot" in maize in Brazil, the main fungus being Fusarium verticillioides. The most efficient and competitive alternative for control of this disease consists of using maize hybrids resistant to this pathogen. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the genetic variability of maize inbred lines in regard to resistance to ear rot to observe if there is a maternal effect to resistance to ear rot, to study genetic control of the traits evaluated in hybrids originating from inbred lines of the maize breeding program at the Agriculture Department of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), and characterize the gene expression pattern related to the plant defense mechanism against F. verticillioides. High genetic availability was observed for resistance to this disease among the inbred lines evaluated. Considering combined diallel analysis, it was observed that the mean square of general combining ability (GCA) was not significant for the characteristic under study. However, specific combining ability (SCA) was significant, which indicates the predominance of non-additive effects involved in control of the characteristic for the population evaluated. A maternal effect was not observed for the characteristic of ear rot resistance in this study. Inbred lines 22, 58, and 91 showed potential for use in breeding programs aiming at resistance to F. verticillioides. Only two genes, LOX8 and Hsp82, had a satisfactory result that was able to be related to a plant defense mechanism when there is ear rot infection, though expression of these genes was observed in only one susceptible genotype. Thus, the genes LOX8 and Hsp82 are potential molecular markers for selection of maize inbred lines resistant to F. verticillioides.

  11. Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Lee, M; Lamkey, K R; Hallauer, A R; Woodman, W L

    1990-10-01

    Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released in the 1950's and earlier and six newer inbreds released during the 1970's with respect to (a) genetic variation for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and (b) the size of heterosis and epistatic effects, and the second, to evaluate the usefulness of RFLP-based genetic distance measures in predicting heterosis and performance of single-cross hybrids. Five generations (parents, F1; F2, and backcrosses) from the 15 crosses in each diallel were evaluated for grain yield and yield components in four Iowa environments. Genetic effects were estimated from generation means by ordinary diallel analyses and by the Eberhart-Gardner model. Newer lines showed significantly greater yield for inbred generations than did older lines but smaller heterosis estimates. In most cases, estimates of additive x additive epistatic effects for yield and yield components were significantly positive for both groups of lines. RFLP analyses of inbred lines included two restriction enzymes and 82 genomic DNA clones distributed over the maize genome. Eighty-one clones revealed polymorphisms with at least one enzyme. In each set, about three different RFLP variants were typically found per RFLP locus. Genetic distances between inbred lines were estimated from RFLP data as Rogers' distance (RD), which was subdivided into general (GRD) and specific (SRD) Rogers' distances within each diallel. The mean and range of RDs were similar for the older and newer lines, suggesting that the level of heterozygosity at the molecular level had not changed. GRD explained about 50% of the variation among RD values in both sets. Cluster

  12. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  13. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  14. Characteristics of sleep and wakefulness in wild-derived inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Hideyuki; Terao, Akira; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a "main sleep period" identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a "highly awake period" (in which the hourly total sleep time was dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  15. Strain-specific responses of inbred mice to ethanol following food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroff, Karl C; Cowen, Michael S; Koch, Sabrina; Spanagel, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Specific inbred mouse strains such as C57BL/6J and DBA/2J show differences in consumption of and reaction on drugs of abuse. For example, C57BL/6J mice voluntarily consume greater amounts of ethanol than DBA/2J mice. Recently, it could be shown that a short environmental experience--12 days of food shortage followed by a recovery period--has a strong impact on strain-specific reactions to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether food shortage experience has an effect on ethanol responses. The effect of a period of 12 days food restriction which resulted in a weight loss of 20% body weight and which was followed by a complete recovery period was studied on ethanol self-administration and ethanol-induced locomotor activity in C57BL/6Ico and DBA/2Ico inbred mouse strains. The experience of food shortage led to a higher ethanol intake and preference in C57BL/6Ico mice compared to control animals without food shortage experience. In contrast DBA/2Ico showed no difference in ethanol intake or preference following this experience. The effect of ethanol onto locomotor activity of both mice strains was affected only in the case of DBA/2Ico mice, where food shortage experience resulted in a significantly higher ethanol-induced locomotor activity. The present data show that in inbred mouse strains environmental experiences can have a strong impact onto the effects of ethanol. In conclusion, in the field of preclinical alcohol research gene x environment interactions in specific inbred mouse strains can contribute strongly to the outcome of studies and more specifically food shortage can profoundly affect the outcome of alcohol studies in mice.

  16. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić Luka; Kovačević Vlado; Kadar Imre; Jambrović Antun; Plavšić Hrvoje; Šimić Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008) and 2) to determine response and relation...

  17. Host-Specific Pathogenicity and Genome Differences between Inbred Strains of Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q. L.; Williamson, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Five isolates of M. hapla originating from the Netherlands and California were inbred by sequential transfer of single egg masses to produce six strains. Cytological examination showed that oocytes of these strains underwent meiosis and had n = 16 chromosomes. Strains were tested for ability to infect and to develop on several hosts by in vitro assays. The two strains from California infected tomato roots at a higher rate than those from the Netherlands, but no difference among strains was se...

  18. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Long; Abudureyimu, Zainuer

    2016-01-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,314 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported.

  19. Replication and Narrowing of Gene Expression Quantitative Trait Loci using Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Daniel M.; Harrill, Alison H.; Wright, Fred A.; Threadgill, David W.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping has become a powerful tool in systems biology. While many authors have made important discoveries using this approach, one persistent challenge in eQTL studies is the selection of loci and genes that should receive further biological investigation. In this study, we compared eQTL generated from gene expression profiling in the livers of two panels of mouse strains, 41 BXD recombinant inbred and 36 mouse diversity panel (MDP) strains. Cis...

  20. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  1. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  2. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  3. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  4. Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines

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    Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

  5. Combining ability of inbred lines of maize and stability of their respective single-crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Aurélio Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of diallel crosses for identification of superior combinations is a common practice in maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs. This methodology allows the estimation of the combining ability of genotypes being evaluated. In this work, five inbred lines were evaluated as to their general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities, by using a complete diallel scheme. The single-crosses produced between these inbred lines were evaluated in seven environments, along with two checks, by using a randomized complete block design. Traits analized were: grain yield, plant height, ear height, ear placement, and prolificacy. A diallel analysis was carried out, following an adaptation of Griffing's method IV, in addition to hybrid stability and adaptability analyses. Significant differences were detected for entries and environments for all traits. The interaction genotype vs. environment was significant for all traits. GCA's were significant for all traits, while SCA's were non-significant only for ear placement. For grain yield, both additive (GCA and non-additive (SCA effects were important, while for the remaining traits additive effects were more important. The high yielding single-cross was obtained from the cross of lines L-08-05F and L-38-05D. Those inbred lines showed higher GCA's and their cross also had high SCA; also, it is responsive to environment improvements and reasonably stable. The second in rank high yielding single-cross, L-46-10D x L-08-05F, showed wide adaptability and stability.

  6. Unexpected positive and negative effects of continuing inbreeding in one of the world's most inbred wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L; Grueber, Catherine E; Kennedy, Euan S; Jamieson, Ian G

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding depression, the reduced fitness of offspring of related individuals, is a central theme in evolutionary biology. Inbreeding effects are influenced by the genetic makeup of a population, which is driven by any history of genetic bottlenecks and genetic drift. The Chatham Island black robin represents a case of extreme inbreeding following two severe population bottlenecks. We tested whether inbreeding measured by a 20-year pedigree predicted variation in fitness among individuals, despite the high mean level of inbreeding and low genetic diversity in this species. We found that paternal and maternal inbreeding reduced fledgling survival and individual inbreeding reduced juvenile survival, indicating that inbreeding depression affects even this highly inbred population. Close inbreeding also reduced survival for fledglings with less-inbred mothers, but unexpectedly improved survival for fledglings with highly inbred mothers. This counterintuitive interaction could not be explained by various potentially confounding variables. We propose a genetic mechanism, whereby a highly inbred chick with a highly inbred parent inherits a "proven" genotype and thus experiences a fitness advantage, which could explain the interaction. The positive and negative effects we found emphasize that continuing inbreeding can have important effects on individual fitness, even in populations that are already highly inbred. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  8. Combining ability and heterotic grouping of early maturing provitamin A maize inbreds across Striga infested and optimal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Konate

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development, deployment and production of stress tolerant provitamin A maize is crucial to the fight against vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where maize is a major staple food crop. Fifteen early maturing provitamin A and two early normal yellow endosperm maize inbreds were crossed using the diallel mating design to generate 136 single-cross hybrids. The hybrids were evaluated during 2015 growing season at three locations under two Striga infested and three optimal growing environments in Nigeria. The objectives were to (i determine the combining ability and heterotic groups of early maturing provitamin A inbreds; (ii examine the performance of the inbreds in hybrid combinations across environments and (iii identify early maturing provitamin A inbred testers for use in tropical maize breeding programs. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA effects were significant for grain yield and most other traits indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects were important in the inheritance of these characters. Inbreds TZEI 10, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 17 had significant positive GCA for grain yield. TZEIOR 108, TZEIOR 42, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for Striga damage while TZEIOR 122, TZEIOR 127, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for number of emerged Striga plants. The inbreds were classified based on heterotic groups’ SCA and GCA of grain yield (HSGCA, SCA and GCA of multiple traits (HGCAMT methods into four, three and five heterotic groups, respectively. The inbreds TZEIOR 108, TZEI 10 and TZEI 17 were identified as testers. Hybrids 8, 3, 5, 10 and 1 were identified as high yielding and most stable across environments.

  9. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008 and 2 to determine response and relations among the traits when four of the female inbred lines are treated by foliar boron fertilization - three times in 10-days interval with 0.5% Solubor solution (17.5% B during one growing season (2008. The investigations were performed on Experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek, (soil type: eutrical cambisol. Highly significant differences among the nine female inbred lines were detected for B concentration in ear-leaf (from 14.7 to 46.7 mg B kg-1 and grain (from 1.20 to 2.06 mg B kg-1 as well as for grain yield (from 3.33 to 4.83 t ha-1 and grain moisture (from 14.7% to 26.6%. However, there were also significant effects of growing season and the genotype by environment interaction for all four traits. Positive and moderate correlations were found between the boron status in plant and grain yield. Although B concentrations were considerably increased by foliar boron fertilization (averages 41.7 and 125.3 mg B kg-1 in leaves, 1.79 and 2.80 mg B kg-1 in grain, for control and fertilization, respectively, in general grain yield differences among treatments were non-significant. (averages 5.21 and 5.15 t ha-1, respectively.

  10. High incidence of spontaneous cataracts in aging laboratory rabbits of an inbred strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuwen; Roshwalb, Sara; Cooper, Timothy K; Zimmerman, Heather; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the occurrence of spontaneous cataracts in a breeding colony of the inbred EIII/JC strain of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) and the congenic strain of EIII/JC-HLA-A2.1transgenic rabbits. A retrospective study was conducted by collecting and analyzing data from clinical records for individual rabbits filed between January 2011 and October 2013. Thirteen cases (eight females and five males) of cataract were identified in a group of 51 EIII/JC inbred rabbits with a morbidity of 25.5%. The median age of the rabbits identified with unilateral or bilateral cataracts was 43 months in contrast to the median age of 23 months of the entire group of 51 rabbits. Additionally, seven cases (five females and two males) of cataracts were identified in a group of 21 EIII/JC-HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits. The EIII/JC-HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits showed similar morbidity (33.3%) and median age (41 months) for the development of cataracts as the EIII/JC rabbits. In both groups, none of the rabbits younger than 37 months developed cataracts while 13 (93%) of 14 EIII/JC rabbits aged 37-49 months and seven (63.6%) of 11 EIII/JC-HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits aged 37-43 months developed cataracts. In contrast, none of 78 outbred rabbits with a median age of 26 months (10-67 months) developed cataracts. Results of this study indicate that the occurrence and high incidence of spontaneous cataracts in this inbred strain (EIII/JC) of rabbits were strictly age related and consistently transmitted through inbreeding. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Hidden Markov Model Analysis of Maternal Behavior Patterns in Inbred and Reciprocal Hybrid Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carola, Valeria; Mirabeau, Olivier; Gross, Cornelius T.

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM), to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females) were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to highlight them

  12. Comparative evaluation of two vaccine candidates against experimental leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection in four inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhnini, Fouad; Chenik, Mehdi; Laouini, Dhafer; Louzir, Hechmi; Cazenave, Pierre André; Dellagi, Koussay

    2009-11-01

    Experimental leishmaniasis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are the most investigated murine models that were used for the preclinical evaluation of Leishmania vaccine candidates. We have previously described two new inbred mouse strains named PWK and MAI issued from feral founders that also support the development of experimental leishmaniasis due to L. major. In this study, we sought to determine whether different mouse inbred strains generate concordant or discordant results when used to evaluate the potential of Leishmania proteins to protect against experimental leishmaniasis. To this end, two Leishmania proteins, namely, LACK (for Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase) and LmPDI (for L. major protein disulfide isomerase) were compared for their capacity to protect against experimental leishmaniasis in PWK, MAI, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. Our data show that the capacity of Leishmania proteins to confer protection depends on the mouse strain used, stressing the important role played by the genetic background in shaping the immune response against the pathogen. These results may have important implications for the preclinical evaluation of candidate Leishmania vaccines: rather than using a single mouse strain, a panel of different inbred strains of various genetic backgrounds should be tested in parallel. The antigen that confers protection in the larger range of inbred strains may have better chances to be also protective in outbred human populations and should be selected for clinical trials.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Two Vaccine Candidates against Experimental Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania major Infection in Four Inbred Mouse Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhnini, Fouad; Chenik, Mehdi; Laouini, Dhafer; Louzir, Hechmi; Cazenave, Pierre André; Dellagi, Koussay

    2009-01-01

    Experimental leishmaniasis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are the most investigated murine models that were used for the preclinical evaluation of Leishmania vaccine candidates. We have previously described two new inbred mouse strains named PWK and MAI issued from feral founders that also support the development of experimental leishmaniasis due to L. major. In this study, we sought to determine whether different mouse inbred strains generate concordant or discordant results when used to evaluate the potential of Leishmania proteins to protect against experimental leishmaniasis. To this end, two Leishmania proteins, namely, LACK (for Leishmania homolog of receptor for activated C kinase) and LmPDI (for L. major protein disulfide isomerase) were compared for their capacity to protect against experimental leishmaniasis in PWK, MAI, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 inbred mouse strains. Our data show that the capacity of Leishmania proteins to confer protection depends on the mouse strain used, stressing the important role played by the genetic background in shaping the immune response against the pathogen. These results may have important implications for the preclinical evaluation of candidate Leishmania vaccines: rather than using a single mouse strain, a panel of different inbred strains of various genetic backgrounds should be tested in parallel. The antigen that confers protection in the larger range of inbred strains may have better chances to be also protective in outbred human populations and should be selected for clinical trials. PMID:19726616

  14. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  15. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  16. Host Defenses in Experimental Scrub Typhus: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Responses of Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrells, Thomas R.; Osterman, Joseph V.

    1982-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal intraperitoneal infection with the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, both expressed delayed-type hypersensitivity early in the course of infectio...

  17. Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazalpour, Anatole; Rau, Christoph D.; Farber, Charles R.; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz D.; van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Allayee, Hooman; Beaven, Simon W.; Civelek, Mete; Davis, Richard C.; Drake, Thomas A.; Friedman, Rick A.; Furlotte, Nick; Hui, Simon T.; Jentsch, J. David; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Hyun Min; Kang, Eun Yong; Joo, Jong Wha; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A.; Laughlin, Rick E.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Parks, Brian W.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Reue, Karen; Smith, Desmond J.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Wang, Jessica; Wang, Yibin; Weiss, James N.; Kirchgessner, Todd; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population structure, which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model algorithm. Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes typical of complex traits in mice (in the range of 5 % of total trait variance). Over the last few years, we have typed the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) strains for a variety of clinical traits as well as intermediate phenotypes and have shown that the HMDP has sufficient power to map genes for highly complex traits with resolution that is in most cases less than a megabase. In this essay, we review our experience with the HMDP, describe various ongoing projects, and discuss how the HMDP may fit into the larger picture of common diseases and different approaches. PMID:22892838

  18. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ∼4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 μg/g, highest 661 μg/g) and ∼3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 μg/g, highest 658 μg/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhihui; Qin, Yongtian; Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fangfang; Tang, Jihua; Fu, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L.), especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3) and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3) were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine) and energy (ATP) supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

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    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L., especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3 and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3 were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine and energy (ATP supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages.

  1. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

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    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  2. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

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    Grabowski-Boase Laura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6, BALB/cJ (BALB, C3H/HeJ (C3H, DBA/2J (D2, FVB/NJ (FVB and 129S1/SvImJ (129 mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine.

  3. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from inbred swine induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiesi; Qin, Lingfeng; Kural, Mehmet H; Schwan, Jonas; Li, Xia; Bartulos, Oscar; Cong, Xiao-Qiang; Ren, Yongming; Gui, Liqiong; Li, Guangxin; Ellis, Matthew W; Li, Peining; Kotton, Darrell N; Dardik, Alan; Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George; Rolle, Marsha; Campbell, Stuart; Hawley, Robert J; Sachs, David H; Niklason, Laura E; Qyang, Yibing

    2017-12-01

    Development of autologous tissue-engineered vascular constructs using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great potential in treating patients with vascular disease. However, preclinical, large animal iPSC-based cellular and tissue models are required to evaluate safety and efficacy prior to clinical application. Herein, swine iPSC (siPSC) lines were established by introducing doxycycline-inducible reprogramming factors into fetal fibroblasts from a line of inbred Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine that accept tissue and organ transplants without immunosuppression within the line. Highly enriched, functional VSMCs were derived from siPSCs based on addition of ascorbic acid and inactivation of reprogramming factor via doxycycline withdrawal. Moreover, siPSC-VSMCs seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds readily formed vascular tissues, which were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice and showed further maturation revealed by expression of the mature VSMC marker, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Finally, using a robust cellular self-assembly approach, we developed 3D scaffold-free tissue rings from siPSC-VSMCs that showed comparable mechanical properties and contractile function to those developed from swine primary VSMCs. These engineered vascular constructs, prepared from doxycycline-inducible inbred siPSCs, offer new opportunities for preclinical investigation of autologous human iPSC-based vascular tissues for patient treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. No inbreeding depression but increased sexual investment in highly inbred ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureck, Ilka M; Jongepier, Evelien; Nicolai, Beate; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Inbreeding can lead to the expression of deleterious recessive alleles and to a subsequent fitness reduction. In Hymenoptera, deleterious alleles are purged in haploid males moderating inbreeding costs. However, in these haplodiploid species, inbreeding can result in the production of sterile diploid males. We investigated the effects of inbreeding on the individual and colony level in field colonies of the highly inbred ant Hypoponera opacior. In this species, outbreeding winged sexuals and nest-mating wingless sexuals mate during two separate reproductive periods. We show that regular sib-matings lead to high levels of homozygosity and the occasional production of diploid males, which sporadically sire triploid offspring. On the individual level, inbreeding was associated with an increased body size in workers. On the colony level, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression as productivity was unaffected by the level of homozygosity. Instead, inbred colonies altered their allocation strategies by investing more resources into sexuals than into workers. This shift towards sexual production was due to an increased investment in both males and queens, which was particularly pronounced in the dispersive generation. The absence of inbreeding depression combined with increased reproductive investment, especially in outbreeding sexuals, suggests that these ants have evolved active strategies to regulate the extent and effects of frequent inbreeding. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Maize Inbred Exhibits Resistance Against Western Corn Rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano-Duque, Lina; Loades, Kenneth W; Tooker, John F; Brown, Kathleen M; Paul Williams, W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2017-12-01

    Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene. In contrast, Tx601 is susceptible to WCR. These findings will facilitate the use of Mp708 as a model to explore the wide variety of mechanisms and traits involved in plant defense responses and resistance to herbivory by insects with several different feeding habits.

  7. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a model for perennial grasses: transformation and inbred line development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Michael A; Young, Hugh A; Bragg, Jennifer N; Tobias, Christian M; Vogel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines.

  8. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a model for perennial grasses: transformation and inbred line development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Steinwand

    Full Text Available Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial crops could also prove favorable for incorporation into annual grain crops like wheat, rice, sorghum and barley, especially under the dryer and more variable climate conditions projected for many grain-producing regions. Thus, it would be useful to have a perennial model system to test biotechnological approaches to crop improvement and for fundamental research. The perennial grass Brachypodiumsylvaticum is a candidate for such a model because it is diploid, has a small genome, is self-fertile, has a modest stature, and short generation time. Its close relationship to the annual model Brachypodiumdistachyon will facilitate comparative studies and allow researchers to leverage the resources developed for B. distachyon. Here we report on the development of two keystone resources that are essential for a model plant: high-efficiency transformation and inbred lines. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation we achieved an average transformation efficiency of 67%. We also surveyed the genetic diversity of 19 accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers and created 15 inbred lines.

  9. Nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity of RTCS gene in China elite maize inbred lines.

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    Enying Zhang

    Full Text Available The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified.

  10. Agrobacterium- and Biolistic-Mediated Transformation of Maize B104 Inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Jennifer A; Frame, Bronwyn; Little, Daniel; Santoso, Tri Joko; Wang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Genetic transformation of maize inbred genotypes remains non-routine for many laboratories due to variations in cell competency to induce embryogenic callus, as well as the cell's ability to receive and incorporate transgenes into the genome. This chapter describes two transformation protocols using Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods for gene delivery. Immature zygotic embryos of maize inbred B104, excised from ears harvested 10-14 days post pollination, are used as starting explant material. Disarmed Agrobacterium strains harboring standard binary vectors and the biolistic gun system Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He are used as gene delivery systems. The herbicide resistant bar gene and selection agent bialaphos are used for identifying putative transgenic type I callus events. Using the step-by-step protocols described here, average transformation frequencies (number of bialaphos resistant T0 callus events per 100 explants infected or bombarded) of 4% and 8% can be achieved using the Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods, respectively. An estimated duration of 16-21 weeks is needed using either protocol from the start of transformation experiments to obtaining putative transgenic plantlets with established roots. In addition to laboratory in vitro procedures, detailed greenhouse protocols for producing immature ears as transformation starting material and caring for transgenic plants for seed production are also described.

  11. Newly breeding an inbred strain of ischemia-prone Mongolian gerbils and its reproduction and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongping; Li, Ying; Huo, Xueyun; Li, Changlong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Guo, Meng; Chen, Zhenwen

    2018-02-09

    The Mongolian gerbil has been a useful laboratory animal in many research fields, especially in ischemia studies. However, due to the variation of the circle of Willis (COW), the ischemic model is unstable and various. To solve this problem, we newly established an inbred strain of gerbils, restricting breeding and keeping to F 23 . The data on the breeding and growth of the animals are described in the present study. The genetic characteristics of F 4 to F 20 detected by microsatellite DNA and biochemical markers are also shown here. The results demonstrated that the frequency of ischemic model by unilateral carotid occlusion and the frequency of incomplete COW increased, increasing from 50% and 75% in F 1 to 88.89% and 100% in F 20 , respectively. The ratios of consistent patterns of COW in parents were positively related with the number of inbred generations. A reproductive performance analysis indicated that the average size of litters in the inbred gerbils was less than that of outbred gerbils and that adult body weight was also lower in inbred gerbils; also, the pups in the 2nd litter were the best ones chosen to reproduce. The genetic detection results indicated that 26 out of 28 microsatellite loci and all 26 biochemical markers were homozygous in F 20 , showing comparably identical genetic composition in inbred gerbils. All the data demonstrated that an inbred strain of ischemia-prone gerbil has been established successfully. This strain can be used in stroke research and can largely reduce the number of animals needed in experiments.

  12. Characterization of photosynthetic performance during senescence in stay-green and quick-leaf-senescence Zea mays L. inbred lines.

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    Zishan Zhang

    Full Text Available The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII and photosystem I (PSI during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active

  13. Characterization of photosynthetic performance during senescence in stay-green and quick-leaf-senescence Zea mays L. inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zishan; Li, Geng; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qingwei

    2012-01-01

    The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm transmission were investigated to explore the behavior of the photosynthetic apparatus, including light absorption, energy transformation and the photoactivities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) during senescence in the stay-green inbred line of maize (Zea mays) Q319 and the quick-leaf-senescence inbred line of maize HZ4. The relationship between the photosynthetic performance and the decrease in chlorophyll content in the two inbred lines was also studied. Both the field and laboratory data indicated that the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the photoactivities of PSII and PSI decreased later and slower in Q319 than in HZ4, indicating that Q319 is a functional stay-green inbred line. In order to avoid the influence of different development stages and environmental factors on senescence, age-matched detached leaf segments from the two inbred lines were treated with ethephon under controlled conditions to induce senescence. The net photosynthetic rate, light absorption, energy transformation, the activities of PSII acceptor side and donor side and the PSI activities decreased much slower in Q319 than in HZ4 during the ethephon-induced senescence. These results suggest that the retention of light absorption, energy transformation and activity of electron transfer contribute to the extended duration of active photosynthesis in Q319. Although the chlorophyll content decreased faster in HZ4, with decrease of chlorophyll content induced by ethephon, photosynthetic performance of Q319 deteriorated much more severely than that of HZ4, indicating that, compared with Q319, HZ4 has an advantage at maintaining higher photosynthetic activity with decrease of chlorophyll although HZ4 is a quick-leaf-senescence inbred line. We conclude that attention should be paid to two favorable characteristics in breeding long duration of active photosynthesis hybrids: 1

  14. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

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    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  16. Association of brain immune genes with social behavior of inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Piirainen, Sami; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Rauvala, Heikki; Tian, Li

    2015-04-18

    Social deficit is one of the core symptoms of neuropsychiatric diseases, in which immune genes play an important role. Although a few immune genes have been shown to regulate social and emotional behaviors, how immune gene network(s) may jointly regulate sociability has not been investigated so far. To decipher the potential immune-mediated mechanisms underlying social behavior, we first studied the brain microarray data of eight inbred mouse strains with known variations in social behavior and retrieved the differentially expressed immune genes. We then made a protein-protein interaction analysis of them to find the major networks and explored the potential association of these genes with the behavior and brain morphology in the mouse phenome database. To validate the expression and function of the candidate immune genes, we selected the C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains among the eight inbred strains, compared their social behaviors in resident-intruder and 3-chambered social tests and the mRNA levels of these genes, and analyzed the correlations of these genes with the social behaviors. A group of immune genes were differentially expressed in the brains of these mouse strains. The representative C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains displayed significant differences in social behaviors, DBA/2 J mice being less active in social dominance and social interaction than C57BL/6 J mice. The mRNA levels of H2-d1 in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and C1qb in the hippocampus of the DBA/2 J strain were significantly down-regulated as compared to those in the C57BL/6 J strain. In contrast, Polr3b in the hippocampus and Tnfsf13b in the prefrontal cortex of the DBA/2 J strain were up-regulated. Furthermore, C1qb, Cx3cl1, H2-d1, H2-k1, Polr3b, and Tnfsf13b were predicted to be associated with various behavioral and brain morphological features across the eight inbred strains. Importantly, the C1qb mRNA level was confirmed to be significantly correlated with the

  17. Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was

  18. Draft Assembly of Elite Inbred Line PH207 Provides Insights into Genomic and Transcriptome Diversity in Maize[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Ilya; Barad, Omer; Shem-Tov, Doron; Baruch, Kobi; Lu, Fei; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Koehler, Klaus; Buell, C. Robin; de Leon, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Intense artificial selection over the last 100 years has produced elite maize (Zea mays) inbred lines that combine to produce high-yielding hybrids. To further our understanding of how genome and transcriptome variation contribute to the production of high-yielding hybrids, we generated a draft genome assembly of the inbred line PH207 to complement and compare with the existing B73 reference sequence. B73 is a founder of the Stiff Stalk germplasm pool, while PH207 is a founder of Iodent germplasm, both of which have contributed substantially to the production of temperate commercial maize and are combined to make heterotic hybrids. Comparison of these two assemblies revealed over 2500 genes present in only one of the two genotypes and 136 gene families that have undergone extensive expansion or contraction. Transcriptome profiling revealed extensive expression variation, with as many as 10,564 differentially expressed transcripts and 7128 transcripts expressed in only one of the two genotypes in a single tissue. Genotype-specific genes were more likely to have tissue/condition-specific expression and lower transcript abundance. The availability of a high-quality genome assembly for the elite maize inbred PH207 expands our knowledge of the breadth of natural genome and transcriptome variation in elite maize inbred lines across heterotic pools. PMID:27803309

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  20. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  1. Draft assembly of elite inbred line PH207 provides insights into genomic and transcriptome diversity in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intense artificial selection over the last 100 years has produced elite maize (Zea mays) inbred lines that combine to produce high-yielding hybrids. To further our understanding of how genome and transcriptome variation contribute to the production of high-yielding hybrids, we generated a draft geno...

  2. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  3. Chemical Heterogeneity in Inbred European Population of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gévar, J; Bagnères, A-G; Christidès, J-P; Darrouzet, E

    2017-08-01

    Invasive social insect populations that have been introduced to a new environment through a limited number of introduction events generally exhibit reduced variability in their chemical signatures (cuticular hydrocarbons) compared to native populations of the same species. The reduced variability in these major recognition cues could be caused by a reduction of genetic diversity due to a genetic bottleneck. This hypothesis was tested in an inbred European population of the invasive hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax. Our results show that, in spite of the limited amount of genetic diversity present in the European population, the chemical signatures of individuals were highly heterogeneous according to their caste, sex, and colony origin. In queens, some specific saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons were identified. These results suggest that epigenetic and/or environmental factors could play a role in modifying cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in this introduced hornet population despite the observed reduction of genetic diversity.

  4. [Dentification ability of inbred strain mice tooth germs homologically transplanted into oral submucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Que, Guoying; Zhang, Lei

    2010-05-01

    To establish a suitable environment for the bioengineered teeth in vivo by observing the dentification ability of BALB/C mice tooth germs homologically implanted into the oral submucosa. The first molar tooth germs of BALB/C mice 4 days after birth were transplanted into the oral submucosa of BALB/C male mice, and then recycled for regular histological observation after 1, 2, 3, and 6 week transplantation. The tooth germs in the oral submucosa grew well with continuing developing enamelum and pulpodentinal complex, and the dentinal tubules were clear. The environment of the BALB/C male mice oral submucosa is favorable for the growth of tooth germs in inbred strain BALB/C mice, and it can provide a new environment for the development of bioengineered teeth in vivo.

  5. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of agronomic traits in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H M; Hui, G Q; Luo, Q; Sun, Y; Liu, X H

    2014-01-21

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. In this study, 13 agronomic traits of a recombinant inbred line population that was derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 were investigated in maize: ear diameter, ear length, ear axis diameter, ear weight, plant height, ear height, days to pollen shed (DPS), days to silking (DS), the interval between DPS and DS, 100-kernel weight, kernel test weight, ear kernel weight, and kernel rate. Furthermore, the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of the 13 traits were performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. The results providing the phenotypic data here are needed for the quantitative trait locus mapping of these agronomic traits.

  6. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  7. Sunflower inbred lines screening for tolerance to white rot on stalk

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    Dedić Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy sunflower (Helianthus annuus L inbred lines were screened for tolerance to white rot on stalk. Plants were inoculated at the budding stage with 4-day old Sclerotinia mycelium grown on PDA medium. Mycelium was placed on the leaf top and covered with tin foil, and the leaf was put into transparent nylon bag in order to maintain high humidity. Spot length on leaf was measured and plant tolerance was determined at the full flowering stage. Obtained results were analyzed by analysis of variance. Tested lines showed significant variability in response to disease. Eleven lines had lesion length less than 50% compared to susceptible control, so they could be considered tolerant and potentially interesting for breeding program.

  8. Nocardia infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice and in other inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, P I; Timme, A; Horowitz, A

    1977-01-01

    The mortality rate and histopathological features of Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice of ICR and C3H/eB origins were quite different from what we found for Swiss white mice and other inbred mouse strains (namely, C57/BL/6J, New Zealand Black, BALB/c, CBA/LAC, and C3H/eB). The immunocompetent littermates of the congenitally athymic mice occupied an intermediate position between their athymic siblings and Swiss white mice in terms of their responses to both these organisms. Macrophage ingestion and destruction of N. brasiliensis, as demonstrated by electron microscopy, was found to occur. The T-lymphocyte appears to be an essential component in normal mouse resistance to infection by both N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis. Images PMID:336547

  9. Variation in anti-predator behavior among five strains of inbred guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Martell, Christopher M; Brodie, Edmund D

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated. To assess the utility of ornamental guppies in quantitative genetics studies of behavior, we assayed five morphologically distinct strains of ornamental guppies for response to predator cues and for variation in response among strains. Despite individual variation, all five strains responded to predator cues and differences among strains were found for all assayed behaviors, including measures of boldness and predator avoidance.

  10. [Anatomy of heart in banna mini-pig inbred-lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ying, Da-jun; Sun, Jian-sen

    2003-01-01

    To observe the heart anatomic and histological structure of the Banna mini-pig inbred-lined and to provide the morphological data for heart xenotransplantation and breeding transgens pig. Ten Banna mini-pigs (12-18 months old) were affused and fixed by common coratid artery. The heart were observed and measured by gross anatomy and histology. There were many similarities between the Banna pig heart and the human heart in anatomy and histology. However, the following differences were observed in the Banna pig heart: 1. Azygos vein directly drew into right atrium cordis. 2. The intercalated disk of cardiac muscle was less than that of human. 3. The Purkinje's fibre was bigger than that of human. On the morphology and histology, the structure of Banna pig heart is similar to the heart of human being. It is possible that Banna minipig heart becomes organ donors for xenotransplantation.

  11. Fine Mapping of QTLs for Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Pea Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families

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    Ambuj B. Jha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB is an important disease of pea which can cause severe grain yield loss under wet conditions. In our previous study, we identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 for AB resistance and these QTLs were consistent across locations and/or years in an inter-specific pea population (PR-19 developed from a cross between Alfetta (Pisum sativum and P651 (P. fulvum. The objectives of this study were to fine map the abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 QTLs using a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genetic linkage map and analyze identified markers in heterogeneous inbred family (HIF populations. Selective genotyping of 51 PR-19 recombinant inbred lines was performed using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and the resulting high density genetic linkage map was used to identify eight new SNP markers within the abI-IV-2 QTL, whereas no additional SNPs were identified within the abIII-1 QTL. Two HIF populations HIF-224 (143 lines and HIF-173 (126 lines were developed from F6 RILs PR-19-224 and PR-19-173, respectively. The HIF populations evaluated under field conditions in 2015 and 2016 showed a wide range of variation for reaction to AB resistance. Lodging score had significant positive (P < 0.001 correlation with AB scores. HIFs were genotyped using SNP markers within targeted QTLs. The genotypic and phenotypic data of the HIFs were used to identify two new QTLs, abI-IV-2.1 and abI-IV-2.2 for AB resistance within the abI-IV-2 QTL. These QTLs individually explained 5.5 to 14% of the total phenotypic variation. Resistance to lodging was also associated with these two QTLs. Identified SNP markers will be useful in marker assisted selection for development of pea cultivars with improved AB resistance.

  12. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

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    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  13. SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines

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    Smith Oscar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce diversity. The results of this study will inform the design of genetic association studies. Results We examined the frequency and distribution of DNA polymorphisms at 18 maize genes in 36 maize inbreds, chosen to represent most of the genetic diversity in U.S. elite maize breeding pool. The frequency of nucleotide changes is high, on average one polymorphism per 31 bp in non-coding regions and 1 polymorphism per 124 bp in coding regions. Insertions and deletions are frequent in non-coding regions (1 per 85 bp, but rare in coding regions. A small number (2–8 of distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be distinguished at all loci examined. Within genes, SNP loci comprising the haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusions No decline of linkage disequilibrium within a few hundred base pairs was found in the elite maize germplasm. This finding, as well as the small number of haplotypes, relative to neutral expectation, is consistent with the effects of breeding-induced bottlenecks and selection on the elite germplasm pool. The genetic distance between haplotypes is large, indicative of an ancient gene pool and of possible interspecific hybridization events in maize ancestry.

  14. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize (Zea mays). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3, has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. PMID:28838954

  15. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

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    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  16. Replication and narrowing of gene expression quantitative trait loci using inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Daniel M; Harrill, Alison H; Wright, Fred A; Threadgill, David W; Rusyn, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping has become a powerful tool in systems biology. While many authors have made important discoveries using this approach, one persistent challenge in eQTL studies is the selection of loci and genes that should receive further biological investigation. In this study we compared eQTL generated from gene expression profiling in the livers of two panels of mouse strains: 41 BXD recombinant inbred and 36 Mouse Diversity Panel (MDP) strains. Cis-eQTL, loci in which the transcript and its maximum QTL are colocated, have been shown to be more reproducible than trans-eQTL, which are not colocated with the transcript. We observed that between 9.9 and 12.1% of cis-eQTL and between 2.0 and 12.6% of trans-eQTL replicated between the two panels depending on the degree of statistical stringency. Notably, a significant eQTL hotspot on distal chromosome 12 observed in the BXD panel was reproduced in the MDP. Furthermore, the shorter linkage disequilibrium in the MDP strains allowed us to considerably narrow the locus and limit the number of candidate genes to a cluster of Serpin genes, which code for extracellular proteases. We conclude that this strategy has some utility in increasing confidence and resolution in eQTL mapping studies; however, due to the high false-positive rate in the MDP, eQTL mapping in inbred strains is best carried out in combination with an eQTL linkage study.

  17. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Strain-dependent Differences in LTP and Hippocampus-dependent Memory in Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter V.; Abel, Ted; Kandel, Eric R.; Bourtchouladze, Roussoudan

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have used “reverse” genetics to produce “knock-out” and transgenic mice to explore the roles of various molecules in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory. The existence of a variety of inbred strains of mice provides an additional way of exploring the genetic bases of learning and memory. We examined behavioral memory and LTP expression in area CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from four different inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, and 129/SvEms-+Ter?/J. We found that LTP induced by four 100-Hz trains of stimulation was robust and long-lasting in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice but decayed in CBA/J and 129/SvEms-+Ter?/J mice. LTP induced by one 100-Hz train was significantly smaller after 1 hr in the 129/SvEms-+Ter?/J mice than in the other three strains. Theta-burst LTP was shorter lasting in CBA/J, DBA/2J, and 129/SvEms-+Ter?/J mice than in C57BL/6J mice. We also observed specific memory deficits, among particular mouse strains, in spatial and nonspatial tests of hippocampus-dependent memory. CBA/J mice showed defective learning in the Morris water maze, and both DBA/2J and CBA/J strains displayed deficient long-term memory in contextual and cued fear conditioning tests. Our findings provide strong support for a genetic basis for some forms of synaptic plasticity that are linked to behavioral long-term memory and suggest that genetic background can influence the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes observed in genetically modified mice generated for elucidating the molecular bases of learning, memory, and LTP. PMID:10837506

  19. Genomic variation in the vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires of inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn Elizabeth H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vomeronasal receptors (VRs, expressed in sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, are thought to bind pheromones and mediate innate behaviours. The mouse reference genome has over 360 functional VRs arranged in highly homologous clusters, but the vast majority are of unknown function. Differences in these receptors within and between closely related species of mice are likely to underpin a range of behavioural responses. To investigate these differences, we interrogated the VR gene repertoire from 17 inbred strains of mice using massively parallel sequencing. Results Approximately half of the 6222 VR genes that we investigated could be successfully resolved, and those that were unambiguously mapped resulted in an extremely accurate dataset. Collectively VRs have over twice the coding sequence variation of the genome average; but we identify striking non-random distribution of these variants within and between genes, clusters, clades and functional classes of VRs. We show that functional VR gene repertoires differ considerably between different Mus subspecies and species, suggesting these receptors may play a role in mediating behavioural adaptations. Finally, we provide evidence that widely-used, highly inbred laboratory-derived strains have a greatly reduced, but not entirely redundant capacity for differential pheromone-mediated behaviours. Conclusions Together our results suggest that the unusually variable VR repertoires of mice have a significant role in encoding differences in olfactory-mediated responses and behaviours. Our dataset has expanded over nine fold the known number of mouse VR alleles, and will enable mechanistic analyses into the genetics of innate behavioural differences in mice.

  20. Genetic variation in structure-function relationships for the inbred mouse lumbar vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Steven M; Morgan, Timothy G; van der Meulen, Marjolein Ch; Jepsen, Karl J

    2005-05-01

    Structure-function relationships were determined for L(5) vertebral bodies from three inbred mouse strains. Genetic variability in whole bone mechanical properties could be explained by a combination of the traits specifying the amount, distribution, and quality of the cortical and trabecular bone tissue. Although phenotypically correlated with fracture, BMD may be disadvantageous to use in genetic and biomechanical analyses because BMD does not distinguish the contributions of the underlying morphological and compositional bone traits. Developing functional relationships between the underlying bone traits and whole bone mechanical properties should further our understanding of the genetics of bone fragility. Microarchitecture and composition of L(5) vertebral bodies (n = 10/strain) from A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains were determined using muCT with an isotropic voxel size of 16 mum(3). Failure load, stiffness, and total deformation as a measure of ductility were measured in compression using a noncontact strain extensometer imaging system. A correlation analysis related morphological and compositional bone traits to whole bone mechanical properties. A multivariate analysis identified structure-function relationships for each genotype. No single bone trait accurately explained the genetic variation in mechanical properties. However, a combination of traits describing the amount, distribution, and quality of cortical and trabecular bone tissue explained >70% of the variation in vertebral mechanical properties. Importantly, structure-function relationships were unique among genotypes. Different genetic backgrounds use different combinations of underlying bone traits to create mechanically functional structures. Using a single complex trait such as BMD or BV/TV as the sole phenotypic marker in genetic analyses may prove to be disadvantageous because of the complex relationship between mechanical properties and the underlying bone traits. Therefore

  1. Heritability and Relationship among Durum Wheat Quality Traits Using a Recombinant Inbred Lines Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khazaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traits related to seed quality have an important role in production of durum wheat. To estimate the heritability of protein content, semolina content, Zeleny number, seed hardness, SDS, dry and fresh gluten content, gluten index, and also to investigate the relationship of these traits in durum wheat, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs population including 94 recombinant inbred lines (F10, two parents (Ac. Navigator and G9580B-FE1C and four controls (Diper, Preion and PI10235 varieties and a local variety “Ajr” were evaluated. This experiment was carried out in the Research Farm of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, using a triple lattice design.. Results showed that frequency distribution for gluten index was bimodal and for the rest of the traits was normal. This indicated the two-genes control and quantitative inheritance of these traits in the population,respectively. Transgressive segregation was observed for all the traits. The calculated heritability for protein content, seed hardness, SDS and semolina content was in the low range of 11.4-24.7%. For fresh and dry gluten and Zeleny number, it was 45, 36.2 and 37.1%, respectively. For gluten index, it was high (76.6%. The genetic correlation coefficient between protein content and Zeleny number was positive and high (r= 0.98, which indicates the suitability of this trait as a criterion for protein content. The results of path analysis for semolina, as the main feature in pasta production, based on genetic correlation coefficients, showed that the highest negative direct effect was related to Zeleny number the highest positive effect was related to protein content, which indicated the importance of these traits in explaining the semolina yield.

  2. Sperm mitochondria diaphorase activity--a gene mapping study of recombinant inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Aniela; Malek, Paulina; Piasecka, Malgorzata; Styrna, Jozefa

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic control of semen quality parameters, we derived a set of recombinant inbred (RI) mice from crosses between two inbred strains, KE and CBA/Kw, which differ significantly in gamete quality and fertility parameters. In this work, we used male mice from the two parental strains and from ten RI strains to map genes controlling quantitative traits such as sperm mitochondrial diaphorase activity, and assessed the correlation between this trait, sperm motility and in vivo fertilization efficiency. We analyzed sperm mitochondrial dehydrogenase (diaphorase) activity (NADH-dependent NBT assay) cytochemically by means of computerized image densitometry and obtained values for four parameters: 1) integrated optical density (IOD) for all pixels of the midpiece, 2) mean optical density (MOD) for the midpiece pixels, 3) length of sperm midpiece and 4) area of sperm midpiece. Polymorphic microsatellite marker profiles were prepared for 20 mouse chromosomes in the ten RI strains. We used Map Manager QTX software to correlate the strain distribution patterns (SDPs) of the four measured parameters with the SDPs of the analyzed markers. Hypothetical genes modifying diaphorase activity were mapped to chromosomal region 19q43-19q47, containing, for example, Poll, Sfxn2, Cyp17a1 and Usmg5 genes. Chromosomal regions 18q44 and 18q49-18q80 also showed correlation with the SDPs of diaphorase activity. Katnal2, Me2 and StARD6 candidate genes were proposed from this region. Diaphorase activity in the mouse sperm midpiece did not correlate with in vivo fertilization efficiency, but was negatively correlated with the linearity and straightness of sperm movement.

  3. Evaluation of Hbr (MITE) markers for assessment of genetic relationships among maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, A M; Mitchell, S E; Smith, O S; Register, J C; Wessler, S R; Kresovich, S

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new type of molecular marker has been developed that is based on the presence or absence of the miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) family Heartbreaker ( Hbr) in the maize genome. These so-called Hbr markers have been shown to be stable, highly polymorphic, easily mapped, and evenly distributed throughout the maize genome. In this work, we used Hbr-derived markers for genetic characterization of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to Stiff Stalk (SS) and Non-Stiff Stalk (NSS) heterotic groups. In total, 111 markers were evaluated across 62 SS and NSS lines. Seventy six markers (68%) were shared between the two groups, and 25 of the common markers occurred at fairly low frequency (Hbr data were congruent with those derived from pedigree information). Distance matrices generated from Hbr markers were significantly correlated ( pHbr markers could be used in conjunction with other molecular markers for genotyping and relationship studies of related maize inbred lines.

  4. The use of SSRs for predicting the hybrid yield and yield heterosis in 15 key inbred lines of Chinese maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su-Xia; Liu, Jie; Liu, Gong-She

    2004-01-01

    A challenge to maize breeders is to predict and identify inbred lines that can produce highly heterotic hybrids precisely. In the present study we surveyed the genetic diversity among 15 elite inbred lines of maize in China with SSR markers and assessed the relationship between SSR marker and hybrid yield/yield heterosis in a diallel set of 105 crosses. Forty-three SSR primers selected from all sixty-three primers gave stable profiles amplified in the sample of 15 inbred lines, which could clearly resolve on 4% metaphor agarose gel. The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 4.44 with a range from 2 to 9. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the SSR loci varied from 0.28 to 0.81 with a mean of 0.6281. Genetic similarity (GS) among 15 lines was estimated with 191 alleles identified as raw data, the Nei's coefficient of GS ranged from 0.492 for 478 vs HZ4 up to 0.745 for E28 to ZH64 with a mean of 0.619. The cluster diagram based upon the SSR data grouped the 15 lines into families consistent with the yield heterotic response of these. Genetic distance (GD) based on SSR data was significantly correlated with hybrid yield/yield heterosis, the correlation coefficient (r) being 0.5432 and 0.4271 in 1999 and 0.4305 and 0.3614 in 1998 field test, respectively, whereas the determination coefficient (r2) was lower. The correlation between GD based on SSR data and hybrid yield/yield heterosis changed alone with the difference of number and pedigree relationship among parents that were used in this study. SSR makers showed high polymorphism and could be used to assess the relationship between inbred lines of maize, but it was difficult to predict the yield heterosis of maize.

  5. The ear-leaf percentage of calcium and magnesium in maize inbred lines and their diallel progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, V

    1984-10-01

    Eight maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their single cross hybrids were grown for one year under field conditions near Osijek. The ear-leaf was taken in the tasseling stage and analysed for Ca and Mg percentage. Parental effects on ear-leaf content of Ca and Mg were very high. The hybrids of line C103 had low mean percentages of ear-leaf Ca and Mg while the hybrids of line Os64 had high mean percentages.

  6. Comparison of the efficiency of Banna miniature inbred pig somatic cell nuclear transfer among different donor cells.

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    Hongjiang Wei

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is an important method of breeding quality varieties, expanding groups, and preserving endangered species. However, the viability of SCNT embryos is poor, and the cloned rate of animal production is low in pig. This study aims to investigate the gene function and establish a disease model of Banna miniature inbred pig. SCNT with donor cells derived from fetal, newborn, and adult fibroblasts was performed, and the cloning efficiencies among the donor cells were compared. The results showed that the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates did not significantly differ between the reconstructed embryos derived from the fetal (74.3% and 27.4% and newborn (76.4% and 21.8% fibroblasts of the Banna miniature inbred pig (P>0.05. However, both fetal and newborn fibroblast groups showed significantly higher rates than the adult fibroblast group (61.9% and 13.0%; P<0.05. The pregnancy rates of the recipients in the fetal and newborn fibroblast groups (60% and 80%, respectively were higher than those in the adult fibroblast group. Eight, three, and one cloned piglet were obtained from reconstructed embryos of the fetal, newborn, and adult fibroblasts, respectively. Microsatellite analyses results indicated that the genotypes of all cloning piglets were identical to their donor cells and that the genetic homozygosity of the Banna miniature inbred pig was higher than those of the recipients. Therefore, the offspring was successfully cloned using the fetal, newborn, and adult fibroblasts of Banna miniature inbred pig as donor cells.

  7. Quantification of phenolic acids and antioxidant potential of inbred, hybrid and composite cultivars of maize under different nitrogen regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahad, Amjid; Pandey, Renu; Ahmad, Sayeed; Aref, Ibrahim M; Noor, Jewel Jameeta; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a multipurpose crop, which is immensely used worldwide for its nutritional as well as medicinal properties. This study evaluates the effect of varying concentrations of nitrogen (N) on accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in different maize cultivars, including inbreds, hybrids and a composite, which were grown in natural light under controlled temperature (30°C/20°C D/N) and humidity (80%), with sufficient (4.5mM) and low (0.05mM) nitrogen supply. Seeds of different cultivars were powdered and extracted in a methanol:water (80:20) mixture through reflux at 60-75°C, and the extracts obtained were subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), using ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water (109:16:12:31) solvent system for the separation of phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2-scavenging activity assays. At sufficient nitrogen condition, the contents of different phenolic acids were higher in the composite cultivar (8.7 mg g-1 d.wt. in gallic acid to 39.3 mg g-1 d.wt. in cinnamic and salicylic acids) than in inbreds and hybrids. Under low nitrogen condition, the phenolic acids contents declined significantly in inbreds and hybrids, but remained almost unaffected in the composite. The antioxidant activity was also the maximum in the composite, and declined similarly as phenolic acids under low nitrogen supply, showing a significant reduction in inbreds and hybrids only. Therefore, the maize composite has a potential for being used as a nutraceutical in human-health sector.

  8. Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Marguerite; Norcross, Maxine; Whittle, Nigel; Feyder, Michael; D’Hanis, Wolfgang; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key pr...

  9. The prestigious maize inbred lines with erect top leaves: The priority performance of the efficient photosynthetic model in breeding

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    Radenović Čedomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conforms the hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines with erect top leaves that have a property of an efficient photosynthetic model and that as such are successfully used in the processes of breeding in which the number of plants is increased per area unit (plant density. This proof was established by the application of non- invasive photosynthetic-fluorescence method suitable for the evaluation of the efficiency of the photosynthetic model. The obtained photosynthetic and fluorescence properties of observed prestigious maize inbred lines with the erect top leaves are based on the effects and the nature of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. Their principal parameters are temperature dependence of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of the phase transition in thylakoid membranes and the estimated activation energies. The displayed results on the size of an angle between the direction of the propagation of the above-ear leaf and the direction of the stalk propagation, as well as, results on the dynamics of grain dry-down during the maturation period, additionally indicate that traits of observed maize inbred lines with erect top leaves are the prominent base for more exact, rational and faster proceeding of current processes of breeding.

  10. Quantitative trait loci that control body weight in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-Ichi; Kojima, Misaki

    2017-02-01

    Inbred DDD/Sgn mice are heavier than inbred C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for body weight using R/qtl in reciprocal F2 male populations between the two strains. We identified four significant QTL on Chrs 1, 2, 5, and 17 (proximal region). The DDD/Sgn allele was associated with increased body weight at QTL on Chrs 1 and 5, and the DDD/Sgn allele was associated with decreased body weight at QTL on Chrs 2 and 17. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the detected QTL explain 30.94 % of the body weight variation. Because DDD/Sgn male mice have extremely high levels of circulating testosterone relative to other inbred mouse strains, we performed QTL mapping for plasma testosterone level to examine the effect of testosterone levels on body weight. We identified one suggestive QTL on Chr 5, which overlapped with body weight QTL. The DDD/Sgn allele was associated with increased testosterone level. Thus, we confirmed that there was a genetic basis for the changes in body weight and testosterone levels in male mice. These findings provide insights into the genetic mechanism by which body weight is controlled in male mice.

  11. Photosynthetic properties of erect leaf maize inbred lines as the efficient photo-model in breeding and seed production

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    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial idea of this study was a hypothesis that erect leaf maize inbred lines were characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such were very desirable in increasing the number of plants per area unit (plant density in the process of contemporary selection and seed production. The application of a non-invasive bioluminescence-photosynthetic method, suitable for the efficiency estimation of the photo-model, verified the hypothesis. Obtained photosynthetic properties of observed erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity phase transitions (critical temperatures in the thylakoid membranes and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on obtained photosynthetic properties it is possible to select erect leaf maize inbred lines that are resistant and tolerant to high and very high temperatures, as well as, to drought. They could be good and efficient photo-models wherewith.

  12. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

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    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  13. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS

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    Zvonimir Zdunić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of genetic effects on economically important traits is a common procedure in the most breeding programmes at Agricultural Institute Osijek. This paper deals with estimation of adequacy over additive/dominance model of inheritance as well as estimation and comparison of genetic effects on plant height for two specific pairs of inbreds (A672×Va99; A672×Os6-2, and its six basic generations (P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2. Two year investigation was carried out at two locations in eastern Croatia. The trails consisted of 121 entries of different inbreeding level derived by partial diallel mating design followed by selfing and back crossing. Simple lattice experimental design was used in both investigated years. Goodness of fit test results indicated the additive/dominance model failed to explain all differences among generation means. Digenic epistatic model appeared to be adequate in both investigated pairs of inbreds at least in one of the investigated years. Estimations and comparisons of genetic effects for selected pairs of inbreds and basic generations revealed prevailing dominance effects when compared to additive.

  14. Are designer guppies inbred? Microsatellite variation in five strains of ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata, used for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Eklund, Amy C; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Inbred lines are an important tool of genetic studies of all traits, including behavior. Independently derived strains of ornamental "designer" guppies are readily available and predicted to be inbred; however, little is known about actual levels of inbreeding in any of these strains or whether these lines differ in genetic traits that have not been under strong directional artificial selection. We genotyped five designer strains of guppies known to vary in their responses to predator cues and a wild reference population to determine whether designer strains show evidence of inbreeding and whether the strains differed from each other at five microsatellite loci. The designer strains exhibited lower allelic diversity and observed heterozygosity than the wild population. Observed heterozygosity departed significantly from expected heterozygosity for most markers in all five strains of designer guppies. Inbreeding coefficient (f) comparisons between the wild reference population and the designer strains show considerable inbreeding in the designer strains. F(is) values for the designer strains also provide evidence of inbreeding. Finally, F(st) values indicate that the designer strains differ significantly from each other and the wild population. We therefore concluded that designer guppies are inbred compared to wild populations and differ among strains, making them useful tools for genetic studies of behavioral or life history traits.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

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    Kelvin Kamfwa

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2 through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF at levels lower than other grain legume crops. An understanding of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF will enable more effective strategies for the genetic improvement of SNF traits in common bean. In this study, transcriptome profiling was used to identify genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF differences between two common bean recombinant inbred lines that differed in their N-fixing abilities. Differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses were performed on leaves, nodules and roots of the two lines when grown under N-fixing and non-fixing conditions. Receptor kinases, transmembrane transporters, and transcription factors were among the differentially expressed genes identified under N-fixing conditions, but not under non-fixing conditions. Genes up-regulated in the stronger nitrogen fixer, SA36, included those involved in molecular functions such as purine nucleoside binding, oxidoreductase and transmembrane receptor activities in nodules, and transport activity in roots. Transcription factors identified in this study are candidates for future work aimed at understanding the functional role of these genes in SNF. Information generated in this study will support the development of gene-based markers to accelerate genetic improvement of SNF in common bean.

  16. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Host-Specific Pathogenicity and Genome Differences between Inbred Strains of Meloidogyne hapla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q L; Williamson, V M

    2006-03-01

    Five isolates of M. hapla originating from the Netherlands and California were inbred by sequential transfer of single egg masses to produce six strains. Cytological examination showed that oocytes of these strains underwent meiosis and had n = 16 chromosomes. Strains were tested for ability to infect and to develop on several hosts by in vitro assays. The two strains from California infected tomato roots at a higher rate than those from the Netherlands, but no difference among strains was seen for ability to develop on tomato with or without the resistance gene Mi-1. All strains developed on the common bean cultivar Kentucky Wonder, but strains differed in ability to develop on the nematode-resistant cultivar NemaSnap. Strain-specific differences were also seen in ability to infect and to develop on Solanum bulbocastanum clone SB-22. Strain VW13, derived from nematodes treated with the mutagen EMS, was defective in ability to infect tomato and potato roots in vitro. Comparison of DNA using AFLP markers showed an average of 4% of the bands were polymorphic across the six strains, but no correlation was observed between the geographical origin or virulence and DNA polymorphism pattern.

  18. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

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    Yueying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

  19. Dynamic QTL analysis of protein content and glutamine synthetase activity in recombinant inbred wheat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H M; Liang, H; Li, Z; Tang, Z X; Fu, S L; Geng, Y Y; Yan, B J; Ren, Z L

    2015-07-31

    Protein content (PC) is a crucial factor that determines the end-use and nutritional quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a major participant in nitrogen metabolism, can convert inorganic nitrogen into organic nitrogen. Although many studies have been conducted on PC and GS, a dynamic analysis of all of the filling stages has not been conducted. Therefore, 115 F9-10 recombinant inbred wheat lines of 'R131/R142' were used to analyze PC and GS activity during different developmental stages, using the conditional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping method. Twenty-two and six conditional QTL were detected for PC and GS activily, respectively. More QTL in leaf PC were detected during the early filling stages than in the later filling stages. Grain PC QTL displayed different dynamic variations to leaf PC QTL during the entire grain-filling stages. All of the QTL were expressed differently over time, and nine conditional QTL were detected across two filling stages. QTL with similar functions may have tended to group in specific locales. This study provides dynamic genetic information on protein accumulation during grain-filling stages.

  20. Variation in DNA Methylation Patterns is More Common among Maize Inbreds than among Tissues

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    Steven R. Eichten

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications, such as DNA methylation, can provide heritable, epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the absence of genetic changes. A role for DNA methylation in meiotically stable marking of repetitive elements and other sequences has been demonstrated in plants. Methylation of DNA is also proposed to play a role in development through providing a mitotic memory of gene expression states established during cellular differentiation. We sought to clarify the relative levels of DNA methylation variation among different genotypes and tissues in maize ( L.. We have assessed genomewide DNA methylation patterns in leaf, immature tassel, embryo, and endosperm tissues of two inbred maize lines: B73 and Mo17. There are hundreds of regions of differential methylation present between the two genotypes. In general, the same regions exhibit differential methylation between B73 and Mo17 in each of the tissues that were surveyed. In contrast, there are few examples of tissue-specific DNA methylation variation. Only a subset of regions with tissue-specific variation in DNA methylation show similar patterns in both genotypes of maize and even fewer are associated with altered gene expression levels among the tissues. Our data indicates a limited impact of DNA methylation on developmental gene regulation within maize.

  1. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

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    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  2. NKX2-5 Mutations in an Inbred Consanguineous Population: Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Hassan, Ossama K.; Fahed, Akl C.; Batrawi, Manal; Arabi, Mariam; Refaat, Marwan M.; DePalma, Steven R.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Bitar, Fadi F.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2015-01-01

    NKX2-5 mutations are associated with different forms of congenital heart disease. Despite the knowledge gained from molecular and animal studies, genotype-phenotype correlations in humans are limited by the lack of large cohorts and the incomplete assessment of family members. We hypothesized that studying the role of NKX2-5 in inbred populations with homogeneous genetic backgrounds and high consanguinity rates such as Lebanon could help closing this gap. We sequenced NKX2-5 in 188 index CHD cases (25 with ASD). Five variants (three segregated in families) were detected in eleven families including the previously documented p.R25C variant, which was found in seven patients from different families, and in one healthy individual. In 3/5 familial dominant ASD cases, we identified an NKX2-5 mutation. In addition to the heterogeneity of NKX2-5 mutations, a diversity of phenotypes occurred within the families with predominant ASD and AV block. We did in fact identify a large prevalence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in families with truncating mutations, and two patients with coronary sinus disease. NKX2-5 is thus responsible for dominant familial ASD even in consanguineous populations, and a wide genetic and phenotypic diversity is characteristic of NKX2-5 mutations in the Lebanese population. PMID:25742962

  3. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  4. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

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    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  5. Strain differences in sleep patterns of healthy and influenza-infected inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L A; Verhulst, S J

    2003-05-01

    Influenza-infected C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice respectively develop increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark phase and reduced SWS during the light phase of the 24 hour circadian cycle. To determine whether similar or alternative variations in SWS develop after influenza infection in other inbred strains of mice, we characterized the sleep patterns of additional strains both before and after influenza infection. Three strains (A/J, BALB/cByJ, and C3H/HeJ) showed light-phase SWS suppression, two strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) showed dark-phase SWS enhancement, and one strain (A/J) showed dark-phase SWS suppression. Three strains (AKR/J, C57BR/cdJ, and FVB/NJ) did not show significant changes in SWS time on day two post-inoculation. Core temperatures were correlated to change in SWS time after infection, but were not correlated to SWS during the baseline period. These data support and expand the existing literature that indicates genetic modulation of sleep both in healthy mice and in mice undergoing viral infection.

  6. [A lethal variant of Netherton syndrome in a large inbred family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Y; Vanlieferinghen, P; Boeuf, B; Dechelotte, P; Hovnanian, A; Lecomte, B

    2011-03-01

    Netherton syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of ichthyosiform erythrodermia, typical hair dysplasia, and severe atopic features. The broad range of variable expression of this disease is well described and 20% of complications occur during the neonatal period such as hypernatremic dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, recurrent or severe infections, and failure to thrive. Mutation of the SPINK5 gene has been identified as disease-causing in Netherton syndrome, but the pathophysiology still remains unclear. Almost all SPINK5 mutations result in the absence of the serine-protease inhibitor LEKTI protein in both keratinocytes and lymphocytes. In this study, we report on a severe form of Netherton syndrome observed in three patients within a large inbred Rom family. All of them died in the first months of life despite early treatment. They were found to be homozygous for the c.1431-12G>A SPINK5 gene mutation, which has not been associated with a lethal form of the disease thus far. This family illustrates the extreme phenotype of Netherton disease of neonatal onset. Molecular diagnosis allowed further genetic counseling and prenatal testing during other pregnancies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. M. Aarts

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling seed tocopherol and seedling metabolite concentrations. RIL population parent L58 had a higher level of glucosinolates and phenylpropanoids, whereas levels of sucrose, glucose and glutamate were higher in the other RIL population parent, R-o-18. QTL related to seed tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, α-⁄γ- and total tocopherol concentrations were detected on chromosomes A3, A6, A9 and A10, explaining 11%–35% of the respective variation. The locus on A3 co-locates with the BrVTE1gene, encoding tocopherol cyclase. NMR spectroscopy identified the presence of organic/amino acid, sugar/glucosinolate and aromatic compounds in seedlings. QTL positions were obtained for most of the identified compounds. Compared to previous studies, novel loci were found for glucosinolate concentrations. This work can be used to design markers for marker-assisted selection of nutritional compounds in B. rapa.

  8. Genetic relation of life span to metabolic rate for inbred mouse strains and their hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.; Duffy, P.H.

    1979-02-01

    Average life spans were estimated for the male progeny from 21 of the 25 possible matings of 5 inbred mouse strains. Oxygen consumption was measured in an open system over a 48-hour interval. Resting metabolism, M/sub re/, and average metabolism, M/sub av/, were determined at 6 to 8 months of age, and at 24 to 34 months. Body weight, W, was determined at the time metabolism was measured. Life span, L, is negatively correlated with M/sub re/, and M/sub av/, and positively correlated with W at both ages of measurement. This is in accord with the metabolic wear factor that had previously been established among 85 different species of mammals. A new metabolism variable, the energy partition coefficient, defined as the ratio of average to resting metabolic rate, M/sub av//M/sub re/, has a parabolic relation to body weight, i.e., is maximal at an intermediate body size. The squared body weight deviation in turn has a negative correlation with life span. The correlation of L with M/sub av//M/sub re/ is positive, as expected, but not significant. These data suggest the existence of a longevity factor dependent on the partition of energy between the phasic metabolism of activity and the continuous maintenance metabolism.

  9. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  10. Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice

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    Malak Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT or mouse-adapted (MA Ebola virus (EBOV.  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6, and DBA/2 (D2 mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1 knock-out (KO mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe.  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN-γ KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2 recombinant inbred (RI and advanced RI (ARI mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in

  11. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

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    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  12. Quantitative trait locus mapping of acute functional tolerance in the LXS recombinant inbred strains.

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    Bennett, Beth; Larson, Colin; Richmond, Phillip A; Odell, Aaron T; Saba, Laura M; Tabakoff, Boris; Dowell, Robin; Radcliffe, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported that acute functional tolerance (AFT) to the hypnotic effects of alcohol was significantly correlated with drinking in the dark (DID) in the LXS recombinant inbred panel, but only in mice that had been pretreated with alcohol. Here, we have conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for AFT. DNA sequencing of the progenitor ILS and ISS strains and microarray analyses were also conducted to identify candidate genes and functional correlates. LXS mice were given either saline or alcohol (5 g/kg) on day 1 and then tested for loss of righting reflex AFT on day 2. QTLs were mapped using standard procedures. Two microarray analyses from brain were conducted: (i) naïve LXS mice and (ii) an alcohol treatment time course in the ILS and ISS. The full genomes of the ILS and ISS were sequenced to a depth of approximately 30×. A significant QTL for AFT in the alcohol pretreatment group was mapped to distal chromosome 4; numerous suggestive QTLs were also mapped. Preference drinking and DID have previously been mapped to the chromosome 4 locus. The credible interval of the significant chromosome 4 QTL spanned 23 Mb and included 716 annotated genes of which 150 had at least 1 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism or small indel that differed between the ILS and ISS; expression of 48 of the genes was cis-regulated. Enrichment analysis indicated broad functional categories underlying AFT, including proteolysis, transcription regulation, chromatin modification, protein kinase activity, and apoptosis. The chromosome 4 QTL is a key region containing possibly pleiotropic genes for AFT and drinking behavior. Given that the region contains many viable candidates and a large number of the genes in the interval fall into 1 or more of the enriched functional categories, we postulate that many genes of varying effect size contribute to the observed QTL effect. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

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    Torben eHager

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC. Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear, but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear, including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N versus C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

  14. Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.

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    Micha Hersch

    Full Text Available β-blockers and β-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective β(1-blocker, Atenolol (ate, and a β-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso. The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA, a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP to perturbations of the β-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8. An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6. Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to β-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

  15. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  16. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

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    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  17. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

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    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  18. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

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    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  19. Defective eosinophil hematopoiesis ex vivo in inbred Rocky Mountain White (IRW) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kimberly D.; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Bowen, Aaron B.; Ito, Tomonobu; Peterson, Karin E.; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow (BM) progenitors from inbred Rocky Mountain White (IRW) mice, a strain used primarily for retrovirus infection studies. In contrast to findings with BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains, IRW BM cells cannot proliferate or generate pure eosinophil cultures ex vivo in response to a defined cytokine regimen. Analysis of IRW BM at baseline was unremarkable, including 0.08 ± 0.03% Lin–Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK) hematopoietic stem cells and 5.2 ± 0.3% eosinophils; the percentage of eosinophil progenitors (EoPs; Lin–Sca-1–c-kit+CD34+IL-5Rα+) was similar in all three mouse strains. Transcripts encoding GM-CSFRα and the IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF common β chain were detected at equivalent levels in IRW and BALB/c BM, whereas expression of transcripts encoding IL-5Rα, IL-3Rα, and GATA-2 was diminished in IRW BM compared with BALB/c. Expression of membrane-bound IL-5Rα and intracellular STAT5 proteins was also diminished in IRW BM cells. Diminished expression of transcripts encoding IL-5Rα and GATA-2 and immunoreactive STAT5 in IRW BM persisted after 4 days in culture, along with diminished expression of GATA-1. Western blot revealed that cells from IRW BM overexpress nonsignaling soluble IL-5Rα protein. Interestingly, OVA sensitization and challenge resulted in BM and airway eosinophilia in IRW mice; however, the responses were significantly blunted. These results suggest that IRW mice have diminished capacity to generate eosinophils in culture and in vivo, likely as a result of diminished signaling via IL-5Rα. PMID:21878543

  20. Combining ability of maize inbred lines evaluated in three environments in Brazil

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    Nass Luciano Lourenço

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For tropical areas like Brazil, genotype x environment interaction is an important source of variation. Our objectives were to examine the combining abilities and their interaction with environments in ten selected maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines in diallel crosses and to identify candidates for promising hybrid combinations. Crosses and checks were evaluated through a 7 x 7 triple lattice design at three locations during the 1984/85 season. Several agronomic traits were evaluated, but here only data on ear yield are discussed. Yield data were adjusted for stand variation (correction to 50 plants per plot and grain moisture (15.5%. Data for ear yield were analysed using an adaptation of Griffing?s method IV for complete diallel crosses, and experiments were repeated in several environments. The means of the crosses over all environments ranged from 6.6 t/ha to 10.3 t/ha. The combining ability analysis of diallel data across environments showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects for environment, general combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA, and GCA x environment interaction. The SCA x environment interaction was not significant. Results showed that both GCA and SCA were important for this diallel cross. Considering the 13 hybrids that showed higher yields than the commercial hybrid controls, contributions by GCA and SCA effects were 56% and 44%, respectively. On the other hand, selecting only the best five hybrids, SCA effects were always more important than GCA effects for each environment and over all environments.

  1. The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for complex trait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R W; Gu, J; Qi, S; Lu, L

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice are an important resource used to map and analyze complex traits. They have proved particularly effective in multidisciplinary genetic studies. Widespread use of RI strains has been hampered by their modest numbers and by the difficulty of combining results derived from different RI sets. We have increased the density of typed microsatellite markers two- to five-fold in each of several major RI sets that share C57BL/6 as a parental strain (AXB, BXA, BXD, BXH and CXB). A common set of 490 markers was genotyped in just over 100 RI strains. Genotypes of around 1,100 additional microsatellites in one or more RI sets were generated, collected and checked for errors. Consensus RI maps that integrate genotypes of approximately 1,600 microsatellite loci were assembled. The genomes of individual strains typically incorporate 45-55 recombination breakpoints. The collected RI set - termed the BXN set - contains approximately 5,000 breakpoints. The distribution of recombinations approximates a Poisson distribution and distances between breakpoints average about 0.5 centimorgans (cM). Locations of most breakpoints have been defined with a precision of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in only a small number of intervals. Consensus maps derived from RI strains conform almost exactly to theoretical expectation and are close to the length predicted by the Haldane-Waddington equation (x3.6 for a 2-3 cM interval between markers). Non-syntenic associations between different chromosomes introduce predictable distortions in quantitative trait locus (QTL) datasets that can be partly corrected using two-locus correlation matrices.

  2. Polyoma virus-induced osteosarcomas in inbred strains of mice: host determinants of metastasis.

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    Palanivel Velupillai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse polyoma virus induces a broad array of solid tumors in mice of many inbred strains. In most strains tumors grow rapidly but fail to metastasize. An exception has been found in the Czech-II/Ei mouse in which bone tumors metastasize regularly to the lung. These tumors resemble human osteosarcoma in their propensity for pulmonary metastasis. Cell lines established from these metastatic tumors have been compared with ones from non-metastatic osteosarcomas arising in C3H/BiDa mice. Osteopontin, a chemokine implicated in migration and metastasis, is known to be transcriptionally induced by the viral middle T antigen. Czech-II/Ei and C3H/BiDa tumor cells expressed middle T and secreted osteopontin at comparable levels as the major chemoattractant. The tumor cell lines migrated equally well in response to recombinant osteopontin as the sole attractant. An important difference emerged in assays for invasion in which tumor cells from Czech-II/Ei mice were able to invade across an extracellular matrix barrier while those from C3H/BiDa mice were unable to invade. Invasive behavior was linked to elevated levels of the metalloproteinase MMP-2 and of the transcription factor NFAT. Inhibition of either MMP-2 or NFAT inhibited invasion by Czech-II/Ei osteosarcoma cells. The metastatic phenotype is dominant in F1 mice. Osteosarcoma cell lines from F1 mice expressed intermediate levels of MMP-2 and NFAT and were invasive. Osteosarcomas in Czech-II/Ei mice retain functional p53. This virus-host model of metastasis differs from engineered models targeting p53 or pRb and provides a system for investigating the genetic and molecular basis of bone tumor metastasis in the absence of p53 loss.

  3. Cell fusion and chromatin degeneration in an inbred line of maize

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    Creuci Maria Caetano-Pereira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of maize genotypes are currently being evaluated to determine the effect of environmental stress caused by the aluminum found in cerrado soils on meiotic behavior. In the present study we report the occurrence of cell fusion followed or not by chromatin degeneration in meiocytes of some plants of an inbred line of maize grown on acid and corrected soil in the Brazilian central plateau. The results suggest the absence of any soil effect on the irregularities observed since the number of affected plants was higher among those grown on corrected soil. The possible causes of these irregularities and their influence on male sterility are discussed.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do stress ambiental causado pelo alto teor de alumínio encontrado nos solos de cerrado sobre o comportamento meiótico, um elevado número de genótipos de milho está sendo avaliado. Neste estudo relata-se a ocorrência de fusão celular, seguida ou não de degeneração cromatínica, em meiócitos de algumas plantas de uma linhagem endogâmica cultivada em solo ácido e corrigido no planalto central Brasileiro. Os resultados não sugerem qualquer efeito do solo sobre as irregularidades observadas, pois o número de plantas afetadas foi maior dentre aquelas cultivadas em solo corrigido. As possíveis causas destas irregularidades e suas influências na produção de macho-esterilidade são discutidas.

  4. Heterogeneous inbred populations are useful as sources of near-isogenic lines for RAPD marker localization.

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    Haley, S D; Afanador, L K; Miklas, P N; Stavely, J R; Kelly, J D

    1994-06-01

    The development and use of RAPD markers for applications in crop improvement has recently generated considerable interest within the plant breeding community. One potential application of RAPDs is their use for "tagging" simply-inherited (monogenic) pest-resistance genes and enabling more efficient identification and selection of genotypes carrying specific combinations of resistance genes. In this report, we propose and describe the use of heterogeneous inbred populations as sources of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for targeting RAPD markers linked to major pest resistance genes. The development of these NILs for RAPD marker analyses involved a sequence of line and mass selection during successive generations of inbreeding. DNA bulks derived from the NILs were used to identify a RAPD marker (designated OK14620, generated by 5'-CCCGCTACAC-3' decamer) that was tightly linked (2.23±1.33 centiMorgans) to an important rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus] resistance gene (Ur-3) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by a low rate of false-positives identified, the tightness of the linkage identified, and the ability to detect polymorphism between genomic regions that are representative of the same gene pool of common bean. This method of deriving NILs should find application by researchers interested in utilizing marker-assisted selection for one or more major pest resistance genes. The identification of OK14620 should help to facilitate continued use of the Ur-3 resistance source and will now enable marker-assisted pyramiding of three different bean rust resistance sources (two previously tagged) to provide effective and stable resistance to this important pathogen.

  5. Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.

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    Zhijie Liu

    Full Text Available Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17. Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

  6. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Susceptibility to Hepatic Inflammation and Proliferation in AXB Recombinant Inbred Mice Chronically Infected with Helicobacter hepaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ihrig, Melanie; Schrenzel, Mark D.; Fox, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus is a naturally occurring pathogen of mice and has been used to develop models of chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and, more recently, inflammatory bowel disease, in selected mouse strains. A/JCr mice are particularly susceptible to H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis and subsequent development of liver neoplasms, whereas C57BL/6 mice are resistant. In this study, we inoculated nine AXB recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains, derived from A/J and C57BL/6 mice, with H. hepaticu...

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS CONFERRING RICE BLAST RESISTANCE USING RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in

  10. Dissecting structural and nucleotide genome-wide variation in inbred Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Codina, Anna; Paudel, Yogesh; Ferretti, Luca; Raineri, Emanuele; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Silió, Luis; Rodríguez, María C; Groenen, Martein A M; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian E; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2013-03-05

    In contrast to international pig breeds, the Iberian breed has not been admixed with Asian germplasm. This makes it an important model to study both domestication and relevance of Asian genes in the pig. Besides, Iberian pigs exhibit high meat quality as well as appetite and propensity to obesity. Here we provide a genome wide analysis of nucleotide and structural diversity in a reduced representation library from a pool (n=9 sows) and shotgun genomic sequence from a single sow of the highly inbred Guadyerbas strain. In the pool, we applied newly developed tools to account for the peculiarities of these data. A total of 254,106 SNPs in the pool (79.6 Mb covered) and 643,783 in the Guadyerbas sow (1.47 Gb covered) were called. The nucleotide diversity (1.31x10-3 per bp in autosomes) is very similar to that reported in wild boar. A much lower than expected diversity in the X chromosome was confirmed (1.79x10-4 per bp in the individual and 5.83x10-4 per bp in the pool). A strong (0.70) correlation between recombination and variability was observed, but not with gene density or GC content. Multicopy regions affected about 4% of annotated pig genes in their entirety, and 2% of the genes partially. Genes within the lowest variability windows comprised interferon genes and, in chromosome X, genes involved in behavior like HTR2C or MCEP2. A modified Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test for pools also indicated an accelerated evolution in genes involved in behavior, as well as in spermatogenesis and in lipid metabolism. This work illustrates the strength of current sequencing technologies to picture a comprehensive landscape of variability in livestock species, and to pinpoint regions containing genes potentially under selection. Among those genes, we report genes involved in behavior, including feeding behavior, and lipid metabolism. The pig X chromosome is an outlier in terms of nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints. Our data further confirm the importance of

  11. Identification of drought tolerant mechanisms in maize seedlings based on transcriptome analysis of recombination inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowei Min

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zea mays is an important crop that is sensitive to drought stress, but survival rates and growth status remain strong in some drought-tolerant lines under stress conditions. Under drought conditions, many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism, are suppressed, while little is known about how the transcripts of genes respond to drought stress in the genome-wide rang in the seedling stage. In our study, the transcriptome profiles of two maize recombination inbred lines (drought-tolerant RIL70 and drought-sensitive RIL93 were analyzed at different drought stages to elucidate the dynamic mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in maize seedlings during drought conditions. Different numbers of differentially expressed genes presented in the different stages of drought stress in the two RILs, for the numbers of RIL93 Vs RIL70 were: 9 Vs 358, 477 Vs 103 and 5207 Vs 152 respectively in DT1, DT2 and DT5. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that in the initial drought-stressed stage, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and transmembrane transport biological processes were overrepresented in RIL70 compared to RIL93. On the contrary, differentially expressed genes profiles presented at 2 day- and 5 day-treatments, the primary differentially expressed genes involved in response to stress, protein folding, oxidation-reduction, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, were overrepresented in RIL93 compared to RIL70. In addition, the transcription of genes encoding key members of the cell cycle and cell division processes were blocked, but ABA- and programmed cell death-related processes responded positively in RIL93. In contrast, the expression of cell cycle genes, ABA- and programmed cell death-related genes was relatively stable in RIL70. The results we obtained supported the working hypothesis that signaling events associated with turgor homeostasis, as

  12. QTL mapping of stay-green in two sorghum recombinant inbred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, B I G; Mahalakshmi, V; Reddy, B V S; Seetharama, N; Hash, C T; Geiger, H H

    2002-12-01

    The stay-green trait is a reported component of tolerance to terminal drought stress in sorghum. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for stay-green, two sorghum recombinant inbred populations (RIPs) of 226 F(3:5) lines each were developed from crosses (1) IS9830 x E36-1 and (2) N13 x E36-1. The common parental line, E36-1 of Ethiopian origin, was the stay-green trait source. The genetic map of RIP 1 had a total length of 1,291 cM, with 128 markers (AFLPs, RFLPs, SSRs and RAPDs) distributed over ten linkage groups. The map of RIP 2 spanned 1,438 cM and contained 146 markers in 12 linkage groups. The two RIPs were evaluated during post-rainy seasons at Patancheru, India, in 1999/2000 (RIP 2) and 2000/2001 (RIP 1). The measures of stay-green mapped were the green leaf area percentages at 15, 30 and 45 days after flowering (% GL15, % GL30 and % GL45, respectively). Estimated repeatabilities for % GL15, % GL30 and % GL45 amounted to 0.89, 0.81 and 0.78 in RIP 1, and 0.91, 0.88 and 0.85 in RIP 2, respectively. The number of QTLs for the three traits detected by composite interval mapping ranged from 5 to 8, explaining 31% to 42% of the genetic variance. In both RIPs, both parent lines contributed stay-green alleles. Across the three measures of the stay-green trait, three QTLs on linkage groups A, E and G were common to both RIPs, with the stay-green alleles originating from E36-1. These QTLs were therefore consistent across the tested genetic backgrounds and years. After QTL validation across sites and verification of the general benefit of the stay-green trait for grain yield performance and stability in the target areas, the corresponding chromosomal regions could be candidates for marker-assisted transfer of stay-green into elite materials.

  13. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  14. High Infection Rates in Adult Macaques Following Intravaginal or Intrarectal Zika Virus Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    of sexual transmission from men to women . International Journal of Infectious 325 Diseases . 2016;51:128-32. 326 20. Arsuaga M, Bujalance SG, Diaz...susceptibility to ZIKV infection in 244 human and/or sylvatic NHP populations. Furthermore, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are 245 known risk...Menendez M, Vazquez A, Arribas JR. Probable sexual 327 transmission of Zika virus from a vasectomised man. The Lancet Infectious Diseases . 2016 328

  15. Rabies vaccination at a virus-inoculated site as an alternative option to rabies immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kinjiro; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Sato, Yuichiro; Virojanapirom, Phatthamon; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-09-01

    Combined active and passive immunization has been established to be an optimal strategy for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Prompt administration of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) can reliably prevent the disease. However, RIG is unavailable and unaffordable in the majority of cases. On the basis of a model experiment using hamsters, we demonstrated that vaccine injection at the wound site in the same manner as administration of RIG provided protective efficacy that was not inferior to the current optimal PEP, a combination of vaccination and RIG. Further study is needed to determine whether it can replace the use of RIG.

  16. Validation of Dwarf8 polymorphisms associated with flowering time in elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Schrag, Tobias; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Zein, Imad; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    The timing of transition from vegetative growth to flowering is important in nature as well as in agriculture. One of several pathways influencing this transition in plants is the gibberellin (GA) pathway. In maize (Zea mays L.), the Dwarf8 (D8) gene has been identified as an orthologue of the gibberellic acid-insensitive (GAI) gene, a negative regulator of GA response in Arabidopsis. Nine intragenic polymorphisms in D8 have been linked with variation in flowering time of maize. We tested the general applicability of these polymorphisms as functional markers in an independent set of inbred lines. Single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPe) and gel-based indel markers were developed, and a set of 71 elite European inbred lines were phenotyped for flowering time and plant height across four environments. To control for population structure, we genotyped the plant material with 55 simple sequence repeat markers evenly distributed across the genome. When population structure was ignored, six of the nine D8 polymorphisms were significantly associated with flowering time and none with plant height. However, when population structure was taken into consideration, an association with flowering time was only detected in a single environment, whereas an association across environments was identified between a 2-bp indel in the promoter region and plant height. As the number of lines with different haplotypes within subpopulations was a limiting factor in the analysis, D8 alleles would need to be compared in isogenic backgrounds for a reliable estimation of allelic effects.

  17. Severe inbreeding depression and no evidence of purging in an extremely inbred wild species--the Chatham Island black robin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Euan S; Grueber, Catherine E; Duncan, Richard P; Jamieson, Ian G

    2014-04-01

    Although evidence of inbreeding depression in wild populations is well established, the impact of genetic purging in the wild remains controversial. The contrasting effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious alleles by genetic drift, and the purging of deleterious alleles via natural selection mean that predicting fitness outcomes in populations subjected to prolonged bottlenecks is not straightforward. We report results from a long-term pedigree study of arguably the world's most inbred wild species of bird: the Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi, in which conditions were ideal for purging to occur. Contrary to expectations, black robins showed a strong, negative relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, yielding lethal equivalents (2B) of 6.85. We also determined that the negative relationship between inbreeding and survival did not appear to be mediated by levels of ancestral inbreeding and may be attributed in part to unpurged lethal recessives. Although the black robin demographic history provided ideal conditions for genetic purging, our results show no clear evidence of purging in the major life-history trait of juvenile survival. Our results also show no evidence of fixation of deleterious alleles in juvenile survival, but do confirm that continued high levels of contemporary inbreeding in a historically inbred population could lead to additional severe inbreeding depression. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  19. Incidence, latency, and morphologic types of neoplasms induced by simian virus 40 inoculated intravenously into hamsters of three inbred strains and one outbred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, G T

    1978-02-01

    The incidence, latency, and morphologic types of neoplasms induced in hamsters of the three inbred strains LSH/SsLak, LHC/Lak, and MHA/SsLak, inocuated iv at 3 weeks of age with 10(7.5) median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of simian virus 40 (SV40). were determined and compared with those of the outbred stock LVG/Lak. Although the incidence and latency were approximately the same in hamsters of the three inbred strains, hamsters of the outbred stock exhibited almost complete resistance to tumor induction under identical experimental conditions. The morphologic types of neoplasms, i.e., lymphocytic leukemia, reticulum cell sarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, and anaplastic sarcoma, induced in inbred hamsters were similar to those induced in outbred hamsters inoculated iv with 10(8.5) TCID50 SV40. The lymphocytic leukemias that developed in the 2 LSH/SsLak inbred hamsters were established as tumor transplants in vivo and as permanent cell lines in vitro.

  20. Quantitative studies of lymphoid organs, blood and lymph in inbred athymic and euthymic LEW rats under germfree and specified-pathogen-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1987-01-01

    Four groups of inbred male LEW rats were examined: A, germfree athymic; B, specified pathogen free (SPF) athymic; C, germfree euthymic; D, SPF euthymic. All animals were killed at 18 weeks and compared with respect to body weight, histological appearance and cell density of the lymphoid organs, h...

  1. Genetic Analysis of Ligation-Induced Neointima Formation in an F2 Intercross of C57BL/6 and FVB/N Inbred Mouse Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östergren, Caroline; Shim, Jeong; Larsen, Jens Vinther

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central for arterial diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may be modeled by carotid ligation in mice. In FVB/N inbred mice, ligation leads to abundant neo...

  2. Whole Genome Sequence of Two Wild-Derived Mus musculus domesticus Inbred Strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, with Different Diploid Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild-derived mouse inbred strains are becoming increasingly popular for complex traits analysis, evolutionary studies, and systems genetics. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing of two wild-derived mouse inbred strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, of Mus musculus domesticus origin. These two inbred strains were selected based on their geographic origin, karyotype, and use in ongoing research. We generated 14× and 18× coverage sequence, respectively, and discovered over 1.1 million novel variants, most of which are private to one of these strains. This report expands the number of wild-derived inbred genomes in the Mus genus from six to eight. The sequence variation can be accessed via an online query tool; variant calls (VCF format and alignments (BAM format are available for download from a dedicated ftp site. Finally, the sequencing data have also been stored in a lossless, compressed, and indexed format using the multi-string Burrows-Wheeler transform. All data can be used without restriction.

  3. Whole Genome Sequence of Two Wild-Derived Mus musculus domesticus Inbred Strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, with Different Diploid Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew P; Didion, John P; Doran, Anthony G; Holt, James M; McMillan, Leonard; Keane, Thomas M; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2016-12-07

    Wild-derived mouse inbred strains are becoming increasingly popular for complex traits analysis, evolutionary studies, and systems genetics. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing of two wild-derived mouse inbred strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, of Mus musculus domesticus origin. These two inbred strains were selected based on their geographic origin, karyotype, and use in ongoing research. We generated 14× and 18× coverage sequence, respectively, and discovered over 1.1 million novel variants, most of which are private to one of these strains. This report expands the number of wild-derived inbred genomes in the Mus genus from six to eight. The sequence variation can be accessed via an online query tool; variant calls (VCF format) and alignments (BAM format) are available for download from a dedicated ftp site. Finally, the sequencing data have also been stored in a lossless, compressed, and indexed format using the multi-string Burrows-Wheeler transform. All data can be used without restriction. Copyright © 2016 Morgan et al.

  4. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  5. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda

    2012-01-01

    in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels...

  6. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

  7. Elevated ozone reduces photosynthetic carbon gain by accelerating leaf senescence of inbred and hybrid maize in a genotype-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Erice, Gorka; Montes, Christopher M; Tomaz, Tiago; Sorgini, Crystal A; Brown, Patrick J; McIntyre, Lauren M; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to elevated tropospheric ozone concentration ([O3 ]) accelerates leaf senescence in many C3 crops. However, the effects of elevated [O3 ] on C4 crops including maize (Zea mays L.) are poorly understood in terms of physiological mechanism and genetic variation in sensitivity. Using free air gas concentration enrichment, we investigated the photosynthetic response of 18 diverse maize inbred and hybrid lines to season-long exposure to elevated [O3 ] (~100 nl L-1 ) in the field. Gas exchange was measured on the leaf subtending the ear throughout the grain filling period. On average over the lifetime of the leaf, elevated [O3 ] led to reductions in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation of both inbred (-22%) and hybrid (-33%) genotypes. There was significant variation among both inbred and hybrid lines in the sensitivity of photosynthesis to elevated [O3 ], with some lines showing no change in photosynthesis at elevated [O3 ]. Based on analysis of inbred line B73, the reduced CO2 assimilation at elevated [O3 ] was associated with accelerated senescence decreasing photosynthetic capacity and not altered stomatal limitation. These findings across diverse maize genotypes could advance the development of more O3 tolerant maize and provide experimental data for parameterization and validation of studies modeling how O3 impacts crop performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life.

  9. Maize inbreds exhibit high levels of copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV) in genome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathan M; Ying, Kai; Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Barbazuk, W Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

    2009-11-01

    Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop.

  10. Application of target capture sequencing of exons and conserved non-coding sequences to 20 inbred rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Yoshihara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report sequence data obtained by our recently devised target capture method TargetEC applied to 20 inbred rat strains. This method encompasses not only all annotated exons but also highly conserved non-coding sequences shared among vertebrates. The total length of the target regions covers 146.8 Mb. On an average, we obtained 31.7× depth of target coverage and identified 154,330 SNVs and 24,368 INDELs for each strain. This corresponds to 470,037 unique SNVs and 68,652 unique INDELs among the 20 strains. The sequence data can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number PRJDB4648, and the identified variants have been deposited at http://bioinfo.sls.kyushu-u.ac.jp/rat_target_capture/20_strains.vcf.gz.

  11. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M; Lawley, Trevor D; Holmes, Susan P; Monack, Denise M; Theriot, Julie A; Relman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals.

  12. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

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    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  13. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  14. Social deficits, stereotypy and early emergence of repetitive behavior in the C58/J inbred mouse strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Bryce C; Young, Nancy B; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Bodfish, James W; Moy, Sheryl S

    2010-03-17

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20-21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb: A Repository for Probabilistically Informed Sequence Differences Among the Collaborative Cross Strains and Their Founders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oreper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Cross (CC is a panel of recently established multiparental recombinant inbred mouse strains. For the CC, as for any multiparental population (MPP, effective experimental design and analysis benefit from detailed knowledge of the genetic differences between strains. Such differences can be directly determined by sequencing, but until now whole-genome sequencing was not publicly available for individual CC strains. An alternative and complementary approach is to infer genetic differences by combining two pieces of information: probabilistic estimates of the CC haplotype mosaic from a custom genotyping array, and probabilistic variant calls from sequencing of the CC founders. The computation for this inference, especially when performed genome-wide, can be intricate and time-consuming, requiring the researcher to generate nontrivial and potentially error-prone scripts. To provide standardized, easy-to-access CC sequence information, we have developed the Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb. The ISVdb provides, for all the exonic variants from the Sanger Institute mouse sequencing dataset, direct sequence information for CC founders and, critically, the imputed sequence information for CC strains. Notably, the ISVdb also: (1 provides predicted variant consequence metadata; (2 allows rapid simulation of F1 populations; and (3 preserves imputation uncertainty, which will allow imputed data to be refined in the future as additional sequencing and genotyping data are collected. The ISVdb information is housed in an SQL database and is easily accessible through a custom online interface (http://isvdb.unc.edu, reducing the analytic burden on any researcher using the CC.

  16. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl and denatonium benzoate (DB. Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs. Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive; approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation.

  17. Evidence for Persistence of Ectromelia Virus in Inbred Mice, Recrudescence Following Immunosuppression and Transmission to Naïve Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac G Sakala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses (OPV, including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV, the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV, the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice. We provide evidence that ECTV causes a persistent infection in some susceptible strains of mice in which low levels of virus genomes were detected in various tissues late in infection. The bone marrow (BM and blood appeared to be key sites of persistence. Contemporaneous with virus persistence, antiviral CD8 T cell responses were demonstrable over the entire 25-week study period, with a change in the immunodominance hierarchy evident during the first 3 weeks. Some virus-encoded host response modifiers were found to modulate virus persistence whereas host genes encoded by the NKC and MHC class I reduced the potential for persistence. When susceptible strains of mice that had apparently recovered from infection were subjected to sustained immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CTX, animals succumbed to mousepox with high titers of infectious virus in various organs. CTX treated index mice transmitted virus to, and caused disease in, co-housed naïve mice. The most surprising but significant finding was that immunosuppression of disease-resistant C57BL/6 mice several weeks after recovery from primary infection generated high titers of virus in multiple tissues. Resistant mice showed no evidence of a persistent infection. This is the strongest evidence that ECTV can persist in inbred mice, regardless of their resistance

  18. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  19. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semagn, Kassa; Magorokosho, Cosmos; Vivek, Bindiganavile S; Makumbi, Dan; Beyene, Yoseph; Mugo, Stephen; Prasanna, B M; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2012-03-25

    Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping population development

  20. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semagn Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations

  1. Generation of chimeric piglets by injection of embryonic germ cells from inbred Wuzhishan miniature pigs into blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao; Tsung, Hsiaochien; Mu, Yulian; Liu, Lixin; Chen, Hongping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Hongjun; Feng, Shutang

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem/germ (ES/EG) cell research poses ethical dilemma, it is therefore critical to establish alternative sources of cells for relevant studies. Considering the similarities between the inbred miniature Wuzhishan pigs (WZSP) and humans, ES/EG from these pigs can serve as potential substitutes in human research. In this study, we reported our results that successfully established stable EG cell lines from the WZSP. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) were isolated from the genital ridges of pig fetuses at 25 to 28 days of pregnancy. To obtain stable EG cell line, PGCs were maintained on STO cells in DMEM containing multiple essential growth factors. Two EG cell lines were established and characterized by positive alkaline phosphatase staining (AKP), expressions of Oct-4, SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, ability to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers in vitro, and generation of chimeric offsprings after microinjection and embryo transfer. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cytoplasmic structure of pig EG cells were rather simple and had a higher nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio. Scanning electron microscopy showed the sizes of pig EG cells were similar to mouse EG cells. Both EG cell lines showed normal karyotypes. The EG cells were propagated for more than 20 passages and underwent multiple cycles of freezing and thawing, without losing their pluripotency (as distinguished by AKP staining). Both in vitro and in vivo evidence strongly demonstrated that EG cells harvested from the inbred miniature WZSP were pluripotent and can be used for relevant pig or human studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  3. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry, and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2 was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses

  4. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kawamura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers.

  5. Romanian maize (Zea mays inbred lines as a source of genetic diversity in SE Europe, and their potential in future breeding efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Şuteu

    Full Text Available Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of response to low temperature reveals candidate genes determining divergent cold-sensitivity of maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sobkowiak, Alicja; Jończyk, Maciej; Jarochowska, Emilia; Biecek, Przemysław; Trzcinska-Danielewicz, Joanna; Leipner, Jörg; Fronk, Jan; Sowiński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Maize, despite being thermophyllic due to its tropical origin, demonstrates high intraspecific diversity in cold-tolerance. To search for molecular mechanisms of this diversity, transcriptomic response to cold was studied in two inbred lines of contrasting cold-tolerance. Microarray analysis was followed by extensive statistical elaboration of data, literature data mining, and gene ontology-based classification. The lines used had been bred earlier specifically for determination of QTLs for c...

  7. Protein quality traits and their relationships with yield and yield components of opaque-2 and analogous normal maize hybrids and inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Kovács, I; Gáspár, L

    1974-01-01

    Diallel cross hybrids obtained by crossing six opaque-2 (o 2) converted inbred lines were compared with a similar series of crosses made between the analogous normal inbred lines together with the parents, for a number of protein quality and oil traits. The results obtained show that there is only a minor decrease in percent protein or yield of protein per hectare caused by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition, compared with its normal counterpart. On the other hand, percent lysine in the whole kernel, lysine yield per hectare and percent lysine in protein are increased by 53, 45 and 55 percent, respectively, in the o 2 inbred lines and hybrids compared with their normal analogues. Percent oil and oil yield remain almost unaltered by the presence or absence of the o 2 gene. As well as lysine, the content of other amino acids, such as aspartic acid, arginine, glycine, threonine, valine and histidine are also, in general, increased by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition.The results obtained have shown that a number of correlation coefficients between the protein quality traits and yield components related to kernel characteristics are negative and significant, especially in the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition. Only two correlation coefficients have been found that could be used with advantage by opaque-2 maize breeders. They are a stronger positive correlation of percent protein with percent lysine, and lysine yield per hectare with 1000 grain weight, in o 2 maize than in normal maize.The results presented here also show that there is more heterotic dilution in the o 2 hybrids than in the normal analogues for traits like percent protein, percent lysine (whole kernel basis) and percent lysine in protein. It has been observed that the inbred lines with the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition and a superior protein quality tend to produce hybrids of superior quality.

  8. Identifying emotional adaptation: behavioural habituation to novelty and immediate early gene expression in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, A R; van Luijk, J A K R; Reinders, N R; Kirchhoff, S; Arndt, S S; Ohl, F

    2010-02-01

    Normal anxiety is an adaptive emotional response. However, when anxiety appears to lack adaptive value, it might be defined as pathological. Adaptation in animals can be assessed for example by changes in behavioural responses over time, i.e. habituation. We hypothesize that non-adaptive anxiety might be reflected by impaired habituation. To test our hypothesis, we repeatedly exposed male mice from two inbred strains to a novel environment, the modified hole board. BALB/cJ mice were found to be initially highly anxious, but subsequently habituated to the test environment. In contrast, 129P3/J mice initially showed less anxiety-related behaviour compared with the BALB/cJ mice but no habituation in anxiety-related behaviour was observed. Notably, anxiety-related behaviour even increased during the experimental period. Complementary, 129P3/J mice did not show habituation in other parameters such as locomotor and exploratory activity, whereas significant changes appeared in these behaviours in BALB/c mice. Finally, the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos differed between the two strains in distinct brain areas, known to regulate the integration of emotional and cognitive processes. These results suggest that 129P3/J mice might be a promising (neuro)-behavioural animal model for non-adaptive, i.e. pathological anxiety.

  9. Genome-Wide QTL Mapping for Wheat Processing Quality Parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Zhai, Shengnan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zhiyong; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), and Mixolab parameters using the wheat 90 and 660 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90 and 660 K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1046 and 5550 markers from the 90 and 660 K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat. PMID:27486464

  10. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies.

  11. Disease Resistance to Multiple Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Evaluated Using a Recombinant Inbred Line Population in Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Granke, L L; Fry, J; Hill, T A; Ashrafi, H; Van Deynze, A; Hausbeck, M K

    2017-10-02

    Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or "hot spots" of the genome with closely linked genes for resistance to different pathogens that could enable rapid incorporation of resistance. An F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred line population from a cross between 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (CMM334) and 'Early Jalapeno' was evaluated in inoculated fruit studies for susceptibility to oomycete and fungal pathogens: Phytophthora capsici, P. nicotianae, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria spp., Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, and Colletotrichum acutatum. All isolates evaluated were virulent on pepper. Significant differences in disease susceptibility were identified among lines for each of the pathogens evaluated. P. capsici was the most virulent pathogen, while R. oryzae and one Sclerotinia isolate were the least virulent. Quantitative trait loci associated with resistance were identified for Alternaria spp. and S. sclerotiorum. Positive correlations in disease incidence were detected between Alternaria spp. and F. oxysporum, F. solani, and C. acutatum, as well as between C. acutatum and Botrytis spp., F. oxysporum, F. solani, and P. capsici. No sites of MDR were identified for pathogens tested; however, positive correlations in disease incidence were detected among pathogens suggesting there may be genetic linkage among resistance genes in CM334 and Early Jalapeno.

  12. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  13. Cross-Breeding Is Inevitable to Conserve the Highly Inbred Population of Puffin Hunter: The Norwegian Lundehund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Anne; Daverdin, Marc; Helfjord, Turid; Berg, Peer

    2017-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund is a highly endangered native dog breed. Low fertility and high frequency predisposition to intestinal disorder imply inbreeding depression. We assessed the genetic diversity of the Lundehund population from pedigree data and evaluated the potential of optimal contribution selection and cross-breeding in the long-term management of the Lundehund population. The current Norwegian Lundehund population is highly inbred and has lost 38.8% of the genetic diversity in the base population. Effective population size estimates varied between 13 and 82 depending on the method used. Optimal contribution selection alone facilitates no improvement in the current situation in the Lundehund due to the extremely high relatedness of the whole population. Addition of (replacement with) 10 breeding candidates of foreign breed to 30 Lundehund breeders reduced the parental additive genetic relationship by 40-42% (48-53%). Immediate actions are needed to increase the genetic diversity in the current Lundehund population. The only option to secure the conservation of this rare breed is to introduce individuals from foreign breeds as breeding candidates.

  14. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”

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    Soon-Wook Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu, total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein.

  15. Metastable differentially methylated regions within Arabidopsis inbred populations are associated with modified expression of non-coding transcripts.

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    Ericka R Havecker

    Full Text Available Individual plants within a population may vary at both genetic and epigenetic levels. The rate of genetic divergence and its underlying mechanisms is well understood. Less is known about the factors contributing to epigenetic divergence among isogenic populations except that, despite the presence of mechanisms that faithfully maintain epigenetic marks, epigenetic differences are more frequent than genetic variation. Epigenetically divergent stretches of isogenic DNA sequence are called epialleles. Currently, it is not clear why certain regions exhibit variable epigenetic status. We identified and characterised two long RNA transcripts with altered expression and DNA methylation in an ago5 mutant. However, further investigation revealed that these changes were not dependent upon AGO5. Rather, the variable transcription of these loci in Arabidopsis mutant and wild-type populations corresponds to spontaneous differential methylated regions (DMRs or epialleles. These two DMRs are delineated by RNAs which are highly expressed when the DMR is hypomethylated. Furthermore, they control the expression of 5' transcriptional start site mRNA variants of nearby protein coding genes. Our data support the recent observations that meiotically stable DMRs exist within inbred populations. We further demonstrate that DMR boundaries can be defined by putative non-coding promoter-associated transcripts.

  16. In vivo characterization of brain morphometric and metabolic endophenotypes in three inbred strains of mice using magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Laigle, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Heurteaux, Catherine; Cozzone, Patrick J; Viola, Angèle

    2006-09-01

    C57BL6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice are commonly used as background strains to engineer genetic models of brain pathologies and psychiatric disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy provide alternative approaches to neuroanatomy, histology and neurohistochemistry for investigating the correlation between genes and brain neuroanatomy and neurometabolism in vivo. We used these techniques to non-invasively characterize the cerebral morphologic and metabolic endophenotypes of inbred mouse strains commonly used in neurological and behavioral research. We observed a great variability in the volume of ventricles and of structures involved in cognitive function (cerebellum and hippocampus) among these strains. In addition, distinct metabolic profiles were evidenced with variable levels of N-acetylaspartate, a neuronal marker, and of choline, a compound found in membranes and myelin. Besides, significant differences in high-energy phosphates and phospholipids were detected. Our findings demonstrate the great morphologic and metabolic heterogeneity among C57BL/ 6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice. They emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate genetic background for over-expressing or silencing a gene and provide some directions for modeling symptoms that characterize psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and depression.

  17. Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to infection with three species of Metagonimus prevalent in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Sang-Mee; Park, Jin-Young; Seo, Min; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2005-02-01

    Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to Metagonimus yokogawai, Metagonimus miyatai, and Metagonimus takahashii infections was studied using BALB/c, ddY, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeN, and A/J mice, with H-2 haplotypes d, s, b, k, and a, respectively. Two hundred metacercariae were orally fed to each mouse, and the worm recovery rates (WRR), worm dimensions, and intrauterine egg numbers were measured at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postinfection (PI). On day 14 PI, the WRR of M. yokogawai was highest in ddY mice (average, 62.2%); those of M. miyatai and M. takahashii were highest in ddY (19.5%) and BALB/c mice (10.4%), respectively; worm maturation was best in C3H/HeN (M. yokogawai), C57BL/6J (M. miyatai), and ddY mice (M. takahashii). All mouse strains showed higher susceptibility to infection with M. yokogawai than with M. miyatai or M. takahashii. The results show that susceptibility of mice to Metagonimus infection varies according to mouse strain and parasite species but is suggested to be independent of the mouse H-2 haplotype.

  18. Relationship between parasite load and immune responses in early stages of Leishmania donovani infection in inbred BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahinya, D N; Mbati, P A; Jomo, P M; Githure, J I

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between Leishmania donovani parasite load and the corresponding humoral and cellular mediated immune responses in the early stages of Leishmania donovani infection in inbred BALB/c mice. Five groups of ten BALB/c mice each were inoculated intraperitoneally with stationary phase metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania donovani at doses 1 x 10(2), 1 x 10(4), 10(6) and 1 x 10(8) respectively per mouse. Group five mice were not manipulated in any way and were left to serve as control. At weekly intervals, for five weeks, the mice were assayed for cellular mediated immune responses to leishmania antigen by the delayed type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH) and humoral responses by the direct agglutination test (DAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A correlation was established between parasite load and humoral responses as assayed by DAT and ELISA techniques. This study demonstrates that it is possible to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis in experimentally infected laboratory mice by DAT and ELISA. These techniques have the potential in screening large numbers of animals suspected to be reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis by examining the peripheral blood taken from the tail of the animal.

  19. Two inbred rat strains contrasting for anxiety-related behaviors show similar levels of defensive responses to cat odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos André

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rodents are known to display fear-related responses when exposed to the odor of natural predators, such as cats, even when they are totally naïve to these stimuli. Based on that, a behavioral test in which rats are exposed to cat odor has been developed and proposed to model some forms of anxiety. The objective of the present study was thus to compare the LEW (Lewis and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats inbred rat strains, which display genetic differences in other classical models of anxiety, in the cat odor test. As expected, cat odor produced an increase in fear-related behaviors. However, no clear differences were found between the two strains tested. These results suggest that the type of stress experienced by LEW and SHR strains exposed to cat odor is different from that elicited by exposure to classical models of anxiety such as the elevated plus-maze, black/white box and open-field tests.

  20. Cross-Breeding Is Inevitable to Conserve the Highly Inbred Population of Puffin Hunter: The Norwegian Lundehund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kettunen

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Lundehund is a highly endangered native dog breed. Low fertility and high frequency predisposition to intestinal disorder imply inbreeding depression. We assessed the genetic diversity of the Lundehund population from pedigree data and evaluated the potential of optimal contribution selection and cross-breeding in the long-term management of the Lundehund population. The current Norwegian Lundehund population is highly inbred and has lost 38.8% of the genetic diversity in the base population. Effective population size estimates varied between 13 and 82 depending on the method used. Optimal contribution selection alone facilitates no improvement in the current situation in the Lundehund due to the extremely high relatedness of the whole population. Addition of (replacement with 10 breeding candidates of foreign breed to 30 Lundehund breeders reduced the parental additive genetic relationship by 40-42% (48-53%. Immediate actions are needed to increase the genetic diversity in the current Lundehund population. The only option to secure the conservation of this rare breed is to introduce individuals from foreign breeds as breeding candidates.

  1. Identification of full-length proviral DNA of porcine endogenous retrovirus from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuyuan; Lv, Maomin; Xu, Shu; Wu, Jianmin; Tian, Kegong; Zhang, Jingang

    2010-07-01

    Existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) hinders pigs to be used in clinical xenotransplantation to alleviate the shortage of human transplants. Chinese miniature pigs are potential organ donors for xenotransplantation in China. However, so far, an adequate level of information on the molecular characteristics of PERV from Chinese miniature pigs has not been available. We described here the cloning and characterization of full-length proviral DNA of PERV from Chinese Wuzhishan miniature pigs inbred (WZSP). Full-length nucleotide sequences of PERV-WZSP and other PERVs were aligned and phylogenetic tree was constructed from deduced amino-acid sequences of env. The results demonstrated that the full-length proviral DNA of PERV-WZSP belongs to gammaretrovirus and shares high similarity with other PERVs. Sequence analysis also suggested that different patterns of LTR existed in the same porcine germ line and partial PERV-C sequence may recombine with PERV-A sequence in LTR. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  3. Effect of indica pedigree on eating and cooking quality in rice backcross inbred lines of indica and japonica crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2017-12-01

    Amylopectin is one of the major determinants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain quality, and a large difference in amylopectin is found between two subspecies: japonica and indica. However, the relationship among rice grain quality, indica/japonica genetic background, and amylopectin has not been clearly established. In this study, a series of backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between japonica (cv. Sasanishiki) and indica (cv. Habataki) were used to survey eating and cooking quality (ECQ), rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profiles, and the chain length distribution of amylopectin. The frequency of indica pedigree (Fi) was calculated to analyze the effects of Fi on grain quality and amylopectin. The results showed that the Sasanishiki cultivar was markedly enriched in chain length with DP6-15 and DP34-45 compared to the Habataki. DP34-45 strongly correlated to RVA characteristics, cooking quality, and prolamin content. The Fi also has significant correlations to RVA characteristics and ECQ, but only significantly negative correlation to DP34-45. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) corresponding to amylopectin were mapped, of which three were in agreement with previous findings. The results of this study provide valuable information for amylopectin characteristics in the offspring derived from the subspecies cross, and the novel QTLs may provide new insights to the identification of minor starch synthesis-related genes.

  4. Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds : II. Relation to performance of hybrids within versus between heterotic groups for forage traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Dhillon, B S; Pollmer, W G; Herrmann, R G

    1992-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments in the Federal Republic of Germany. Midparent heterosis (MPH) and specific combining ability (SCA) were calculated. Genetic distances (GD) between lines were calculated from RFLP data of 194 clone-enzyme combinations. GDs were greater for flint x dent than for flint x flint and dent x dent line combinations. Cluster analysis based on GDs showed separate groupings of flint and dent lines and agreed with pedigree information, except for 1 inbred. GDs of all line combinations in the diallel were partitioned into general (GGD) and specific (SGD) genetic distances; GGD explained approximately 20% of the variation among GD values. For the 62 diallel crosses (excluding 4 crosses of highly related lines), correlations of GD with F1 performance, MPH, and SCA for dry matter yield (DMY) of stover, ear, and forage were positive but mostly of moderate size (0.09≤r≤0.60) compared with the higher correlations (0.39≤r≤0.77) of SGD with these traits. When separate calculations were performed for various subsets, correlations of GD and SGD with DMY traits were generally small (r<0.47) for the 36 flint x dent crosses, significantly positive (r<0.53) for the 14 flint x flint crosses, and inconclusive for the 12 dent x dent crosses because of the lack of significant genotypic variation. Results indicated that RFLPs can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. RFLP-based genetic distance measures seem to be useful for predicting forage yield of (1) crosses between lines from the same germ plasm group or (2) crosses including line combinations from the same as well as different heterotic groups

  5. Discrimination against 15N among recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contrasting in phosphorus use efficiency for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Bargaz, Adnane; Carlsson, Georg; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-02-15

    Although isotopic discrimination processes during nitrogen (N) transformations influence the outcome of (15)N based quantification of N2 fixation in legumes, little attention has been given to the effects of genotypic variability and environmental constraints such as phosphorus (P) deficiency, on discrimination against (15)N during N2 fixation. In this study, six Phaseolus vulgaris recombinant inbred lines (RILs), i.e. RILs 115, 104, 34 (P deficiency tolerant) and 147, 83, 70 (P deficiency sensitive), were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and hydroaeroponically grown with P-sufficient (250 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)) versus P-deficient (75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)) supply. Two harvests were done at 15 (before nodule functioning) and 42 (flowering stage) days after transplanting. Nodulation, plant biomass, P and N contents, and the ratios of (15)N over total N content ((15)N/Nt) for shoots, roots and nodules were determined. The results showed lower (15)N/Nt in shoots than in roots, both being much lower than in nodules. P deficiency caused a larger decrease in (15)N/Nt in shoots (-0.18%) than in nodules (-0.11%) for all of the genotypes, and the decrease in shoots was greatest for RILs 34 (-0.33%) and 104 (-0.25%). Nodule (15)N/Nt was significantly related to both the quantity of N2 fixed (R(2)=0.96***) and the P content of nodules (R(2)=0.66*). We conclude that the discrimination against (15)N in the legume N2-fixing symbiosis of common bean with R. tropici CIAT899 is affected by P nutrition and plant genotype, and that the (15)N/Nt in nodules may be used to screen for genotypic variation in P use efficiency for N2 fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  7. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

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    Maarten Loos

    Full Text Available Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ. Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery.

  8. Genome-wide QTL mapping for wheat processing quality parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 recombinant inbred line population

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    Hui Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA and Mixolab parameters using 90K and 660K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90K and 660K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4,121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6,596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1,046 and 5,550 markers from the 90K and 660K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat.

  9. Expression of social behaviors of C57BL/6J versus BTBR inbred mouse strains in the visible burrow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Mouse models with behavioral phenotypes relevant to these core symptoms offer an experimental approach to advance the investigation of genes associated with ASD. Previous findings demonstrate that BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of ASD. In the present study, we investigated the expression of social behaviors in a semi-natural visible burrow system (VBS), during colony formation and maintenance in groups comprising three adult male mice of the same strain, either C57BL/6J (B6) or BTBR. For comparative purposes, an extensively investigated three-chambered test was subsequently used to assess social approach in both strains. The effects of strain on these two situations were consistent and highly significant. In the VBS, BTBR mice showed reductions in all interactive behaviors: approach (front and back), flight, chase/follow, allo-grooming and huddling, along with increases in self-grooming and alone, as compared to B6. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: in contrast to B6, male BTBR mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing the unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. Overall, the present data indicates that the strain profile for BTBR mice, including consistent social deficits and high levels of repetitive self-grooming, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. PMID:20600340

  10. Learning, memory and search strategies of inbred mouse strains with different visual abilities in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Savoie, Vicki; Brown, Richard E

    2011-01-20

    Visuo-spatial learning and memory were assessed in male and female mice of 13 inbred strains on a small diameter mouse version of the Barnes maze surrounded by a wall and intra-maze visual cues. Mice completed acquisition and reversal training to assess learning, followed by a probe test to assess memory for the spatial location of the escape hole. The C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ strains showed better learning performance than the other strains. A/J and 129/SvImJ strains showed poor learning performance, which may be due to their low rates of exploration. No differences in memory were found between strains in the probe test. Males showed better learning performance than females in the DBA/2J and C3H/HeJ strains, but there were no sex differences in the other strains. However, mice may not have used visuo-spatial cues to locate the escape hole in this maze, as (1) all strains primarily used the non-spatial serial/thigmotaxic search strategy, (2) no strains showed a reversal effect when the escape hole location was moved, and (3) learning and memory performance were not correlated with measures of visual ability. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicated that mice with good visual ability performed better than mice with poor visual ability, but the effect sizes were small. The small diameter of the maze and the presence of a wall around the edge of the maze may promote thigmotaxis in mice, increasing the use of a non-visual search strategy, thereby reducing the influence of vision on performance and decreasing the sensitivity of this maze design to detect strain differences in visuo-spatial learning and memory. These results indicate that the design of the Barnes maze has a significant effect on learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Cephalosporium stripe resistance quantitative trait loci in two recombinant inbred line populations of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-02-01

    Identification of genome regions linked to Cephalosporium stripe resistance across two populations on chromosome 3BS, 4BS, 5AL, C5BL. Results were compared to a similar previous study. Cephalosporium stripe is a vascular wilt disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the soil-borne fungus Cephalosporium gramineum Nisikado & Ikata. In the USA it is known to be a recurring disease when susceptible cultivars are grown in the wheat-growing region of Midwest and Pacific Northwest. There is no complete resistance in commercial wheat cultivars, although the use of moderately resistant cultivars reduces the disease severity and the amount of inoculum in subsequent seasons. The goal of this study was to detect and to compare chromosomal regions for resistance to Cephalosporium stripe in two winter wheat populations. Field inoculation was performed and Cephalosporium stripe severity was visually scored as percent of prematurely ripening heads (whiteheads) per plot. 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs', each comprising a cross of a resistant and a susceptible cultivar, with population sizes of 271 and 259 F (5:6) recombinant inbred lines, respectively, were genotyped and phenotyped across four environments. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, six and nine QTL were found, explaining in total, around 30 and 50 % of the phenotypic variation in 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs', respectively. The QTL with the largest effect from both 'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein' was on chromosome 5AL.1 and linked to marker gwm291. Several QTL with smaller effects were identified in both populations on chromosomes 5AL, 6BS, and 3BS, along with other QTL identified in just one population. These results indicate that resistance to Cephalosporium stripe in both mapping populations was of a quantitative nature.

  12. Joint Analysis of Near-Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for Quantitative Trait Loci

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    Kristen L. Kump

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Data generated for initial quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL populations are usually ignored during subsequent fine-mapping using near-isogenic lines (NILs. Combining both datasets would increase the number of recombination events sampled and generate better position and effect estimates. Previously, several QTL for resistance to southern leaf blight of maize were mapped in two RIL populations, each independently derived from a cross between the lines B73 and Mo17. In each case the largest QTL was in bin 3.04. Here, two NIL pairs differing for this QTL were derived and used to create two distinct F family populations that were assessed for southern leaf blight (SLB resistance. By accounting for segregation of the other QTL in the original RIL data, we were able to combine these data with the new genotypic and phenotypic data from the F families. Joint analysis yielded a narrower QTL support interval compared to that derived from analysis of any one of the data sets alone, resulting in the localization of the QTL to a less than 0.5 cM interval. Candidate genes identified within this interval are discussed. This methodology allows combined QTL analysis in which data from RIL populations is combined with data derived from NIL populations segregating for the same pair of alleles. It improves mapping resolution over the conventional approach with virtually no additional resources. Because data sets of this type are commonly produced, this approach is likely to prove widely applicable.

  13. Sub-clinical infection with Salmonella in chickens differentially affects behaviour and welfare in three inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M J; Sait, L; Jørgensen, F; Nicol, C J; Powers, C; Smith, A L; Bailey, M; Humphrey, T J

    2010-12-01

    1. Much evidence exists detailing how animals respond to pathogen challenge, yet information explaining how the various behavioural, immunological, and physiological systems in chickens interplay during such challenges remains limited. 2. To gain an understanding of this interplay while controlling for genetic variation, the current study collected a variety of behavioural, physiological and immunological measures from three inbred lines (P, O and N) of laying hens before and after a sub-clinical infection with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium at 56 d of age. For comparison, an equal number of control birds were inoculated with a Salmonella-free broth. To identify an underlying profile, which might result in reduced susceptibility to infection, data were also collected in the pre-infection period. Post-infection blood and faeces were collected at 1-d post infection (dpi) and faeces again at 8 dpi. Animals were killed 15 d after infection and faeces, caecal contents, and spleen were examined for the presence of Salmonella. 3. Statistical analysis was performed to identify pre- and post-infection differences between genetic lines, changes in bird behavioural patterns between the two periods, and associations between a positive test for Salmonella and the various response measures. 4. Tissues from Line P birds were more often negative for Salmonella than those from birds of other lines, though this was inconsistent and tissue-dependent. The P line was also characterised by relatively greater serum concentrations of immunoglobulins at 1 dpi and α(1)-acid glycoprotein at 15 dpi. In addition, P line birds were more timid and their growth was reduced during the pre-infection period suggesting the possibility of a profile with reduced susceptibility to the bacterial challenge. 5. The current work has identified correlations between attributes of chicken strains and improved clearance. Future work using hypothesis-based testing will be required to determine whether the

  14. Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain.

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    Camp, M; Norcross, M; Whittle, N; Feyder, M; D'Hanis, W; Yilmazer-Hanke, D; Singewald, N; Holmes, A

    2009-11-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared with C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain's four different genetic lineages (parental, steel, teratoma and contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. On the basis of these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e. five x higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data show that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process.

  15. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

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    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  16. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

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    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  17. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  18. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Genetic studies of acute tolerance, rapid tolerance, and drinking in the dark in the LXS recombinant inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Richard A; Larson, Colin; Bennett, Beth

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that rapid tolerance (1-day tolerance) for the duration of the loss of righting reflex ("sleep time" [ST]) was mediated by an increase in acute functional tolerance (AFT). We also hypothesized that increased AFT would correspond to increased drinking. These questions were addressed using the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strain panel. Mice were given a pretreatment dose of either saline or 5 g/kg alcohol on day 1. On day 2, mice were tested for ST (4.1 g/kg) using a method with which it is possible to accurately assess AFT. Genetic correlation analysis was conducted among the ST-related variables and also with "drinking in the dark" (DID) which was previously measured by Saba and colleagues (2011). Saline-pretreated mice showed a continuous distribution of ST ranging from ~40 minutes to over 3 hours. Of the 43 strains tested, 9 showed significantly decreased ST after alcohol pretreatment, while in 3 strains, ST was significantly increased. AFT scores ranged from 0 to over 200 mg% in the saline group, and in the alcohol group, 8 strains showed a significant increase in AFT and 2 strains showed significant decrease in AFT. In the saline group, AFT was significantly correlated with ST (r = -0.47), but not in the alcohol group (r = -0.22). DID was significantly correlated with only AFT in the alcohol pretreated group (r = 0.64). The results suggest that AFT is an important component of the overall ST response, but that the alcohol pretreatment-induced change in AFT does not contribute to rapid ST tolerance. The significant correlation between DID and AFT in the alcohol group suggests that AFT may be a more relevant predictor of drinking behavior than the static measurement of ST. Moreover, preexposure to alcohol seems to change AFT in a way that makes it an even stronger predictor of drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Genetics of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of the WAG/Rij inbred rat strain: a classical mendelian crossbreeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, B W; Kerbusch, J M; Coenen, A M; Vossen, J M; van Luijtelaar, E L

    1992-05-01

    The WAG inbred strain might be an animal model for human absence epilepsy. To study the inheritance pattern of absence epilepsy, WAG rats were crossbred, in a classical Mendelian way, with inbred ACI rats which show no signs of epilepsy. In the parental strains, reciprocal F1 hybrids, F2, B1, and B2 generations, the number and duration of spike-wave discharges were determined. One hundred percent of the F1 animals showed spike-wave discharges, while the percentages for the F2, B1, and B2 generations were 79, 95, and 37%, respectively. These results suggest that the occurrence of spike-wave discharges is determined by one gene with a dominant mode of inheritance. Cavalli's least-squares fitting procedure suggested different genetic models for the two parameters (number and duration) during the two periods (dark and light). These results confirm our previous findings (Peeters et al., Behav. Genet. 20, 453-460, 1990) that a number of genes are involved in absence epilepsy. One dominant gene appears to determine the occurrence, however, while others manipulate the number and duration of epileptic phenomena during the two periods dark and light.

  1. Highly Variable Genomic Landscape of Endogenous Retroviruses in the C57BL/6J Inbred Strain, Depending on Individual Mouse, Gender, Organ Type, and Organ Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Greenhalgh, David

    2017-01-01

    Transposable repetitive elements, named the “TREome,” represent ~40% of the mouse genome. We postulate that the germ line genome undergoes temporal and spatial diversification into somatic genomes in conjunction with the TREome activity. C57BL/6J inbred mice were subjected to genomic landscape analyses using a TREome probe from murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs). None shared the same MLV-ERV landscape within each comparison group: (1) sperm and 18 tissues from one mouse, (2) six brain compartments from two females, (3) spleen and thymus samples from four age groups, (4) three spatial tissue sets from two females, and (5) kidney and liver samples from three females and three males. Interestingly, males had more genomic MLV-ERV copies than females; moreover, only in the males, the kidneys had higher MLV-ERV copies than the livers. Perhaps, the mouse-, gender-, and tissue/cell-dependent MLV-ERV landscapes are linked to the individual-specific and dynamic phenotypes of the C57BL/6J inbred population. PMID:28951865

  2. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A mouse model system for genetic analysis of sociability: C57BL/6J versus BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Kaercher, Kristin A; Boon, Catherine J; Lee, Jin Kyoung; Brodkin, Edward S

    2006-03-01

    Impairments in social behaviors are highly disabling symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Mouse model systems are useful for identifying the many genes and environmental factors likely to affect complex behaviors, such as sociability (the tendency to seek social interaction). To progress toward developing such a model system, we tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J inbred mice show higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ inbred mice. Mice tested for sociability were 4- and 9-week-old, male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. On 2 consecutive days, the sociability of each test mouse toward an unfamiliar 4-week-old DBA/2J stimulus mouse was assessed with a social choice paradigm conducted in a three-chambered apparatus. Measures of sociability included the time that the test mouse spent near versus far from the stimulus mouse, the time spent directly sniffing the stimulus mouse, and the time spent in contact between test and stimulus mice in a free interaction. C57BL/6J mice showed higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ mice overall in each of these measures. We propose that C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice will be a useful mouse model system for future genetic and neurobiological studies of sociability.

  4. Genetic variation and population structure of maize inbred lines adapted to the mid-altitude sub-humid maize agro-ecology of Ethiopia using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertiro, Berhanu Tadesse; Semagn, Kassa; Das, Biswanath; Olsen, Michael; Labuschagne, Maryke; Worku, Mosisa; Wegary, Dagne; Azmach, Girum; Ogugo, Veronica; Keno, Tolera; Abebe, Beyene; Chibsa, Temesgen; Menkir, Abebe

    2017-10-12

    Molecular characterization is important for efficient utilization of germplasm and development of improved varieties. In the present study, we investigated the genetic purity, relatedness and population structure of 265 maize inbred lines from the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) using 220,878 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers obtained using genotyping by sequencing (GBS). Only 22% of the inbred lines were considered pure with population structure analysis consistently suggested the presence of three groups, which generally agreed with pedigree information (genetic background). Although not distinct enough, the SNP markers showed some level of separation between the two CIMMYT heterotic groups A and B established based on pedigree and combining ability information. The high level of heterogeneity detected in most of the inbred lines suggested the requirement for purification or further inbreeding except those deliberately maintained at early inbreeding level. The genetic distance and relative kinship analysis clearly indicated the uniqueness of most of the inbred lines in the maize germplasm available for breeders in the mid-altitude maize breeding program of Ethiopia. Results from the present study facilitate the maize breeding work in Ethiopia and germplasm exchange among breeding programs in Africa. We suggest the incorporation of high density molecular marker information in future heterotic group assignments.

  5. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

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    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  6. Mus Spretus Line-1s in the Mus Musculus Domesticus Inbred Strain C57bl/6j Are from Two Different Mus Spretus Line-1 Subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L. P.; Hardies, S. C.

    1996-01-01

    A LINE-1 element, L1C105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions. PMID:8852852

  7. Genetic variation in body weight gain and composition in the intercross of Large (LG/J and Small (SM/J inbred strains of mice

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    Kramer Melissa G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain intercross experiments provide a powerful means for mapping genes affecting complex quantitative traits. We report on the genetic variability of the intercross of the Large (LG/J and Small (SM/J inbred mouse strains as a guide to gene mapping studies. Ten SM/J males were crossed to 10 LG/J females, after which animals were randomly mated to produce F1, F2, and F3 intercross generations. The 1632 F3 animals from 200 full-sib families were used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations of the traits measured. A subset of families was cross-fostered at birth to allow measurement of the importance of post-natal maternal effects. Data was collected on weekly body weight from one to 10 weeks and on organ weights, body weight, reproductive fat pad weight, and tail length at necropsy in the intercross generations. There was no heterosis for age-specific weights or necropsy traits, except that one-week weight was the highest in the F2 generation, indicating heterosis for maternal effect in the F1 mothers. We found moderate to high heritability for most age-specific weights and necropsy traits. Maternal effects were significant for age-specific weights from one to four weeks but disappeared completely at ten-week weight. Maternal effects for necropsy traits were low and not statistically significant. Age-specific weights showed a typical correlation pattern, with correlation declining as the difference in ages increased. Among necropsy traits, reproductive fat pad and body weights were very highly genetically correlated. Most other genetic correlations were low to moderate. The intercross between SM/J and LG/J inbred mouse strains provides a valuable resource for mapping quantitative trait loci for body size, composition, and morphology

  8. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

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    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  9. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-Ichi

    2012-11-06

    Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele) and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele). These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone. Identifying the genes responsible for the QTLs will be

  10. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes associated with vacuolation in the adrenal X-zone of the DDD/Sgn inbred mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto Jun-ichi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal gland of mice contains a transient zone between the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla: the X-zone. There are clear strain differences in terms of X-zone morphology. Nulliparous females of the inbred mouse DDD strain develop adrenal X-zones containing exclusively vacuolated cells, whereas females of the inbred mouse B6 strain develop X-zones containing only non-vacuolated cells. The X-zone vacuolation is a physiologic process associated with the X-zone degeneration and is tightly regulated by genetic factors. Identification of the genetic factors controlling such strain differences should help analyze the X-zone function. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis for the extent of X-zone vacuolation was performed for two types of F2 female mice: F2Ay mice (F2 mice with the Ay allele and F2 non-Ay mice (F2 mice without the Ay allele. These were produced by crossing B6 females and DDD.Cg-Ay males. DDD.Cg-Ay is a congenic mouse strain for the Ay allele at the agouti locus and is used for this study because a close association between the X-zone morphology and the agouti locus genotype has been suggested. The Ay allele is dominant and homozygous lethal; therefore, living Ay mice are invariably heterozygotes. Results Single QTL scans identified significant QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and X for F2 non-Ay mice, and on chromosomes 2, 6, and 12 for F2Ay mice. The QTL on chromosome 2 was considered to be because of the agouti locus, which has been suggested to be associated with X-zone vacuolation. A significant QTL that interacted with the agouti locus was identified on chromosome 8. Conclusions The extent of X-zone vacuolation in DDD females was controlled by multiple genes with complex interactions. The murine X-zone is considered analogous structure to the human fetal zone. Therefore, the results of this study will aid in understanding function of not only of the X-zone but also of the human fetal zone

  11. BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Tamar T.; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S + S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S + S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S + S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S + S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S + S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S + S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose. PMID:26485292

  12. Targeted Recombinant Progeny: a design for ultra-high resolution mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in crosses between inbred or pure lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Eliyahu M; Soller, Morris

    2015-07-07

    High-resolution mapping of the loci (QTN) responsible for genetic variation in quantitative traits is essential for positional cloning of candidate genes, and for effective marker assisted selection. The confidence interval (QTL) flanking the point estimate of QTN-location is proportional to the number of individuals in the mapping population carrying chromosomes recombinant in the given interval. Consequently, many designs for high resolution QTN mapping are based on increasing the proportion of recombinants in the mapping population. The "Targeted Recombinant Progeny" (TRP) design is a new design for high resolution mapping of a target QTN in crosses between pure, or inbred lines. It is a three-generation procedure generating a large number of recombinant individuals within a QTL previously shown to contain a QTN. This is achieved by having individuals that carry chromosomes recombinant across the target QTL interval as parents of a large mapping population; most of whom will therefore carry recombinant chromosomes targeted to the given QTL. The TRP design is particularly useful for high resolution mapping of QTN that differentiate inbred or pure lines, and hence are not amenable to high resolution mapping by genome-wide association tests. In the absence of residual polygenic variation, population sizes required for achieving given mapping resolution by the TRP-F2 design relative to a standard F2 design ranged from 0.289 for a QTN with standardized allele substitution effect = 0.2, mapped to an initial QTL of 0.2 Morgan to 0.041 for equivalent QTN mapped to an initial QTL of 0.02 M. In the presence of residual polygenic variation, the relative effectiveness of the TRP design ranges from 1.068 to 0.151 for the same initial QTL intervals and QTN effect. Thus even in the presence of polygenic variation, the TRP can still provide major savings. Simulation showed that mapping by TRP should be based on 30-50 markers spanning the initial interval; and on at least 50 or

  13. Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC2F2 population and comparison with its F2:3 population in popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; Niu, S Z; Dong, Y B; Cui, D Q; Wang, Y Z; Liu, Y Y; Wei, M G

    2007-06-01

    Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent corn inbred. A second objective was to compare the detection of QTL in the BC2F2 population with results using F(2:3) lines of the same parents. Two hundred and twenty selected BC2F2 families developed from a cross between Dan232 and an elite popcorn inbred N04 were evaluated for six grain yield components under two environments, and genotyped by means of 170 SSR markers. Using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 19 significant QTL were detected. Eighteen QTL had favorable alleles contributed by the dent corn parent Dan232. Sixteen of these favorable QTL alleles were not in the same or near marker intervals with QTL for popping characteristics. Six QTL were also detected in the F(2:3) population. Improved N04 could be developed from 210 and 208 families with higher grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight, respectively, and 35 families with the same or higher popping expansion volume than N04. In addition, near isogenic lines containing detected QTL (QTL-NILs) for grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight could be obtained from 12 families. Our study demonstrated that the AB-QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate favorable QTL alleles from normal corn inbreds and combine QTL detection and popcorn breeding efficiently.

  14. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Actual prestigious properties of maize inbred lines: A good initial basis for the efficient development of new and yielding maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Čedomir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conforms our hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines, which can be considered actual and prestigious as they have not only a property of the water status and a greater grain dry down rate during the maturation period, but also a property of the efficient photosynthetic-fluorescence model that is successfully used in the contemporary processes of breeding, and thereby in the development of new and yielding maize hybrids. Presented results obtained on the dynamics of grain dry down during the maturation period and on photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters (temperature dependence of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of critical temperatures, i.e. phase transition temperatures and the activation energy show that properties of the observed inbreeds are based on effects and nature of conformational and functional changes occurring in their thylakoid membranes and other chemical structures of grain tissues. Summarized results of studies on actual and prestigious properties of maize inbreeds will contribute to more exact, rational and expeditious proceedings of contemporary processes of breeding.

  16. Quantitative trait loci underlying resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) in MD96-5722 by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line population of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K

    2015-04-01

    The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.

  17. UVB dose-toxicity thresholds and steady-state DNA-photoproduct levels during chronic irradiation of inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelova, Iovanna; Hewitt, Stephen R; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Hays, John B

    2006-01-01

    Environmental stressors that severely impact some species more than others can alter ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. Genotoxic stress, such as solar UV-B irradiance, may induce levels of DNA damage at rates that exceed repair capacities in some species but remain below repair capacities in other species. Repair rates would seem to establish toxicity thresholds. We used inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles in the laboratory to test the hypothesis that balances between rates of induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs; the major UV-B photoproduct in DNA) and rates of CPD removal (repair) can determine UV-B toxicity thresholds. As rates of chronic UV-B irradiance were progressively increased by decreased shielding of lamps, survival decreased sharply over a relatively narrow range of dose rates. Apparent toxicity thresholds were associated with large increases in steady-state CPD levels. Induction at twice the measured removal (repair) rate produced sustained high CPDs and 100% mortality. Induction at one-half the removal rate resulted in negligible CPD levels and low mortality. Increased intensity of visible radiation available to drive CPD photoreactivation, mimicking interspecies variation in DNA repair capacity, reduced steady-state CPD levels and increased survival at UV-B dose rates that were previously toxic, resulting in increased thresholds of apparent toxicity. We suggest that threshold effects due to DNA repair should generally be considered in assessments of effects of genotoxic agents on species-specific population decreases and human health risks.

  18. Different effect of chronic stress on learning and memory in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice: Involvement of hippocampal NO production and PKC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, María Laura; Zorrilla Zubilete, María Aurelia; Cremaschi, Graciela Alicia; Genaro, Ana María

    2009-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been involved in many pathophysiological brain processes. Recently, we showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated decrease in NO production is involved in memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress (CMS) in BALB/c mice. Two genetically different inbred murine strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, show distinct behavioral responses, neurodevelopmental and neurochemical parameters. Here, we perform a comparative study on CMS effects upon learning and memory in both strains, analyzing the role of NO production and its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Stressed BALB/c, but not C57Bl/6 mice, showed a poor learning performance in both the open field and passive avoidance inhibitory tasks. Also, CMS induced a diminished NO production by nNOS, associated with an increment in gamma and zeta PKC isoenzymes in BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, CMS had no effect on NO production, but increased delta and decreased betaI PKC isoforms. In vivo administration of a NOS inhibitor induced behavioral alterations in both strains. These results suggest a differential effect of stress, with BALB/c being more vulnerable to stress than C57BL/6 mice. This effect could be related to a differential regulation of NOS and PKC isoenzymes, pointing to an important role of NO in learning and memory.

  19. Mus Spretus Line-1 Sequences Detected in the Mus Musculus Inbred Strain C57bl/6j Using Line-1 DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikke, B. A.; Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L. P.; Reyes, R.; Hardies, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, was derived from mice of the Mus musculus complex. C57BL/6J can be crossed in the laboratory with a closely related mouse species, M. spretus to produce fertile offspring; however there has been no previous evidence of gene flow between M. spretus and M. musculus in nature. Analysis of the repetitive sequence LINE-1, using both direct sequence analysis and genomic Southern blot hybridization to species-specific LINE-1 hybridization probes, demonstrates the presence of LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J that were derived from the species M. spretus. These spretus-like LINE-1 elements in C57BL/6J reveal a cross to M. spretus somewhere in the history of C57BL/6J. It is unclear if the spretus-like LINE-1 elements are still embedded in flanking DNA derived from M. spretus or if they have transposed to new sites. The number of spretus-like elements detected suggests a maximum of 6.5% of the C57BL/6J genome may be derived from M. spretus. PMID:7713440

  20. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L. inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liancheng Wu

    Full Text Available In maize (Zea mays, leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHLAMYDOPHILA AND SALMONELLA INFECTIONS IN THE INBRED MICE DIFFERENT IN THEIR SENSITIVITES TO M.TUBERCULOSIS

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    D. V. Balunets

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The course of infections caused by intracellular parasitic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium and Chlamidophila pneumoniae was compared for inbred strains of mice with genetically determined susceptibity (I/St or resistance (A/Sn to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Similar differences in dynamics of some common parameters (life span and pathogen numbers in affected or gans between A/Sn and I/St mice have been revealed for tuberculosis, salmonellosis and chlamidiasis. There has been demonstrated that A/Sn animals show increased resistance to Salmonella and Chlamidia infections, as compared to I/St mice, in spite of various mechanisms of intracellular parasitism for S.typhimurium and C.Pneumoniae, and different locations of lesions induced by these bacteria in the host organism.Similar features of quite different infections at the level of macroorganism allows us to suggest that further investigation in A/Sn and I/St murine model will make it able to discover the basic features of physiolog$ical control for a lot of infections, and to reveal a genetic network that could be responsible for their favorable or adverse outcomes. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 5–6, pp. 583–586

  2. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  3. Genome-wide identification of gene expression in contrasting maize inbred lines under field drought conditions reveals the significance of transcription factors in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Liu, Xuyang; Zhang, Dengfeng; Tang, Huaijun; Sun, Baocheng; Li, Chunhui; Hao, Luyang; Liu, Cheng; Li, Yongxiang; Shi, Yunsu; Xie, Xiaoqing; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a major threat to maize growth and production. Understanding the molecular regulation network of drought tolerance in maize is of great importance. In this study, two maize inbred lines with contrasting drought tolerance were tested in the field under natural soil drought and well-watered conditions. In addition, the transcriptomes of their leaves was analyzed by RNA-Seq. In total, 555 and 2,558 genes were detected to specifically respond to drought in the tolerant and the sensitive line, respectively, with a more positive regulation tendency in the tolerant genotype. Furthermore, 4,700, 4,748, 4,403 and 4,288 genes showed differential expression between the two lines under moderate drought, severe drought and their well-watered controls, respectively. Transcription factors were enriched in both genotypic differentially expressed genes and specifically responsive genes of the tolerant line. It was speculated that the genotype-specific response of 20 transcription factors in the tolerance line and the sustained genotypically differential expression of 22 transcription factors might enhance tolerance to drought in maize. Our results provide new insight into maize drought tolerance-related regulation systems and provide gene resources for subsequent studies and drought tolerance improvement.

  4. Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-α and Ppar-γ signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity

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    Wagener Asja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6. Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-α gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-γ gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity.

  5. Mapping QTLs for Fertility Restoration of Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Types in Rice Using Two Oryza sativa ×O. rufipogon Backcross Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao-Lin; Xie, Jian-Kun; Wan, Yong; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Fan-Tao; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL) populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB)//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR) (XXD) or XB//DWR/XB (XDX) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-), Indonesia Paddy- (ID-), and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed with both the XXD- and XDX-BILs, while the line with DWR-type CMS was testcrossed with the XDX-BILs only. A total of 16 QTLs for fertility restoration of CMS systems were identified, including three for DWR-type CMS, six for DA-type CMS, and seven for ID-type CMS. All of the additive alleles in the QTLs were derived from Oryza rufipogon. Eleven QTLs were clustered in five chromosomal regions, indicating that common Rf loci restored different CMS systems, and the favorable O. rufipogon alleles could be used to develop restorer lines for various CMS types by marker-assisted selection.

  6. Using an Inbred Horse Breed in a High Density Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Risk Factors of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, Brandon D; Shrestha, Merina; Franҫois, Liesbeth; Schurink, Anouk; Tesfayonas, Yohannes G; Stinckens, Anneleen; Blott, Sarah; Ducro, Bart J; Mikko, Sofia; Thomas, Ruth; Swinburne, June E; Sundqvist, Marie; Eriksson, Susanne; Buys, Nadine; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    While susceptibility to hypersensitive reactions is a common problem amongst humans and animals alike, the population structure of certain animal species and breeds provides a more advantageous route to better understanding the biology underpinning these conditions. The current study uses Exmoor ponies, a highly inbred breed of horse known to frequently suffer from insect bite hypersensitivity, to identify genomic regions associated with a type I and type IV hypersensitive reaction. A total of 110 cases and 170 controls were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array. Quality control resulted in 452,457 SNPs and 268 individuals being tested for association. Genome-wide association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in R and resulted in the identification of two regions of interest on Chromosome 8. The first region contained the most significant SNP identified, which was located in an intron of the DCC netrin 1 receptor gene. The second region identified contained multiple top SNPs and encompassed the PIGN, KIAA1468, TNFRSF11A, ZCCHC2, and PHLPP1 genes. Although additional studies will be needed to validate the importance of these regions in horses and the relevance of these regions in other species, the knowledge gained from the current study has the potential to be a step forward in unraveling the complex nature of hypersensitive reactions.

  7. Opiate-agonist induced taste aversion learning in the Fischer 344 and Lewis inbred rat strains: evidence for differential mu opioid receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2009-10-01

    The Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) inbred rat strains react differently to morphine in a number of behavioral and physiological preparations, including the acquisition of aversions induced by this compound. The present experiment tested the ability of various compounds with relative selectivity at kappa, delta and mu receptor subtypes to assess the relative roles of these subtypes in mediating the differential aversive effects of morphine in the two strains. In the assessment of the role of the kappa receptor in morphine-induced aversions, animals in both strains were given access to saccharin followed by varying doses of the kappa agonist (-)-U50,488H (0.0, 0.28, 0.90 and 1.60 mg/kg). Although (-)-U50,488H induced aversions in both strains, no strain differences emerged. A separate subset of subjects was trained with the selective delta opioid agonist, SNC80 (0.0, 5.6, 10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg), and again although SNC80 induced aversions, there were no strain differences. Finally, a third subset of subjects was trained with heroin (0.0, 3.2, 5.6 and 10.0 mg/kg), a compound with activity at all three opiate receptor subtypes. Although heroin induced aversions in both strains, the aversions were significantly greater in the F344 strain, suggesting that differential activation of the mu opioid receptor likely mediates the reported strain differences in morphine-induced aversion learning. These data were discussed in terms of strain differences in opioid system functioning and the implications of such differences for other morphine-induced behavioral effects reported in F344 and LEW rats.

  8. Differences in the Flexibility of Switching Learning Strategies and CREB Phosphorylation Levels in Prefrontal Cortex, Dorsal Striatum, and Hippocampus in Two Inbred Strains of Mice

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    Woo-Hyun Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility in using different learning strategies was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. Mice were trained sequentially in two different Morris water maze protocols that tested their ability to switch their learning strategy to complete a new task after first being trained in a different task. Training consisted either of visible platform trials (cued training followed by subsequent hidden platform trials (place training or the reverse sequence (place training followed by cued training. Both strains of mice showed equivalent performance in the type of training (cued or place that they received first. However, C57BL/6 mice showed significantly better performances than DBA/2 mice following the switch in training protocols, irrespective of the order of training. After completion of the switched training session, levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB were measured in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex of the mice. Prefrontal cortical and hippocampal pCREB levels differed by strain, with higher levels found in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice. No strain differences were observed in the medial or lateral region of the dorsal striatum. These findings indicate that the engagement (i.e., CREB signaling of relevant neural structures may vary by the specific demands of the learning strategy, and this is closely tied to differences in the flexibility of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice to switch their learning strategies when given a new task.

  9. SCREENING FOR MOISTURE DEFICIT TOLERANCE IN FOUR MAIZE (Zea mays L. POPULATIONS DERIVED FROM DROUGHT TOLERANT INBRED X ADAPTED CULTIVAR CROSSES.

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    Gbadebo Lawrence Olaoye

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of soil water utilization under moisture deficit condition can help reduce the adverse effects of drought stress in crops. Growth, physiological responses and grain yield loss due to moisture deficits around flowering, were investigated in maize populations derived by reciprocal crosses between two adapted maize cultivars (DMR-LSR-Y and AFO and two drought tolerant (DT inbred lines (DT-S3-Y and DT-S3-W under glass house conditions. The crosses and their parents and crosses were subjected to irrigation treatments equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% field capacity (FC as well as water withdrawal for two weeks at vegetative, pre and post-anthesis stages respectively.  Reduction in biomass yield (BMY under low moisture regimes were within the range of 75 to 61% of BMY obtained under favourable irrigation treatments while Pre and post- anthesis moisture deficits also significantly reduced grain yield by 49 and 66% of well-watered condition. Reciprocal crosses between AFO and DT-S3-Y consistently gave highest BMY under irrigation treatment equivalent to 75% FC and above with % gains ranging from 3.05 to 44.2 respectively. All crosses except two of them (DT-S3-Y x AFO and AFO x DT-S3-W evidenced superiority for BMY and water use efficiency (WUE over their respective better parents, under low moisture conditions. Heterotic response for grain yield differed among crosses depending on soil moisture condition. There was no direct association between drought sensitivity index (DSI and grain yield in the populations but genotypes with short anthesis-silking-interval (ASI under moisture deficit conditions showed superiority for grain yield over those with longer ASI. The above results suggest that short ASI when combined with high grain yield under moisture deficit conditions is a better selection tool for identifying drought tolerant genotypes than DSI.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for sensitivity to ethanol intoxication in a C57BL/6J×129S1/SvImJ inbred mouse cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Elissa J; Plitt, Aaron; Fisher, Daniel; Hurd, Benita; Lederle, Lauren; Bubier, Jason A; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Holmes, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Individual variation in sensitivity to acute ethanol (EtOH) challenge is associated with alcohol drinking and is a predictor of alcohol abuse. Previous studies have shown that the C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strains differ in responses on certain measures of acute EtOH intoxication. To gain insight into genetic factors contributing to these differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of measures of EtOH-induced ataxia (accelerating rotarod), hypothermia, and loss of righting reflex (LORR) duration in a B6×S1 F2 population. We confirmed that S1 showed greater EtOH-induced hypothermia (specifically at a high dose) and longer LORR compared to B6. QTL analysis revealed several additive and interacting loci for various phenotypes, as well as examples of genotype interactions with sex. QTLs for different EtOH phenotypes were largely non-overlapping, suggesting separable genetic influences on these behaviors. The most compelling main-effect QTLs were for hypothermia on chromosome 16 and for LORR on chromosomes 4 and 6. Several QTLs overlapped with loci repeatedly linked to EtOH drinking in previous mouse studies. The architecture of the traits we examined was complex but clearly amenable to dissection in future studies. Using integrative genomics strategies, plausible functional and positional candidates may be found. Uncovering candidate genes associated with variation in these phenotypes in this population could ultimately shed light on genetic factors underlying sensitivity to EtOH intoxication and risk for alcoholism in humans.

  11. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Root and Shoot Traits Associated with Drought Tolerance in a Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Recombinant Inbred Line Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Omar; Udupa, Sripada M; De Keyser, Ellen; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Saha, Gopesh C; Muehlbauer, Fred J; Van Damme, Patrick; De Riek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL (QRSratioIX-2.30) related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 and 28.9% for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL (QLRNIII-98.64) related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL (QSRLIV-61.63) associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labor-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  12. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  13. Private Selective Sweeps Identified from Next-Generation Pool-Sequencing Reveal Convergent Pathways under Selection in Two Inbred Schistosoma mansoni Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julie A. J.; Toulza, Eve; Gautier, Mathieu; Parrinello, Hugues; Roquis, David; Boissier, Jérôme; Rognon, Anne; Moné, Hélène; Mouahid, Gabriel; Buard, Jérôme; Mitta, Guillaume; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV). In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (π = 2×10−4) within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst = 0.73) between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping) selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. Conclusions/Significance Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions). Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection. PMID:24349597

  14. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

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    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  15. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good.

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  17. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2014-08-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  19. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  20. The neuropeptide-Y Y5 receptor antagonist L-152,804 decreases alcohol self-administration in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason P; Overstreet, David H; Hodge, Clyde W

    2005-07-01

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is the most abundant and widely distributed peptide in the mammalian central nervous system and increases feeding behavior through actions at the Y5 receptor subtype. Recent pharmacological evidence indicates that NPY activity at this receptor subtype can modulate ethanol reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to determine if NPY Y5 receptor antagonism reduces ethanol self-administration and reinforcement in a rodent genetic animal model of alcoholism. Selectively inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats were trained to voluntarily consume ethanol (10% vol/vol) versus H2O in a 24-h two-bottle choice test. An additional group of iP rats was trained in operant ethanol self-administration to lever press on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule for ethanol (10% vol/vol) reinforcement. Following establishment of baseline intake or ethanol-reinforced responding, iP rats were injected with L-152,804 (0-20 mg/kg) prior to two-bottle or operant ethanol self-administration sessions. In the two-bottle choice test, L-152,804 (3 and 10 mg/kg, ip) significantly reduced ethanol intake (g/kg) at 4- and 6-h postinjection and had no effect on food intake. In the operant procedure, L-152,804 (10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) significantly reduced both the dosage of self-administered ethanol (g/kg/1-h) and the total number of ethanol-reinforced responses. No effect was observed on latency to the first response or the number of inactive lever presses. These results indicate that blockade of NPY Y5 receptor activity decreases both voluntary ethanol drinking and ethanol reinforcement in a rodent genetic animal model of alcoholism. For this reason, NPY Y5 receptor antagonists may be useful in medical management of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the human population.

  1. Epistasis in maize (Zea mays L.) : 2. Genetic effects in crosses among early flint and dent inbred lines determined by three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Geiger, H H; Schnell, F W

    1986-03-01

    Three flint and three dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, their possible F1 crosses, F2 and backcross progenies, and all possible three-way crosses were evaluated in a three-year experiment for yield, ear moisture, and plant height. The purpose was to estimate genetic parameters in European breeding materials from (i) generation means analysis, (ii) diallel analysis of generation means, and (iii) analysis of F1 and three-way cross hybrids. Method (i) was based on the F∞-metric model and methods (ii) and (iii) on the Eberhart-Gardner (1966) genetic model; both models extended for heterotic maternal effects.Differences among generation means for yield and plant height were mainly attributable to dominance effects. Epistatic effects were significantly different from zero in a few crosses and considerably reduced heterosis in both traits. Additive x additive and domiance x dominance effects for yield were consistently positive and negative, respectively. Significant maternal effects were established to the advantage of generations with a heterozygous seed parent. In the diallel analysis, mean squares for dominance effects were greater than for additive effects for yield and plant height but smaller for ear moisture. Though significant for yield and plant height, epistatic variation was small compared to additive and dominance variation. Estimates of additive x additive epistasis for yield were significantly negative in 11 of 15 crosses, suggesting that advantageous gene combinations in the lines had been disrupted by recombination in the segregating generations. The analysis of hybrids supported the above findings regarding the analysis of variance. However, the estimates of additive x additive epistasis for yield were considerably smaller and only minimally correlated with those from the diallel analysis. Use of noninbred materials as opposed to materials with different levels of inbreeding is considered the main reason for the discrepancies in the results.

  2. Divergent compensatory responses to high-fat diet between C57BL6/J and C57BLKS/J inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Morris, David L; Tersey, Sarah A; Kono, Tatsuyoshi; Chaudry, Zunaira Z; Day, Kathleen H; Moss, Dan R; Stull, Natalie D; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2013-12-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are polygenic disorders with complex pathophysiologies; recapitulating them with mouse models is challenging. Despite 70% genetic homology, C57BL/6J (BL6) and C57BLKS/J (BLKS) inbred mouse strains differ in response to diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We hypothesized these differences would yield insight into IGT and T2DM susceptibility and response to pharmacological therapies. To this end, male 8-wk-old BL6 and BLKS mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 42% kcal from fat), or HFD supplemented with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO; 140 mg PIO/kg diet) for 16 wk. Assessments of body composition, glucose homeostasis, insulin production, and energy metabolism, as well as histological analyses of pancreata were undertaken. BL6 mice gained weight and adiposity in response to HFD, leading to peripheral insulin resistance that was met with increased β-cell proliferation and insulin production. By contrast, BLKS mice responded to HFD by restricting food intake and increasing activity. These behavioral responses limited weight gain and protected against HFD-induced glucose intolerance, which in this strain was primarily due to β-cell dysfunction. PIO treatment did not affect HFD-induced weight gain in BL6 mice, and decreased visceral fat mass, whereas in BLKS mice PIO increased total fat mass without improving visceral fat mass. Differences in these responses to HFD and effects of PIO reflect divergent human responses to a Western lifestyle and underscore the careful consideration needed when choosing mouse models of diet-induced obesity and diabetes treatment.

  3. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  4. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon.

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    Xue-Lian He

    Full Text Available The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species - the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon. The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3'-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the 'replication slippage' of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study.

  5. Absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação em linhagens de tomateiro Nutrient uptake and response to fertilization of tomato inbred lines

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    Antônio Régis de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove linhagens de tomateiro rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto à eficiência de absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação, em dois ensaios, no ano de 2006, na Embrapa Hortaliças. No primeiro ensaio aplicou-se 1/3 da dosagem de fertilizante utilizada no segundo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As linhagens foram classificadas quanto à eficiência na absorção de nutrientes e reposta à adubação baseando-se nos incrementos de índice DRIS e nos incrementos de produtividade. Os valores críticos para eficiência na absorção e resposta à adubação foram as médias de incremento de índice DRIS e produtividade, respectivamente. As linhagens diferenciaram-se quanto à eficiência na absorção dos nutrientes e quanto à resposta à adubação. Foram consideradas responsivas à adubação e eficientes na absorção de nutrientes as linhagens 03, 04, 05, 09 e 22, para o N; 03, 04, 09, 13, 15 e 29, para o P; 03, 05, 10, 21, 22, 25 e 27, para o K; 05, 10, 21, 22, 25, 27 e 29, para o Ca; 04, 13, 15, 27 e 29, para o S e B; e 03, 05, 09, 10 e 27, para o Cu. As linhagens com os melhores desempenhos foram a 27, na absorção dos nutrientes, e 03, 04, 05 e 29, na responsividade à adubação.Twenty nine processing tomato inbred lines were evaluated for their efficiency in nutrient uptake and in their response to fertilization. Two field assays were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, with distinct fertilization dosages in 2006. In the first assay 1/3 of the total fertilization was applied when compared with the second assay. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. The criteria to rank the inbred lines in both assays were the DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System index value and fruit yield. The critical values in order to distinguish efficient versus non-efficient as well as responsive versus non-responsive inbred

  6. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  7. Avaliação da resistencia a ferrugem tropical em linhagens de milho Tropical rust evaluation in maize inbred lines

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    Marlene Lima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 440 linhagens endogâmicas de milho do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, obtidas a partir de diversas populações, quanto à severidade da ferrugem tropical, causada por Physopella zeae, em condições naturais de infecção. Foram instalados 22 experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, em 1993/94, em Ribeirão Preto (SP e utilizados como testemunhas resistente e suscetível os híbridos Z 8568 e P 3069 respectivamente, incluídos de forma intercalar. A avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após o florescimento, mediante uma escala de notas de 1 a 9, correspondendo a 0%; 1%; 2,5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% e >75% de área foliar afetada. Todas as populações estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto à resistência a P. zeae, indicando que a utilização de métodos de seleção recorrente pode ser eficaz no melhoramento de populações visando à resistência ao patógeno.Four hundred and forty maize inbred lines, developed at Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, derived from several populations, were evaluated, in field conditions, as to tropical rust resistance caused by Physopella zeae. Twenty two experiments were carried out in randomized complete block designs, with two replications each, during 93/94 summer season, in Ribeirão Preto, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Resistant (Z 8568 and susceptible (P 3069 hybrids were used as controls. The evaluations were performed 30 days after flowering, according to a scale of notes from 1 to 9 (0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and >75% affected leaf area. All populations showed variability as to P. zeae reaction, suggesting that recurrent selection might be effective to achieve tropical rust resistance.

  8. Mapping of genetic loci that modulate differential colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 TUV86-2 in advanced recombinant inbred BXD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lisa M; Abdeltawab, Nourtan F; O'Brien, Alison D; Kotb, Malak; Melton-Celsa, Angela R

    2015-11-16

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) are responsible for foodborne outbreaks that can result in severe human disease. During an outbreak, differential disease outcomes are observed after infection with the same STEC strain. One question of particular interest is why some infected people resolve infection after hemorrhagic colitis whereas others progress to the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Host age and infection dose have been implicated; however, these parameters do not appear to fully account for all of the observed variation in disease severity. Therefore, we hypothesized that additional host genetic factors may play a role in progression to HUS. To mimic the genetic diversity in the human response to infection by STEC, we measured the capacity of an O157:H7 outbreak isolate to colonize mouse strains from the advanced recombinant inbred (ARI) BXD panel. We first infected the BXD parental strains C57BL/6 J (B6) and DBA/2 J (D2) with either 86-24 (Stx2a+) or TUV86-2, an Stx2a-negative isogenic mutant. Colonization levels were determined in an intact commensal flora (ICF) infection model. We found a significant difference in colonization levels between the parental B6 and D2 strains after infection with TUV86-2 but not with 86-24. This observation suggested that a host factor that may be masked by Stx2a affects O157:H7 colonization in some genetic backgrounds. We then determined the TUV86-2 colonization levels of 24 BXD strains in the ICF model. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with variation in colonization by correlation analyses. We found a highly significant QTL on proximal chromosome 9 (12.5-26.7 Mb) that strongly predicts variation in colonization levels and accounts for 15-20 % of variance. Linkage, polymorphism and co-citation analyses of the mapped region revealed 36 candidate genes within the QTL, and we identified five genes that are most likely responsible for the differential colonization. The identification of

  9. Using gene expression databases for classical trait QTL candidate gene discovery in the BXD recombinant inbred genetic reference population: Mouse forebrain weight

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    Zhou Jianhua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful strategies for QTL gene identification benefit from combined experimental and bioinformatic approaches. Unique design aspects of the BXD recombinant inbred line mapping panel allow use of archived gene microarray expression data to filter likely from unlikely candidates. This prompted us to propose a simple five-filter protocol for candidate nomination. To filter more likely from less likely candidates, we required candidate genes near to the QTL to have mRNA abundance that correlated with the phenotype among the BXD lines as well as differed between the parental lines C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also required verification of mRNA abundance by an independent method, and finally we required either differences in protein levels or confirmed DNA sequence differences. Results QTL mapping of mouse forebrain weight in 34 BXD RI lines found significant association on chromosomes 1 and 11, with each C57BL/6J allele increasing weight by more than half a standard deviation. The intersection of gene lists that were within ± 10 Mb of the strongest associated location, that had forebrain mRNA abundance correlated with forebrain weight among the BXD, and that had forebrain mRNA abundance differing between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, produced two candidates, Tnni1 (troponin 1 and Asb3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing protein 3. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the direction of an increased expression in C57BL/6J genotype over the DBA/2J genotype for both genes, a difference that translated to a 2-fold difference in Asb3 protein. Although Tnni1 protein differences could not be confirmed, a 273 bp indel polymorphism was discovered 1 Kb upstream of the transcription start site. Conclusion Delivery of well supported candidate genes following a single quantitative trait locus mapping experiment is difficult. However, by combining available gene expression data with QTL mapping, we illustrated a five-filter protocol that nominated Asb3 and

  10. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

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    Liziane Cristina Brusamarello-Santos

    Full Text Available Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs. However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2, already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+. The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts

  11. Strongyloides venezuelensis infection susceptibility of seven inbred strains of mice Susceptibilidade de sete linhagens isogênicas de camundongos à infecções por Strongyloides venezuelensis

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    A.F.T. Amarante

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to investigate the susceptibility of seven strains of mice to Strongyloides venezuelensis primary and secondary experimental infections, in order to provide the basis for genetic studies about resistance. Twelve six-week-old male inbred mice of the A/J, BALB/c, CBA/J, C3H/Hepos, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and NIH strains were infected s.c. with 2000 infective larvae. The mean worm counts (± SD in the small intestine six days after infection were, in increasing order: 28 (± 19 in NIH; 647 (± 228 in BALB/c; 709 (± 425 in DBA/2; 731 (± 151 in C3H/Hepos, 801 (± 174 in CBA/J; 1024 (± 267 in C57BL/6 and 1313 (± 483 in A/J. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest fecal egg counts and NIH, the lowest. No eggs in fecal exams or nematodes in small intestines were recovered from animals reinfected 14 days after primary infection. NIH strain was highly resistant to primary infection by S. venezuelensis. The most susceptible of the other six strains appeared to be the C57BL/6 strain which presented a high nematode counting in intestine and the highest egg output.Foi investigada a susceptibilidade de sete linhagens isogênicas de camundongos à infecção experimental, primária e secundária, por Strongyloides venezuelensis a fim de servir de base para estudos genéticos sobre a resistência. Foram utilizados 12 camundongos machos, com seis semanas de idade, das seguintes linhagens isogênicas: A/J, BALB/c, CBA/J, C3H/Hepos, C57BL/6, DBA/2 e NIH. Os animais foram inoculados, via sub-cutânea, com 2000 larvas infectantes. As contagens médias (± desvio padrão de parasitas no intestino delgado dos camundongos seis dias após a infecção, em ordem crescente, foram: 28 (± 19 na linhagem NIH; 647 (± 228 na BALB/c; 709 (± 425 na DBA/2; 731 (± 151 na C3H/Hepos, 801 (± 174 na CBA/J; 1024 (± 267 na C57BL/6 e 1313 (± 483 na A/J. Os camundongos C57BL/6 apresentaram as mais elevadas contagens de ovos de S. venezuelensis por grama de fezes (OPG e os

  12. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Marathi Balram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3, panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74, flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05, flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5, spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8, filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3, percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24, thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9 and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15 expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2 ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709 on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for

  13. Triticale: avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Triticale: evaluation on inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e quatro linhagens de triticale e o cultivar de trigo IAC-21, através de ensaios em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1986 e 1987, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, peso de cem grãos e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e às manchas-foliares em condições de campo. A linhagem de triticale Nutria 7272 foi a mais produtiva (3.098kg/ha, diferindo do 'IAC-21' (2.241 kg/ha e das demais linhagens de triticale, com exceção da Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-20 e 21, Nutria 440 e Juanillo 159, com 2.891, 2.870, 2.805 e 2.645kg/ha respectivamente. As linhagens de triticale exibiram maior resistência à ferrugem-da-folha com relação ao 'IAC-21'. A Panche 7287 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente às manchas-foliares e, as demais, suscetíveis. As linhagens M2A-KLA"S" x MA (T-6, Faro"S" e Panche 7287 apresentaram ciclo da emergência ao florescimento significativamente maior que o 'IAC-21', e M2A-CML 360 x M2A (T-2, Turk DWF-V 127 x 6TA 204/IA 146, M2A-CML x IA, TCEP 77138, BGL "S"-IGA x PND"S" e BCM"S"-Addax"S" exibiram plantas significativamente mais baixas. A Juanillo 159 apresentou o maior peso de cem grãos, diferindo do 'IAC-21' e das demais linhagens, com exceção da Nutria 7272 e Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-21.Twenty four triticale inbred lines and the wheat cultivar IAC-21 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1986 and 1987. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of layed plants, weight of 100 grains, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia graminis sp. tritici and to leaf spots (Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp. were evaluated under field conditions. The triticale inbred line Nutria 7272 pre-sented the best grain yield (3,098 kg/ha, showing

  14. Resequencing at ≥40-Fold Depth of the Parental Genomes of a Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium Recombinant Inbred Line Population and Characterization of Frame-Shift InDels That Are Highly Likely to Perturb Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevei, Zoltan; King, Robert C; Mohareb, Fady; Sergeant, Martin J; Awan, Sajjad Z; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-03-24

    A recombinant in-bred line population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (E9) and S. pimpinellifolium (L5) has been used extensively to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL), including those that act via rootstock genotype, however, high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data for this population are not yet publically available. Next-generation resequencing of parental lines allows the vast majority of polymorphisms to be characterized and used to progress from QTL to causative gene. We sequenced E9 and L5 genomes to 40- and 44-fold depth, respectively, and reads were mapped to the reference Heinz 1706 genome. In L5 there were three clear regions on chromosome 1, chromosome 4, and chromosome 8 with increased rates of polymorphism. Two other regions were highly polymorphic when we compared Heinz 1706 with both E9 and L5 on chromosome 1 and chromosome 10, suggesting that the reference sequence contains a divergent introgression in these locations. We also identified a region on chromosome 4 consistent with an introgression from S. pimpinellifolium into Heinz 1706. A large dataset of polymorphisms for the use in fine-mapping QTL in a specific tomato recombinant in-bred line population was created, including a high density of InDels validated as simple size-based polymerase chain reaction markers. By careful filtering and interpreting the SnpEff prediction tool, we have created a list of genes that are predicted to have highly perturbed protein functions in the E9 and L5 parental lines. Copyright © 2015 Kevei et al.

  15. Quantitative trait locus for body weight identified on rat chromosome 4 in inbred alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats: potential implications for neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin releasing hormone 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John Paul; Lai, Dongbing; Shekhar, Anantha; Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Liang, Tiebing

    2013-02-01

    The alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines were developed using bidirectional selective breeding for alcohol consumption (g/kg/day) and alcohol preference (water:ethanol ratio). During a preliminary study, we detected a difference in body weight between inbred P (iP) and inbred NP (iNP) rats that appeared to be associated with the transfer of the Chromosome 4 quantitative trait locus (QTL) seen in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains. After the initial confirmation that iP rats displayed lower body weight when compared to iNP rats (data not shown), body weight and growth rates of each chromosome 4 reciprocal congenic rat strain (P.NP and NP.P) were measured, and their body weight was consistent with their respective donor strain phenotype, confirming that a quantitative trait locus for body weight mapped to the chromosome 4 interval. Utilizing the newly developed interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS-A and ISCS-B), the QTL interval was further narrowed identifying the following candidate genes of interest: neuropeptide Y (Npy), juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (Jazf1), corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 2 (Crfr2) and LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (Lancl2). These findings indicate that a biologically active variant(s) regulates body weight on rat chromosome 4 in iP and iNP rats. This QTL for body weight was successfully captured in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains, and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCSs) were subsequently employed to fine-map the QTL interval identifying the following candidate genes of interest: Npy, Jazf1, Crfr2 and Lancl2. Both Npy and Crfr2 have been previously identified as candidate genes of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption in iP and iNP rats. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evaluation of metabolomics profiles of grain from maize hybrids derived from near-isogenic GM positive and negative segregant inbreds demonstrates that observed differences cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, George G; Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Leibman, Mark; Blankenship, Jonathan; Perez, Timothy; Halls, Steven; Chassy, Alexander W; Fiehn, Oliver; Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston

    Past studies on plant metabolomes have highlighted the influence of growing environments and varietal differences in variation of levels of metabolites yet there remains continued interest in evaluating the effect of genetic modification (GM). Here we test the hypothesis that metabolomics differences in grain from maize hybrids derived from a series of GM (NK603, herbicide tolerance) inbreds and corresponding negative segregants can arise from residual genetic variation associated with backcrossing and that the effect of insertion of the GM trait is negligible. Four NK603-positive and negative segregant inbred males were crossed with two different females (testers). The resultant hybrids, as well as conventional comparator hybrids, were then grown at three replicated field sites in Illinois, Minnesota, and Nebraska during the 2013 season. Metabolomics data acquisition using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) allowed the measurement of 367 unique metabolite features in harvested grain, of which 153 were identified with small molecule standards. Multivariate analyses of these data included multi-block principal component analysis and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis. Univariate analyses of all 153 identified metabolites was conducted based on significance testing (α = 0.05), effect size evaluation (assessing magnitudes of differences), and variance component analysis. Results demonstrated that the largest effects on metabolomic variation were associated with different growing locations and the female tester. They further demonstrated that differences observed between GM and non-GM comparators, even in stringent tests utilizing near-isogenic positive and negative segregants, can simply reflect minor genomic differences associated with conventional back-crossing practices. The effect of GM on metabolomics variation was determined to be negligible and supports that there is no scientific rationale for prioritizing GM as a source of

  17. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans Ole; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2010-01-01

    The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10...... and quantity of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive children born prematurely. Using a sensitive qRT-PCR assay, we screened messenger RNA from fresh umbilical cord-blood samples from 256 premature children. In none of the neonates, t(12;21)-positive cells could be demonstrated. Therefore, no increase...... in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous...

  18. Preleukemic or smoldering” chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML:BCR-ABL1 positive: A brief case report

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    John M. Bennett

    2015-01-01

    The most common feature of CML is an elevated WBC count, usually above 25×103/µL, and frequently above 100×103/µL. We report a case of confirmed Ph+CML with a normal CBC detected because of the presence of rare myelocytes and 2% basophils [Fig. 1]. Previous leukocyte counts for the preceding eight years were normal with the exception of one done four months prior to his presentation that showed an abnormal differential with 1% basophils, 2% metamyelocytes and 2% myelocytes.

  19. Tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio de linhagens e híbridos de milho em solução nutritiva Aluminium toxicity tolerance of maize inbred lines and hybrids evaluated in nutrient solution

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    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dez linhagens de milho do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em cruzamentos dialélicos e os 45 híbridos resultantes quanto à tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio em laboratório. Estimou-se a tolerância pelo comprimento líquido da radícula (CLR de plântulas em solução nutritiva contendo 4,5 mg.L-1 de alumínio, em ensaio sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, utilizando-se como padrões linhagens sensível e tolerante de IAC Taiúba. Apresentam-se, ainda, resultados da produtividade desses cruzamentos em ensaios de campo. Identificaram-se linhagens que constituem fontes de tolerância (L 06 e L 09 e híbridos tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio com elevada produtividade em solos corrigidos. Na análise dialélica, o desdobramento dos efeitos de tratamentos, em capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, indicou a predominância de efeitos aditivos na manifestação da tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. Obtiveram-se elevados valores de heterose, indicando a existência de interações não alélicas na manifestação do CLR. O híbrido HS 10X11 (denominado IAC 21 aliou alta produtividade e tolerância ao alumínio, apresentando a maior estimativa da CEC para CLR.Ten inbred lines and the resulting forty-five hybrids from the maize IAC breeding program were evaluated for Al tolerance by the nutrient solution technique. Net radicle lengths (CLR of plants grown with 4.5 mg.L-1 were used to estimate Al tolerance. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications, and it was used two divergent inbred lines IAC Taiuba as control for Al tolerance and sensitivity, respectively. In addition to these data, it is shown also the grain yield of the same materials from field plots. It was identified two inbred lines (L 06 and L 09 as Al tolerance sources and hybrids potentially adapted to acid soil conditions (tolerant to Al toxicity

  20. Avaliação de dez linhagens e seus híbridos de milho superdoce em um dialelo completo Evaluation of ten inbred lines and their hybrids of supersweet maize in a complete diallel cross

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    Margarida Agostinho Lemos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996/97 foram avaliados em Pesqueira e Vitória de Santo Antão (PE, 45 híbridos simples superdoce obtidos de um cruzamento dialélico completo entre dez linhagens S4 e suas linhagens parentais. O delineamento utilizado foi látice 7 x 8 com duas repetições por local. Foram estimados os efeitos das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação e os valores de heterose para peso de espiga com palha (PECP, peso de espiga sem palha (PESP e rendimento de espiga (REND = PESP/PECP x 100. Os efeitos de CGC e CEC foram significativos (PIn 1996/97, 45 single cross supersweet maize hybrids, from a complete diallel cross involving ten inbred lines (S4 and their parents, were evaluated at Pesqueira and Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil. A látice 7 x 8 design was used with two replications for each location. The general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability effects and heterosis value were estimated for husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW and ear rate (ER = UEW/HEW x 100. The general and specific combining ability effects were significant (P<0.01 for all characteristics. Inbreds L5 = 76.5%; L7 = 71.2% and L4 = 69.6% (Pesqueira; L4 = 70.8%; L5 = 69.4% and L7 = 65.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão showed the highest (ER, and the highest GCA effects at both locations. The best crosses for ER were: L4 x L8 = 74.9% (Pesqueira and L7 x L8 = 70.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão, with the highest SCA effects at both locations. For ER, heterosis values related to parental mean ranged from -20.19 to 24.01% (Pesqueira and -18.02 to 16.76% (Vitória de Santo Antão. Heterosis values related to the higher yielding parent ranged from -23.52 to 22.99% (Pesqueira and -22.05 to 12.03% (Vitória de Santo Antão.

  1. De novo genetic variation associated with retrotransposon activation, genomic rearrangements and trait variation in a recombinant inbred line population of Brassica napus derived from interspecific hybridization with Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Fu, Donghui; Gong, Huihui; Qian, Wei; Xia, Wei; Pires, J Chris; Li, Ruiyuan; Long, Yan; Mason, Annaliese S; Yang, Tae-Jin; Lim, Yong P; Park, Beom S; Meng, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a significant evolutionary force as well as a powerful method for crop breeding. Partial substitution of the AA subgenome in Brassica napus (A(n) A(n) C(n) C(n) ) with the Brassica rapa (A(r) A(r) ) genome by two rounds of interspecific hybridization resulted in a new introgressed type of B. napus (A(r) A(r) C(n) C(n) ). In this study, we construct a population of recombinant inbred lines of the new introgressed type of B. napus. Microsatellite, intron-based and retrotransposon markers were used to characterize this experimental population with genetic mapping, genetic map comparison and specific marker cloning analysis. Yield-related traits were also recorded for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A remarkable range of novel genomic alterations was observed in the population, including simple sequence repeat (SSR) mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and retrotransposon activations. Most of these changes occurred immediately after interspecific hybridization, in the early stages of genome stabilization and derivation of experimental lines. These novel genomic alterations affected yield-related traits in the introgressed B. napus to an even greater extent than the alleles alone that were introgressed from the A(r) subgenome of B. rapa, suggesting that genomic changes induced by interspecific hybridization are highly significant in both genome evolution and crop improvement. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Neonatal handling decreases unconditioned anxiety, conditioned fear, and improves two-way avoidance acquisition: a study with the inbred Roman high (RHA-I- and low-avoidance (RLA-I rats of both sexes

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    Cristobal eRío-Alamos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the long-lasting effects of neonatal handling (H; administered during the first 21 days of life on unlearned and learned anxiety-related responses in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I and Low-avoidance (RLA-I rats. To this aim, untreated and neonatally-handled RHA-I and RLA-I rats of both sexes were tested in the following tests/tasks in baseline acoustic startle (BAS test, a context-conditioned fear (CCF test and the acquisition of two-way active –shuttle box- avoidance (SHAV. RLA-I rats showed higher unconditioned (NOE, ZM, BAS and conditioned (CCF, SHAV anxiety. H treatment increased exploration of the novel object in the NOE test as well as exploration of the open sections of the ZM test in both rat strains and sexes, although the effects were relatively more marked in the (high anxious RLA-I strain and in females. Neonatal handling did not affect BAS, but reduced context-conditioned fear in both strains and sexes, and improved shuttle box avoidance acquisition especially in RLA-I (and particularly in females and in female RHA-I rats. These are completely novel findings, and may suggest that H-induced changes in hippocampal function, which is enhanced in RLA-Is vs RHA-I rats, could be a candidate mechanism underlying the observed long-lasting benefits of neonatal handling on known hippocampal-dependent responses/tasks.

  3. Studies of Trypanosoma cruzi clones in inbred mice. I. A comparison of the course of infection of C3H/HEN- mice with two clones isolated from a common source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postan, M; Dvorak, J A; McDaniel, J P

    1983-05-01

    Two single-cell-isolate cloned stocks of the Sylvio-X10 strain, recovered from an acute human Trypanosoma cruzi infection, were used to infect C3H/HEN mice. The Sylvio-X10/4 clone produced a chronic infection in mice; clone Sylvio-X10/7 produced an acute lethal infection under identical experimental conditions. The course of infection of mice with the Sylvio-X10/7 clone was characterized by higher peripheral blood parasitemia and greater tissue involvement, an earlier appearance of specific anti-T. cruzi plasma IgG and shorter survival times than in mice infected with the Sylvio-X10/4 clone. The course of infection in mice with the Sylvio-X10 strain was intermediate between that of the two clones. This is the first demonstration of the pluripotential pathogenetic nature of a T. cruzi strain due to genetic heterogeneity of the population of parasites that constitute the strain. This experimental system is highly stable and reproducible. Consequently, the use of inbred mice and T. cruzi clones appears to provide an excellent model to study factors which influence the course of Chagas' disease.

  4. Índice baseado em RFLPs para seleção de linhagens visando sintéticos de milho RFLP marker index for selection of inbred lines aimed at synthetic maize populations

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    Glauce Cristina Ricardo Rumin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares têm sido sugeridos como ferramentas úteis em programas de melhoramento de plantas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo propor um índice de seleção de linhagens visando a geração de populações sintéticas de milho, baseado em marcadores moleculares e dados de campo. Para tanto foram utilizados valores fenotípicos e genotípicos, oriundos de experimentos convencionais de campo e através da genotipagem das plantas-mãe das linhagens por marcadores RFLP, respectivamente. O índice foi examinado quanto à sua capacidade de originar sintéticos com alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis, em comparação com os obtidos baseando-se na seleção convencional. Utilizaram-se inicialmente 157 locos marcadores com distância média de 15,30 cM entre eles. Sessenta e oito linhagens S2, provenientes da geração F2 do cruzamento entre duas linhagens homozigóticas foram cruzadas em topcross e avaliadas em quatro locais de Iowa, EUA, em 1996. Dos 157 locos foram selecionados 18 que explicaram 74,70% da variância genética entre progênies, na média dos locais. O índice proposto leva em conta o comportamento próprio (per se das linhagens e a complementaridade genotípica entre elas, o que não é conseguido utilizando-se apenas dados dos topcrosses. O uso do índice proposto permite obter homólogo de tabela dialélica tendo-se apenas dados de médias de topcrosses. O índice levou à seleção de sintéticos com propriedades superiores às esperadas pela seleção baseada apenas nas médias das progênies topcross. Essa conclusão, no entanto, só é válida para os QTL's abrangidos pelas marcas. A metodologia proposta permite monitoramento muito adequado e útil das propriedades genéticas dos sintéticos a serem obtidos.Molecular markers have been suggested as useful tools in breeding programmes. The purpose of this work was to propose and apply an index for inbred line selection to be used for generating synthetic

  5. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

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    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    specific combining ability (SCA in vegetable corn production. Eight inbred lines and 28 hybrids derived from them were evaluated in 2004/2005 season in two environments, in Lavras and Ijaci, State of Minas Gerais. A randomized complete block design with two replications per environment were used, and seven traits of agronomic and commercial interest for vegetable corn production were studied. The quadratic component of specific of combining ability (SCA was greater than the general combining ability (GCA for all the traits assessed. Non-additive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for genotypes variation, indicating that heterosis is important for hybrid selection for vegetable corn production. The inbred line L55 showed higher concentration of favorable alleles to the increase of traits PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, being more suitable for the formation of new hybrid and the hybrids HS27, HS48 and HS24 accumulated a larger number of traits with SCA positive effect, significant and of high magnitude, indicating that those combinations presented better performance for all the traits, simultaneously, and can be recommended to the market for vegetable corn.

  6. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

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    Ignasi eOliveras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogues. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I, displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM in these three rat types (Experiment 1, as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low PPI scores (Experiment 2. The results from Exp. 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Exp. 2, Low-PPI NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to Medium-PPI and High-PPI NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps at risk phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia.

  7. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

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    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  8. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible.

  9. Angelman syndrome in an inbred family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuten, J.; Hennekam, R. C.; van Roy, B.; Mangelschots, K.; Sutcliffe, J. S.; Halley, D. J.; Hennekam, F. A.; Beaudet, A. L.; Willems, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe mental retardation, absent speech, puppet-like movements, inappropriate laughter, epilepsy, and abnormal electroencephalogram. The majority of AS patients (approximately 65%) have a maternal deficiency within chromosomal region 15q11-q13, caused by

  10. Angelman syndrome in an inbred family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Beuten (Joke); R.C.M. Hennekam (Raoul); B. van Roy (Bernadette); K. Mangelschots (Kathelijne); J.S. Sutcliffe (James); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); R.C.M. Hennekam (Raoul); L. Beaudet (Lucille); P.J. Willems (Patrick)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAngelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe mental retardation, absent speech, puppet-like movements, inappropriate laughter, epilepsy, and abnormal electroencephalogram. The majority of AS patients (≃ 65%) have a maternal deficiency within chromosomal region 15q11-q13, caused by

  11. Crescimento diferencial de linhagens de milho em solução nutritiva com baixo nível de potássio Differential growth of corn inbred lines in low potassium nutrient solutions

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    Angela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram conduzidos no Centro Experimental de Campinas, no período agosto-outubro de 1983, em condições de casa de vegetação, para avaliar e selecionar linhagens de milho (Zea mays L. quanto à eficiência na absorção e utilização de potássio em solução nutritiva. No primeiro ensaio, seis linhagens foram cultivadas com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 mg/litro de K até aos 34 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar o nível adequado para diferenciação das plantas. No segundo, 37 linhagens de milho foram selecionadas com 20 mg/litro de K até aos 25 dias de idade. As soluções nutritivas foram continuamente arejadas e não renovadas e as plantas, deixadas crescer até aparecerem sintomas de deficiência de potássio nas folhas inferiores. As variações observadas nos pesos de matéria seca das raízes (CV das médias = 38,9% foram maiores que aquelas da parte aérea (CV das médias = 28,5%. As linhagens foram classificadas de acordo com a produção de matéria seca total, em grupos eficientes, ineficientes e medianamente eficientes, utilizando-se de um intervalo de confiança para a média geral. A absorção de K pelas linhagens, avaliada pelo seu conteúdo total, variou (CV das médias = 9% acompanhando a variação observada nos pesos de matéria seca total (r = 0,92. Entretanto, a relação de eficiência das linhagens apresentou variação maior (CV das médias = 23% e também acompanhou a variação no crescimento das plantas (r = 0,99. Isso é uma indicação de que o mecanismo de utilização de K pelas plantas foi o fator que mais contribuiu para a diferenciação entre os genótipos.Two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station of Campinas, Instituto Agronômico, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1983, under greenhouse conditions, in order to evaluate and select efficient corn (Zea mays L. inbred lines in the uptake and use of potassium in nutrient solution. In a first trial, six lines were grow n with 20

  12. Eficiência de linhagens de milho na absorção e utilização de fósforo em solução nutritiva Efficiency of corn inbred lines in phosphorus uptake and use in nutrient solutions

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    Ángela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante solução nutritiva, definiu-se uma metodologia para avaliação e seleção de plantas de milho mais eficientes na absorção e utilização do fósforo, em condições de sua baixa concentração. Quarenta linhagens de milho foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo 6,0mg de P/vaso de 2,8 litros, sem renovação da solução e com geração contínua. As plantas foram deixadas crescer durante 20 dias, sem reposição do P, até aparecerem sintomas de deficiência. Observaram-se variações no crescimento das linhagens, tanto nas raízes como na parte aérea, afetando o peso da matéria seca e a altura das plantas. As variações observadas no conteúdo total de P das plantas crescidas nas mesmas condições, acompanharam proporcionalmente as variações observadas no peso da matéria seca. Entretanto, a capacidade de produção de matéria seca por unidade de P absorvido (relação de eficiência variou pouco. Assim, atribuíram-se as diferenças no crescimento das plantas muito mais ao mecanismo de absorção de P do que ao de sua utilização. As linhagens foram também avaliadas quanto aos sintomas visuais de deficiência de P. A classificação do material foi baseada nos pesos de matéria seca, dispostos numa curva de distribuição "t" de médias. De acordo com o intervalo de confiança da média geral, calculado com 99,9% de probabilidade, separou-se o material em 11 linhagens ineficientes (com peso abaixo de 5,28g, 20 linhagens medianamente eficientes (com peso entre 5,28 e 6,04g e 9 linhagens eficientes (com peso acima de 6,040g.A methodology was defined, using nutrient solution as growth medium, to evaluate and select more efficient corn (Zea mays L. inbred lines in regard to P uptake and use, under low P conditions. Plants of 40 corn inbred lines were allowed to grow in nutrient solutions for 20 days, with 6.0 mg P/2.8 liters and continuous aeration, without renewing the solution until P-deficiency symptoms

  13. Eficiências relativas de métodos de seleção de famílias endogâmicas em milho-pipoca = Relative efficiencies of selection methods of inbred families in popcorn

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    Emmanuel Arnhold

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência relativa da seleção massal, entre e dentro e de um novo índice de seleção combinada proposto. O índice, baseado na genealogia, foi obtido por: IC = b1 PSn-1 + b2PFSn , em que PSn-1 é o valor fenotípico da planta Sn – 1; PFSn é o valor fenotípico da família Sn descendente da planta Sn – 1; b1 é o peso do valor fenotípico individual; e b2 é o peso do valor fenotípico de família Sn. Os pesos foram obtidos por derivação, pressupondo que os mesmos minimizam a variância da diferença entre o índice eo valor genético aditivo da planta Sn – 1. Para comparar os métodos, utilizaram-se famílias e plantas endogâmicas, obtidas da população Viçosa. Fez-se seleção em capacidade de expansão, utilizando os três métodos nas gerações S1, S2, S3 e S4, e avaliou-se a eficiência dosmétodos comparando médias em capacidade de expansão de famílias descendentes de selecionadas por cada método em S2, S3, S4 e S5. Para comparação de médias, utilizou-se o teste t ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que a seleção combinada proposta foisuperior à seleção massal e foi, em geral, superior à seleção entre e dentro. A seleção entre e dentro foi, geralmente, superior à seleção massal.The study aimed to evaluate the relative efficiency of mass selection, among, within and of proposed new index of combined selection. The index, based on genealogy, was obtained by: IC = b1 PSn-1 + b2PFSn , wherePSn-1 is the phenotypic value of the plantSn-1; PFSn is the phenotypic value of the Sn family, descendant of the Sn-1 plant; b1 is the weight of the individual phenotypic value, and b2 it is the weight of the phenotypic value of Sn family. The weights were obtained by derivation, assuming that they minimize thevariance of the difference between the index and the value of the plant genetic additive Sn-1. To compare the methods, families and inbred plants were used, obtained from the

  14. Selection of common bean inbred lines with tolerance to high moisture at harvest Seleção de linhagens de feijão com tolerância a alta umidade no momento da colheita

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    Lidiane Kely de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of precipitation / rain in harvest bean causes damage to the product and reduces the yield. The main alternative to mitigate this problem is to obtain cultivars presenting low germination of beans in the pods under conditions of high moisture. The purpose of this study was to verify if there is genetic variability among the common bean inbred lines that are in the phase of recommendation for the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil in regard to tolerance to moisture after harvest, and identify traits that may be routinely used in selection of tolerant lines to these conditions. Ninety-five lines in the phase of recommendation by the Genetic Breeding Program from UFLA were used. After harvest, a sample of plants from each plot was removed for assessments of seed germination in the pods in a moist chamber and water absorption by pod and seed. Eight days after harvest, another sample was removed to assess seed appearance using a scoring scale. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and estimates of the Pearson phenotypic correlations were obtained among traits. Lines differ in relation to tolerance to moisture at the time of harvest, with those of higher tolerance having lighter colored seeds. The main difficulty in selection of common bean lines for tolerance to high moisture at harvest is the repeatability of the environmental conditions among crop seasons. The alternative is assessing the amount of water absorbed by pods.A ocorrência de precipitação / chuva na colheita do feijão comum provoca danos ao produto e reduz o rendimento. A principal alternativa para mitigar este problema é a obtenção de cultivares com baixa germinação de grãos nas vagens em condições de alta umidade. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se vrificar se há variabilidade genética entre as linhagens do feijoeiro que estão em fase de recomendação para o Sul de Minas Gerais quanto à tolerância à umidade após a colheita e identificar caracteres que

  15. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    .Climate and management diversity play an important role in crop production, since these characteristics are related to genotype and cultivation environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype-environmental interaction (GE in 12 recombinant inbred lines of C. annuum. These lines were originated from crosses between the following accessions: a sweet pepper cultivar (susceptible to bacterial spot and a chili pepper (resistant to bacterial spot. Two tests were conducted, the first in a conventional agriculture system, under field conditions and the second in ecological or organic system, under greenhouse conditions. The field experiment was carried out in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The greenhouse experiment was conducted in Seropédica, RJ. Both experiments were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The measured variables were total fruit number (TFN; total fruit weight (TFW; mean fruit weight (MFW; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length/diameter fruit ratio (FL/FD and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Data obtained for each experimental condition were submitted to variance analysis, joint variance analysis, and partitioning of genotype environment interaction. Genotype and GE quadratic components, genotypic determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and variation index were determined. The GE interaction was significant for TFN, TFW, MFN, FD, and FL/FD. Cultivation under greenhouse conditions was responsible for the highest mean performance for every trait studied but FL. Values observed for genetic variation were greater than values obtained for environmental variation. For field conditions, the high yield ability observed for line 2 (pungent is suggestive of a potential to be used as a commercial genotype. For greenhouse conditions, line 8 (pungent, had higher fruit number yield. Line 1 (non-pungent also seems promising for commercial cultivation under both conditions.

  16. Melhoramento do trigo: XVI. Comportamento de novas linhagens em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XVI. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1987-01-01

    , IAC-167 e ISWYN-31 /82, as mais sensíveis.Twenty two inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico, from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18 and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experimental Center, at Tietê and Capão Bonito Experimental Stations and at Santa Inês Farm, Maracaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1983, 1984 and 1985. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergence to maturation, percentage of lodging, head lenght, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to the powdery mildew and to the stem and leaf rust agents, were evaluated under field conditions. Tests of resistance to stem and leaf and to aluminum tolerance were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. In relation to grain yield the lines IAC-103, IAC-104, IAC-107, IAC-167 and PAT-73121 showed good performance, but they did not differ from the control cultivars, BH-1146, IAC-18 and Alondra-S-46. The lines IAC-104, IAC-107, IAC-111, IAC-167, ISWYN-31/82 and Kenya Kifaru exhibited the semidwarf type when compared to the tall cultivars BH-1146 and IAC-18. In relation to the powdery mildew disease, the lines IAC-108 and ISWYN-31/82 showed high resistance under field conditions. The line IAC-167 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 were resistant to eight races and IAC-103 and Kenya Kifaru were resistant to seven races of P. graminis tritici, causal agent of stem rust under greenhouse conditions. The lines IAC-104, IAC-108, IAC-110, IAC-111, IAC-167, ISWYN-31/82 and Kenya Kifaru showed high resistance to stem rust under natural conditions of plant infection. The line IAC-1 67 was resistant to three races of P. recondita at the seedling stage under greenhouse conditions. The lines IAC-100, IAC-101, IAC-111, IAC-167 and PAT-73121 presented good resistance to this disease under natural infection out in

  17. Melhoramento do trigo: XXI. Avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Wheat breeding: XXI. Evaluation of inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas entre si vinte e três linhagens e dois cultivares comerciais de trigo através de ensaios instalados em diferentes regiões paulistas, em 1984/86, analisando-se a produtividade, características agronômicas, resistência às doenças e tolerância ao alumínio. Considerando os ensaios conduzidos em Capão Bonito, a linhagem 19 destacou-se quanto à produção de grãos, como moderadamente resistente à helmintosporiose, muito tolerante à toxicidade de Al3+, ciclo precoce e, apesar do porte alto, boa resistência ao acamamento. Nos ensaios do Vale do Paranapanema (Cruzália e Cândido Mota, sobressaíram o cultivar BH-1146 e a linhagem 16 quanto à produção de grãos. A linhagem 16 apresentou porte baixo, ciclo precoce, resistência de campo à ferrugem-da-folha, resistência ao acamamento e tolerância ao Al3+ e, em Tietê, foi a mais produtiva. No ensaio de Campinas, não foram detectadas diferenças entre os tratamentos quanto à produção de grãos. As linhagens 1, 3, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 22 e 23 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46 mostraram plantas de porte semi-anão, diferindo significativamente do 'BH-1146', de porte alto. Em relação à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, as linhagens 9, 10 e 11 e o 'Alondra-S-46' foram resistentes às seis raças testadas em estádio de plântula em casa de vegetação. Em condição de infecção natural no estádio de planta adulta, as linhagens 11, 16 e 18 e o 'BH-1146' apresentaram menor grau de infecção de ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita. A linhagem 7, com espigas compridas, 7 e 8, com maior número de espiguetas por espiga, 2, com grande fertilidade nas espigas, e 21, com grãos mais pesados, representaram boas fontes genéticas dessas características ao programa de melhoramento. As linhagens 1, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19 e 21 e o cultivar BH-1146 foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg de Al3+/litro em solução nutritiva.Twenty three inbred lines obtained at

  18. Melhoramento do trigo: XII. Comportamento de novas linhagens e cultivares no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XII. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    -18',foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty one inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-17, and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experiment Center and Capão Bonito Experiment Station, during the years of 1982 and 1983, at Tietê Experiment Station, in 1982 and at Floresta Negra Farm, Maracaí, in 1983. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergente to maturation, percentage of layed plants, head length, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts were evaluated under field conditions and tests of resistance to stem and leal rusts and to aluminum were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. Considering the trials planted under sprinkler irrigation, at Campinas, the lines IAC-60 and IAC-67 showed good performance regarding to grain yield. In Capão Bonito, represented by acid soils, the lnes IAC-66, IAC-60 and IAC-69 showed high grain yield. The lines IAC-64, IAC-68, IAC-71 and IAC-60 presented good productivity at Tietê Experiment Station and IAC-67, IAC-63 and IAC-64 were more adapted to high soil fertility showing the best grain yields at Maracaí. The lines IAC-52, IAC-53, IAC-54, IAC-55, IAC-56, IAC-57, IAC-58, IAC-60, IAC-64, IAC-65, IAC-67, IAC-71 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 exhibited semi-dwarf type when compared to the tall cultivar BH-1146. In relation to stem rust, the lines IAC-62 and IAC-65 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 showed very good resistance presenting at seedling stage, resistance to seven rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. The line IAC-64 was resistant to four and IAC-52 and IAC-55 to three races of leaf rust in the seedling stage under greenhouse condition. The lines IAC-51, IAC-56, IAC-61, IAC-62, IAC-63 and IAC-67 presented

  19. Melhoramento do trigo: XVII. comportamento de linhagens de origem mexicana no estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XVII. evaluation of mexican inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Monte Alegre do Sul e Tatuí e no município de Maracaí, de 1984 a 1986, estudaram-se 23 linhagens de trigo introduzidas do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México, juntamente com os cultivares IAC-24 e Anahuac. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta e de espiguetas por espiga, resistência às ferrugens do colmo e da folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+ empregando-se soluções nutritivas, em laboratório. As linhas mexicanas, nominadas como IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-217 e IAC-219, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, porém não diferiram do cultivar controle IAC-24. As linhagens Festiguay-Tecolote 363.30.6.1 x Ciguena e [4777² x (Frontana/Kenya 58//Newthatch] Gabo/Pavon-76 mostraram-se resistentes às nove raças do agente causal da ferrugem-do-colmo e às seis raças do agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha. Os resultados evidenciaram que são fontes genéticas de grande valor para o programa de melhoramento do trigo no Instituto Agronômico os genótipos seguintes: IAC-215, IAC-216, Yaco"S", IAC-218, Dougga-Bluejay (T-4, Buckbuck"S" - Bulbul"S", com ciclo precoce; IAC-215, Yaco"S" e Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com porte baixo, Bonanza-Yecora F-70/Florence 35.70, com espigas compridas e maior número de espiguetas e de grãos por espiga; Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com grande fertilidade de espigas; [(IAS-58-IAS-55 x Alondra"S"/IAC-5 Alondra"S" - IAS-58 103A x Alondra"S"] e IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-219 e IAC-24, com tolerância a 10 mg/litro de Al3+.Twenty three Mexican inbred lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Monte Alegre do Sul and Tatu

  20. Melhoramento do trigo: XVIII. Comportamento de linhagens em cinco regiões paulistas Wheat breeding. XVIII: evaluation on inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se vinte e duas linhagens e três cultivares de trigo em ensaios instalados em cinco regiões paulistas, em 1984-86, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo, em dias, da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, número de espiguetas por espiga, peso de cem grãos, resistência à ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, resistência à helmintosporiose e ao oídio em condições de campo. Em laboratório, foram realizados estudos da tolerância ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas. Em sequeiro, nos ensaios conduzidos em Capão Bonito e no Vale do Paranapanema (Maracaí e Cruzália, destacaram-se, quanto à produção de grãos, respectivamente, o cultivar BH-1146 e a linhagem 12. As linhagens 4, 9 e 13, em Campinas, e a 8, em Tatuí, evidenciaram alta produção de grãos em condição de irrigação por aspersão. Na média de nove experimentos, destacaram-se em produção de grãos, por ordem decrescente, o cultivar BH-1146 e as linhagens 13, 20 e 14. As linhagens 2, 7, 8, 17 e 18 e o 'Alondra-S-46' mostraram plantas significativamente mais baixas que o 'BH-1146' e 'IAC-5'. As linhagens 7 e 8 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46 mostraram resistência às seis raças e as linhagens 17 e 18 a cinco raças testadas do agente causal de ferrugem-do-colmo em estádio de plântula, em casa de vegetação. Em campo, no estádio de planta adulta, apresentaram menor área infectada por essa doença as linhagens 1, 2, 7, 8, 12 e 17 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46. Nas mesmas condições, as linhagens 1, 5, 8 e 18 exibiram menor área infectada por ferrugem-da-folha. As linhagens 11, 12, 13, 19, 20 e 21 e o cultivar BH-1146 mostraram tolerância à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty two inbred lines from the wheat breeding

  1. Procedimento para escolha de populações de milho promissoras para extração de linhagens Procedure to select superior maize populations for inbred line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAX WENDEL PAULA LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de um programa de melhoramento de milho visando à obtenção de híbridos está intimamente ligado à identificação da população mais promissora para a extração de linhagens. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar procedimentos para a escolha dessas populações. Para isso, foram obtidas populações segregantes S0, S1 e 196 famílias S0:1 de cada um dos quatro materiais comerciais avaliados: híbridos simples (C 333B e Z 8392, duplo (AG 1051 e variedade (BR-105. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na safra agrícola 98/99 em duas localidades na região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais: Lavras e Ijaci. Na avaliação das 196 famílias S0:1 de cada população foi empregado o delineamento látice simples 14 x 14. Adicionalmente foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para avaliação simultânea das gerações F1, S0 e S1 A partir dos dados de produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg por parcela das gerações F1, S0 e S1, foram obtidas as estimativas da contribuição dos locos em homozigose (m + a e em heterozigose (d. Foram também foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os experimentos das famílias S0:1. Constatou-se que houve boa associação (r = 0,81 entre a estimativa de (m + a e a média das famílias S0:1 e que população com maior potencial para a extração de linhagens, maior (m + a, foi a AG 1051. A correlação entre as estimativas de (d e h² foi baixa, indicando que a estimativa da contribuição dos locos em heterozigose não foi bom indicador da variabilidade potencial da população.The identification of the population with greatest potential for inbred line extraction is directly linked to the success of a maize hybrid breeding program. This study was carried out to identify procedures for selecting these populations. Segregant S0, S1 populations and 196 S0:1 families were obtained from each of four commercial cultivars assessed: single hybrids (C 333B and

  2. Relapsed childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia: presence of preleukemic ancestral clones and the secondary nature of microdeletions and RTK-RAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, J; Paulsson, K; Lindgren, D

    2010-01-01

    samples with single nucleotide polymorphism array and mutation analyses of FLT3, KRAS, NRAS and PTPN11 in order to identify changes associated with relapse and to ascertain the genetic evolution patterns. Structural changes, mainly cryptic hemizygous deletions, were significantly more common at relapse (P...

  3. ATRA and the specific RARα agonist, NRX195183, have opposing effects on the clonogenicity of pre-leukemic murine AML1-ETO bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, L C Y; Hendy, J; Purton, L E; McArthur, G A

    2013-06-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is used successfully in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ATRA enhances hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal through retinoic acid receptor (RAR)γ activation while promoting differentiation of committed myeloid progenitors through RARα activation. Its lack of success in the treatment of non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may be related to ATRA's non-selectivity for the RARα and RARγ isotypes, and specific RARα activation may be more beneficial in promoting myeloid differentiation. To investigate this hypothesis, the effects of ATRA and the specific RARα agonist NRX195183 was assessed in AML1-ETO (AE)-expressing murine bone marrow (BM) progenitors. ATRA potentiated the in vitro clonogenicity of these cells while NRX195183 had the opposite effect. Morphological and flow cytometric analysis confirmed a predominantly immature myeloid population in the ATRA-treated AE cells while the NRX195183-treated cells demonstrated an increase in the mature myeloid population. Similarly, NRX195183 treatment promoted myeloid differentiation in an AE9a in vivo murine model. In the ATRA-treated AE cells, gene expression analyses revealed functional networks involving SERPINE1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2; AKT phosphorylation was upregulated. Collectively, these findings confirm the contrasting roles of specific RARα and RARγ activation in the clonogenicity and differentiation of AE cells with potential significant implications in the treatment of non-APL AML using a specific RARα agonist.

  4. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  5. Diferenças entre linhagens de milho cultivadas em solução nutritiva quanto à absorção e utilização de nitrogenio Differences in nitrogen uptake and use of corn inbred lines grown in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1985-01-01

    mays L. inbred lines in relation to N uptake and use under low N conditions. At first, five corn inbred lines were grown in 2,8 liter pots with different N levels in the nutrient solutions: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 N/liter. In a second trial thirty nine inbred lines were tested in nutrient solutions with 120mg N/liter, in the same growth system and similar growth conditions. The solutions were continuously aerated and the initial pH was 5.0. The pH was readjusted periodically throughout the experiments. The plants were allowed to grow without N reposition up to 30 days of age, when N deficiency symptoms appeared in the leaeves. Differences among lines were observed for top and root dry matter yields, for N concentrations, N contents, and efficiency ratios (dry matter produced per unit N absorbed. The N contents and the effìciency ratios averages followed, proportionally, lhe variation observed for dry matter yields, with correlation coefficients (r of 0.87 and 0.92, and coefficients of variation of means (CV of 8.7 and 16.1%, respectivelly. This indicated that both processes, absorption and use, varied among genotypes, but the mechanism of N use, appeared to be the main cause for the differential growth of the genotypes. The inbred lines were ranked and classified based on the plant dry matter data.

  6. Persistence of Leishmania antigen in C57Bl/6j inbred mice infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Persistência do antígeno da Leishmania no camundongo isogênico C57Bl/6j infectado com a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis

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    C. Vasconcellos

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE. To develop an animal model for studying mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS. The hind footpad of C57Bl/6j inbred mice was experimentally infected with 10(7 Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and the skin was studied through light and electron transmission microscopy and immunohistochemistry (PAP techniques. RESULTS. There were morphological evidences of cellular immune mechanisms and hypersensitivity reaction after eight weeks of infection and metastasis and well shaped parasites at ultrastructural level by fifty-one weeks post infection. Relapse of infection with mucosa lesions occurred around the 50th week after inoculation. CONCLUSION. The use of this animal model in long term follow up could be an useful experimental model for human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.OBJETIVO. Desenvolver um modelo experimental para o estudo da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. MÉTODOS. O coxim plantar traseiro de camundongos isogênicos C57Bl/6j foi inoculado com 10(7 formas promastigotas da Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e a pele foi estudada através da microscopia óptica e eletrônica e de técnica imunohistoquímica (PAP. RESULTADOS. Ocorreram evidências morfológicas de mecanismos imunes mediados por células, concomitantemente ao de reação de hipersensibilidade, após a oitava semana de infecção e a presença de parasitas com ultraestrutura preservada na quinquagésima primeira semana após a infecção. Houve recidiva da infecção com surgimento de lesões mucosas por volta da 50a semana pós inoculação. CONCLUSÃO. Este modelo animal, com um período de tempo de seguimento prolongado, poderia ser empregado como modelo para o estudo experimental da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa.

  7. Avaliação de nove linhagens de milho em cruzamentos dialélicos quanto à tolerância ao alumínio Evaluation of nine maize inbred lines in diallel cross in relation to aluminum tolerance

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    Geraldo Magela de Almeida Cançado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho e seus cruzamentos quanto à tolerância ao alumínio (Al, em um dialelo incompleto. Foram utilizados os índices fenotípicos de comprimento relativo de raiz seminal (CRRS, comprimento líquido de raiz seminal (CLRS e coloração por hematoxilina, determinados após sete dias de crescimento em solução nutritiva contendo 222 mimoles L-1 de Al. Os resultados dos cruzamentos dialélicos demonstraram que os efeitos aditivos foram mais importantes que os efeitos não-aditivos para os três índices avaliados. As linhagens L13, L724, L723 e L16 seriam as mais indicadas para a obtenção de híbridos visando tolerância ao Al, por apresentarem os melhores valores de capacidade geral de combinação e por participarem dos cruzamentos de melhor capacidade específica de combinação. Uma correlação de 0,76 foi observada entre os índices CLRS e a coloração por hematoxilina, de 0,63 entre CLRS e CRRS e de 0,27 entre CRRS e coloração por hematoxilina. A coloração por hematoxilina demonstrou ser uma valiosa ferramenta para programas de melhoramento de milho que visam a seleção de genótipos com maior tolerância ao alumínio.Nine maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations were evaluated in incomplete diallel crosses to study the aluminum (Al tolerance behavior. The phenotypic indexes used to determine Al tolerance were the relative seminal-root length (RSRL, the net seminal-root length (NSRL and the hemathoxylin staining, determined after seven days of growth in nutrient solution with 222 mumoles L-1 of Al. The diallel crosses results showed that additive effects were more important than not additive effects, for all indexes evaluated. Maize lines L13, L724, L723, and L16 showed better behaviour for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA and are the more indicated for obtaining Al-tolerant hybrids. The correlation observed between NSRL and hematoxylin staining

  8. Regenerability of elite tropical maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... capable of regenerating plants. For the production of transgenic lines in maize, the materials of choice are immature zygotic embryos (Ishida et al., 2007). These were reported as the best types of explants for subsequent efficient recovery of fertile plants in temperate (Green and Philips, 1975; Armstrong and.

  9. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... generations' and solved these by simple algebraic operations. In practice, our approach provides a quantum leap in the systems that can be handled: the cases of up to six loci can be solved by hand while a computer program implementing our mathematical formalism tackles up to 20 locion standard desktop computers.

  10. Regenerability of elite tropical maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid were used to induce callus. Callus induction frequency and formation of embryogenic callus varied significantly (p<0.01) depending on genotype and level of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoot regeneration ...

  11. Plant regeneration from immature embryos of Kenyan maize inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    0 - 20 mg L-1) and regenerated on hormone free MS ... for the purposes of genetically manipulating them to express phenotypes of ... excised and plated solid callus induction media with scutellar side in contact with media and ...

  12. Combining Ability of Transitional Highland Maize Inbred Lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crosses were made from five lines and three testers using line by tester. The resulting crosses and their parents were evaluated at Kulumsa and Ambo in 2003, following recommended cultural practices. The combined analysis of variance showed that the mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all traits, ...

  13. Screening of inbred popcorn lines for tolerance to low phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O J A P; Gonçalves, L S A; Scapim, C A; S M de Sousa, de; Castro, C R; Y Baba, V; de Oliveira, A L M

    2016-05-06

    Increasing phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture is essential for sustainable food production. Thus, the aims of this study were: i) to identify phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in popcorn lines during the early plant stages, ii) to study the relationship between traits correlated with PUE, and iii) to analyze genetic diversity among lines. To accomplish this, 35 popcorn lines from Universidade Estadual de Maringá breeding program were studied. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber using a nutrient solution containing two concentrations of phosphorus (P): 2.5 μM or low P (LP) and 250 μM or high P (HP). After 13 days in the nutrient solution, root morphology traits, shoot and root dry weight, and P content of the maize seedlings were measured. A deviance analysis showed there was a high level of genetic variability. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis identified three groups for the LP treatment (efficient, intermediate, and inefficient) and three groups for the HP treatment (responsive, moderately responsive, and unresponsive). The results of a principal component analysis and selection index were consistent with the UPGMA analysis, and lines 1, 2, 13, 17, 26, and 31 were classified as PUE.

  14. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  15. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Addo-Quaye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation.

  16. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...

  17. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yields under both conditions, leaf senescence under intermediate stress and severe stress, ear height under severe stress and number of ears per plant under intermediate stress had higher amount of exploitable genetic variability among the attributes. These traits may be used as an effective selection criterion to ...

  18. (Gossypium hirsutum L. race latifolium H.) cultivars and inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Adriana Gonela1, Giselly Figueiredo Lacanallo1, Leonel Domingos Moiana2, António. Chamuene2, Lorenna Lopes de Sousa1 and Luana Mieko Darben1. 1Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Melhoramento, Campus. Universitário, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco ...

  19. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2010-08-01

    of this work was to study the agronomic performance of 12 recombinant inbred chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. lines, from crosses between UENF 1421 and UENF 1381 accessions, under greenhouse conditions and using an organic system. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica Experimental Station of PESAGRO-RIO, in randomized block design, with four replications. The following variables were evaluated: total number of fruits (TNF; total fruit weight (TFW; average weight of fruits (MWF; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length and diameter fruit ratio (LDFR, and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental variances, as well as genotypic determination coefficient and variation index were estimated. There was highly significant difference for all traits unless TFW. The lines produced a high number of fruits, with low weight and with variability in shape among lines. Absence of capsaicin was observed only in two lines and other three lines segregated for capsaicin presence. High values of genotypic variance and genotypic determination coefficient were estimated for all traits, indicating that the results were due to genetic causes. The data pointed to a preliminary indication of lines 5 and 8 for cultivation in an organic system under greenhouse conditions.

  20. Melhoramento do trigo: XXIX. Avaliação de linhagens da espécie Triticum durum L. no estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XXIX. Evaluation of Triticum durum L. inbred lines for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. e dois cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L., em 16 ensaios, tanto em condição de irrigação por aspersão como de sequeiro, analisando-se a produção de grãos, componentes da produção e resistência às doenças. As linhagens de trigo duro L3 (Gallareta "S", L4 (Yavaros "S", L12 [CI 14955 x (Yavaros "S" x Gediz] x Tropic Bird e L19 {{[(61150 x Leeds x Gallo "S"] x Garza "S"} x Mexicali "S"} x S15, resistentes às ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha, suscetíveis ao oídio e à mancha foliar, de porte baixo (com exceção da L12, de ciclo precoce, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, em solos com baixa acidez, não diferindo dos cultivares de trigo IAC-60 e IAC-24, os mais cultivados atualmente no Estado de São Paulo. A linhagem de trigo duro L22 (Sacaba-81 apresentou-se, ao mesmo tempo, imune ao agente causal das ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e moderadamente resistente ao de oídio. Todos os genótipos estudados foram suscetíveis ao agente causal das manchas foliares. A linhagem de trigo duro L3 mostrou ser fonte genética para grande número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta; os cultivares de trigo IAC-60 e IAC-24 possuem genes para maior comprimento da espiga e número de espiguetas por espiga; as linhagens de trigo duro L14 (Gediz "S" x Cocorit-71 e L19 têm genes para grãos mais pesados.Twenty-three durum wheat (Triticum durum L. inbred lines and two bread wheat (T. aestivum L. cultivars were evaluated in sixteen trials carried out under sprinkler irrigation and in upland conditions, taking into account the grain yield, yield components and disease resistance. The durum wheat lines L3 (Gallareta"S", L4 (Yavaros "S", L12 [CI 14955 x (Yavaros "S" x Gediz "S"] x Tropic Bird and L19 {{[61150 x Leeds x Gallo "S"}x Garza "S"} x Mexicali "S"} x S15 presented resistance to stem and leaf rusts, susceptibility to powdery mildew and leaf spot, short stature (with exception of

  1. Optimization of particle bombardment parameters for the genetic transformation of Brazilian maize inbred lines Otimização dos parâmetros de bombardeamento de partículas para a transformação genética de linhagens brasileiras de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pereira Petrillo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a genetic transformation system for tropical maize genotypes via particle bombardment of immature zygotic embryos. Particle bombardment was carried out using a genetic construct with bar and uidA genes under control of CaMV35S promoter. The best conditions to transform maize tropical inbred lines L3 and L1345 were obtained when immature embryos were cultivated, prior to the bombardment, in higher osmolarity during 4 hours and bombarded at an acceleration helium gas pressure of 1,100 psi, two shots per plate, and a microcarrier flying distance of 6.6 cm. Transformation frequencies obtained using these conditions ranged from 0.9 to 2.31%. Integration of foreign genes into the genome of maize plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis as well as bar and uidA gene expressions. The maize genetic transformation protocol developed in this work will possibly improve the efficiency to produce new transgenic tropical maize lines expressing desirable agronomic characteristics.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um sistema de transformação genética para genótipos tropicais de milho pelo bombardeamento de embriões imaturos com micropartículas. O bombardeamento com partículas foi realizado utilizando-se uma construção gênica contendo os genes bar e uidA sob o controle do promotor CaMV35S. As melhores condições para transformação das linhagens de milho tropical L3 e L1345 foram obtidas após o cultivo de embriões imaturos durante 4 horas, antes do bombardeamento, em alta osmolaridade, e bombardeados com a pressão de 1.100 psi de gás hélio, dois tiros por placa e uma distância de vôo da micropartícula de 6,6 cm. As freqüências de transformação obtidas variaram entre 0,9 e 2,31%. A integração dos genes heterólogos no genoma das plantas transgênicas de milho foi confirmada por análises de Southern blot e expressão dos genes bar e uidA. O protocolo de transformação genética de

  2. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury Perfil da expressão gênica do estresse oxidativo em camundongos isogênicos após lesão de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Bertoletto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. METHODS: Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6 were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60min of small bowel ischemia and 60min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. RESULTS: On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2% had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8% showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7% were up-regulated and 04 (6.3% were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04% showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04% were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9% genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6% or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%. CONCLUSION: The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil de expressão dos genes associados com estresse oxidativo e contribuir para estabelecer parâmetros sobre o papel das familias de enzimas relacionadas com a lesão de isquemia / reperfusão intestinal. MÉTODOS: Doze camundongos machos isogênicos (C57BL/6 foram distribuídos aleatoriamente: Grupo Controle (CG submetido à laparotomia anestesia, e observado por 120min; Grupo isquemia/reperfusão (IRG

  3. Oleoyl-estrone metabolic effects in relation with caloric restriction in inbred Beta rats with spontaneous obesity and type 2 diabetes Efectos metabólicos de la oleoil-estrona en relación con la restricción calórica en ratas Beta endocriadas, con obesidad espontánea y diabetes tipo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Posadas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertriacylglycerolemic obese and diabetic inbred IIM Beta rats were treated with oleoyl- estrone for 10 days. Pair-feeding was performed to determine some oleoyl-estrone effects dependent on the caloric restriction it promotes. Twenty-five 200 day-old Beta males receiving a daily gavage of 0.2 ml sunflower oil were divided into the following groups: 1 daily dose of 10 nmol/g oleoyl-estrone; 2 pair-fed; 3 control. The variables measured were: whole body protein, water and lipid; retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depot weights; plasma urea, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols and cholesterol. Biomass and food intake were assessed daily. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups expressed similar variations in body composition and significant body weight losses due to reduction in food intake. Oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed treatments significantly reduced retroperitoneal fat depot weights, but not epididymal ones. In oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups hyperglycemia decreased and insulinemia lowered significantly. Plasma normal total cholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia values typical of Beta rats decreased strongly compared to controls, though attaining significantly different values between oleoyl-estrone and pair-fed groups. Plasma total cholesterol appeared as more sensitive to caloric restriction than triacylglycerols through a specific oleoyl-estrone- mediated effect.Ratas endocriadas de la línea IIMBeta con obesidad, hipertriacilglicerolemia y diabetes espontáneas fueron tratadas con oleoil-estrona durante 10 días. Un grupo con restricción alimentaria fue incluido en el estudio a fin de aislar algunos efectos de la oleoil-estrona dependientes de la restricción calórica que ésta promueve. Veinticinco ratas Beta macho de 200 días de edad a los que se suministró 0.2 ml de aceite de girasol por día se dividieron en los siguientes grupos: (1 dosis diaria de 10 nmol/g de oleoil-estrona; (2 restringido; (3 control. Las

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: XXII. Comportamento de linhagens originárias de trigos de inverno e de primavera no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XXII. Evaluation of inbred lines originated from winter x spring crosses for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    toxicidade de Al3+, porém num grau significativamente menor em relação ao 'BH-1146'.Twenty four inbred lines and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 were compared in trials carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, on upland and with sprinkler irrigation, taking into account grain yield, yield components and disease resistance. The response of the genotypes for two race mixtures of stem rust and for three race mixtures of leaf rust was studied in the greenhouse. In the laboratory, the germplasms were evaluated under Al toxicity using nutrient solutions. The lines IAC-156 and IAC-141 exhibited high yield under sprinkler irrigation and the lines IAC-139, IAC-143, IAC-152 and IAC-157 on upland conditions. In relation to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici the lines IAC-142, IAC-144, IAC-145, IAC-146, IAC-148, IAC-149, IAC-150, IAC-152, IAC-153, IAC-157 and IAC-158 and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 showed resistance to two race mixtures, at seedling stage. The lines IAC-143 and IAC-150 were resistant at seedling stage to three race mixtures of leaf rust (P. recondita, and also at the stage of adult plant under natural infection out in the field. The lines IAC-140, IAC-143, IAC-145, IAC-150 and IAC-153 showed to be good genetic sources for resistance to powdery mildew. The lines IAC-139, IAC-143, IAC-145, IAC-146, IAC-152, IAC-154, IAC-155, and IAC-158 and the cultivars Alondra-S-46 exhibited short plants. The line IAC-147 showed as a good genetic source for head length; IAC-142 for high number of spikelets per spike; IAC-146 and IAC-147 for number of grains per head; IAC-146; IAC-147 and IAC-148 for high number of grains per spikelet, and IAC-157 for high grain weight. The lines IAC-143, IAC-149, IAC-150 and IAC-156 were the most tolerant in relation to AI toxicity but significantly less tolerant than the cultivars BH-1146 used as control.

  5. Slow inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster express as much inbreeding depression as fast inbred lines under semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Knudsen, Morten Ravn; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Selection may reduce the deleterious consequences of inbreeding. This may be due to purging of recessive deleterious alleles or balancing selection favouring heterozygote offspring. Such selection is expected to be more efficient at slower compared to at faster rates of inbreeding. In this study ...

  6. Melhoramento do trigo: XXIII. Avaliação de linhagens na região do vale do Paranapanema, em Capão Bonito e em Tietê, em 1984-88 Wheat breeding: XXIII. Evaluation on inbred lines for the region of Paranapanema valley, Capão Bonito and Tietê, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1984-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1990-01-01

    ' exibiram tolerância a presença de 10 mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty two inbred lines from the wheat breeding program at the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, plus the cultivars BH-1146, Alondra-S-46 and Anahuac were evaluated in six field experiments carried out at different locations of the Paranapanema Valley, during the period of 1984-88. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of lodged plants, head length, number of grains per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets per head, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts, to leaf spots due to Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp., and to powdery mildew were evaluated under field conditions. Tests for resistance to stem and leaf rusts and to aluminum tolerance, were performed in greenhouse and laboratory, respectively. The genotypes were also evaluated in trials carried out on acid soil at Capão Bonito and under high soil fertility condition at Tietê. At Paranapanema Valley and Capão Bonito the line 19 (CNT-9 x BH-1146 = IAC-227 showed good grain yield presenting medium cycle and medium plant heigth. At Tietê, jhe lines with a medium cycle from emergence to flowering were the most productive: 1 (Alondra-S-46 x IAC-5 = IAC-225 and 17 (Alondra-1 x IAC-5 = IAC-226, of short plants; and the line 3 (Alondra-S-46 x C-3, of tall plants. The line 21 (IAC-5 x Alondra-S-46 was resistant to: (a two race mixtures of stem rust; (b leaf rust, under field condition and two race mixtures of this rust, under greenhouse condition; (c powdery mildew in adult stage of plants; and (d leaf spots, showing a relatively low amount of them, under field condition. The lines 6 (C-3 x Sonora-64 and 17 (Alondra-1 x IAC-5 showed to be good genetic sources for long head, the line 17 for large number of spikelets and grains per head, the line 10 (Jupateco x IAC-13 for large number of grains per spikelet and the line 5 (Tobari-66 x BH-1146 for heavy grains. The lines 7

  7. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Effective utilization of existing variability for SNF in common bean for genetic improvement requires an understanding of underlying genes and molecular mechanisms. The utility of ...

  8. Mosaic dominant TUBB4A mutation in an inbred family with complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Dahlia; Chamova, Teodora; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Mitev, Vanio; Azmanov, Dimitar N; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in TUBB4A have been associated with a spectrum of neurological conditions, ranging from the severe hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum syndrome to the clinically milder dystonia type 4. The presence of movement abnormalities was considered the common hallmark of these disorders. Clinical, neurological, and neuroimaging examinations, followed by whole exome sequencing and mutation analysis, were performed in a highly consanguineous pedigree with five affected children. We identified a novel c.568C>T (p.H190Y) TUBB4A mutation that originated de novo in the asymptomatic mother. The affected subjects presented with an early-onset, slowly progressive spastic paraparesis of the lower limbs, ataxia, and brain hypomyelination, in the absence of dystonia or rigidity. Our study adds complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia to the clinical spectrum of TUBB4A-associated neurological disorders. We establish genotype-phenotype correlations with mutations located in the same region in the tertiary structure of the protein. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Effects of vendor and genetic background on the composition of the fecal microbiota of inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Davis, J Wade; Spollen, William; Bivens, Nathan; Givan, Scott; Hagan, Catherine E; McIntosh, Mark; Franklin, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice purchased from different vendors, the composition and uniformity of the fecal microbiota in mice of various genetic backgrounds from different vendors is unclear. Using culture-independent methods and robust statistical analysis, we demonstrate significant differences in the richness and diversity of fecal microbial populations in mice purchased from two large commercial vendors. Moreover, the abundance of many operational taxonomic units, often identified to the species level, as well as several higher taxa, differed in vendor- and strain-dependent manners. Such differences were evident in the fecal microbiota of weanling mice and persisted throughout the study, to twenty-four weeks of age. These data provide the first in-depth analysis of the developmental trajectory of the fecal microbiota in mice from different vendors, and a starting point from which researchers may be able to refine animal models affected by differences in the gut microbiota and thus possibly reduce the number of animals required to perform studies with sufficient statistical power.

  10. Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; van der Sluis, Sophie; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B; De Zeeuw, C.I.; Levelt, C.N.

    Genetic and environmental factors interact throughout life and give rise to individual differences, i.e., individuality. The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). Here, we compared robustness between

  11. Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.; Koopmans, B.; Aarts, E.; Maroteaux, G.; van der Sluis, S.; Verhage, M.; Smit, A.B.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors interact throughout life and give rise to individual differences, i.e., individuality. The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). Here, we compared robustness between

  12. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cátedra de Genética de Poblaciones y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Vélez Sarsfield 299 (5000) Córdoba, Argentina; Cátedra de Histología I y Embriología Básica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, ...

  13. What the Inbred Scandinavian Wolf Population Tells Us about the Nature of Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannikke Räikkönen

    Full Text Available The genetic aspects of population health are critical, but frequently difficult to assess. Of concern has been the genetic constitution of Scandinavian wolves (Canis lupus, which represent an important case in conservation. We examined the incidence of different congenital anomalies for 171 Scandinavian wolves, including the immigrant founder female, born during a 32-year period between 1978 and 2010. The incidence of anomalies rose from 13% to 40% throughout the 32-year study period. Our ability to detect this increase was likely facilitated by having considered multiple kinds of anomaly. Many of the found anomalies are likely associated with inbreeding or some form of genetic deterioration. These observations have implications for understanding the conservation needs of Scandinavian wolves. Moreover, these observations and the history of managing Scandinavian wolves focus attention on a broader question, whether conservation is merely about avoiding extinction of remnant populations, or whether conservation also entails maintaining genetic aspects of population health.

  14. Genetic variation in coding regions between and within commonly used inbred rat strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; van Zutphen, B.F.; Plasterk, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2004-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic variation in mammalian populations. Their significance is illustrated by their potential contribution to common disease but also by their potential for use in genetic association and mapping experiments. We have examined the genetic

  15. Differential effects of diazepam and MPEP on habituation and neuro-behavioural processes in inbred mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated a profound lack of habituation in 129P3 mice compared to the habituating, but initially more anxious, BALB/c mice. The present study investigated whether this non-adaptive phenotype of 129P3 mice is primarily based on anxiety-related characteristics. Methods To test this hypothesis and extend our knowledge on the behavioural profile of 129P3 mice, the effects of the anxiolyticdiazepam (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) and the putative anxiolytic metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5R) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) treatment on within-trial (intrasession) habituation, object recognition (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) and on the central-nervous expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) were investigated. Results Behavioural findings validated the initially high, but habituating phenotype of BALB/c mice, while 129P3 mice were characterized by impaired intrasession habituation. Diazepam had an anxiolytic effect in BALB/c mice, while in higher doses caused behavioural inactivity in 129P3 mice. MPEP revealed almost no anxiolytic effects on behaviour in both strains, but reduced stress-induced corticosterone responses only in 129P3 mice. These results were complemented by reduced expression of c-Fos after MPEP treatment in brain areas related to emotional processes, and increased c-Fos expression in higher integrating brain areas such as the prelimbic cortex compared to vehicle-treated 129P3 mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the strain differences observed in (non)adaptive anxiety behaviour are at least in part mediated by differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid- A and mGluR5 mediated transmission. PMID:22686184

  16. Virulence assessment of a Neospora caninum isolate for inbred C57BL/6 mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum (N. caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the virulence of a N. caninum isolate on mouse strain C57BL/6. Six groups of five mice C57BL/6 were intraperitoneally inoculated with 1 × l07, 1.5 × l07, 2 × l07, 3 × l07 and 4 × l07 tachyzoites and a control inoculum of DMEM, respectively. Clinical signs and mortality rate were recorded and confirmed by histopathological findings and molecular method. The results of this study indicated that LD50 was 2.5 × l07 tachyzoites of N. caninum per C57BL/6 mouse. This can be used as a lethal challenge model in vaccine development studies.

  17. Differential susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to chlorine-induced airway fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine is a reactive gas that is considered a chemical threat agent. Humans who develop acute lung injury from chlorine inhalation typically recover normal lung function; however, a subset can experience chronic airway disease. To examine pathological changes following chlorine-induced lung injury, mice were exposed to a single high dose of chlorine, and repair of the lung was analyzed at multiple times after exposure. In FVB/NJ mice, chlorine inhalation caused pronounced fibrosis of larger airways that developed by day 7 after exposure and was associated with airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, A/J mice had little or no airway fibrosis and had normal lung function at day 7. Unexposed FVB/NJ mice had less keratin 5 staining (basal cell marker) than A/J mice in large intrapulmonary airways where epithelial repair was poor and fibrosis developed after chlorine exposure. FVB/NJ mice had large areas devoid of epithelium on day 1 after exposure leading to fibroproliferative lesions on days 4 and 7. A/J mice had airways covered by squamous keratin 5-stained cells on day 1 that transitioned to a highly proliferative reparative epithelium by day 4 followed by the reappearance of ciliated and Clara cells by day 7. The data suggest that lack of basal cells in the large intrapulmonary airways and failure to effect epithelial repair at these sites are factors contributing to the development of airway fibrosis in FVB/NJ mice. The observed differences in susceptibility to chlorine-induced airway disease provide a model in which mechanisms and treatment of airway fibrosis can be investigated. PMID:23171502

  18. Quantitative trait local analysis of growth-related traits in a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Ruijs, G.J.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis natural variation was used to analyze the genetics of plant growth rate. Screening of 22 accessions revealed a large variation for seed weight, plant dry weight and relative growth rate but not for water content. A positive correlation was observed between seed weight and plant area 10 d

  19. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  20. Heterosis For Litter Traits In Native By Exotic Inbred Pig Crosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The backcross groups recorded residual heterosis in the litter traits monitored and the magnitude was higher in the exotic than in the native backcrosses. The results further indicate that the litter traits performance of the crossbred groups were mostly influenced by maternal, sex-linked, dominance and epistatic gene actions.

  1. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr 3-catalyzed [2+ 2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 129, Issue 12. Current Issue Volume 129 | Issue 12. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  2. GENETIC MODELING OF TOLERANCE TO ZINC OXIDE INHALATION IN INBRED MICE. (R827351C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Genetic variability to diet-induced hippocampal dysfunction in BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yueqiang; Li, JingJing; Yan, Lei; Lu, Lu; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence has emerged suggesting that diet-induced obesity can have a negative effect on cognitive function. Here, we exploited a mouse genetic reference population to look for the linkage between these two processes on a genome-wide scale. The focus of this report is to determine whether the various BXD RI strains exhibited different behavioral performance and hippocampal function under high fat dietary (HFD) condition. We quantified genetic variation in body weight gain and consequent influences on behavioral tests in a cohort of 14 BXD strains of mice (8-12 mice/strain, n = 153), for which we have matched data on gene expression and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus. It showed that BXD66 was the most susceptible, whereas BXD77 was the least susceptible strain to dietary influences. The performance of spatial reference memory tasks was strongly correlated with body weight gain (P < 0.05). The obesity-prone strains displayed more pronounced spatial memory defects compared to the obesity-resistant strains. These abnormalities were associated with neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The biological relevance of DSCAM gene polymorphism was assessed using the trait correlation analysis tool in Genenetwork. Furthermore, a significant strain-dependent gene expression difference of DSCAM was detected in the hippocampus of obese BXD strains by real-time quantitative PCR. In conclusion, a variety of across-strain hippocampal alterations and genetic predispositions to diet-induced obesity were found in a set of BXD strains. The obesity-prone and obesity-resistant lines we have identified should be highly useful to study the molecular genetics of diet-induced cognitive decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hager, T.; Jansen, R.F.; Pieneman, A.W.; Manivannan, S.N.; Golani, I.; van der Sluis, S.; Smit, A.B.; Verhage, M.; Stiedl, O.

    2014-01-01

    Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test

  5. Signatures of Reproductive Isolation in Patterns of Single Nucleotide Diversity Across Inbred Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payseur, Bret A.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is often caused by the disruption of genic interactions that evolve in geographically separate populations. Identifying the genomic regions and genes involved in these interactions, known as “Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities,” can be challenging but is facilitated by the wealth of genetic markers now available in model systems. In recent years, the complete genome sequence and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from laboratory mice, which are largely genetic hybrids between Mus musculus and M. domesticus, have become available. Here, we use these resources to locate genomic regions that may underlie reproductive isolation between these two species. Using genotypes from 332 SNPs that differ between wild-derived strains of M. musculus and M. domesticus, we identified several physically unlinked SNP pairs that show exceptional gametic disequilibrium across the lab strains. Conspecific alleles were associated in a disproportionate number of these cases, consistent with the action of natural selection against hybrid gene combinations. As predicted by the Dobzhansky-Muller model, this bias was differentially attributable to locus pairs for which one hybrid genotype was missing. We assembled a list of potential Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities from locus pairs that showed extreme associations (only three gametic types) among conspecific alleles. Two SNPs in this list map near known hybrid sterility loci on chromosome 17 and the X chromosome, allowing us to nominate partners for disrupted interactions involving these genomic regions for the first time. Together, these results indicate that patterns produced by speciation between M. musculus and M. domesticus are visible in the genomes of lab strains of mice, underscoring the potential of these genetic model organisms for addressing general questions in evolutionary biology. PMID:16143616

  6. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    lines arising from these particular strains. In the first experiment, only female rats were used; in the second experiment, both sexes were studied. The goal was to select a rat strain giving the highest tumor frequency with the shortest latency period in reproducible manner. The histologic...... characteristics should resemble the corresponding human tumors. The size of the tumors should be at about 1 cm in diameter, as these tumor cells were intended to be used in future transplantation studies. The two experiments yielded highly reproducible results: histologic evaluation of all colon tumors in all...

  7. Biochemical characteristics and nutrient content of the callus of sunflower inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Pajević Slobodanka P.; Vasić Dragana M.; Sekulić Petar Ð.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral nutrition is a factor affecting in vitro regeneration. Various requirements for individual mineral elements between plant species and also between genotypes of the same species have led to the differentiation and definition of the significance of the genetic background in determining callus biochemical characteristics and a confirmation whether different requirements for nutrients leave a possibility of achieving better and more efficient regeneration with a specific modification of s...

  8. Effects of homozygosity of the nude (rnu) gene in an inbred strain of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1984-01-01

    Several age groups of nude homozygous rnu/rnu and heterozygous rnu/+ rats of the same genetic background at an early stage of back-crossing (LEW/Mol) were compared as to body and organ weights, histological appearance and cell density of lymphoid organs, haematological values and differential cou...... rats showed no signs of lymphopaenia in contrast with the findings in nude mice. The number of thoracic duct lymphocytes was, however, significantly smaller in all age groups of the nude rats, and the bone marrow tended to contain fewer lymphocytes....

  9. Acetaminophen Differentially Enhances Social Behavior and Cortical Cannabinoid Levels in Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Georgianna G.; Seillier, Alexandre; Weiss, Gabriela; Giuffrida, Andrea; Burke, Teresa F.; Hensler, Julie G.; Rock, Crystal; Tristan, Amanda; McMahon, Lance R.; Salazar, Alexander; O’Connor, Jason C.; Satsangi, Neera; Satsangi, Rajiv K.; Gu, Ting-Ting; Treat, Keenan; Smolik, Corey; Schultz, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Supratherapeutic doses of the analgesic acetaminophen (paracetomol) are reported to promote social behavior in Swiss mice. However, we hypothesized that it might not promote sociability in other strains due to cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) transmission in the frontal cortex. We examined the effects of acetaminophen on social and repetitive behaviors in comparison to a cannabinoid agonist, WIN 55,212-2, in two strains of socially-deficient mice, BTBR and 129S1/SvImJ (129S). Acetaminophen (100 mg/kg) enhanced social interactions in BTBR, and social novelty preference and marble burying in 129S at serum levels ≥70 ng/ml. Following acetaminophen injection or sociability testing, anandamide (AEA) increased in BTBR frontal cortex, while behavior testing increased 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) levels in 129S frontal cortex. In contrast, WIN 55,212-2 (0.1 mg/kg) did not enhance sociability. Further, we expected CB1-deficient (+/−) mice to be less social than wild-type, but instead found similar sociability. Given strain differences in endocannabinoid response to acetaminophen, we compared cortical CB1 and 5-HT1A receptor density and function relative to sociable C57BL/6 mice. CB1 receptor saturation binding (Bmax= 958±117 fmol/mg protein), and affinity for [3H]CP55,940 (KD= 3±0.8 nM) was similar in frontal cortex among strains. CP55,940-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in cingulate cortex was 136±12, 156±22, and 75±9% above basal in BTBR, 129S and C57BL/6 mice. The acetaminophen metabolite para-aminophenol (1μM) failed to stimulate [35S]GTPγS binding. Hence, it appears that other indirect actions of acetaminophen, including 5-HT receptor agonism, may underlie its sociability promoting properties outweighing any CB1 mediated suppression by locally-elevated endocannabinoids in these mice. PMID:22542870

  10. Assessing Autism-like Behavior in Mice: Variations in Social Interactions Among Inbred Strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolivar, Valerie J.; Walters, Samantha R.; Phoenix, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, with characteristics including impairments in reciprocal social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive/stereotyped behaviors. Despite decades of research, the etiology of autism remains elusive. Thus, it is important that we pursue all avenues, in attempting to understand this complicated disorder. One such avenue is the development of animal models. While autism may be uniquely human, there are behavioral characteristics of the disor...

  11. Comparative sequence analysis of the non-protein-coding mitochondrial DNA of inbred rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Avinash; Park, Hee-Bok; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Luthman, Holger

    2009-12-07

    The proper function of mammalian mitochondria necessitates a coordinated expression of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, most likely due to the co-evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The non-protein coding regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) including the D-loop, tRNA and rRNA genes form a major component of this regulated expression unit. Here we present comparative analyses of the non-protein-coding regions from 27 Rattus norvegicus mtDNA sequences. There were two variable positions in 12S rRNA, 20 in 16S rRNA, eight within the tRNA genes and 13 in the D-loop. Only one of the three neutrality tests used demonstrated statistically significant evidence for selection in 16S rRNA and tRNA-Cys. Based on our analyses of conserved sequences, we propose that some of the variable nucleotide positions identified in 16S rRNA and tRNA-Cys, and the D-loop might be important for mitochondrial function and its regulation.

  12. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Apratim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV. Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Results Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  13. Comparative transcript profiling of maize inbreds in response to long-term phosphorus deficiency stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanling; Mu, Chunhua; Chen, Yu; Kong, Xiangpei; Xu, Yuanchao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Qingcheng; Xue, Yanfang; Li, Zongxin; Ding, Zhaojun; Liu, Xia

    2016-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important food and energy crop, and low phosphate (Pi) availability is one of the major constraints in maize production worldwide. Plants adapt suitably to acclimate to low Pi stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Pi deficiency response is still unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate the differences of transcriptional responses in two maize genotypes with different tolerances to low phosphorus (LP) stress. LP-tolerant genotype QXN233 maintained higher P and Pi levels in shoots than LP-sensitive genotype QXH0121 suffering from Pi deficiency at seedling stage. Moreover, the transcriptomic analysis identified a total of 1391 Pi-responsive genes differentially expressed between QXN233 and QXH0121 under LP stress. Among these genes, 468 (321 up- and 147 down-regulated) were identified in leaves, and 923 (626 up- and 297 down-regulated) were identified in roots. These Pi-responsive genes were involved in various metabolic pathways, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, ion transport, phytohormone regulation, and other adverse stress responses. Consistent with the differential tolerance to LP stress, five maize inorganic Pi transporter genes were more highly up-regulated in QXN233 than in QXH0121. Results provide important information to further study the changes in global gene expression between LP-tolerant and LP-sensitive maize genotypes and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying maize's long-term response to Pi deficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  14. [Heterogeneity and several clinico-genetic correlations in epilepsy under inbred conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utin, A V

    1975-01-01

    The types of inheritance and clinico-genetical correlatins of epilepsy in 291 probands in conditions of inbreeding were studied. The data obtained confirmed the multifactorial (gene-polygene+medium) inheritance of epileptic and convulsive predispositions and contradicted the hypothesis of primarily recessive inheritance of epilepsy. Together with family forms of the disease, which were communicated mainly according to an uncertained and dominant type (rarely recessive type), there were existed forms of eipilepsy with incomplete genetical hereditary predisposition (which were observed in relatives of 2-3 generations only by epileptic features) and phenotypical forms concentrated in sporadic groups. There were found the dependences onthe rate of occurrence of secondary epilepsy (with or without epileptoidness), epileptoid psychopathy and children convulsions in relatives, on the type of inheritance, the age of manifestations, the form, polymorphism of the attacks, the severity of the developement of epilepsy, the expressiveness of epileptoidness in probands and high severity of the disease with distinct epileptoidness inbreeding families. The hereditary heterogeneity of epilepsy, associated, perhaps, with pleiotropy of epileptic (with or without epileptoidness) genes, was assumed. The found clinico-genetical correlaltions mightbe taken into account in medico-genetical prognosis of families burdened by epilspsy in analogous populational-demographic conditions.

  15. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5 software (Wang et al., 2010), scanning interval of 2 cM between markers and putative QTLs with a window size of 10 cM. The LOD (log10 of odds ratio) threshold value for the QTL significance was determined by 1000-time permutation test (α = 0.05) (Doerge and Churchill ...

  16. Traceability of inbred and crossbred Cinta Senese pigs by evaluating the oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, A; Civitareale, C; Fiori, M; Regini, M; Betti, M; Brambilla, G

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies on the oxidative stress in swine indicated a strong link between the values of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), the subsequent antioxidant adaptive response (OXY) and the genetic selection. Such findings, mainly related to a cardiovascular inadequacy in lean, large muscle blocks and fast growing breeds, is associated with specific metabolic diseases such as porcine stress syndrome and mulberry heart disease. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress parameters to trace the genetics of Cinta Senese (CS) pigs, a historical breed free-range reared in Siena countryside. Sera from CS (n = 24) and Large White x CS (LW x CS) (n = 24) groups around 120 kg body weight fed the same diet were sampled at slaughter. Sera from wild boars (WB) (n = 24) hunted in the same district were also considered. ROMs and OXY were evaluated in the three groups of swine. Significant differences by one-way anova (P stress can effectively trace the CS pigs, thus aiding in preserving the overall specific traits of such a historical animal.

  17. Mapping osmotic adjustment in an advanced back-cross inbred population of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, S; Pathan, M S; Courtois, B; Lafitte, R; Carandang, S; Lanceras, S; Amante, M; Nguyen, H T; Li, Z

    2003-11-01

    Osmotic adjustment is one of several characters putatively associated with drought tolerance in rice. Indica cultivars are known to have a greater capacity for osmotic adjustment than japonica cultivars. We developed an advanced back-cross population using an indica donor, IR62266-42-6-2, to introgress osmotic adjustment into an elite japonica cultivar, IR60080-46A. One hundred and fifty BC(3)F(3) families were genotyped using microsatellites and RFLP markers, and a few candidate genes. We evaluated osmotic adjustment in these lines under greenhouse conditions using the re-hydration technique. Using the composite interval mapping technique, we detected 14 QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 that together explained 58% of the phenotypic variability. Most, but not all, of the alleles with positive effects came from the donor parent. On chromosome 8, two QTLs were associated in repulsion. The QTL locations were in good agreement with previous studies on this trait on rice and in other cereals. Some BC(3)F(3) lines carried the favorable alleles at the two markers flanking up to four QTLs. Intercrossing these lines followed by marker-aided selection in their progenies will be necessary to recover lines with levels of osmotic adjustment equal to the donor parent. The advanced back-cross strategy appeared to be an appropriate method to accelerate the process of introgressing interesting traits into elite material.

  18. Brachypodium sylvaticum, a Model for Perennial Grasses: Transformation and Inbred Line Development

    OpenAIRE

    Steinwand, Michael A; Hugh A Young; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Tobias, Christian M.; Vogel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Perennial species offer significant advantages as crops including reduced soil erosion, lower energy inputs after the first year, deeper root systems that access more soil moisture, and decreased fertilizer inputs due to the remobilization of nutrients at the end of the growing season. These advantages are particularly relevant for emerging biomass crops and it is projected that perennial grasses will be among the most important dedicated biomass crops. The advantages offered by perennial cro...

  19. Marek's Disease Virus Infection Induces Widespread Differential Chromatin Marks in Inbred Chicken Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigene...

  20. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Continuous vaccination against MD may have contributed to a progressive increase in the virulence of MDV, and therefore, the understanding of genetic resistance to MD is considered crucial to the long-term control of ...

  1. Protein Profiles Reveal Diverse Responsive Signaling Pathways in Kernels of Two Maize Inbred Lines with Contrasting Drought Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major factor that contributes to disease susceptibility and yield loss in agricultural crops. To identify drought responsive proteins and explore metabolic pathways involved in maize tolerance to drought stress, two maize lines (B73 and Lo964 with contrasting drought sensitivity were examined. The treatments of drought and well water were applied at 14 days after pollination (DAP, and protein profiles were investigated in developing kernels (35 DAP using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Proteomic analysis showed that 70 and 36 proteins were significantly altered in their expression under drought treatments in B73 and Lo964, respectively. The numbers and levels of differentially expressed proteins were generally higher in the sensitive genotype, B73, implying an increased sensitivity to drought given the function of the observed differentially expressed proteins, such as redox homeostasis, cell rescue/defense, hormone regulation and protein biosynthesis and degradation. Lo964 possessed a more stable status with fewer differentially expressed proteins. However, B73 seems to rapidly initiate signaling pathways in response to drought through adjusting diverse defense pathways. These changes in protein expression allow for the production of a drought stress-responsive network in maize kernels.

  2. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  3. Identification of tillering node proteins differentially accumulated in barley recombinant inbred lines with different juvenile growth habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyńska, Anetta; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop grown for both the feed and malting industries. The allelic dwarfing gene sdw1/denso has been used throughout the world to develop commercial barley varieties. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in the living system. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate changes in protein abundance associated with different juvenile growth habit as effect of the denso locus in barley homozygous lines derived from a Maresi × Pomo cross combination. A total of 31 protein spots were revealed that demonstrate quantitative differences in protein abundance between the analyzed plants with different juvenile growth habit, and these protein spots were selected to be identified by mass spectrometry. Identification was successful for 27 spots, and functional annotations of proteins revealed that most of them are involved in metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. Functions of the identified proteins and their probable influence on the growth habit in barley are discussed.

  4. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown that the composit......The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown...... that the composition of the GM is related to genetics to a certain extent. We hypothesized that the GM similarity in a group of mice born by mothers not being sisters would be lower than that in a group born by mothers being sisters. The lower similarity could lead to clustering of the GM of mice born by non......-sisters according to their mothers, while such clustering would not be visible if the mothers were sisters. We used 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) polymerase chain reaction-derived amplicon profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to study the GM composition in caecum samples of 33 eight-week-old C57...

  5. Nitrogen-15 uptake by whole plants and root callus cultures of inbred maize lines and their F1 hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladenova, Y.; Karadimova, M. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Genetika)

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of nitrogen-15 by 3 maize genotypes was investigated. Comparative analysis of N15 assimilation and distribution in the organs of intact plants of two self-pollinated lines and their F1 hybrid and also in a callus tissue of roots of the same genotypes was made. From the results the conclusion is drawn that the N-use efficiency of the female line is higher than that of the male line both in intact plants and callus tissues from roots. This fact indicates that the N-use efficiency is determined not only by the functions of the cells in the shoots, suggesting the participation of the photosynthetic carboxylases but also by the functions of cells without a photosynthesizing apparatus. The N-use efficiency in the F1 hybrid manifests ''heterosis'', in spite of the intact plants or root callus tissues are being studied.

  6. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  7. Genetics of Bone Mineralization and Morphology in Inbred Mice: Analysis of the HcB/Dem Recombinant Congenic Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    23 Caruso A, Tzellas N, Bawa A, in patients with hypophosphatemic Franklin B, McGuire S, Nogues X, rickets/osteomalacia. J Clin Gong G, Allen KM...composition in s im mice was assessed by neutron [7] Lukinmaa PL, Ranta H, Ranta K, Kaitila I. Dental findings in 328 275 activation analysis [32] and by

  8. Evaluation of grain dimension and weight using backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs) between wild and domesticated emmer wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) represents the primitive situation in the domestication of AABB tetraploid wheat. As one of the earliest domesticated grain species, it was a principal crop in the development and spread of Neolithic agriculture in the Old World. Grain weight and dimensi...

  9. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  10. Effectiveness of the Ty-3 Introgression for Conferring Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Tomato to Bipartite Begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of begomovirus-incited diseases on tomatoes in Guatemala continues to be a challenge and there continues to be a need to better understand the genetics of resistance to begomoviruses. In this study, the resistant line, Gh13, was crossed with the susceptible line, HUJ-VF, that lacked the ...

  11. Characterization of agronomic traits and markers of recombinant inbred lines from intra- and interracial populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, W; Bushuk, W; Roca, W; Singh, S P

    1995-07-01

    The value of intra- and interracial populations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) needs to be determined in order to create useful genetic variation for maximizing gains from selection, broadening the genetic base of commercial cultivars, and making efficient use of available resources. Five large-seeded parents of race Nueva Granada (N), two small-seeded race Mesoamerica (M), and one medium-seeded race Durango (D) were hybridized to produce one intraracial (N x N) and three interracial (two N x M and one N x D) populations. Seventy-nine F2-derived F6 lines randomly taken from each population along with their parents were evaluated for agronomic traits and markers at Palmira and Popayán, Colombia, in 1990 and 1991. Variation for agronomic traits and for morphological, protein, and isozyme markers was larger in interracial populations than in the intraracial population. Mean seed yield of all lines as well as yield of the highest yielding line from two interracial populations were significantly higher than that of the intraracial population. The highest (≥ 0.80±0.15) heritability was recorded for 100-seed weight. Values for seed yield varied from 0.19±0.17 to 0.50±0.16. Gains from selection (at 20% selection pressure) for seed yield ranged from 3.9% to 11.4%. Seed yield was positively associated with biomass yield, pods/m(2), and days to maturity, but harvest index showed negative correlations with these traits and a positive value with 100-seed weight. Polymorphism was recorded for phaseolin, lectins, protein Group-1 and protein Group-2 fractions, and six isozyme loci. Lines with indeterminate growth habit had significantly (P < 0.01) higher seed yield than lines with determinate growth habit in a Redkloud x MAM 4 population. Also, 23 other associations of markers with agronomic traits other than seed yield were recorded. Of these associations, lines with T phaseolin, the Diap1 (2) allele, and lilac flower color tended to possess greater seed weight.

  12. Immunosuppression-Induced Susceptibility of Inbred Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to Lethal-Disease by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Genovesi* and C. J. Peters L..’ Army Medical Research Institute in Infectious Diseases. -- f) Department of Viral Pathogenesis and Inmunology . Disease...strains. WE and Armstrong (ARM), caused systemic infections _ and induced comparable serum LC3IV-antibodv titers. However. lethal wasting-disease occurred...protects hamsters from disease and mortality by LCMV -- - -- [29, 42, 47]. - In the past there has been no reliable experimental host-virus system to

  13. Linkage disequilibrium in inbred North African families allows fine genetic and physical mapping of triple A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Rabia, S; Salomon, R; Pelet, A; Penet, C; Rotschild, A; de Laët, M H; Chaouachi, B; Hannachi, R; Bakiri, F; Brauner, R; Chaussain, J L; Munnich, A; Lyonnet, S

    2000-08-01

    Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, MIM No. 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the cardia, and alacrimia. The triple A gene has been previously mapped to chromosome 12q13 in a maximum interval of 6 cM between loci D12S1629 and D12S312. Using linkage analysis in 12 triple A families, mostly originating from North Africa, we confirm that the disease locus maps to the 12q13 region (Zmax = 10.89 at theta = 0 for D12S1604) and suggest that triple A is a genetically homogeneous disorder. Recombination events as well as homozygosity for polymorphic markers enabled us to reduce the genetic interval to a 3.9 cM region. Moreover, total linkage disequilibrium was found at the D12S1604 locus between a rare allele and the mutant chromosomes in North African patients. Analysis of markers at five contiguous loci showed that most of the triple A chromosomes are derived from a single founder chromosome. As all markers are located in a 0 cM genetic interval and only allele 5 at the D12S1604 locus was conserved in mutant chromosomes, we speculate that the triple A mutation is due to an ancient Arabian founder effect that occurred before migration to North Africa. Since we also found linkage disequilibrium at D12S1604 in two patients from Southern Europe (France and Spain), the founder effect might well extend to other Mediterranean countries. Taking advantage of a YAC contig encompassing the triple A minimal physical region, the triple A gene was mapped to a 1.7 Mb DNA fragment accessible to gene cloning.

  14. Activity and electrophoretic profiles of liver aldehyde dehydrogenases from mice of inbred strains with different alcohol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, H; Nishiguchi, K; Miyamoto, R; Ogita, Z I; Nakanishi, S

    1983-01-01

    1. The activity of low Km-aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver mitochondrial fraction (MT-fraction) from male C57BL/6J strain mice (alcohol preferring) was significantly higher than that from DBA/2 mice (alcohol avoiding). The F1 hybrids (C57BL/6J X DBA/2) did not exhibit the intermediate activity to these two strains. 2. Strain differences in liver mitochondrial ALDH isozymes were observed by isoelectric focusing. C57BL/6J strain had two isozymes at pH 7.1 while DBA/2 had no band at this pH. F1 hybrid mice had similar two bands with lower density to those of C57BL/6J at pH 7.1. There was no difference in zymograms of the soluble fraction between C57BL/6J and DBA/2 strains. 3. The present results suggest that the difference in alcohol preference of mice may depend on some restricted ALDH isozymes with different pl or electric mobility rather than the enzymatic activity in the liver MT-fraction.

  15. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  16. Genetic basis of transcriptome differences between the founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Marieke; Atanur, Santosh S; Linsen, Sam; Guryev, Victor; Ruzius, Frans-Paul; Game, Laurence; Lansu, Nico; de Bruijn, Ewart; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; Jones, Steven J M; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, Tim J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of next generation sequencing it has become possible to detect genomic variation on a large scale. However, predicting which genomic variants are damaging to gene function remains a challenge, as knowledge of the effects of genomic variation on gene expression is still

  17. The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains

    OpenAIRE

    Jegstrup, Inger Marie; Nygaard Hansen, Marianne; Brandt, Kirsten; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. The organic method of growing plants without pesticides and synthetic fertiliser will be compared to a conventional method of growing plants (using pesticides and artificial fertiliser). The diets have been supplemented with minerals and vitamins according to the recommendations of the National Research Council for rats (1995), in orde...

  18. Gene expression patterns in bone after 4 days of hind-limb unloading in two inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nan; Garman, Russell A; Squire, Maria E; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rubin, Clinton T; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Judex, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    An improved understanding of the interdependence of transcriptional and genomic control of bone loss is critical for the design of effective and safe countermeasures for osteoporosis in space and on Earth. In an effort to test whether molecular pathways modulating the loss of functional weight bearing are dependent on genetic makeup, we quantified the differential expression of genes critical to the early stages of bone remodeling in two different strains of mice. Adult (4-mo-old) female BALB/cByJ (BALB) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, strains with different sensitivities to unloading, were subjected to hind-limb unloading (HLU) or normal cage activities. RNA was extracted from the tibia following 4 d of HLU and expression levels were determined. In the BALB mice, HLU significantly altered transcriptional levels of osterix (-36%), alkaline phosphatase (-36%), osteonectin (-44%), collagen type 1 (-55%), MMP2 (-36%), osteocalcin (-68%), and osteopontin (+28%). This expression pattern was highly correlated (R2 = 0.75) with altered expression levels in the C3H mice, but the magnitude of altered mRNA levels was less than half of those in the BALB mice. These strain-specific changes in gene expression were consistent with the differential changes in bone formation, as determined in a second group of BALB and C3H mice. These data indicate that genetics may influence the absolute changes in gene expression of genes during spaceflight, but that the molecular pathways targeted by countermeasures of bone loss may not need to be specific to an individual's genetic makeup.

  19. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhou Cui

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize.

  20. Age-related changes in the motricity of the inbred mice strains 129/sv and C57BL/6j.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Najet; Jamon, Marc

    2007-02-12

    The development of motor skills was studied at different stages in the life of the mouse, focusing on three key aspects of motor development: early rhythmic motor activities prior to the acquisition of quadruped locomotion, motor skills in young adults, and the effect of aging on motor skills. The age-related development pattern was analysed and compared in two strains of major importance for genomic studies (C57Bl6/j and 129/sv). Early rhythmic air-stepping activities by l-dopa injected mice showed similar overall development in both strains; differences were observed with greater beating frequency and less inter-limb coordination in 129/sv, suggesting that 129/sv had a different maturation process. Performance on the rotarod by young adult C57Bl6/j gradually improved between 1 and 3 months, but then declined with age; performance on the treadmill also declined with an age-related increase in fatigability. Overall performance by 129/sv mice was lower than C57Bl6/j, and the age-related pattern of change was different, with 129/sv having relatively stable performance over time. Inter-strain differences and their possible causes, in particular the role of dopaminergic pathways, are discussed together with repercussions affecting mutant phenotyping procedures.

  1. Choice of inbred rat strain impacts lethality and disease course after respiratory infection with Rift Valley Fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn M. Bales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV generally recover after a febrile illness; however, a proportion of patients progress to a more severe clinical outcome such as hemorrhagic fever or meningoencephalitis. RVFV is naturally transmitted to livestock and humans by mosquito bites, but it is also infectious through inhalational exposure, making it a potential bioterror weapon. To better understand the disease caused by inhalation of RVFV, Wistar-Furth, ACI, or Lewis rats were exposed to experimental aerosols containing virulent RVFV. Wistar-Furth rats developed a rapidly progressing lethal hepatic disease after inhalational exposure; ACI rats were 100-fold less susceptible and developed fatal encephalitis after infection. Lewis rats, which do not succumb to parenteral inoculation with RVFV, developed fatal encephalitis after aerosol infection. RVFV was found in the liver, lung, spleen, heart, kidney and brain of Wistar Furth rats that succumbed after aerosol exposure. In contrast, RVFV was found only in the brains of ACI or Lewis rats that succumbed after aerosol exposure. Lewis rats that survived s.c. infection were not protected against subsequent re-challenge by aerosol exposure to the homologous virus. This is the first side-by-side comparison of the lethality and pathogenesis of RVFV in 3 rat strains after aerosol exposure and the first step towards developing a rodent model suitable for use under the FDA Animal Rule to test potential vaccines and therapeutics for aerosol exposure to RVFV.

  2. Choice of inbred rat strain impacts lethality and disease course after respiratory infection with Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Jacquelyn M.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Reed, Douglas S.; Hartman, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans infected with Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) generally recover after a febrile illness; however, a proportion of patients progress to a more severe clinical outcome such as hemorrhagic fever or meningoencephalitis. RVFV is naturally transmitted to livestock and humans by mosquito bites, but it is also infectious through inhalational exposure, making it a potential bioterror weapon. To better understand the disease caused by inhalation of RVFV, Wistar-Furth, ACI, or Lewis rats were exposed to experimental aerosols containing virulent RVFV. Wistar-Furth rats developed a rapidly progressing lethal hepatic disease after inhalational exposure; ACI rats were 100-fold less susceptible and developed fatal encephalitis after infection. Lewis rats, which do not succumb to parenteral inoculation with RVFV, developed fatal encephalitis after aerosol infection. RVFV was found in the liver, lung, spleen, heart, kidney and brain of Wistar Furth rats that succumbed after aerosol exposure. In contrast, RVFV was found only in the brains of ACI or Lewis rats that succumbed after aerosol exposure. Lewis rats that survived s.c. infection were not protected against subsequent re-challenge by aerosol exposure to the homologous virus. This is the first side-by-side comparison of the lethality and pathogenesis of RVFV in three rat strains after aerosol exposure and the first step toward developing a rodent model suitable for use under the FDA Animal Rule to test potential vaccines and therapeutics for aerosol exposure to RVFV. PMID:22919694

  3. Marek's disease virus infection induces differential chromatin marks and tissue-specific effects in inbred lines of chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a viral neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccination strategies have been used to battle against MD, but may have also resulted in a progressive increase in the virulence of MDV. Therefore, the understanding of genetic resistance to MD i...

  4. Progress in Using Mouse Inbred Strains, Consomics, and Mutants to Identify Genes Related to Stress, Anxiety, and Alcohol Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Matthews, Douglas B. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Mittleman, Guy [University of Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Becker, Howard C. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lopez, Marcelo F. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Jones, Sara R. [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Mathews, Tiffany A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Miles, Michael F. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Kerns, Robnet [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Grant, Kathleen A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland

    2006-01-01

    ALCOHOL ABUSE AND alcoholism result from the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Stress is a factor that is widely thought to contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. One consequence of stressful experiences is anxiety, and there is a rich literature on the interactions between alcohol and anxiety. Less is known about brain mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and system levels that mediate stress effects that contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. In addition, it is not clear whether and/or how genetic factors that contribute to excessive drinking interact with neural stress mechanisms.

  5. Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Toward Measles Virus-Infected Target Cells in Randomly Bred Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Natalie E.; O'Keefe, Beatrice; Hagens, Shirley J.; Diggs, Janice

    1982-01-01

    Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) toward measles virus-infected cells was studied by a 51Cr release assay with spleen cells from hamsters inoculated with measles virus (strain Lec) or control antigen and with spleen cells from normal hamsters. Spleen cells from measles virus-inoculated hamsters showed greater CMC toward infected than toward noninfected target cells (designated specific CMC). Specific CMC was maximal 7 days after virus inoculation and was declining by 9 to 10 days. Effector cel...

  6. Variations in the severity of classical swine fever infections in Danish pigs - the clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Bruun, Camilla S.

    . Blood samples were collected from all pigs at predetermined days for immunological and virological evaluation. The duration of the experiments was 4 weeks. At PID 28/29, all pigs were euthanized and subjected to post mortem examination. Table 1 Experiment control pigs virus-inoculated pigs age...... separately. Methods Experiment I: 12 pigs, 6 weeks of age, originating from 2 litters of the institute’s own SPF herd. The pigs were randomly divided into two groups each of 6 pigs – a control group and a virus-inoculated group. Experiment II: 12 pigs, 12 weeks of age, originating from the institute’s own...... SPF herd. The 6 control pigs from experiment I were applied as controls in experiment II, too. The virus-inoculated group, six pigs were littermates to the pigs from experiment I. Experiment III: 10 pigs, 6 weeks of age, of different genetic background than the pigs in experiment I and II, originated...

  7. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.

    2003-01-01

    ). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain yield, biological yield, days to heading, plant height, cold tolerance and others were evaluated at the ICARDA research stations Tel Hadya and Breda during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98. QTLs for agronomic traits related to drought resistance...... were localized. For the most-important character 'plant height under drought stress', QTLs on 2H, 3H and 7H were detected. The 'plant height' QTLs, specially the one on 3H, showed pleiotropic effects on traits such as days to heading, grain yield and biological yield. QTLs were also identified...... for other traits associated with adaptation to the Mediterranean environment such as cold tolerance, days to heading and tiller number. The identification of QTLs for agronomic traits is a first step to analyze and to dissect complex characters such as adaptation to drought tolerance....

  8. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...... identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified. ed in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields...

  9. Quantitative trait loci for tibial bone strength in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Chiu, Hank; Jiao, Yan; de Rijk, Waldemar G; Li, Xinmin; Eckstein, Eugene C; Beamer, Wesley G; Gu, Weikuan

    2010-04-01

    Three-point bending technology has been widely used in the measurement of bone strength. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone strength have been identified using mouse femurs. In this study, we investigate the use of mouse tibiae in identification of QTLs that regulate bone strength. Mouse tibiae were from a F(2) population derived from C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H). Three-point bending was measured using ISO 4049, with the support width adjustable to accommodate specimen sizes outside the scope of ISO 4049. The strain rate is selectable from 0.05 to 500 mm per min. All stress strain diagrams are recorded and retrieved in digital electronic form. Genome scan was performed in The Jackson Laboratory (TJL). QTL mapping was conducted using Map Manager QTX software. Data show that (i) both elastic modulus (stiffness) and maximum loading (strength) value appear as normal distributions, suggesting that multiple genetic factors control the bone strength; (ii) 11 QTLs, accounting for 90% of variation for strength, have been detected. More than half QTLs of three-point bending are located on the same locations of bone density earlier identified from mouse femurs; (iii) a major QTL of femoral and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) was not detected for bone strength of tibiae; (iv) the QTL on chromosome 4 has extremely high LOD score of 31.8 and represents 60% of the variation of bone strength; and (v) four QTLs of stiffness (chromosomes 2, 11, 15 and 19) have been identified.

  10. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liziane Cristina Brusamarello-Santos; Françoise Gilard; Lenaïg Brulé; Isabelle Quilleré; Benjamin Gourion; Pascal Ratet; Emanuel Maltempi de Souza; Peter J Lea; Bertrand Hirel

    2017-01-01

    .... Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial...

  11. Assignment of a gene for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP12) to chromosome 1q31-q32.1 in an inbred and genetically heterogeneous disease population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Soest, S.; Ingeborgh Van Den Born, L.; Bergen, A.A.B. [Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    Linkage analysis was carried out in a large family segregating for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP), originating from a genetically isolated population in The Netherlands. Within the family, clinical heterogeneity was observed, with a major section of the family segregating arRP with characteristic para-arteriolar preservation of the retinal pigment epithelium (PPRPE). In the remainder of the arRP patients no PPRPE was found. Initially, all branches of the family were analyzed jointly, and linkage was found between the marker F13B, located at 1q31-q32.1, and RP12 ({Zeta}{sub max} = 4.99 at 8% recombination). Analysis of linkage heterogeneity between five branches of the family yielded significant evidence for nonallelic genetic heterogeneity within this family, coinciding with the observed clinical differences. Multipoint analysis, carried out in the branches that showed linkage, favored the locus order 1cen-D1S158-(F13B, RP12)-D1S53-1qter ({Zeta}{sub max} = 9.17). The finding of a single founder allele associated with the disease phenotype supports this localization. This study reveals that even in a large family, apparently segregating for a single disease entity, genetic heterogeneity can be detected and resolved successfully. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated to drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for genetic linkage map c...

  13. A systematic search for linkage with nonsyndromic recessive deafness in two large Middle Eastern inbred kindreds excludes more than 30% of the genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.; Korostishevsky, M. [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Frydman, M. [Haim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 35 loci may individually cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. The extreme genetic heterogeneity, limited clinical differentiation and phenotypic assortative mating in many western countries make many families unsuitable for genetic linkage studies. Recently the first of those loci was mapped (to 13q) in two consanguineous families from northern Tunisia. We are studying two large highly consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds (a total of 26 deaf in 98 sampled individuals). Examination in each family showed no evidence of clinical heterogeneity and indicated an uncomplicated profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have been able to exclude the 13q locus as the cause of deafness in each kindred and have also excluded such `candidate` loci as regions as those causing Usher`s syndrome type 1 (11q13)(11p), Usher`s syndrome type II (1q32-q41), Waardenburg syndrome type I (2q37), branchio-oto-renal syndrome (8q12-q13), Monge`s deafness (5q31), and Treacher Collins syndrome (5q31.3-q33.3). To date, no lod scores greater than 1 have been obtained in either kindred using 150 RFLT`s, VNTR`s and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (CA repeats and tetranucleotides). By Morton`s criterion a minimum of 30% of the autosomal genome can be excluded for each kindred separately.

  14. The sodium-phosphate co-transporter SLC34A2, and pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Presentation of an inbred family and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Favio Michele Vismara

    2015-01-01

    We now report a consanguineous Italian family from Calabria with two affected members segregating alveolar microlithiasis in a recessive fashion. We describe, for the first time, a novel loss of function mutation in the gene coding for NaPi-IIb. A careful description of the clinical phenotype is provided together with technical details for direct sequencing of the gene.

  15. The sodium-phosphate co-transporter SLC34A2, and pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Presentation of an inbred family and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Marco Favio Michele; Colao, Emma; Fabiani, Fernanda; Bombardiere, Francesco; Tamburrini, Oscar; Alessio, Caterina; Manti, Francesco; Pelaia, Gerolamo; Romeo, Pasquale; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Perrotti, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a disorder in which many tiny fragments (microliths) of calcium phosphate gradually accumulate in alveoli. Loss of function mutations in the gene SLC34A2 coding for the sodium phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-IIb) are responsible for genetic forms of alveolar microlithiasis. We now report a consanguineous Italian family from Calabria with two affected members segregating alveolar microlithiasis in a recessive fashion. We describe, for the first time, a novel loss of function mutation in the gene coding for NaPi-IIb. A careful description of the clinical phenotype is provided together with technical details for direct sequencing of the gene.

  16. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  17. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Determine Plasma Total-Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-Ichi; Kojima, Misaki

    2017-01-01

    DDD/Sgn mice have significantly higher plasma lipid concentrations than C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in reciprocal F2 male intercross populations between the two strains. By single-QTL scans, we identified four significant QTL on chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 5, 17, and 19 for CHO and two significant QTL on Chrs 1 and 12 for TG. By including cross direction as an interactive covariate, we identified separate significant QTL on Chr 17 for CHO but none for TG. When the large phenotypic effect of QTL on Chr 1 was controlled by composite interval mapping, we identified three additional significant QTL on Chrs 3, 4, and 9 for CHO but none for TG. QTL on Chr 19 was a novel QTL for CHO and the allelic effect of this QTL significantly differed between males and females. Whole-exome sequence analysis in DDD/Sgn mice suggested that Apoa2 and Acads were the plausible candidate genes underlying CHO QTL on Chrs 1 and 5, respectively. Thus, we identified a multifactorial basis for plasma lipid concentrations in male mice. These findings will provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of plasma lipid metabolism.

  18. Resistance to P. brasiliensis Experimental Infection of Inbred Mice Is Associated with an Efficient Neutrophil Mobilization and Activation by Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fornias Sperandio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic fungal infection, endemic in Brazil, that leads to severe morbidity and even mortality if not correctly treated. Patients may respond differently to PCM depending on the pattern of the acquired immune response developed. The onset of protective immune response is notably mediated by neutrophils (PMN that play an important role through directly killing the fungi and also by interacting with other cell types to modulate the acquired protective immune response that may follow. In that way, this study aimed to present and compare different experimental models of PCM (intraperitoneal and subcutaneous regarding PMN production and maturation inside femoral bone marrow and also PMN infiltration in peritoneal and subcutaneous exudates of resistant and susceptible mice. We also assessed the fungal colony forming units and the levels of soluble inflammatory mediators (LTB4, KC, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-10 inside subcutaneous air-pouches to compare the efficiency of the PMN present at this site in relation to the two main neutrophil functions: initial lysis of the invading pathogen and modulation of the acquired immune response. P. brasiliensis inoculated intraperitoneally was able to disseminate to the bone marrow of susceptible mice, causing a more marked alteration of PMN production and maturation than that observed after resistant mice infection by the same route. Subcutaneous air-pouch inoculation of P. brasiliensis elicited a controlled and limited infection that produced a PMN-rich exudate, thus favoring the study of the interaction between the fungus and the neutrophils. Susceptible mice produced higher numbers of PMN; however, these cells were less effective in killing the fungi. Inflammatory cytokines were more pronounced in resistant mice, which supports their PCM raised resistance.

  19. Resistance to P. brasiliensis Experimental Infection of Inbred Mice Is Associated with an Efficient Neutrophil Mobilization and Activation by Mediators of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Fernandes, Gisele Pesquero; Mendes, Ana Carolina Silvério Cerqueira; Bani, Giulia Maria de Alencar Castro; Calich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Burger, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic fungal infection, endemic in Brazil, that leads to severe morbidity and even mortality if not correctly treated. Patients may respond differently to PCM depending on the pattern of the acquired immune response developed. The onset of protective immune response is notably mediated by neutrophils (PMN) that play an important role through directly killing the fungi and also by interacting with other cell types to modulate the acquired protective immune response that may follow. In that way, this study aimed to present and compare different experimental models of PCM (intraperitoneal and subcutaneous) regarding PMN production and maturation inside femoral bone marrow and also PMN infiltration in peritoneal and subcutaneous exudates of resistant and susceptible mice. We also assessed the fungal colony forming units and the levels of soluble inflammatory mediators (LTB4, KC, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-10) inside subcutaneous air-pouches to compare the efficiency of the PMN present at this site in relation to the two main neutrophil functions: initial lysis of the invading pathogen and modulation of the acquired immune response. P. brasiliensis inoculated intraperitoneally was able to disseminate to the bone marrow of susceptible mice, causing a more marked alteration of PMN production and maturation than that observed after resistant mice infection by the same route. Subcutaneous air-pouch inoculation of P. brasiliensis elicited a controlled and limited infection that produced a PMN-rich exudate, thus favoring the study of the interaction between the fungus and the neutrophils. Susceptible mice produced higher numbers of PMN; however, these cells were less effective in killing the fungi. Inflammatory cytokines were more pronounced in resistant mice, which supports their PCM raised resistance.

  20. Elevated ozone reduces photosynthetic carbon gain by accelerating leaf senescence of inbred and hybrid maize in a genotype-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to elevated tropospheric ozone concentration ([O3]) accelerates leaf senescence in many C3 crops. However, the effects of elevated [O3] on C4 crops including maize (Zea mays L.) are poorly understood in terms of physiological mechanism and genetic variation in sensitivity. Using Free Air ga...

  1. Potential of maize single-cross hybrids for extraction of inbred lines using the mean components and mixed models with microsatellite marker information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestre, M; Von Pinho, R G; Souza, J C; Machado, J C

    2008-10-21

    The present study examined the importance of mean (m+a' and d) components in the performance of single-cross hybrids for the formation of new populations and determined the contribution of the mixed model (best linear unbiased predictor of random effects, BLUP) method associated with molecular markers for the choice of crosses to obtain interpopulation hybrids. Ten single-cross commercial hybrids of different companies were used for this purpose, producing all possible double-cross hybrids through a complete diallel. The hybrids were evaluated in 15 locations in the agricultural year 2005/2006, using randomized complete block design with three repetitions. In three of these locations, estimates of m+a' and d were obtained. DNA was extracted from the single-cross hybrids and 20 SSR primers were used, nine of which were linked to QTL for yield. There was no correlation between m+a' of the single-cross hybrids with general combining ability (r = -0.15) inferring that populations with lines with high means do not always produce good hybrids. Also, it was observed that the correlation between the genetic distances with specific combining ability varied from 0.31 to 0.80 in the inter-group hybrids, while in the intra-group hybrids these estimates were low and non-significant. The heritability value obtained by BLUP was high and greater than that obtained by ordinary least squares (h(2) = 0.95 and 0.86), confirming the greater selection accuracy by the BLUP method. There were no differences between the accuracy values obtained with microsatellite information and without this information, inferring that there was no advantage of progenitor information on balanced data. It can be concluded that the estimate m+a' should not be used as a deciding parameter about the potential for extracting lines from a given population. The heritability and accuracy values obtained by BLUP allow the inference that it is possible to predict success in the choice of progenitors to obtain interpopulation hybrids.

  2. Phenotypic variation and quantitative trait locus identification for osmotic potential in an interspecific hybrid inbred F2 poplar pedigree grown in contrasting environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Sewell, Mitchell [ORNL; Gebre, G [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Pendley, Carrie D [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of dehydration tolerance in popular (Populus sp.) trees will permit development of biochemical and molecular indicators to indentify dehydration-tolerant genotypes during genetic selection. The objectives of the study were to characterize the degree of phenotypic variation in osmotic potential (a determinant of dehydration tolerance), determine the relationship between osmotic potential at full turgor and relative growth rate, and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for osmotic potential in an advanced-generation, interpsecific popular pedigree established in contrasting environments.

  3. Enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models; differential expression of developmental behavioral and cognitive profiles in four inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenhuis, Remco T; de Visser, Leonie; Bruining, Hilgo; Kas, Martien J

    2014-06-01

    The behavioral characterization of animal models of psychiatric disorders is often based upon independent traits measured at adult age. To model the neurodevelopmental aspects of psychiatric pathogenesis, we introduce a novel approach for a developmental behavioral analysis in mice. C57BL/6J (C57) mice were used as a reference strain and compared with 129S1/SvImJ (129Sv), BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and A/J (AJ) strains as marker strains for aberrant development. Mice were assessed at pre-adolescence (4 weeks), adolescence (6 weeks), early adulthood (8 weeks) and in adulthood (10-12 weeks) on a series of behavioral tasks measuring general health, neurological reflexes, locomotor activity, anxiety, short- and long-term memory and cognitive flexibility. Developmental delays in short-term object memory were associated with either a hypo-reactive profile in 129Sv mice or a hyper-reactive profile in BTBR mice. Furthermore, BTBR mice showed persistent high levels of repetitive grooming behavior during all developmental stages that was associated with the adult expression of cognitive rigidity. In addition, strain differences in development were observed in puberty onset, touch escape, and body position. These data showed that this longitudinal testing battery provides sufficient behavioral and cognitive resolution during different development stages and offers the opportunity to address the behavioral developmental trajectory in genetic mouse models for neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, the data revealed that the assessment of multiple behavioral and cognitive domains at different developmental stages is critical to determine confounding factors (e.g., impaired motor behavior) that may interfere with the behavioral testing performance in mouse models for brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosome Y variants from different inbred mouse strains are linked to differences in the morphologic and molecular responses of cardiac cells to postpubertal testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported previously that when chromosome Y (chrY from the mouse strain C57BL/6J (ChrYC57 was substituted for that of A/J mice (ChrYA, cardiomyocytes from the resulting "chromosome substitution" C57BL/6J-chrYA strain were smaller than that of their C57BL/6J counterparts. In reverse, when chrYA from A/J mice was substituted for that of chrYC57, cardiomyocytes from the resulting A/J-chrYC57 strain were larger than in their A/J counterparts. We further used these strains to test whether: 1 the origin of chrY could also be linked to differences in the profile of gene expression in the hearts of adult male mice, and 2 post-pubertal testosterone could play a role in the differential morphologic and/or molecular effects of chrYC57 and chrYA. Results The increased size of cardiomyocytes from adult male C57BL/6J mice compared to C57BL/6J-chrYA resulted from the absence of hypertrophic effects of post-pubertal testosterone on cells from the latter strain. However, gene profiling revealed that the latter effect could not be explained on the basis of an insensitivity of cells from C57BL/6J-chrYA to androgens, since even more cardiac genes were affected by post-pubertal testosterone in C57BL/6J-chrYA hearts than in C57BL/6J. By testing for interaction between the effects of surgery and strain, we identified 249 "interaction genes" whose expression was affected by post-pubertal testosterone differentially according to the genetic origin of chrY. These interaction genes were found to be enriched within a limited number of signaling pathways, including: 1 p53 signaling, which comprises the interacting genes Ccnd1, Pten and Cdkn1a that are also potential co-regulators of the androgen receptors, and 2 circadian rhythm, which comprises Arntl/Bmal1, which may in turn regulate cell growth via the control of Cdkn1a. Conclusion Although post-pubertal testosterone increased the size of cardiomyocytes from male C56BL/6J mice but not that from their C57BL/6J-chrYA counterparts, it affected gene expression in the hearts from both strains. However, several cardiac genes responded to post-pubertal testosterone in a strict strain-selective manner, which provides possible mechanisms explaining how chrY may, in part via interference with androgen regulatory events, be linked to morphologic differences of cardiac cells of adult male mice.

  5. Sweet sorghum performance under irrigated conditions in northwest China : Biomass and its partitioning in inbred and hybrid cultivars at two nitrogen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, F.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Han, L.P.; Liu, Z.X.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cultivar choice and nitrogen supply on biomass yield and dry matter partitioning of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were studied under irrigated conditions in the arid temperate climate of north-west China. Two hybrid cultivars, Zaoshu-1 (ZS 1) and Chuntian-2 (CT 2), and two

  6. IL-6, VEGF, KC and RANTES Are a Major Cause of a High Irritant Dermatitis to Phthalic Anhydride in C57BL/6 Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Joon Bae

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.

  7. IL-6, VEGF, KC and RANTES are a major cause of a high irritant dermatitis to phthalic anhydride in C57BL/6 inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Joon; Shim, Sun-Bo; Jee, Seung-Wan; Lee, Su-Hae; Kim, Mi-Ran; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2010-12-01

    In previous studies, several strains of mice were used as chemical-induced skin irritation models to identify immunological hazards and elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which irritant dermatitis disease occur. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice have been used for most of these experiments. Although there are some differences in the immune response to chemical allergens between these strains, few studies have been conducted to determine what regulatory factors contribute to these variations. To investigate the cause of high responses to skin irritation in C57BL/6 mice that are widely used to study atopic dermatitis, changes in various immune-related factors such as ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity, lymph node weight, IgE concentration and cytokine concentration were measured in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice following phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment. Based on analysis of the skin irritation, C57BL/6 mice showed a greater skin irritation to PA than BALB/c mice, although the IgE concentration and auricular lymph node weight did not contribute to this difference in the response. However, the concentration of several cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], keratinocyte-derived chemokine [KC] and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]) were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than BALB/c mice following treatment with PA. Our results suggest that several of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from irritant site could contribute to the regulation mechanism responsible for the difference in the skin irritation among various strains of mice following exposure to PA.

  8. Using an Inbred Horse Breed in a High Density Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Risk Factors of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velie, Brandon D.; Shrestha, Merina; François, Liesbeth; Schurink, Anouk; Tesfayonas, Yohannes G.; Stinckens, Anneleen; Blott, Sarah; Ducro, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    While susceptibility to hypersensitive reactions is a common problem amongst humans and animals alike, the population structure of certain animal species and breeds provides a more advantageous route to better understanding the biology underpinning these conditions. The current study uses Exmoor

  9. RT-PCR Screening for ETV6-RUNX1-positive Clones in Cord Blood From Newborns in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Marianne; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Melbye, Mads

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Several large biobanks comprising umbilical cord blood samples have been established allowing efforts to characterize the prevalence and risk factors for preleukemic cell clones in healthy newborns. This study explores the feasibility of demonstrating translocation ETV6-RUNX1 transcr...

  10. A laboratory technique to study the effects of Varroa destructor and viruses on developing worker honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing techniques for in vitro rearing honey bees and Varroa involve brood manipulation. In this laboratory study, we used larvae that were naturally developing in a comb as Varroa- and virus-inoculation hosts. In Trial 1, we used L4 larvae and newly sealed larvae (NSL) as hosts which were inocula...

  11. Bone marrow cells homing to the thymus in mice after a leukemogenic split dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humblet, C.; Defresne, M.P.; Greimers, R.; Rongy, A.M.; Boniver, J.

    1987-12-21

    Fractionated whole body X-irradiation (4 x 1.75 Gy at weekly intervals) induces a high percentage of thymic lymphomas in C57Bl/Ka mice. These tumors develop after a long latency period during which the thymic lymphopoiesis is deeply altered. In the present work, we test wether those modifications are due to a lack of prothymocyte homing to preleukemic thymuses. Our results show that the preleukemic state of the thymus don't prevent the homing of normal marrow precursors grafted immediately after an irradiation of 4 Gy. Thus the alterations of thymic lymphopoiesis observed after a leukemogenic irradiation are not due to a modification in the thymus receptivity to thymocyte precursors.

  12. Meta-Analytical Online Repository of Gene Expression Profiles of MDS Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    lenalidomide. Leukemia -initiating stem cells including preleukemic stem cells have been shown to persist even during morphologic remissions after these...Expression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b... Leukemia 2014 Jan 16. PMID: 24429498     Bhagat T, Zhou L, Sokol L, Caceres G, Gundabolu K, Gordon S, Mantzaris I, Gligich O, Yu Y, Bhattacharyya S

  13. Cbfb/Runx1 repression–independent blockage of differentiation and accumulation of Csf2rb-expressing cells by Cbfb-MYH11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, R. Katherine; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Anderson, Stacie; Kirby, Martha; Alemu, Lemlem; Zhao, Ling

    2010-01-01

    It is known that CBFB-MYH11, the fusion gene generated by inversion of chromosome 16 in human acute myeloid leukemia, is causative for oncogenic transformation. However, the mechanism by which CBFB-MYH11 initiates leukemogenesis is not clear. Previously published reports showed that CBFB-MYH11 dominantly inhibits RUNX1 and CBFB, and such inhibition has been suggested as the mechanism for leukemogenesis. Here we show that Cbfb-MYH11 caused Cbfb/Runx1 repression–independent defects in both primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. During primitive hematopoiesis, Cbfb-MYH11 delayed differentiation characterized by sustained expression of Gata2, Il1rl1, and Csf2rb, a phenotype not found in Cbfb and Runx1 knockout mice. Expression of Cbfb-MYH11 in the bone marrow induced the accumulation of abnormal progenitor-like cells expressing Csf2rb in preleukemic mice. The expression of all 3 genes was detected in most human and murine CBFB-MYH11+ leukemia samples. Interestingly, Cbfb-MYH11+ preleukemic progenitors and leukemia-initiating cells did not express Csf2rb, although the majority of leukemia cells in our Cbfb-MYH11 knockin mice were Csf2rb+. Therefore Csf2rb can be used as a negative selection marker to enrich preleukemic progenitor cells and leukemia-initiating cells from Cbfb-MYH11 mice. These results suggest that Cbfb/Runx1 repression–independent activities contribute to leukemogenesis by Cbfb-MYH11. PMID:20007544

  14. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03307-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 42 8.6 1 ( EG257438 ) MSAM193858_2538_2368 LCM-dissected maize inbred l....LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 42 8.6 1 ( EG236890 ) MSAM150902_2822_2817 LCM-dissected maize inbred l....LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 42 8.6 1 ( EG198061 ) MSAM041591_2596_2400 LCM-dissected maize inbred l....LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 42 8.6 1 ( EG141806 ) MSAM230290_1690_3548 LCM-dissected maize inbred l....( EG055447 ) MSAM029468_1641_1829 LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 42 8.6 1 ( EE175596 ) ZM_BFc0154O17

  16. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXVI - Produtividade de linhagens S0 a S4 de 'bourbon vermelho' e respectivos híbridos Coffee breeding: XXVI - Productivity of inbred lines and the ir hybrids of the cultivar ' bourbon vermelho'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Mônaco

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a altura, o vigor e a produtividade de uma série de progênie So, S1, S2, S3 e S4, de dois cafeeiros de cultivar 'Bourbon, Vermelho' e de híbridos F1 entre as plantas das gerações So, S2 e S4 A análise efetuada, referente à altura, deis plantas, revelou diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, possuíndo algumas progênies derivadas do cafeeiro n.° 2 maior altura média. Não se observou efeito depressivo da autofecundação na altura das progênies derivadas do cafeeiro n.° 1 e, nas do cafeeiro n.° 2, o efeito depressivo não se mostrou uniforme. Dos três híbridos analisados, dois dêles apresentaram altura intermediária entre a dos dois e, no terceiro, altura pouco menor. As variâncias não mostraram tendências de aumento ou diminuição com as autofeeundações sucessivas e, dois dos híbridos, deram variâncias menores e um dêles variância maior, do que a dos pais. Quanto ao vigor das plantas, avaliado por pontos dados subjetivamente, notou-se uma redução no vigor na geração S1 em relação a S0, permanecendo as plantas das demais gerações com vigor semelhante ao do S1 ou S2. Apenas um dos três híbridos mostrou vigor maior do que o dos pais. No que concerne à produção, verificou-se uma diminuição a partir da S1 a S4 nos descendentes do cafeeiro n.° 1, tendo a S4 produção superior a S0, porém não significativa; entre os descendentes do n.° 2, observou-se produção significativamente menor apenas na progênie Em um dos híbridos a produção foi superior à dos pais e nos outros dois, intermediaria. As variâncias correspondentes se mostraram inferiores em dois híbridos em relação à dos pais e, maior, no terceiro híbrido. Analisaram-se as variâncias das produções bienais, tendo-se notado efeito significativo de biênio sôbre a produção.In spite of Coffea, arabica cv. 'Bourbon Vermelho' being an autogamous plant, a certain level of heterozygosity seems to be maintained in the population, owing to about 10 per cent of natural out-crossing. If heterozygosity is present ít ahould be possible to detect the harmful effect of successive selfings on the population. The influence of successive selfings on the total yield, height and vigor of five generation (S0 to S4 and of hybrids between S0, S2 and S4, in two independent series of coffee progenies (1 and 2 was analysed. Concerning plant height it was found that the progenies derived from the mother tree n. 2 were in average taller than those belonging to group 1. No significant differences were noticed among the generations for the group 1, whereas in the second, the S2 progeny was the shortest and the S0 the tallest. The hybrids between S0 or S2 were intermediate to the parents, while the crossing between S4 was shorter than both parents. The variance was somewhat similar, showing no tendency for increasing as a result of continuous controlled self-pollination (Table I. Plant vigor seems to decrease in the S1 remaining stable in the subsequent generations. Only the hybrid between S2 was more vigorous than both parents. The total yield for the first group of progenies decreased from S0 to S3 as result of selfing. However the S4 generation gave a higher yield, which may be due to selection or mutation since contamination should not have occurred. In the second group only the progeninys S4 was less productives than the S0. The hybrid between S0, had higher yield than both parents indicating some heterotic manifestation. The variance was not affected by continuous artificial selfings. Additional data must be collected for other cultivars before the effect of successive selfing on coffee can be determined accurately. The data here discussed indicated that, although some depressive effeet could be noticed, it was not related to the presence of highly deleterious genes in heterozygosity in the ppoulation.

  17. POTENTIAL OF COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS TO GENERATE INBRED LINES IN BREEDING PROGRAMS POTENCIAL DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS DE MILHO PARA OBTENÇÃO DE LINHAGENS EM PROGRAMAS DE MELHORAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of identifying the best commercial hybrids to extract maize lines, a top cross scheme of 49 endogamic partial lines (S3 was carried out with the IA33 tester. The resultant hybrids were evaluated for grain yield, in Campinas, Mococa, and Palmital (São Paulo State, Brazil, in two agricultural years (2005/2006 and 2006/2007, in a randomized block design, with three replications, in two experiments (TC1 and TC2. Individual and group variance analysis and a grouped analysis of the experiments with common treatments were carried out, for each place. The top cross hybrids were grouped according to the line origins. Afterwards, orthogonal contrasts were carried out by using the Student’s t test, in order to compare the hybrid groups. It was verified that the use of commercial hybrids to extract lines is an interesting strategy. In general, it was also verified that the top cross hybrid groups, whose lines originated from the AG1051, Master, and XL357 hybrids, obtained high yield, with a higher potential for lines extraction.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays L.; top cross hybrids; partially endogamic lines (S3.

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar os melhores híbridos comerciais para extração de linhagens de milho. Para isto, foram realizados cruzamentos, em esquemas top crosses, de 49 linhagens parcialmente endogâmicas (S3, com o testador IA 33. Os híbridos resultantes foram avaliados, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Campinas, Mococa e Palmital (Estado de São Paulo, em dois anos agrícolas (2005/2006 e 2006/2007, utilizando-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em dois experimentos denominados TC1 e TC2. Efetuaram-se análises de variância individuais e conjuntas e, também, uma análise agrupada do TC1 e TC2, com tratamentos comuns, por local. Os híbridos top crosses foram agrupados de acordo com a origem das linhagens. Posteriormente, foram realizados contrastes ortogonais, para comparar os grupos de híbridos, pelo teste t de Student. Constatou-se que a utilização de híbridos comerciais, para extração de linhagens, é uma estratégia interessante. Verificou-se, também, que, em geral, os grupos de híbridos top crosses, cujas linhagens foram oriundas dos híbridos AG1051, Master e XL357, obtiveram elevada produtividade, tendo, portanto, maior potencial para extração de linhagens.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mays L.; híbridos top crosses; linhagens S3.

  18. Polymorphism of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) among inbred strains of mice. Relationship between the molecular type of apoA-II and mouse senile amyloidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, K.; Kitagawa, K.; Naiki, H.; Hanada, K.; Hosokawa, M.; Takeda, T.

    1991-01-01

    Three types of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) proteins (A, B and C) were predicted from the nucleotide sequence of apoA-II cDNA. Substitution of amino acid residues was noted at four positions (type A: Pro-5, Asp-20, Met-26, Ala-38; B: Pro-5, Glu-20, Val-26, Val-38; C: Gln-5, Glu-20, Val-26, Ala-38). Each type was identifiable by digestion of amplified apoA-II DNA by PCR, using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism of the apoA-II gene for restriction enzymes Cfr13I and MspI. The molecular t...

  19. Oral oocyst-induced mouse model of toxoplasmosis: Effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii strains of different genotypes, dose, and mouse strains (transgenic, out-bred, in-bred) on pathogenesis and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans and other hosts acquire Toxoplasma gondii infection by ingesting tissue cysts in undercooked meat, or by food or drink contaminated with oocysts. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent clinical disease due this parasite in humans, although, various T. gondii vaccine candidates are being de...

  20. QTL mapping of genes controlling plasma insulin and leptin concentrations: metabolic effect of obesity QTLs identified in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-31

    DDD.Cg-A(y) female mice developed massive obesity as compared with B6.Cg-A(y) female mice. We previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for obesity on chromosomes 1, 6, 9 and 17 in F2 female mice, including F2A(y) (F2 mice with the A(y) allele) and F2 non- A(y) mice (F2 mice without the A(y) allele), produced by crossing C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) strains. We here addressed the question whether the obesity QTLs share genetic bases with putative QTLs for plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations. We performed QTL analyses for the first principal component (PC1) extracted from these metabolic measurements to identify the genes that contributed to the comprehensive evaluation of metabolic traits. By single QTL scans, we identified two significant QTLs for insulin concentration on chromosomes 6 and 12, three for leptin concentration on chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, and five for PC1 on chromosomes 1, 6, 12 (two loci) and 17. Although insulin and leptin concentrations and PC1 were not normally distributed in combined F2 mice, results of single QTL scans by parametric and non-parametric methods were very similar. Therefore, QTL scan by the parametric method was performed with the agouti locus genotype as a covariate. A significant QTL × covariate interaction was found for PC1 on chromosome 9. All obesity QTLs had significant metabolic effects. Thus, obesity- and diabetes-related traits in DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were largely controlled by QTLs on chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 12 and 17.

  1. Seleção de linhagens S5 de milho-pipoca com base em desempenho e divergência genética = Selection of popcorn s5 inbred lines based on performance and genetic divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Arnhold

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias S5 de milho-pipoca com base na divergência genética e no desempenho per se. Foram avaliadas 144 famílias S5, obtidas da população Beija-flor. O experimento foi instalado em Viçosa, na safra 2002/2003, no delineamento em blocos aumentados, com as testemunhas IAC 112 e Zélia, intercaladas a cada dez famílias. A divergência genética foi predita pelo método de otimização de Tocher, utilizando a distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Foram formados 23 grupos. Dentro de cada grupo, estipularam-se pontos de corte para índice de prolificidade (≥ 1, peso de 100 grãos (≤ 15 g e rendimento de grãos (≥ 1.000 kg ha-1. As famílias restantes dentro de cada grupo foram selecionadas em capacidade de expansão. Assim, foram selecionadas 23 famílias, que podem ser utilizadas no melhoramento populacional na formação de sintéticos, ou em futuros cruzamentos. A seleção de famílias com base na diversidade genética e em desempenho per se foi eficiente, sendo possível selecionar famílias divergentes e, em geral, com excelentes características agronômicas, como capacidade de expansão média de30,67 mL g-1 e produtividade média de 1.897,69 kg ha-1.The objective of this work was to select S5 families of popcornbased on their genetic divergence and performance. The study evaluated 144 S5 families, obtained from the Beija-flor population. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, during the 2002/2003 crop season, in an augmented block design, with the controls IAC 112 and Zélia inserted every 10 families. The genetic divergence was predicted using Tocher's optimization method, based on the Mahalanobis distance. Twenty-three groups were formed. Within each group formed, points were prescribed for cutting prolificity index (≥ 1, weight of a hundred grains (≤ 15 and yield (≥ 1,000 kg ha-1. Twenty-three families were selected for popping expansion, which can be used in population breeding to synthesize synthetic varieties, or advancing the breeding process for subsequent hybrid crosses. The selection of families based on their genetic diversity and performance was quite efficient. Different families with excellent agronomic characteristics, as popping expansion average of 30.67 mL g-1 and yield of 1,897.69 kg ha-1, were selected.

  2. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knowckdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norry, Fabian M.; Scannapieco, Alejandra C.; Sambucetti, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    -hardened and nonhardened RIL. Composite interval mapping revealed a more complex genetic architecture for KRHT without heat-hardening than for KRHT in heat-hardened insects. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found for KRHT, but only two of them were significant after heat hardening. KRHT and CCR showed trade-off...

  3. Differential Effects on Survival, Humoral Immune Responses and Brain Lesions in Inbred BALB/C, CBA/CA, and C57BL/6 Mice Experimentally Infected with Neospora caninum Tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja; Hemphill, Andrew; Monney, Thierry; Schaap, Dick; Boerhout, Eveline

    2013-01-01

    C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CBA/Ca mouse strains with different MHC-I haplotypes were compared with respect to susceptibility to Neospora caninum infection. Groups of 5 mice received 1 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), or 25 × 10(6) tachyzoites of the NC-Liverpool isolate by intraperitoneal injection and were observed for disease symptoms. Humoral responses, splenocyte interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production, cerebral parasite loads, and histopathology were evaluated at human end points or the latest at 34 days postinfection (PI). The mortality rates in C57BL/6 mice were the highest, and relatively high levels of IgG1 antibodies were detected in those mice surviving till 34 days PI. In lymphocyte proliferation assays, spleen cells from C57BL6 mice stimulated with N. caninum antigen extract exhibited large variations in IFN-γ production. In BALB/c mice mortality was 0% at the lowest and 100% at the highest infection dose. Serologically they responded with high levels of both IgG2a and IgG1 subclasses, and lymphocyte proliferation assays of surviving mice yielded lower IFN-γ levels. CBA/Ca mice were the most resistant, with no animal succumbing to infection at a dose of 1 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) tachyzoites, but 100% mortality at 25 × 10(6) tachyzoites. High IgG2a levels as well as increased IFN-γ in lymphocyte proliferation assays were measured in CBA/Ca mice infected with 1 × 10(6) tachyzoites.

  4. Performance of testers with different genetic structure for evaluation of maize inbred lines Desempenho de testadores com diferentes estruturas genéticas para avaliação de linhagens endogâmicas de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro José Moreira Guimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four maize testers for identification of superior inbreed lines in testcross. The four testers evaluated are cultivars with narrow or wide genetic base (single-cross hybrids and open pollinated varieties and two kernel types (flint or dent. SynD and SynF testers are open pollinated varieties with dent and flint kernels, respectively, and FSH and DSH testers are single-cross hybrids with flint and dent kernels, respectively. SynD tester showed the biggest genetic variance among the maize inbreed lines in crosses. The effects of general combining ability (GCA for lines and specific combining ability (SCA for lines x testers were significant, whereas GCA effects for testers were not significant. SynD and SynF testers identified the largest number of lines with higher GCA. The DSH and FSH testers showed suitable to identify lines with high SCA. It was concluded that SynD and SynF testers are adequate to identify inbreed lines with high GCA effects, and it's possible to identify new lines with high heterotic potential in each one of the four testers.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quatro testadores de milho quanto à capacidade de identificar linhagens superiores em testcross. Os quatro testadores avaliados são cultivares com base genética ampla (variedades de polinização aberta e estreita (híbridos simples e dois tipos de grãos (duro e dentado. Os testadores SynD e SynF são populações de milho de polinização aberta com grãos dentados e duros, respectivamente, e FSH e DSH são híbridos simples com grãos duros e dentados, respectivamente. O testador SynD possibilitou a maior expressão de variância genética entre os cruzamentos com as linhagens. A capacidade geral de combinação (CGC das linhagens e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC entre linhagens e testadores foram significativas, enquanto que os efeitos de CGC dos testadores foram não significativos. Concluiu-se que os testadores SynD e SynF mostram-se adequados para identificar linhagens com maiores efeitos de GCA e é possível identificar novas linhagens com alto potencial heterótico com cada um dos quatro testadores utilizados.

  5. Variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and macropolymers in wheat grains of a recombinant inbred lines population and in two contrasting eco-sites in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery m...... wheat cultivars for high resistence to powdery mildew and yellow rust with less risk of undesirable effects on grain quality. c 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.......BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery...... mildew and yellow rust resistance genes of Pm21 and Yr26. This study investigated the variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and gluteninmacropolymer (GMP) in response to the 6 VS·6AL translocation segment and the two contrasting sites. RESULTS: Large variations...

  6. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  7. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    , 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24 days post infection (dpi). The pigs infected with the “Bor59” virus developed higher body temperature and more severe clinical symptoms compared to the other three groups, although the clinical signs in general were mild. The acute phase response was measured in serum...... samples as an objective indicator of infection. Acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) showed an increase in levels in pigs infected with the Eastern European viruses with an earlier rise for Bor59 than for Ili6, both peaking at 10 dpi. In contrast, the CRP level did not increase significantly...... in neither the subtype 1 virus inoculated pigs nor the sham-inoculated controls. Acute phase protein haptoglobin showed a very early increase in Bor59 infected pigs, peaking at 3 dpi, while no increase was observed in Ili6 infected pigs. All of the virus inoculated pigs seroconverted, as measured by IPMA...

  8. Enteric Virus Survival during Household Laundering and Impact of Disinfection with Sodium Hypochlorite▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Charles P.; Kennedy, Denise

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether enteric viruses (adenovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus) added to cotton cloth swatches survive the wash cycle, the rinse cycle, and a 28-min permanent press drying cycle as commonly practiced in households in the United States. Detergent with and without bleach (sodium hypochlorite) was added to washing machines containing sterile and virus-inoculated 58-cm2 swatches, 3.2 kg of cotton T-shirts and underwear, and a soiled pillowcase designed...

  9. Experiment list: SRX191031 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ption=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult...| replicate=1,2 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://

  10. Experiment list: SRX191039 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult-8wks || age description=Adult 8 weeks || labexp...train description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse

  11. Experiment list: SRX191038 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult-8wks || age description=Adult 8 weeks || labexp...train description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse

  12. Inbreeding Affects Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...... lines but were lost in some inbred lines. The departure in the daily pattern of LA in inbred lines may contribute to the inbreeding depression observed in inbred natural populations....

  13. Combining ability and heritability for host resistance to Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We generated 144 three-way test crosses and screened them together with their parental inbred lines and 4 single cross testers for host resistance to A. flavus and reduced aflatoxin accumulation. Using line by tester analysis, we identified 5 resistant inbred lines and 7 hybrids. We used the resistant inbred lines to make ...

  14. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio = New perspectives in fish research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity

  15. Cellular aspects of radiation leukemogenesis in C57 BL/Ka mice: alterations to thymic microenvironment and lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defresne, M.P.; Rongy, A.M.; Greimers, R.; Boniver, J.

    1986-01-01

    After a leukemogenic split dose course of irradiation, thymic nurse cells (TNCs) disappear. The authors have correlated this with the loss of an epithelial cell surface antigen (recognized by monoclonal antibody ER-TR3 and tentatively identified as Ia). In addition, epithelial cells have lost their capacity to interact with fetal thymocytes in vitro. Marrow grafting early after irradiation, that prevents the development of lymphomas, restores thymic nurse cells and thymocyte population. Such reconstitution and lymphoma prevention were not observed when marrow grafting was performed later (1 month after irradiation) during the preleukemic period.

  16. C/EBPalpha in leukemogenesis: Identity and origin of the leukemia-initiating cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2009-01-01

    and/or function. The main focus of this review is the progression from a preclinical state to AML, and which preleukemic cell population(s) might-in general and in particular in patients with CEBPA mutations-be a target for the secondary genetic and epigenetic events leading to this progression. (c......The role of the transcription factor CCATT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) as a lineage instructive determinant in myelopoiesis is widely accepted. Furthermore, early mutational events ultimately leading to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often involve abrogation of C/EBPalpha expression...

  17. Role of chromosomal aberrations in clonal diversity and progression of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochtler, T; Fröhling, S; Krämer, A

    2015-06-01

    Genetic abnormalities are a hallmark of cancer. Hereby, cytogenetic aberrations and small-scale abnormalities, such as single-nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion mutations, have emerged as two alternative modes of genetic diversification. Both mechanisms are at work in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in which conventional karyotyping and molecular studies demonstrate that gene mutations occur predominantly in cytogenetically normal AML, whereas chromosomal changes are a driving force of development and progression of disease in aberrant karyotype AML. All steps of disease evolution in AML, ranging from the transformation of preleukemic clones into overt leukemia to the expansion and recurrence of malignant clones, are paralleled by clonal evolution at either the gene mutation or chromosome aberration level. Preleukemic conditions, such as Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome, demonstrate that the acquisition of chromosomal aberrations can contribute to leukemic transformation. Similar to what has been shown at the mutational level, expansion and recurrence of AML clones goes along with increasing genetic diversification. Hereby, cytogenetically more evolved subclones are at a proliferative advantage and outgrow ancestor clones or have evolved toward a more aggressive behavior with additional newly acquired aberrations as compared with the initial leukemic clone, respectively.

  18. Studies on the role of mononuclear phagocytes in resistance to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    The role of mononuclear phagocytes in various phases of the acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was studied. The anti-macrophage agent carrageenan delayed virus clearance. Carrageenan was most effective when given before virus inoculation, suggesting that it interfered...... with early events in the host response to the virus. Correspondingly, carrageenan enhanced early virus multiplication. Pretreatment with carrageenan apparently did not inhibit induction of the T-cell response and had little or no direct effect on T-cell-dependent anti-viral activity. The LCMV-induced natural...

  19. Effect of tiazofurin on tomato plants infected with tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, J; Amélia, M; Alexandre, V; Vicente, M

    1984-12-01

    Tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) was examined for its activity against tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato plants. Solutions containing 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/l of the drug were sprayed onto the leaves. The results showed that 100 and 200 mg/l were the most efficient concentrations to suppress TSWV infection, thereby delaying the appearance of systemic symptoms. The drug was more effective in controlling TSWV infection when applied after than before virus inoculation. The results suggest that tiazofurin can be used as an efficient antiviral drug in the treatment of TSWV-infected tomato plants.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05259-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 44 8.4 1 ( EG222317 ) MSAM088027_3573_3926 LCM-dissected maize inbred l....LCM-dissected maize inbred l... 44 8.4 1 ( DW887082 ) MSAM096616_2564_0451 LCM-dissected maize shoot ap....( DW754916 ) MSAM094777_1160_3116 LCM-dissected maize shoot ap... 44 8.4 1 ( CJ361602 ) Molgula tectiformis

  1. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on resistance to flower bud thrips ( Megalurothrips sjostedti ) identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

  2. Eficiência da seleção de progênies S1 e S2 de milho-pipoca, visando à produção de linhagens Efficiency in selecting S1 and S2 popcorn progenies for development of inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Alcantara Vilarinho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cem progênies S1 e duzentas e vinte e cinco progênies S2, obtidas da população de milho-pipoca Beija-Flor, foram testadas com relação à produção e capacidade de expansão. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em campo experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Coimbra, MG, no ano agrícola 1998/99. Parâmetros genéticos foram estimados e os ganhos preditos com seleção foram calculados de acordo com vários critérios de seleção. Variabilidade genotípica significativa foi observada para os caracteres produção e capacidade de expansão (CE. Embora tenha sido observada correlação genotípica negativa entre os caracteres, os índices de seleção foram eficientes em identificar famílias que possibilitaram ganhos preditos simultâneos em produção e CE. As famílias S2 e S3 oriundas, respectivamente, das famílias S1 e S2 testadas, foram avaliadas no ano agrícola 1999/2000. Com base nos resultados dessa avaliação, os ganhos realizados foram calculados, para cada critério de seleção, e a eficiência da seleção foi avaliada. Houve boa concordância entre os ganhos preditos e realizados, quanto às progênies S1. Os quatro critérios que produziram as maiores estimativas de ganhos são os mesmos que deram os quatro maiores ganhos realizados, embora não na mesma ordem. Da mesma forma, os dois que deram as menores estimativas de ganhos são também os que deram os dois menores ganhos realizados, quando considerada a variável CE. Em relação às progênies S2, houve concordância em relação ao sentido das mudanças previstas em cinco critérios, quando considerada a variável produção, e em seis, quando CE foi considerada.One hundred S1 progenies and two hundred and twenty-five S2 progenies from the popcorn population 'Beija-flor' were assessed for grain yield and volume expansion. The experiments were carried out in a Universidade Federal de Viçosa experimental field, Coimbra, MG, in the growing season of 1998/99. Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and the predicted gains were calculated according to several selection criteria. A significant genotypic variability was observed for yield and the volume expansion. Although a negative genotypic correlation has been observed among the characters, the selection indices were efficient in identification of the progenies that allowed for predicted simultaneous gains in grain yield and volume expansion. The families S2 and S3 from families S1 and S2, respectively, were evaluated in the growing season of 1999/2000. Based on the results from this evaluation, the obtained gains were calculated for each selection criteria, and the selection efficiency was evaluated. A satisfactory concordance occurred between the predicted and actual gains for the S1 progenies. The four criteria providing the highest predicted gains are the same ones that provided the four highest gains, although not in the same order. Also, those two criteria providing the lowest estimates of the gains are the ones that provided the two lowest gains, when considering popping expansion. In relation to S2 progenies, a concordance occurred concerning the direction of the changes predicted in five criteria, when the grain yield was considered, as well as in six criteria when considering CE.

  3. Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcos Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

    Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor–calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde –21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = –0.38.

    Palabras claves: Zea mays; calosa; heredabilidad; dialelo; heterosis; suelos ácidos.

  4. Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Arcos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38.The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from -21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non-additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = -0.38.

  5. Being ?penny-wise but pound foolish? in cancer immunotherapy research: the urgent need for mouse cancer models to reflect human modifying factors

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, William J

    2016-01-01

    Inbred mice are the mainstay for preclinical cancer assessment of potential therapeutics, especially immune-based approaches. However, the use of young, lean, inbred mice housed under specific-pathogen-free conditions does not mirror the human cancer scenario. This commentary discusses some of the issues in evaluating immunotherapeutics in mice given recent advances.

  6. Breeding a PKU-mouse model on Phe-free diet, is it possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Johansen, Karen Singers; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    is therefore widely used model in PKU research. The Pahenu2 mutation has been transferred to the inbred C57BL/6 mouse strain. Breeding colonies on both inbred strains have been established at Aarhus University. Recently an attempt to breed homozygous animals on a Phe-free diet was attempted in order to reduce...

  7. Evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin contamination in kernels of maize genotypes using a GFP-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of resistance or susceptibility of corn inbreds to infection by Aspergillus flavus was evaluated by a kernel screening assay. A GFP-expressing strain of A. flavus was used to accomplish this study to measure fungal spread and aflatoxin levels in real time. Among the four inbreds tested, ...

  8. Experiment list: SRX191050 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult-8w...ost common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachData/bw/SRX1

  9. Experiment list: SRX191023 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge description=Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...ck 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachD

  10. Experiment list: SRX191026 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wks || age description=Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...on=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u

  11. Experiment list: SRX191046 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available days || age description=Newborn 1 day || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor... || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosc

  12. Experiment list: SRX191033 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available | age description=Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...n description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.

  13. Experiment list: SRX191043 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available train description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult-8wks || age de...lmax-v1.1,WindowDensity-bin20-win+/-75 || replicate=1,2 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor

  14. Experiment list: SRX191009 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || ag...-bin20-win+/-75 || replicate=1,3,2,5,4,7,6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor

  15. Experiment list: SRX191041 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available train description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=E14.5 || age descrip...1,WindowDensity-bin20-win+/-75 || replicate=1 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor

  16. Experiment list: SRX191034 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available scription=Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...ain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedb

  17. Experiment list: SRX191028 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8wks || age description=Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...eplicate=1,3,2,4 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http:/

  18. Experiment list: SRX191024 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse || age=adult-8wks...ndowDensity-bin20-win+/-75 || replicate=1,2 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor

  19. Experiment list: SRX191040 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Adult 8 weeks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of labor...ption=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyush

  20. Experiment list: SRX191047 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eks || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse |...black 6, the most common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea